SDI: Statistical dynamic interactions
Blann, M.; Mustafa, M.G. ); Peilert, G.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W. . Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1991-04-01
We focus on the combined statistical and dynamical aspects of heavy ion induced reactions. The overall picture is illustrated by considering the reaction {sup 36}Ar + {sup 238}U at a projectile energy of 35 MeV/nucleon. We illustrate the time dependent bound excitation energy due to the fusion/relaxation dynamics as calculated with the Boltzmann master equation. An estimate of the mass, charge and excitation of an equilibrated nucleus surviving the fast (dynamic) fusion-relaxation process is used as input into an evaporation calculation which includes 20 heavy fragment exit channels. The distribution of excitations between residue and clusters is explicitly calculated, as is the further deexcitation of clusters to bound nuclei. These results are compared with the exclusive cluster multiplicity measurements of Kim et al., and are found to give excellent agreement. We consider also an equilibrated residue system at 25% lower initial excitation, which gives an unsatisfactory exclusive multiplicity distribution. This illustrates that exclusive fragment multiplicity may provide a thermometer for system excitation. This analysis of data involves successive binary decay with no compressional effects nor phase transitions. Several examples of primary versus final (stable) cluster decay probabilities for an A = 100 nucleus at excitations of 100 to 800 MeV are presented. From these results a large change in multifragmentation patterns may be understood as a simple phase space consequence, invoking neither phase transitions, nor equation of state information. These results are used to illustrate physical quantities which are ambiguous to deduce from experimental fragment measurements. 14 refs., 4 figs.
SDI Statistical Analysis for Data type Identification Sarah J. Moody and Robert F. Erbacher
Erbacher, Robert F.
SÁDI Statistical Analysis for Data type Identification Sarah J. Moody and Robert F. Erbacher Department of Computer Science, UMC 4205 Utah State University Logan, UT 84322 s.j.m@aggiemail.usu.edu and Robert.Erbacher@usu.edu Abstract A key task in digital forensic analysis is the location of relevant
Statistics of football dynamics
Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Statistics of football dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendes, R. S.; Malacarne, L. C.; Anteneodo, C.
2007-06-01
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by q-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Lee, S.
2011-05-05
The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Organization requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to mix and blend the miscible contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank; such as, Tank 50H, to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The transient CFD governing equations consisting of three momentum equations, one mass balance, two turbulence transport equations for kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and one species transport were solved by an iterative technique until the species concentrations of tank fluid were in equilibrium. The steady-state flow solutions for the entire tank fluid were used for flow pattern analysis, for velocity scaling analysis, and the initial conditions for transient blending calculations. A series of the modeling calculations were performed to estimate the blending times for various jet flow conditions, and to investigate the impact of the cooling coils on the blending time of the tank contents. The modeling results were benchmarked against the pilot scale test results. All of the flow and mixing models were performed with the nozzles installed at the mid-elevation, and parallel to the tank wall. From the CFD modeling calculations, the main results are summarized as follows: (1) The benchmark analyses for the CFD flow velocity and blending models demonstrate their consistency with Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) and literature test results in terms of local velocity measurements and experimental observations. Thus, an application of the established criterion to SRS full scale tank will provide a better, physically-based estimate of the required mixing time, and elevation of transfer pump for minimum sludge disturbance. (2) An empirical equation for a tank with no cooling coils agrees reasonably with the current modeling results for the dual jet. (3) From the sensitivity study of the cooling coils, it was found that the tank mixing time for the coiled tank was about two times longer than that of the tank fluid with no coils under the 1/10th scale, while the coiled tank required only 50% longer than the one without coils under the full scale Tank 50H. In addition, the time difference is reduced when the pumping U{sub o}d{sub o} value is increased for a given tank. (4) The blending time for T-shape dual jet pump is about 20% longer than that of 15{sup o} upward V-shape pump under the 1/10th pilot-scale tank, while the time difference between the two pumps is about 12% for the full-scale Tank 50H. These results are consistent with the literature information. (5) A transfer pump with a solid-plate suction screen operating at 130 gpm can be located 9.5 inches above settled sludge for 2 in screen height in a 85 ft waste tank without disturbing any sludge. Detailed results are summarized in Table 13. Final pump performance calculations were made by using the established CW pump design, and operating conditions to satisfy the two requirements of minimum sludge disturbance, and adequate blending of tank contents. The final calculation results show that the blending times for the coiled and uncoiled tanks coupled with the CW pump design are 159 and 83 minutes, respectively. All the results are provided in Table 16.
Statistical Equilibrium Dynamics
Michael K. -H. Kiessling
2008-05-03
The mean-field thermodynamic limit is studied for a class of isolated Newtonian N-body systems whose Hamiltonian admits several invariants of motion. It is shown that the macrostates of individual members of a statistical equilibrium ensemble are not necessarily themselves in a state of global thermal equilibrium in the strict sense. Yet they are always locally in thermodynamic equilibrium, and always global maximizers of the pertinent maximum entropy principle.
Clustering statistics and dynamics
R. Juszkiewicz; F. R. Bouchet
1996-02-26
Since the appearance of the classical paper of Lifshitz almost half a century ago, linear stability analysis of cosmological models is textbook knowledge. Until recently, however, little was known about the behavior of higher than linear order terms in the perturbative expansion. These terms become important in the weakly nonlinear regime of gravitational clustering, when the rms mass density contrast is only slightly smaller than unity. In the past, theorists showed little interest in studying this regime, and for a good reason: only a decade ago, it would have been an academic excercise - at scales large enough to probe the weakly nonlinear regime, all measures of clustering were dominated by noise. This is no longer the case with present data. The purpose of this talk is to provide a brief summary of recent advances in weakly nonlinear perturbation theory. We present analytical perturbative results together with results of N-body experiments, conducted to test their accuracy. We compare perturbative predictions with measurements from galaxy surveys. Such comparisons can be used to test the gravitational instability theory and to constrain possible deviations from Gaussian statistics in the initial mass distribution; they can be also used to study the nature of physical processes that govern galaxy formation (``biasing''). We also show how future studies of velocity field statistics can provide a new way to determine the density parameter, $\\Omega$.
Automated SDI Services. (Selective Dissemination of Information).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Altmann, Berthold
An automated SDI service based on tapes supplied by DDC, Science Abstracts, and Engineering Index is evaluated as a component element of the entire HDL information system. Current studies for improving the efficiency are briefly described,--in particular, the establishment of a parameter reference service that should shorten the lead-time for the…
The origins of SDI, 1944--1983
Baucom, D.R.
1992-01-01
The most distinctive and important contribution of this new book on the Strategic Defense Initiative is that it ends where most other studies begin, with President Ronald Reagan's famous (or infamous, depending on one's perspective) March 1983 speech that introduced the Star Wars concept. In taking this approach, Donald R. Baucom - a former Air Force historian who has been the official historian who has been the official historian of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization since May 1987 - helps to correct the common misperception that US efforts in strategic defense began and ended with the SDI. Although Baucom tells us that The Origins of SDI is a significantly revised version of an SDIO study he completed in 1989, representing his own views and not those of the SDIO, the reader should be warned that the book reads like an official history. It is often dry or too episodic and offers little that is new in the way of analysis or interpretation.
Applications of submillimeter wave technology for SDI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kile, J. N.; Mcgrath, W. R.; Leduc, H. G.; Siegel, P. H.; Smith, R. P.; Hayes, D. T.
1992-01-01
This paper examines the potential use of using submillimeter wave technology (actually 3 mm to 100 microns, or frequencies between 100 GHz and 3 THz) for SDI applications, especially for endo-KEW systems. The requirements and functions for a multipurpose weapon sensor are considered. The emphasis is on active sensors, but certain elements of passive sensors are mentioned that could play an important role. The rest of the paper provides information on the state-of-the-art in submillimeter wave technology, especially current component activity, and future plans.
Statistical physics of social dynamics Claudio Castellano
TAGora project
on networks 11 C. Majority rule model 12 D. Social impact theory 14 E. Sznajd model 15 F. Bounded confidence OF STATES AND TOPOLOGY 42 XI. OUTLOOK 44 1. Information dynamics and the Social Web 45 2. LanguageStatistical physics of social dynamics Claudio Castellano SMC, INFM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica
Lost in space: SDI struggles through its sixth year
MacDonald, B.W.
1989-09-01
After six years of debate, it is clear that Congress is willing to support a robust research program for SDI, but it is also clear that Congress will not support SDI annual outlays on the order of $10 billion. Thus the policy choice is between a good research program that meshes with fiscal reality, or an inadequate and wasteful development program that continues to focus on preparing for a Phase I deployment for which the funds simply will not be available. The Bush administration so far seems trapped by its own rhetoric from coming to grips with the implications of the new SDI reality. The responsibility for getting SDI on a steadier course toward more realistic research objectives thus seems to lie with Congress in the near term. Since Congress has been reluctant to earmark SDI research funds for specific objectives, it will take a change in administration perceptions before SDI program goals can be changed away from Phase I deployment. The only likely way this could happen in the near term would be as a result of a Congress-executive branch summit agreement on SDI objectives and funding levels. In the absence of such an agreement, SDI will be sailing under ever weaker fiscal and political winds and runs the risk of finding itself becalmed, working ceaselessly toward goals that will never be fulfilled.
Investigating strategies to improve crop germination when using SDI
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
As the nation's population increases and available irrigation water decreases, new technologies are being developed to maintain or increase production on fewer acres. One of these advancements has been the use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) on field crops. Research has shown that SDI is the m...
Surface drip irrigation (SDI): Status of the technology in 2010
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), although a much smaller fraction of the microirrigated land area than surface drip irrigation, is growing at a much faster rate and is the subject of considerable research and educational efforts in the United States. This paper will discuss the growth in SDI, highl...
October 2011 SDI FEP Issues Heat Conduction Issues (HC)
October 2011 SDI FEP Issues Heat Conduction Issues (HC) SDI(HC) -1 DOE needs to provide of the run-of-mine salt would conduct less heat away from the heater than that analyzed here, and potentially temperature halite and run-of-mine salt would conduct less heat away from the heater and potentially produce
Statistical physics of language dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loreto, Vittorio; Baronchelli, Andrea; Mukherjee, Animesh; Puglisi, Andrea; Tria, Francesca
2011-04-01
Language dynamics is a rapidly growing field that focuses on all processes related to the emergence, evolution, change and extinction of languages. Recently, the study of self-organization and evolution of language and meaning has led to the idea that a community of language users can be seen as a complex dynamical system, which collectively solves the problem of developing a shared communication framework through the back-and-forth signaling between individuals. We shall review some of the progress made in the past few years and highlight potential future directions of research in this area. In particular, the emergence of a common lexicon and of a shared set of linguistic categories will be discussed, as examples corresponding to the early stages of a language. The extent to which synthetic modeling is nowadays contributing to the ongoing debate in cognitive science will be pointed out. In addition, the burst of growth of the web is providing new experimental frameworks. It makes available a huge amount of resources, both as novel tools and data to be analyzed, allowing quantitative and large-scale analysis of the processes underlying the emergence of a collective information and language dynamics.
Statistical dynamics of religion evolutions
Ausloos, Marcel
2008-01-01
A religion affiliation can be considered as a "degree of freedom" of an agent on the human genre network. A brief review is given on the state of the art in data analysis and modelization of religious "questions" in order to suggest and if possible initiate further research, ... after using a "statistical physics filter". We present a discussion of the evolution of 18 so called religions, as measured through their number of adherents between 1900 and 2000. Some emphasis is made on a few cases presenting a minimum or a maximum in the investigated time range, - thereby suggesting a competitive ingredient to be considered, beside the well accepted "at birth" attachement effect. The importance of the "external field" is still stressed through an Avrami late stage crystal growth-like parameter. The observed features and some intuitive interpretations point to opinion based models with vector, rather than scalar, like agents.
Multifragmentation at intermediate energy: Dynamics or statistics
Beaulieu, L.; Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.
1998-01-01
In this report the authors consider two contradictory claims that have been advanced recently: (1) the claim for a predominantly dynamical fragment production mechanism; and (2) the claim for a dominant statistical and thermal process. They present a new analysis in terms of Poissonian reducibility and thermal scaling, which addresses some of the criticisms of the binomial analysis.
Linear dynamical models, Kalman filtering and statistics.
Gerhardy, Philipp
Linear dynamical models, Kalman filtering and statistics. Lecture notes to IN-ST 259 Erik Bølviken the discussion of the Gaussian distribution, an account of linear stochastic state space models and the Kalman of Kalman filtering. In deciding to write out these notes in spite of the large body of written texts, we
Analysis of the Soviet response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Student report
Morgan, D.E.
1987-04-01
Since President Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) in March 1983, the Soviet Union has consistently condemned it. This study examines the Soviet response to SDI and provides an explanation for their response. The study identifies military, political, and economic factors that influence the Soviet response to SDI. The author concludes that the Soviets have a genuine concern about SDI, and they will continue their attempts to stop the SDI program at the arms-control negotiations.
Takatsuka, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Kentaro
2016-01-21
We present a basic theory to study real-time dynamics embedded in a large environment that is treated using a statistical method. In light of great progress in the molecular-level studies on time-resolved spectroscopies, chemical reaction dynamics, and so on, not only in the gas phase but also in condensed phases like liquid solvents and even in crowded environments in living cells, we need to bridge over a gap between statistical mechanics and microscopic real-time dynamics. For instance, an analogy to gas-phase dynamics in which molecules are driven by the gradient of the potential energy hyper-surfaces (PESs) suggests that particles in condensed phases should run on the free energy surface instead. The question is whether this anticipation is correct. To answer it, we here propose a mixed dynamics and statistical representation to treat chemical dynamics embedded in a statistical ensemble. We first define the entropy functional, which is a function of the phase-space position of the dynamical subsystem, being dressed with statistical weights from the statistical counterpart. We then consider the functionals of temperature, free energy, and chemical potential as their extensions in statistical mechanics, through which one can clarify the relationship between real-time microscopic dynamics and statistical quantities. As an illustrative example we show that molecules in the dynamical subsystem should run on the free-energy functional surface, if and only if the spatial gradients of the temperature functional are all zero. Otherwise, additional forces emerge from the gradient of the temperature functional. Numerical demonstrations are presented at the very basic level of this theory of molecular dissociation in atomic cluster solvents. PMID:26674298
Artificial intelligence applications in space and SDI: A survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiala, Harvey E.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to survey existing and planned Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications to show that they are sufficiently advanced for 32 percent of all space applications and SDI (Space Defense Initiative) software to be AI-based software. To best define the needs that AI can fill in space and SDI programs, this paper enumerates primary areas of research and lists generic application areas. Current and planned NASA and military space projects in AI will be reviewed. This review will be largely in the selected area of expert systems. Finally, direct applications of AI to SDI will be treated. The conclusion covers the importance of AI to space and SDI applications, and conversely, their importance to AI.
Teachers' Use of Transnumeration in Solving Statistical Tasks with Dynamic Statistical Software
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hollylynne S.; Kersaint, Gladis; Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Jones, Dusty L.; Leatham, Keith R.; Angotti, Robin L.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku
2014-01-01
This study examined a random stratified sample (n = 62) of teachers' work across eight institutions on three tasks that utilized dynamic statistical software. We considered how teachers may utilize and develop their statistical knowledge and technological statistical knowledge when investigating a statistical task. We examined how teachers…
Soviet SDI Rhetoric: The "Evil Empire" Vision of Mikhail Gorbachev.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelley, Colleen E.
The symbolic presence of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) has been and continues to be the pivot point in all summitry rhetoric between the American President and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. To examine some of the rhetorical choices made by Gorbachev to dramatize his vision of why Ronald Reagan refuses to…
SDI BED DESIGN COMPARISON FOR SOYBEAN EMERGENCE AND YIELD
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is gaining popularity with producers in the Southern and Central Great Plains region of the United States. Drip laterals are commonly installed in alternate furrows because it is cost prohibitive to install laterals in every bed for low value crops; however, crop ger...
Design and Installation of SDI Systems in North Carolina
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in ...
Dynamic Statistical Graphics in the CAVE Virtual Reality Environment
Symanzik, Jürgen
environment. So far, most applications of dynamic statistical graphics have involved working with 2Dynamic Statistical Graphics in the CAVE Virtual Reality Environment Jurgen Symanzik, Dianne Cook: symanzik@iastate.edu Abstract The CAVE is a high end immersive virtual reality environment that allows 3
Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR
Del Moral , Pierre
Keywords and phrases: food safety risk analysis, dietary contamination, linear pharma- cokinetics modelSubmitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A DYNAMIC MODEL FOR DIETARY ParisTech and INRA-M´et@risk This paper is devoted to the statistical analysis of a stochastic model
Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper
Fitzgerald, M.C.
1987-08-01
Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.
Dynamic Statistics of Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptors
Hermann, Howard T.; Olsen, Richard E.
1967-01-01
Crayfish caudal photoreceptor units were monitored during transient and steady-state responses to light stimuli (step on, step off). A statistical analysis of interpulse interval distributions during quasi-stationary time periods was carried out. Firing statistics during transient conditions were superposable with statistics under whatever steady stimulation produced the same firing rate, indicating that mean firing rate is a sufficient statistic. Distributions encountered formed a continuum of possible shapes. Considerable variation in shape was found with temperature and also among species, with Orconectes clarkii tending to fire more regularly than Orconectes virilis. Some properties of O. virilis statistics are described, including a linear relation between mean and standard deviation, and a tendency for intervals to be nonindependent. The data are considered as constraints on closed form models of the photoreceptor nerve pulse generator. PMID:6035125
The Statistical Dynamics of Programmed Self-Assembly
Klavins, Eric
The Statistical Dynamics of Programmed Self-Assembly Nils Napp Samuel Burden Eric Klavins Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 klavins- controlled manipulators in a natural way required sub- stantial effort. The analogous theory for programmed
The Statistics of Dynamic Networks Richard G. Clegg
Clegg, Richard G.
The Statistics of Dynamic Networks Richard G. Clegg A Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Ph-range dependence (LRD). LRD is a statistical phenomenon describing correlations in time series. A large body and how theory (mainly equilibrium modelling) translates into practice. In analysing data related
SMOOTH DYNAMICS AND NEW THEORETICAL IDEAS IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS.
relations. Under suitable conditions the nonequilibrium steady states satisfy the pairing theoremSMOOTH DYNAMICS AND NEW THEORETICAL IDEAS IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS. by David Ruelle problems of nonequilibrium statistical mecanics. We adopt a new point of view which has emerged
Statistic fluid dynamic of multiphase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James; Zhou, Yijie; Jiao, Xiangmin
2012-11-01
We study a turbulent two-phase fluid mixing problem from a statistical point of view. The test problem is high speed turbulent two-phase Taylor-Couette flow. We find extensive mixing in a transient state between an initial unstable and a final stable configuration. With chemical processing as a motivation, we estimate statistically surface area, droplet size distribution and transient droplet duration. This work is supported in part by the Nuclear Energy University Program of the Department of Energy, Battelle Energy Alliance LLC 00088495.
Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU’s
Saari, Alexandra; Hinzey, Shawn Adrian; Frigo, Janette Rose; Proicou, Michael Chris; Borges, Louis
2015-09-03
ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.
Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith
2008-01-01
Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet…
Statistical coarse-graining of molecular dynamics into peridynamics.
Silling, Stewart Andrew; Lehoucq, Richard B.
2007-10-01
This paper describes an elegant statistical coarse-graining of molecular dynamics at finite temperature into peridynamics, a continuum theory. Peridynamics is an efficient alternative to molecular dynamics enabling dynamics at larger length and time scales. In direct analogy with molecular dynamics, peridynamics uses a nonlocal model of force and does not employ stress/strain relationships germane to classical continuum mechanics. In contrast with classical continuum mechanics, the peridynamic representation of a system of linear springs and masses is shown to have the same dispersion relation as the original spring-mass system.
An Application of Reversible Entropic Dynamics on Curved Statistical Manifolds
Carlo Cafaro; S. A. Ali; Adom Giffin
2009-01-09
Entropic Dynamics (ED) is a theoretical framework developed to investigate the possibility that laws of physics reflect laws of inference rather than laws of nature. In this work, a RED (Reversible Entropic Dynamics) model is considered. The geometric structure underlying the curved statistical manifold, M is studied. The trajectories of this particular model are hyperbolic curves (geodesics) on M. Finally, some analysis concerning the stability of these geodesics on M is carried out.
An Application of Reversible Entropic Dynamics on Curved Statistical Manifolds
Cafaro, C; Giffin, A; Cafaro, Carlo; Ali, Saleem A.; Giffin, Adom
2006-01-01
Entropic Dynamics (ED) is a theoretical framework developed to investigate the possibility that laws of physics reflect laws of inference rather than laws of nature. In this work, a RED (Reversible Entropic Dynamics) model is considered. The geometric structure underlying the curved statistical manifold, M is studied. The trajectories of this particular model are hyperbolic curves (geodesics) on M. Finally, some analysis concerning the stability of these geodesics on M is carried out.
Statistical Analysis of Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atkinson, R. A.
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis is concerned with the specification and analysis of stochastic models of molecular motion and interaction in simple liquids. Basic chemical terminology is introduced and a brief description is given of the technique of molecular dynamics simulation. Stochastic process theory, in so far as it is relevant to the modelling of molecular trajectories and chemical reaction, is reviewed. First passage densities are shown to be important in the analysis of diffusion controlled chemical reaction. The relationship between first passage densities and flux or flow across the absorbing boundary is given. A formula proposed by Durbin is discussed and shown to be valid for diffusion processes under certain regularity conditions. The simplest integrated diffusion, integrated Brownian motion, is considered and a detailed derivation of McKean's half-winding formula is given. An explicit expression for the return-time density is derived, from which the large time asymptotics can be deduced. Goldman's formula for the density of the hitting-time of positive levels is extended to all real values and a simple intuitive derivation is given. Similar arguments enable the results of Gor'kov to be extended to a wider class of integrated diffusions. First passage time densities are computed numerically using the extension of Goldman's formula and compared with approximations which have been suggested by Hesse. Small drift asymptotics are derived for the escape probability of integrated Brownian motion with drift. A number of results are obtained for the integrated Ornstein -Uhlenbeck process, by using martingale methods. Finally, the empirical observations of Lynden-Bell, Hutchinson and Doyle are analysed. A stochastic model of single-particle motion based on the velocity autocorrelation function is proposed and shown to be in excellent agreement with the computer generated data.
Exploring Foundation Concepts in Introductory Statistics Using Dynamic Data Points
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekol, George
2015-01-01
This paper analyses introductory statistics students' verbal and gestural expressions as they interacted with a dynamic sketch (DS) designed using "Sketchpad" software. The DS involved numeric data points built on the number line whose values changed as the points were dragged along the number line. The study is framed on aggregate…
LDSG Workshop on Stochastic Dynamics and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics
Banaji,. Murad
LDSG Workshop on Stochastic Dynamics and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics Organisers: Rosemary is welcome. Schedule 11:00-11:30 Tea/coffee/welcome 11:30-12:30 Rosemary J. Harris, School of Mathematical in stochastic non-equilibrium systems: Phase transitions and symmetries Rosemary S. Harris School
Statistical determination of space shuttle component dynamic magnification factors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehner, F.
1973-01-01
A method is presented of obtaining vibration design loads for components and brackets. Dynamic Magnification Factors from applicable Saturn/Apollo qualification, reliability, and vibroacoustic tests have been statistically formulated into design nomographs. These design nomographs have been developed for different component and bracket types, mounted on backup structure or rigidly mounted and excited by sinusoidal or random inputs. Typical nomographs are shown.
Dynamical versus statistical mesoscopic models for DNA denaturation
Joyeux, Marc
2008-01-01
We recently proposed a dynamical mesoscopic model for DNA, which is based, like statistical ones, on site-dependent finite stacking and pairing enthalpies. In the present article, we first describe how the parameters of this model are varied to get predictions in better agreement with experimental results that were not addressed up to now, like mechanical unzipping, the evolution of the critical temperature with sequence length, and temperature resolution. We show that the model with the new parameters provides results that are in quantitative agreement with those obtained from statistical models. Investigation of the critical properties of the dynamical model suggests that DNA denaturation looks like a first-order phase transition in a broad temperature interval, but that there necessarily exists, very close to the critical temperature, a crossover to another regime. The exact nature of the melting dynamics in this second regime still has to be elucidated. We finally point out that the descriptions of the ph...
Spatial statistics and attentional dynamics in scene viewing.
Engbert, Ralf; Trukenbrod, Hans A; Barthelmé, Simon; Wichmann, Felix A
2015-01-01
In humans and in foveated animals visual acuity is highly concentrated at the center of gaze, so that choosing where to look next is an important example of online, rapid decision-making. Computational neuroscientists have developed biologically-inspired models of visual attention, termed saliency maps, which successfully predict where people fixate on average. Using point process theory for spatial statistics, we show that scanpaths contain, however, important statistical structure, such as spatial clustering on top of distributions of gaze positions. Here, we develop a dynamical model of saccadic selection that accurately predicts the distribution of gaze positions as well as spatial clustering along individual scanpaths. Our model relies on activation dynamics via spatially-limited (foveated) access to saliency information, and, second, a leaky memory process controlling the re-inspection of target regions. This theoretical framework models a form of context-dependent decision-making, linking neural dynamics of attention to behavioral gaze data. PMID:25589298
Quantum Mechanics, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Correlated Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHarris, Wm. C.
2007-02-01
Many of the so-called paradoxes of orthodox quantum mechanics can be shown to have parallel, more logical interpretations in the realm of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. Among these are violations of Bell-type inequalities, which in comparing "classical" mechanics with quantum mechanics implicitly compare uncorrelated and correlated statistics. During the past decade research in the field of nonextensive thermodynamics (including Tsallis entropy) has demonstrated the existence of many statistical correlations in classical, nonlinear systems. When such correlations exist, the conventional classical upper limit on statistical correlations in Bell-type experiments can easily be raised to overlap with quantum mechanical predictions involving correlated states such as the Bell singlet state, a favorite for deriving Bell inequalities. Thus, arguments based on experimental violations of Bell-type inequalities, which rule out the existence of "local reality," become moot. Perhaps quantum mechanics does have a deterministic, ontological basis, albeit one based in nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. If so, deterministic chaos could provide Einstein's longed-for fundamental determinism, but because chaotic systems must be interpreted statistically, this also fits in quite well with the ideas of Bohr — Einstein and Bohr both could have been correct! It should be emphasized that the concept of nonlinear dynamics and chaos underpinning quantum mechanics does not involve hidden variables, nor does the fact that chaos is deterministic interlope on the existence of free will.
Seasonal statistical-dynamical forecasts of droughts over Western Iberia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, Andreia; Pires, Carlos
2015-04-01
The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) has been used here as a drought predictand in order to assess seasonal drought predictability over the western Iberia. Hybrid (statistical-dynamical) long-range forecasts of the drought index SPI are estimated with lead-times up to 6 months, over the period of 1987-2008. Operational forecasts of geopotential height and total precipitation from the UK Met Office operational forecasting system are considered. Past ERA-Interim reanalysis data, prior to the forecast launching, are used for the purpose of build a set of SPI predictors, integrating recent past observations. Then, a two-step hybridization procedure is adopted: in the first-step both forecasted and observational large-scale fields are subjected to a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and forecasted PCs and persistent PCs are used as predictors. The second hybridization step consists on a statistical/hybrid downscaling to the regional scale based on regression techniques, after the selection of the statistically significant predictors. The large-scale filter predictors from past observations and operational forecasts are used to downscale SPI and the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. The SPI estimations and the added value of combining dynamical and statistical methods are evaluated in cross-validation mode. Results show that winter is the most predictable season, and most of the predictive power is on the large-scale fields and at the shorter lead-times. The hybridization improves forecasting drought skill in comparison to purely dynamical forecasts, since the persistence of large-scale patterns displays the main role in the long-range predictability of precipitation. These findings provide clues about the predictability of the SPI, particularly in Portugal, and may contribute to the predictability of crops yields and to some guidance on users (such as farmers) decision making process.
Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems.
Majda, Andrew J
2015-07-21
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below. PMID:26150510
Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems
Majda, Andrew J.
2015-01-01
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below. PMID:26150510
Dynamics, stability, and statistics on lattices and networks
Livi, Roberto
2014-07-15
These lectures aim at surveying some dynamical models that have been widely explored in the recent scientific literature as case studies of complex dynamical evolution, emerging from the spatio-temporal organization of several coupled dynamical variables. The first message is that a suitable mathematical description of such models needs tools and concepts borrowed from the general theory of dynamical systems and from out-of-equilibrium statistical mechanics. The second message is that the overall scenario is definitely reacher than the standard problems in these fields. For instance, systems exhibiting complex unpredictable evolution do not necessarily exhibit deterministic chaotic behavior (i.e., Lyapunov chaos) as it happens for dynamical models made of a few degrees of freedom. In fact, a very large number of spatially organized dynamical variables may yield unpredictable evolution even in the absence of Lyapunov instability. Such a mechanism may emerge from the combination of spatial extension and nonlinearity. Moreover, spatial extension allows one to introduce naturally disorder, or heterogeneity of the interactions as important ingredients for complex evolution. It is worth to point out that the models discussed in these lectures share such features, despite they have been inspired by quite different physical and biological problems. Along these lectures we describe also some of the technical tools employed for the study of such models, e.g., Lyapunov stability analysis, unpredictability indicators for “stable chaos,” hydrodynamic description of transport in low spatial dimension, spectral decomposition of stochastic dynamics on directed networks, etc.
SdiA Aids Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Carriage by Cattle Fed a Forage or Grain Diet
Sheng, Haiqing; Nguyen, Y. N.
2013-01-01
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening complications. The main reservoirs for EHEC are healthy ruminants. We reported that SdiA senses acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in the bovine rumen to activate expression of the glutamate acid resistance (gad) genes priming EHEC's acid resistance before they pass into the acidic abomasum. Conversely, SdiA represses expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes, whose expression is not required for bacterial survival in the rumen but is necessary for efficient colonization at the rectoanal junction (RAJ) mucosa. Our previous studies show that SdiA-dependent regulation was necessary for efficient EHEC colonization of cattle fed a grain diet. Here, we compared the SdiA role in EHEC colonization of cattle fed a forage hay diet. We detected AHLs in the rumen of cattle fed a hay diet, and these AHLs activated gad gene expression in an SdiA-dependent manner. The rumen fluid and fecal samples from hay-fed cattle were near neutrality, while the same digesta samples from grain-fed animals were acidic. Cattle fed either grain or hay and challenged with EHEC orally carried the bacteria similarly. EHEC was cleared from the rumen within days and from the RAJ mucosa after approximately one month. In competition trials, where animals were challenged with both wild-type and SdiA deletion mutant bacteria, diet did not affect the outcome that the wild-type strain was better able to persist and colonize. However, the wild-type strain had a greater advantage over the SdiA deletion mutant at the RAJ mucosa among cattle fed the grain diet. PMID:23836826
Classifying cardiac biosignals using ordinal pattern statistics and symbolic dynamics.
Parlitz, U; Berg, S; Luther, S; Schirdewan, A; Kurths, J; Wessel, N
2012-03-01
The performance of (bio-)signal classification strongly depends on the choice of suitable features (also called parameters or biomarkers). In this article we evaluate the discriminative power of ordinal pattern statistics and symbolic dynamics in comparison with established heart rate variability parameters applied to beat-to-beat intervals. As an illustrative example we distinguish patients suffering from congestive heart failure from a (healthy) control group using beat-to-beat time series. We assess the discriminative power of individual features as well as pairs of features. These comparisons show that ordinal patterns sampled with an additional time lag are promising features for efficient classification. PMID:21511252
Extreme event statistics of daily rainfall: Dynamical systems approach
G. Cigdem Yalcin; Pau Rabassa; Christian Beck
2015-08-15
We analyse the probability densities of daily rainfall amounts at a variety of locations on the Earth. The observed distributions of the amount of rainfall fit well to a q-exponential distribution with exponent q close to q=1.3. We discuss possible reasons for the emergence of this power law. On the contrary, the waiting time distribution between rainy days is observed to follow a near-exponential distribution. A careful investigation shows that a q-exponential with q=1.05 yields actually the best fit of the data. A Poisson process where the rate fluctuates slightly in a superstatistical way is discussed as a possible model for this. We discuss the extreme value statistics for extreme daily rainfall, which can potentially lead to flooding. This is described by Frechet distributions as the corresponding distributions of the amount of daily rainfall decay with a power law. On the other hand, looking at extreme event statistics of waiting times between rainy days (leading to droughts for very long dry periods) we obtain from the observed near-exponential decay of waiting times an extreme event statistics close to Gumbel distributions. We discuss superstatistical dynamical systems as simple models in this context.
Universality of Tsallis Non-Extensive Statistics and Fractal Dynamics for Complex Systems
G. P. Pavlos; M. N. Xenakis; L. P. Karakatsanis; A. C. Iliopoulos; A. E. G. Pavlos; D. V. Sarafopoulos
2012-03-25
Tsallis q-extension of statistics and fractal generalization of dynamics are two faces of the same physical reality, as well as the Kernel modern complexity theory. The fractal generalization dynamics is based at the multiscale - multifractal characters of complex dynamics in the physical space-time and the complex system's dynamical phase space. Tsallis q-triplet of non-extensive statistics can be used for the experiment test of q-statistic as well as of the fractal dynamics. In this study we present indicative experimental verifications of Tsallis theory in various complex systems such as solar plasmas, (planetic magnetospheres, cosmic stars and cosmic rays), atmospheric dynamics, seismogenesis and brain dynamics.
Quantum statistics and dynamics of nonlinear couplers with nonlinear exchange
M. Sebawe Abdalla; Faisal A. A. El-Orany; J. Perina
2011-07-29
In this paper we derive the quantum statistical and dynamical properties of nonlinear optical couplers composed of two nonlinear waveguides operating by the second subharmonic generation, which are coupled linearly through evanescent waves and nonlinearly through nondegenerate optical parametric interaction. Main attention is paid to generation and transmission of nonclassical light, based on a discussion of squeezing phenomenon, normalized second-order correlation function, and quasiprobability distribution functions. Initially coherent, number and thermal states of optical beams are considered. In particular, results are discussed in dependence on the strength of the nonlinear coupling relatively to the linear coupling. We show that if the Fock state $|1>$ enters the first waveguide and the vacuum state $|0>$ enters the second waveguide, the coupler can serve as a generator of squeezed vacuum state governed by the coupler parameters. Further, if thermal fields enter initially the waveguides the coupler plays similar role as a microwave Josephson-junction parametric amplifier to generate squeezed thermal light.
Multiscale dynamics of C60 from attosecond to statistical physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lépine, F.
2015-06-01
C60 is a fascinating object that has become remarkably useful for experimentalists and theoreticians to study photo-induced processes in large many-particle systems. In this review article, we discuss how the knowledge accumulated over the past 30 years on this molecule provides a large panel of mechanisms that occur from the intrinsic time scale of electronic motion that is attosecond, to long ‘macroscopic’ time scale (second). This illustrates the multiscale aspect of dynamics in photo-excited systems, which connects coherent quantum processes to classical and statistical mechanisms. This also shines light onto future experiments and theoretical work required to complete the global picture of light-induced mechanisms in fullerenes.
Quantum statistics and dynamics of nonlinear couplers with nonlinear exchange
Abdalla, M Sebawe; Perina, J
2011-01-01
In this paper we derive the quantum statistical and dynamical properties of nonlinear optical couplers composed of two nonlinear waveguides operating by the second subharmonic generation, which are coupled linearly through evanescent waves and nonlinearly through nondegenerate optical parametric interaction. Main attention is paid to generation and transmission of nonclassical light, based on a discussion of squeezing phenomenon, normalized second-order correlation function, and quasiprobability distribution functions. Initially coherent, number and thermal states of optical beams are considered. In particular, results are discussed in dependence on the strength of the nonlinear coupling relatively to the linear coupling. We show that if the Fock state $|1>$ enters the first waveguide and the vacuum state $|0>$ enters the second waveguide, the coupler can serve as a generator of squeezed vacuum state governed by the coupler parameters. Further, if thermal fields enter initially the waveguides the coupler play...
Pasta nucleosynthesis: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear statistical equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caplan, M. E.; Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.
2015-06-01
Background: Exotic nonspherical nuclear pasta shapes are expected in nuclear matter at just below saturation density because of competition between short-range nuclear attraction and long-range Coulomb repulsion. Purpose: We explore the impact nuclear pasta may have on nucleosynthesis during neutron star mergers when cold dense nuclear matter is ejected and decompressed. Methods: We use a hybrid CPU/GPU molecular dynamics (MD) code to perform decompression simulations of cold dense matter with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons from 0.080 fm-3 down to 0.00125 fm-3 . Simulations are run for proton fractions YP= 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 at temperatures T = 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 MeV. The final composition of each simulation is obtained using a cluster algorithm and compared to a constant density run. Results: Size of nuclei in the final state of decompression runs are in good agreement with nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) models for temperatures of 1 MeV while constant density runs produce nuclei smaller than the ones obtained with NSE. Our MD simulations produces unphysical results with large rod-like nuclei in the final state of T =0.5 MeV runs. Conclusions: Our MD model is valid at higher densities than simple nuclear statistical equilibrium models and may help determine the initial temperatures and proton fractions of matter ejected in mergers.
Statistical Characterization of Multi-Phase Flow by Dynamic Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tillack, Gerd-Rüdiger; Samadurau, Ulazimir; Artemiev, Valentin; Naumov, Alexander
2003-03-01
The paper presents a special reconstruction algorithm that is capable to monitor density differences in multi-phase flows. The flow cross section is represented as discrete dynamic random field. A fixed gray value is assigned to each flow phase characterizing the material property of the phase. The image model is given by a set of non-linear stochastic difference equations. The corresponding inversion task is not accessible by common tomographic techniques applying reconstruction algorithms like filtered backprojection or algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The developed algorithm is based on the Kalman filter technique adapted to non-linear phenomena. The average velocity distribution together with the corresponding covariance matrix of the liquid flow through a pipe serves as prior information in statistical sense. To overcome the non-linearity in the process model as well as in the measurement model the statistical linearization technique is applied. Moreover the Riccati equation, giving the error covariance matrix, and the equation for the optimal gain coefficients can be solved in advance and later used in the filter equation. It turns out that the resulting reconstruction or filter algorithm is recursive, i.e. yielding the quasi-optimal solution to the formulated inverse problem at every reconstruction step by successively counting for the new information collected in the projections. The applicability of the developed algorithm is discussed in terms of characterizing or monitoring a multi-phase flow in a pipe.
Social Development in Hong Kong: Development Issues Identified by Social Development Index (SDI)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chua, Hoi-wai; Wong, Anthony K. W.; Shek, Daniel T. L.
2010-01-01
Surviving the aftermaths of the Asian Financial Crisis and SARS in 2003, Hong Kong's economy has re-gained its momentum and its economic growth has been quite remarkable too in recent few years. Nevertheless, as reflected by the Social Development Index (SDI), economic growth in Hong Kong does not seem to have benefited the people of the city at…
A multinational SDI-based system to facilitate disaster risk management in the Andean Community
Molina, Martín
A multinational SDI-based system to facilitate disaster risk management in the Andean Community: Spatial Data Infrastructure Disaster risk management Geoportal Thematic search engine a b s t r a c t A useful strategy for improving disaster risk management is sharing spatial data across different technical
CROP EMERGENCE WITH ALTERNATIVE SDI DESIGNS IN A PULLMAN CLAY LOAM SOIL
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We compared soybean emergence and yield for different bed designs for subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). The bed designs consisted of standard beds with drip laterals installed in alternate furrows, and wide beds with drip laterals centered in the bed between two plant rows. Both designs result in th...
Kazumba, Shija; Gillerman, Leonid; DeMalach, Yoel; Oron, Gideon
2010-01-01
Scarcity of fresh high-quality water has heightened the importance of wastewater reuse primarily in dry regions together with improving its efficient use by implementing the Subsurface Drip Irrigation (SDI) method. Sustainable effluent reuse combines soil and plant aspects, along with the maintainability of the application system. In this study, field experiments were conducted for two years on the commercial farm of Revivim and Mashabay-Sade farm (RMF) southeast of the City of Beer-Sheva, Israel. The purpose was to examine the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a perennial model crop to secondary domestic effluent application by means of a SDI system as compared with conventional overhead sprinkler irrigation. Emitters were installed at different depths and spacing. Similar amounts of effluent were applied to all plots during the experimental period. The results indicated that in all SDI treatments, the alfalfa yields were 11% to 25% higher than the ones obtained under sprinkler irrigated plots, besides the one in which the drip laterals were 200 cm apart. The average Water Use Efficiency (WUE) was better in all SDI treatments in comparison with the sprinkler irrigated plots. An economic assessment reveals the dependence of the net profit on the emitters' installation geometry, combined with the return for alfalfa in the market. PMID:20150698
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schweikhard, W. G.; Chen, Y. S.
1986-01-01
The Melick method of inlet flow dynamic distortion prediction by statistical means is outlined. A hypothetic vortex model is used as the basis for the mathematical formulations. The main variables are identified by matching the theoretical total pressure rms ratio with the measured total pressure rms ratio. Data comparisons, using the HiMAT inlet test data set, indicate satisfactory prediction of the dynamic peak distortion for cases with boundary layer control device vortex generators. A method for the dynamic probe selection was developed. Validity of the probe selection criteria is demonstrated by comparing the reduced-probe predictions with the 40-probe predictions. It is indicated that the the number of dynamic probes can be reduced to as few as two and still retain good accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potirakis, Stelios M.; Zitis, Pavlos I.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos
2013-07-01
The field of study of complex systems considers that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may be used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. Several authors have suggested that earthquake dynamics and the dynamics of economic (financial) systems can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. We apply concepts of the nonextensive statistical physics, on time-series data of observable manifestations of the underlying complex processes ending up with these different extreme events, in order to support the suggestion that a dynamical analogy exists between a financial crisis (in the form of share or index price collapse) and a single earthquake. We also investigate the existence of such an analogy by means of scale-free statistics (the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of event sizes). We show that the populations of: (i) fracto-electromagnetic events rooted in the activation of a single fault, emerging prior to a significant earthquake, (ii) the trade volume events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, and (iii) the price fluctuation (considered as the difference of maximum minus minimum price within a day) events of different shares/economic indices, prior to a collapse, follow both the traditional Gutenberg-Richter law as well as a nonextensive model for earthquake dynamics, with similar parameter values. The obtained results imply the existence of a dynamic analogy between earthquakes and economic crises, which moreover follow the dynamics of seizures, magnetic storms and solar flares.
Nguyen, Y.; Nguyen, Nam X.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Liao, Jun; MacMillan, John B.; Jiang, Youxing; Sperandio, Vanessa
2015-05-19
Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not inmore »an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. IMPORTANCE Quorum sensing refers to bacterial chemical signaling. The QS acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are recognized by LuxR-type receptors that regulate gene transcription. However, some bacteria have orphan LuxR-type receptors and do not produce AHLs, sensing them from other bacteria. We solved three structures of the E. coli SdiA orphan, in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA with no AHL is not in an apo state but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL). OCL is ubiquitously found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is a phospholipid precursor for membrane biogenesis and a signaling molecule. While AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA-binding affinity, OCL functions as a chemical chaperone placeholder, stabilizing SdiA and allowing for basal activity. Our studies provide crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of SdiA activity.« less
Nguyen, Y.; Nguyen, Nam X.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Liao, Jun; MacMillan, John B.; Jiang, Youxing; Sperandio, Vanessa
2015-05-19
Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not in an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. IMPORTANCE Quorum sensing refers to bacterial chemical signaling. The QS acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are recognized by LuxR-type receptors that regulate gene transcription. However, some bacteria have orphan LuxR-type receptors and do not produce AHLs, sensing them from other bacteria. We solved three structures of the E. coli SdiA orphan, in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA with no AHL is not in an apo state but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL). OCL is ubiquitously found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is a phospholipid precursor for membrane biogenesis and a signaling molecule. While AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA-binding affinity, OCL functions as a chemical chaperone placeholder, stabilizing SdiA and allowing for basal activity. Our studies provide crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of SdiA activity.
A Statistical Model for In Vivo Neuronal Dynamics
Surace, Simone Carlo; Pfister, Jean-Pascal
2015-01-01
Single neuron models have a long tradition in computational neuroscience. Detailed biophysical models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley model as well as simplified neuron models such as the class of integrate-and-fire models relate the input current to the membrane potential of the neuron. Those types of models have been extensively fitted to in vitro data where the input current is controlled. Those models are however of little use when it comes to characterize intracellular in vivo recordings since the input to the neuron is not known. Here we propose a novel single neuron model that characterizes the statistical properties of in vivo recordings. More specifically, we propose a stochastic process where the subthreshold membrane potential follows a Gaussian process and the spike emission intensity depends nonlinearly on the membrane potential as well as the spiking history. We first show that the model has a rich dynamical repertoire since it can capture arbitrary subthreshold autocovariance functions, firing-rate adaptations as well as arbitrary shapes of the action potential. We then show that this model can be efficiently fitted to data without overfitting. We finally show that this model can be used to characterize and therefore precisely compare various intracellular in vivo recordings from different animals and experimental conditions. PMID:26571371
A Statistical Model for In Vivo Neuronal Dynamics.
Surace, Simone Carlo; Pfister, Jean-Pascal
2015-01-01
Single neuron models have a long tradition in computational neuroscience. Detailed biophysical models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley model as well as simplified neuron models such as the class of integrate-and-fire models relate the input current to the membrane potential of the neuron. Those types of models have been extensively fitted to in vitro data where the input current is controlled. Those models are however of little use when it comes to characterize intracellular in vivo recordings since the input to the neuron is not known. Here we propose a novel single neuron model that characterizes the statistical properties of in vivo recordings. More specifically, we propose a stochastic process where the subthreshold membrane potential follows a Gaussian process and the spike emission intensity depends nonlinearly on the membrane potential as well as the spiking history. We first show that the model has a rich dynamical repertoire since it can capture arbitrary subthreshold autocovariance functions, firing-rate adaptations as well as arbitrary shapes of the action potential. We then show that this model can be efficiently fitted to data without overfitting. We finally show that this model can be used to characterize and therefore precisely compare various intracellular in vivo recordings from different animals and experimental conditions. PMID:26571371
Radha, Hayder
18 A Dynamic Programming Approach to Maximizing a Statistical Measure of the Lifetime of Sensor perform complexity analysis, statistical evaluation of changes in power consump- tion rates effected and Phrases: Dynamic programming, network lifetime, rate distortion theory, wireless sensor networks, lifetime
Dynamic Statistical Graphics in the C2 Virtual Reality Environment J. Symanzik D. Cook
Symanzik, Jürgen
Dynamic Statistical Graphics in the C2 Virtual Reality Environment J. Symanzik D. Cook Department immersive virtual reality environ- ment that allows 3 dimensional projections of higher di- mensional virtual reality environment. So far, most applications of dynamic statistical graphics have involved
Enriching Spatial Data Infrastructure (sdi) by User Generated Contents for Transportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeri, M.; Alimohammadi, A.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Alesheikh, A. A.
2013-09-01
Spatial data is one of the most critical elements underpinning decision making for many disciplines. Accessing and sharing spatial data have always been a great struggle for researchers. Spatial data infrastructure (SDI) plays a key role in spatial data sharing by building a suitable platform for collaboration and cooperation among the different data producer organizations. In recent years, SDI vision has been moved toward a user-centric platform which has led to development of a new and enriched generation of SDI (third generation). This vision is to provide an environment where users can cooperate to handle spatial data in an effective and satisfactory way. User-centric SDI concentrates on users, their requirements and preferences while in the past, SDI initiatives were mainly concentrated on technological issues such as the data harmonization, standardized metadata models, standardized web services for data discovery, visualization and download. On the other hand, new technologies such as the GPS-equipped smart phones, navigation devices and Web 2.0 technologies have enabled citizens to actively participate in production and sharing of the spatial information. This has led to emergence of the new phenomenon called the Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI describes any type of content that has a geographic element which has been voluntarily collected. However, its distinctive element is the geographic information that can be collected and produced by citizens with different formal expertise and knowledge of the spatial or geographical concepts. Therefore, ordinary citizens can cooperate in providing massive sources of information that cannot be ignored. These can be considered as the valuable spatial information sources in SDI. These sources can be used for completing, improving and updating of the existing databases. Spatial information and technologies are an important part of the transportation systems. Planning, design and operation of the transportation systems requires the exchange of large volumes of spatial data and often close cooperation among the various organizations. However, there is no technical and organizational process to get a suitable data infrastructure to address diverse needs of the transportation. Hence, development of a common standards and a simple data exchange mechanism is strongly needed in the field of transportation for decision support. Since one of the main purposes of transportation projects is to improve the quality of services provided to users, it is necessary to involve the users themselves in the decision making processes. This should be done through a public participation and involvement in all stages of the transportation projects. In other words, using public knowledge and information as another source of information is very important to make better and more efficient decisions. Public participation in transportation projects can also help organizations to enhance their public supports; because the lack of public support can lead to failure of technically valid projects. However, due to complexity of the transportation tasks, lack of appropriate environment and methods for facilitation of the public participation, collection and analysis of the public information and opinions, public participation in this field has not been well considered so far. This paper reviews the previous researches based on the enriched SDI development and its movement toward the VGI by focusing on the public participation in transportation projects. To this end, methods and models that have been used in previous researches are studied and classified initially. Then, methods of the previous researchers on VGI and transportation are conceptualized in SDI. Finally, the suggested method for transportation projects is presented. Results indicate success of the new generation of SDI in integration with public participation for transportation projects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Kersaint, Gladis; Harper, Suzanne; Driskell, Shannon O.; Leatham, Keith R.
2012-01-01
This study examined a random stratified sample (n = 62) of prospective teachers' work across eight institutions on three tasks that utilized dynamic statistical software. The authors considered how teachers utilized their statistical knowledge and technological statistical knowledge to engage in cycles of investigation. This paper characterizes…
Indole is an inter-species biofilm signal mediated by SdiA
Lee, Jintae; Jayaraman, Arul; Wood, Thomas K
2007-01-01
Background As a stationary phase signal, indole is secreted in large quantities into rich medium by Escherichia coli and has been shown to control several genes (e.g., astD, tnaB, gabT), multi-drug exporters, and the pathogenicity island of E. coli; however, its impact on biofilm formation has not been well-studied. Results Through a series of global transcriptome analyses, confocal microscopy, isogenic mutants, and dual-species biofilms, we show here that indole is a non-toxic signal that controls E. coli biofilms by repressing motility, inducing the sensor of the quorum sensing signal autoinducer-1 (SdiA), and influencing acid resistance (e.g., hdeABD, gadABCEX). Isogenic mutants showed these associated proteins are directly related to biofilm formation (e.g., the sdiA mutation increased biofilm formation 50-fold), and SdiA-mediated transcription was shown to be influenced by indole. The reduction in motility due to indole addition results in the biofilm architecture changing from scattered towers to flat colonies. Additionally, there are 12-fold more E. coli cells in dual-species biofilms grown in the presence of Pseudomonas cells engineered to express toluene o-monooxygenase (TOM, which converts indole to an insoluble indigoid) than in biofilms with pseudomonads that do not express TOM due to a 22-fold reduction in extracellular indole. Also, indole stimulates biofilm formation in pseudomonads. Further evidence that the indole effects are mediated by SdiA and homoserine lactone quorum sensing is that the addition of N-butyryl-, N-hexanoyl-, and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactones repress E. coli biofilm formation in the wild-type strain but not with the sdiA mutant. Conclusion Indole is an interspecies signal that decreases E. coli biofilms through SdiA and increases those of pseudomonads. Indole may be manipulated to control biofilm formation by oxygenases of bacteria that do not synthesize it in a dual-species biofilm. Furthermore, E. coli changes its biofilm in response to signals it cannot synthesize (homoserine lactones), and pseudomonads respond to signals they do not synthesize (indole). PMID:17511876
Field theoretic approach to statistical dynamics and chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz, Gerardo Andres
Classical statistical dynamics, the theory of classical (usually nonlinear) systems, in which randomness is introduced by means of stochastic external driving terms and/or random initial conditions, is studied from a field theoretic point of view. The physically relevant quantities are averages over these random variables, and can be calculated from a path integral representation of a generating functional, in close analogy with quantum field theory. After reviewing the functional approach an unsatisfactory feature of the traditional formulation is discussed, namely the ill-defined manipulations performed on a determinant that arises due to the constrained nature of the theory. Exponentiation of this determinant is shown using anticommuting variables. This leads to an extended action possessing a Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry, and the induced Ward identities permit a clean resolution of the problem mentioned above. The potential applications of the formalism are certainly many, but few are as challenging as systems exhibiting chaotic behavior. A very concise introduction to the necessary concepts in chaos is presented. A perturbative investigation of the effects of stochasticity on such systems in general, and on their Lyapunov exponents in particular is also presented. Finally, the transition from regular to chaotic behavior is analyzed using renormalization group (RG) equations. The presence of initial conditions and nonvanishing average fields requires a revision of the translation invariant approach followed in quantum field theory. The RG equations that emerge after taking into account the necessary modifications lead to a relation for Lyapunov exponents that can be used to compute them in specific cases. They also imply a result describing how the critical stress scales with the amplitude of the external noise.
Field Theoretic Approach to Statistical Dynamics and Chaos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz, Gerardo Andres
1990-01-01
Classical statistical dynamics, the theory of classical (usually nonlinear) systems, in which randomness is introduced by means of stochastic external driving terms and/or random initial conditions, is studied from a field theoretic point of view. The physically relevant quantities are averages over these random variables, and can be calculated from a path integral representation of a generating functional, in close analogy with quantum field theory. After reviewing the functional approach we discuss an unsatisfactory feature of the traditional formulation, namely the ill-defined manipulations performed on a determinant that arises due to the constrained nature of the theory. We show that exponentiation of this determinant using anticommuting variables leads to an extended action possessing a Becchi -Rouet-Stora (BRS) symmetry, and the induced Ward identities permit a clean resolution of the problem mentioned above. The potential applications of the formalism are certainly many, but few are as challenging as systems exhibiting chaotic behavior. We present a very concise introduction to the necessary concepts in chaos followed by a perturbative investigation of the effects of stochasticity on such systems in general, and on their Lyapunov exponents in particular. Finally, the transition from regular to chaotic behavior is analyzed using renormalization group (RG) equations. The presence of initial conditions as well as nonvanishing average fields requires a revision of the translation invariant approach followed in quantum field theory, where the vacuum expectation value of the field can at most be a constant, and where a discussion in terms of vertex functions suffices. The RG equations that emerge after taking into account the necessary modifications lead to a relation for Lyapunov exponents that can be used to compute them in specific cases. They also imply a result describing how the critical stress scales with the amplitude of the external noise.
Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches.
Eisenberg, Marisa C; Kujbida, Gregory; Tuite, Ashleigh R; Fisman, David N; Tien, Joseph H
2013-12-01
Haiti has been in the midst of a cholera epidemic since October 2010. Rainfall is thought to be associated with cholera here, but this relationship has only begun to be quantitatively examined. In this paper, we quantitatively examine the link between rainfall and cholera in Haiti for several different settings (including urban, rural, and displaced person camps) and spatial scales, using a combination of statistical and dynamic models. Statistical analysis of the lagged relationship between rainfall and cholera incidence was conducted using case crossover analysis and distributed lag nonlinear models. Dynamic models consisted of compartmental differential equation models including direct (fast) and indirect (delayed) disease transmission, where indirect transmission was forced by empirical rainfall data. Data sources include cholera case and hospitalization time series from the Haitian Ministry of Public Health, the United Nations Water, Sanitation and Health Cluster, International Organization for Migration, and Hôpital Albert Schweitzer. Rainfall data was obtained from rain gauges from the U.S. Geological Survey and Haiti Regeneration Initiative, and remote sensing rainfall data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. A strong relationship between rainfall and cholera was found for all spatial scales and locations examined. Increased rainfall was significantly correlated with increased cholera incidence 4-7 days later. Forcing the dynamic models with rainfall data resulted in good fits to the cholera case data, and rainfall-based predictions from the dynamic models closely matched observed cholera cases. These models provide a tool for planning and managing the epidemic as it continues. PMID:24267876
SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.
2012-09-01
Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.
Characterization of the Brown Dwarf Desert Around Solar Neighborhood G & K dwarfs using NACO-SDI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montagnier, G.; Segransan, D.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Forveille, T.
2007-06-01
We have been conducting a systematic search for brown dwarfs around solar neighborhood G & K dwarfs, using NACO in its Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) mode. We took advantage of the CORALIE planet search radial velocity survey, to select a subsample of 36 G&K dwarfs out of 1600 inside 50 parsecs. These 36 stars display radial velocity drifts compatible with a substellar companions in the separation range accessible to NACO+SDI, and that are not known as long period spectroscopic or visual binaries. We found 16 obvious stellar companions (mostly late M type dwarfs). At this stage of the data processing, we do not directly detect the companions on the remaining 20 stars, pointing that these companions are either massive planets or low mass brown dwarfs. We will present here the results of our program and new constraints on the brown dwarf desert in the separation range from 1 to 100 AU.
Dynamical instability and statistical behaviour of N-body systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cipriani, Piero; Di Bari, Maria
1998-12-01
In this paper, we argue about a synthetic characterization of the qualitative properties of generic many-degrees-of-freedom (mdf) dynamical systems (DS's) by means of a geometric description of the dynamics [Geometro-Dynamical Approach (GDA)]. We exhaustively describe the mathematical framework needed to link geometry and dynamical (in)stability, discussing in particular which geometrical quantity is actually related to instability and why some others cannot give, in general, any indication of the occurrence of chaos. The relevance of the Schur theorem to select such Geometrodynamic Indicators (GDI) of instability is then emphasized, as its implications seem to have been underestimated in some of the previous works. We then compare the analytical and numerical results obtained by us and by Pettini and coworkers concerning the FPU chain, verifying a complete agreement between the outcomes of averaging the relevant GDI's over phase space (Casetti and Pettini, 1995) and our findings (Cipriani, 1993), obtained in a more conservative way, time-averaging along geodesics. Along with the check of the ergodic properties of GDI's, these results confirm that the mechanism responsible for chaos in realistic DS's largely depends on the fluctuations of curvatures rather than on their negative values, whose occurrence is very unlikely. On these grounds we emphasize the importance of the virialization process, which separates two different regimes of instability. This evolutionary path, predicted on the basis of analytical estimates, receives clear support from numerical simulations, which, at the same time, confirm also the features of the evolution of the GDI's along with their dependence on the number of degrees of freedom, N, and on the other relevant parameters of the system, pointing out the scarce relevance of negative curvature (for N ? 1) as a source of instability. The general arguments outlined above, are then concretely applied to two specific N-body problems, obtaining some new insights into known outcomes and also some new results The comparative analysis of the FPU chain and the gravitational N-body system allows us to suggest a new definition of strong stochasticity, for any DS. The generalization of the concept of dynamical time-scale, tD, is at the basis of this new criterion. We derive for both the mdf systems considered the ( N, ?)-dependence of tD (? being the specific energy) of the system. In light of this, the results obtained (Cerruti-Sola and Pettini, 1995), indeed turn out to be reliable, the perplexity there raised originating from the neglected N-dependence of tD, and not to an excessive degree of approximation in the averaged equations used. This points out also the peculiarities of gravitationally bound systems, which are always in a regime of strong instability; the dimensionless quantity L1 = ?1 · tD [? 1 is the maximal Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN)] being always positive and independent of ?, as it happens for the FPU chain only above the strong stochasticity threshold (SST). The numerical checks on the analytical estimates about the ( N, ?)-dependence of GDI's, allow us to single out their scaling laws, which support our claim that, for N ? 1, the probability of finding a negative value of Ricci curvature is practically negligible, always for the FPU chain, whereas in the case of the Gravitational N-body system, this is certainly true when the virial equilibrium has been attained. The strong stochasticity of the latter DS is clearly due to the large amplitude of curvature fluctuations. To prove the positivity of Ricci curvature, we need to discuss the pathologies of mathematical Newtonian interaction, which have some implications also on the ergodicity of the GDI's for this DS. We discuss the Statistical Mechanical properties of gravity, arguing how they are related to its long range nature rather than to its short scale divergencies. The N-scaling behaviour of the single terms entering the Ricci curvature show that the dominant contribution comes from the Laplacian of the potential e
Beth A. Biller; Laird M. Close; Rainer Lenzen; Wolfgang Brandner; Donald McCarthy; Eric Nielsen; Stephan Kellner; Markus Hartung
2006-01-03
We discuss the instrumental and data reduction techniques used to suppress speckle noise with the Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI) implemented at the VLT and the MMT. SDI uses a double Wollaston prism and a quad filter to take 4 identical images simultaneously at 3 wavelengths surrounding the 1.62 um methane bandhead found in the spectrum of cool brown dwarfs and gas giants. By performing a difference of images in these filters, speckle noise from the primary can be significantly attenuated, resulting in photon noise limited data past 0.5''. Non-trivial data reduction tools are necessary to pipeline the simultaneous differential imaging. Here we discuss a custom algorithm implemented in IDL to perform this reduction. The script performs basic data reduction tasks but also precisely aligns images taken in each of the filters using a custom shift and subtract routine. In our survey of nearby young stars at the VLT and MMT (see Biller et al., this conference), we achieved H band contrasts >25000 (5 sigma Delta F1(1.575 um) > 10.0 mag, Delta H > 11.5 mag for a T6 spectral type object) at a separation of 0.5" from the primary star. We believe that our SDI images are among the highest contrast astronomical images ever made from ground or space for methane rich companions.
Sapsis, Themistoklis
A framework for low-order predictive statistical modeling and uncertainty quantification in turbulent dynamical systems is developed here. These reduced-order, modified quasilinear Gaussian (ROMQG) algorithms apply to ...
The Hamiltonian Mean Field Model: From Dynamics to Statistical Mechanics and Back
Dauxois, Thierry
example of this class of systems. The present study addresses both at- tractive and repulsive interactions-range properties of the force, allowing a detailed description of the statistical and dynamical behaviors
Reaction Event Counting Statistics of Biopolymer Reaction Systems with Dynamic Heterogeneity
Cao, Jianshu
Reaction Event Counting Statistics of Biopolymer Reaction Systems with Dynamic Heterogeneity Yu Rim of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States ABSTRACT: We investigate the reaction event counting statistics (RECS) of an elementary biopolymer reaction in which the rate coefficient is dependent
Kang, In-Sik
A statistical approach to Indian Ocean sea surface temperature prediction using a dynamical ENSO (SST) in the Indian Ocean. It is a linear regression model based on a lagged relationship between the Indian Ocean SST and the NINO3 SST. A new approach to the statistical modeling has been tried out
An Examination of Statistical Power in Multigroup Dynamic Structural Equation Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prindle, John J.; McArdle, John J.
2012-01-01
This study used statistical simulation to calculate differential statistical power in dynamic structural equation models with groups (as in McArdle & Prindle, 2008). Patterns of between-group differences were simulated to provide insight into how model parameters influence power approximations. Chi-square and root mean square error of…
Statistical Computations Underlying the Dynamics of Memory Updating
Gershman, Samuel J.
Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies have suggested that memory is not simply a carbon copy of our experience: Memories are modified or new memories are formed depending on the dynamic structure of our experience, ...
Measures of trajectory ensemble disparity in nonequilibrium statistical dynamics
Crooks, Gavin; Sivak, David
2011-06-03
Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis), Jensen-Shannon divergence (time-asymmetry), Chernoff divergence (work cumulant generating function), and Renyi divergence.
Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.
2015-05-01
Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.
Functional ANOVA and Regional Climate Experiments: A Statistical Analysis of Dynamic Downscaling
Sain, Steve
Functional ANOVA and Regional Climate Experiments: A Statistical Analysis of Dynamic Downscaling for dynamic downscaling of global models. In this paper, we discuss an initial analysis of a subset changes. Moreover, the scientific consensus that human activities has led to warming of the atmosphere has
Exit from G0 and entry into the cell cycle of cells expressing p21Sdi1 antisense RNA.
Nakanishi, M; Adami, G R; Robetorye, R S; Noda, A; Venable, S F; Dimitrov, D; Pereira-Smith, O M; Smith, J R
1995-01-01
p21Sdi1 (also known as Cip1 and Waf1), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis cloned from senescent human fibroblasts, is an inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) in vitro and is transcriptionally regulated by wild-type p53. In addition, p21Sdi1 has been found to inhibit DNA replication by direct interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In this study we analyzed normal human fibroblast cells arrested in G0 and determined that an excess of p21Sdi1 was present after immunodepletion of various cyclins and Cdks, in contrast to mitogen-stimulated cells in early S phase. Expression of antisense p21Sdi1 RNA in G0-arrested cells resulted in induction of DNA synthesis as well as entry into mitosis. These results suggest that p21Sdi1 functions in G0 and early G1 and that decreased expression of the gene is necessary for cell cycle progression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7753810
Statistical analysis of modeling error in structural dynamic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasselman, T. K.; Chrostowski, J. D.
1990-01-01
The paper presents a generic statistical model of the (total) modeling error for conventional space structures in their launch configuration. Modeling error is defined as the difference between analytical prediction and experimental measurement. It is represented by the differences between predicted and measured real eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Comparisons are made between pre-test and post-test models. Total modeling error is then subdivided into measurement error, experimental error and 'pure' modeling error, and comparisons made between measurement error and total modeling error. The generic statistical model presented in this paper is based on the first four global (primary structure) modes of four different structures belonging to the generic category of Conventional Space Structures (specifically excluding large truss-type space structures). As such, it may be used to evaluate the uncertainty of predicted mode shapes and frequencies, sinusoidal response, or the transient response of other structures belonging to the same generic category.
I. G. Koprinkov
2010-04-19
The internal phase dynamics of a quantum system is revealed in details. Theoretical and experimental evidences of existence of a causal relation of the phase of the wave function with the dynamics of the quantum system are presented sistematically for the first time. A new, dynamics-statistical interpretation of the quantum mechanics is introduced. A particle-wave duality picture incorporated in the wave function through its phase and amplitude is considered.
An open-source wireless sensor stack: from Arduino to SDI-12 to Water One Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hicks, S.; Damiano, S. G.; Smith, K. M.; Olexy, J.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.
2013-12-01
Implementing a large-scale streaming environmental sensor network has previously been limited by the high cost of the datalogging and data communication infrastructure. The Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) is overcoming the obstacles to large near-real-time data collection networks by using Arduino, an open source electronics platform, in combination with XBee ZigBee wireless radio modules. These extremely low-cost and easy-to-use open source electronics are at the heart of the new DIY movement and have provided solutions to countless projects by over half a million users worldwide. However, their use in environmental sensing is in its infancy. At present a primary limitation to widespread deployment of open-source electronics for environmental sensing is the lack of a simple, open-source software stack to manage streaming data from heterogeneous sensor networks. Here we present a functioning prototype software stack that receives sensor data over a self-meshing ZigBee wireless network from over a hundred sensors, stores the data locally and serves it on demand as a CUAHSI Water One Flow (WOF) web service. We highlight a few new, innovative components, including: (1) a versatile open data logger design based the Arduino electronics platform and ZigBee radios; (2) a software library implementing SDI-12 communication protocol between any Arduino platform and SDI12-enabled sensors without the need for additional hardware (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12); and (3) 'midStream', a light-weight set of Python code that receives streaming sensor data, appends it with metadata on the fly by querying a relational database structured on an early version of the Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2), and uses the WOFpy library to serve the data as WaterML via SOAP and REST web services.
Temporal dynamics and statistical characteristics of the microfluctuations
Dainty, Chris
, Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Visual Science, Optometry and Visual Science, City University, London studies. New technological developments now permit us to study the dynamics of the microfluctuations of accommoda- tion and optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22, 15 (1983). 7. C. Miege and P. Denieul
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
Lars Onsager Prize Lecture: Statistical Dynamics of Disordered Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisher, Daniel S.
2013-03-01
The properties of many systems are strongly affected by quenched disorder that arose from their past history but is frozen on the time scales of interest. Although equilibrium phases and phase transitions in disordered materials can be very different from their counterparts in pure systems, the most striking phenomena involve non-equilibrium dynamics. The state of understanding of some of these will be reviewed including approach to equilibrium in spin glasses and the onset of motion in driven systems such as vortices in superconductors or earthquakes on geological faults. The potential for developing understanding of short-term evolutionary dynamics of microbial populations by taking advantage of the randomness of their past histories and the biological complexities will be discussed briefly.
Viscoelastic effects in avalanche dynamics: a key to earthquake statistics.
Jagla, E A; Landes, François P; Rosso, Alberto
2014-05-01
In many complex systems a continuous input of energy over time can be suddenly relaxed in the form of avalanches. Conventional avalanche models disregard the possibility of internal dynamical effects in the interavalanche periods, and thus miss basic features observed in some real systems. We address this issue by studying a model with viscoelastic relaxation, showing how coherent oscillations of the stress field can emerge spontaneously. Remarkably, these oscillations generate avalanche patterns that are similar to those observed in seismic phenomena. PMID:24836251
Eddies in the Red Sea: A statistical and dynamical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2014-06-01
Sea level anomaly (SLA) data spanning 1992-2012 were analyzed to study the statistical properties of eddies in the Red Sea. An algorithm that identifies winding angles was employed to detect 4998 eddies propagating along 938 unique eddy tracks. Statistics suggest that eddies are generated across the entire Red Sea but that they are prevalent in certain regions. A high number of eddies is found in the central basin between 18°N and 24°N. More than 87% of the detected eddies have a radius ranging from 50 to 135 km. Both the intensity and relative vorticity scale of these eddies decrease as the eddy radii increase. The averaged eddy lifespan is approximately 6 weeks. AEs and cyclonic eddies (CEs) have different deformation features, and those with stronger intensities are less deformed and more circular. Analysis of long-lived eddies suggests that they are likely to appear in the central basin with AEs tending to move northward. In addition, their eddy kinetic energy (EKE) increases gradually throughout their lifespans. The annual cycles of CEs and AEs differ, although both exhibit significant seasonal cycles of intensity with the winter and summer peaks appearing in February and August, respectively. The seasonal cycle of EKE is negatively correlated with stratification but positively correlated with vertical shear of horizontal velocity and eddy growth rate, suggesting that the generation of baroclinic instability is responsible for the activities of eddies in the Red Sea.
Extreme event statistics of daily rainfall: Dynamical systems approach
Yalcin, G Cigdem; Beck, Christian
2015-01-01
We analyse the probability densities of daily rainfall amounts at a variety of locations on the Earth. The observed distributions of the amount of rainfall fit well to a q-exponential distribution with exponent q close to q=1.3. We discuss possible reasons for the emergence of this power law. On the contrary, the waiting time distribution between rainy days is observed to follow a near-exponential distribution. A careful investigation shows that a q-exponential with q=1.05 yields actually the best fit of the data. A Poisson process where the rate fluctuates slightly in a superstatistical way is discussed as a possible model for this. We discuss the extreme value statistics for extreme daily rainfall, which can potentially lead to flooding. This is described by Frechet distributions as the corresponding distributions of the amount of daily rainfall decay with a power law. On the other hand, looking at extreme event statistics of waiting times between rainy days (leading to droughts for very long dry periods) w...
Statistical methodologies for the control of dynamic remapping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saltz, J. H.; Nicol, D. M.
1986-01-01
Following an initial mapping of a problem onto a multiprocessor machine or computer network, system performance often deteriorates with time. In order to maintain high performance, it may be necessary to remap the problem. The decision to remap must take into account measurements of performance deterioration, the cost of remapping, and the estimated benefits achieved by remapping. We examine the tradeoff between the costs and the benefits of remapping two qualitatively different kinds of problems. One problem assumes that performance deteriorates gradually, the other assumes that performance deteriorates suddenly. We consider a variety of policies for governing when to remap. In order to evaluate these policies, statistical models of problem behaviors are developed. Simulation results are presented which compare simple policies with computationally expensive optimal decision policies; these results demonstrate that for each problem type, the proposed simple policies are effective and robust.
Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions - Dynamics of synaptic modification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ingber, L.
1983-01-01
A recent study has demonstrated that several scales of neocortical interactions can be consistently analyzed with the use of methods of modern nonlinear nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The formation, stability, and interaction of spatial-temporal patterns of columnar firings are explicitly calculated, to test hypothesized mechanisms relating to information processing. In this context, most probable patterns of columnar firings are associated with chemical and electrical synaptic modifications. It is stressed that synaptic modifications and shifts in most-probable firing patterns are highly nonlinear and interactive sets of phenomena. A detailed scenario of information processing is calculated of columnar coding of external stimuli, short-term storage via hysteresis, and long-term storage via synaptic modification.
Dynamic Modelling and Statistical Analysis of Event Times
Peña, Edsel A.
2006-01-01
This review article provides an overview of recent work in the modelling and analysis of recurrent events arising in engineering, reliability, public health, biomedical, and other areas. Recurrent event modelling possesses unique facets making it different and more difficult to handle than single event settings. For instance, the impact of an increasing number of event occurrences needs to be taken into account, the effects of covariates should be considered, potential association among the inter-event times within a unit cannot be ignored, and the effects of performed interventions after each event occurrence need to be factored in. A recent general class of models for recurrent events which simultaneously accommodates these aspects is described. Statistical inference methods for this class of models are presented and illustrated through applications to real data sets. Some existing open research problems are described. PMID:17906740
SERVIR's Contributions and Benefits to Belize thru Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irwin, Daniel E.
2006-01-01
Dan Irwin, the SERVIR Project Manager is being honored with the privilege of delivering the opening remarks at Belize s second celebration of GIS Day, a weeklong event to be held at the University of Belize's campus in the nation s capital, Belmopan. The request has been extended by the GIS Day Planning Committee which operates under the auspices of Belize s Ministry of Natural Resources & the Environment, which is the focal ministry for SERVIR. In the 20-30 min. allotted for the opening remarks, the SERVIR Project Manager will expound on how SERVIR, operating under the auspices of NASA s Ecological Forecasting Program, contributes to spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development in Belize. NASA s contributions to the region - particularly work under the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor - will be highlighted. Continuing, the remarks will discuss SERVIR s role in Belize s steadily expanding SDI, particularly in the context of delivering integrated decision support products via web-based infrastructure. The remarks will close with a call to the parties assembled to work together in the application of Earth Observation Systems technologies for the benefit of Belizean society as a whole. NASA s strong presence in Belize s GIS Day celebrations will be highlighted as sustained goodwill of the American people - in partial fulfillment of goals set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
Biller, B A; Lenzen, R; Brandner, W; McCarthy, D; Nielsen, E; Kellner, S; Hartung, M; Biller, Beth A.; Close, Laird M.; Lenzen, Rainer; Brandner, Wolfgang; Carthy, Donald Mc; Nielsen, Eric; Kellner, Stephan; Hartung, Markus
2006-01-01
We discuss the instrumental and data reduction techniques used to suppress speckle noise with the Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI) implemented at the VLT and the MMT. SDI uses a double Wollaston prism and a quad filter to take 4 identical images simultaneously at 3 wavelengths surrounding the 1.62 um methane bandhead found in the spectrum of cool brown dwarfs and gas giants. By performing a difference of images in these filters, speckle noise from the primary can be significantly attenuated, resulting in photon noise limited data past 0.5''. Non-trivial data reduction tools are necessary to pipeline the simultaneous differential imaging. Here we discuss a custom algorithm implemented in IDL to perform this reduction. The script performs basic data reduction tasks but also precisely aligns images taken in each of the filters using a custom shift and subtract routine. In our survey of nearby young stars at the VLT and MMT (see Biller et al., this conference), we achieved H band contrasts >25000 (5 sigma D...
Measuring dynamical randomness of quantum chaos by statistics of Schmidt eigenvalues.
Kubotani, Hiroto; Adachi, Satoshi; Toda, Mikito
2013-06-01
We study statistics of entanglement generated by quantum chaotic dynamics. Using an ensemble of the very large number (>/~10(7)) of quantum states obtained from the temporally evolving coupled kicked tops, we verify that the estimated one-body distribution of the squared Schmidt eigenvalues for the quantum chaotic dynamics can agree surprisingly well with the analytical one for the universality class of the random matrices described by the fixed trace ensemble (FTE). In order to quantify this agreement, we introduce the L(1) norm of the difference between the one-body distributions for the quantum chaos and FTE and use it as an indicator of the dynamical randomness. As we increase the scaled coupling constant, the L(1) difference decreases. When the effective Planck constant is not small enough, the decrease saturates, which implies quantum suppression of dynamical randomness. On the other hand, when the effective Planck constant is small enough, the decrease of the L(1) difference continues until it is masked by statistical fluctuation due to finiteness of the ensemble. Furthermore, we carry out two statistical analyses, the ?(2) goodness of fit test and an autocorrelation analysis, on the difference between the distributions to seek for dynamical remnants buried under the statistical fluctuation. We observe that almost all fluctuating deviations are statistical. However, even for well-developed quantum chaos, unexpectedly, we find a slight nonstatistical deviation near the largest Schmidt eigenvalue. In this way, the statistics of Schmidt eigenvalues enables us to measure dynamical randomness of quantum chaos with reference to the random matrix theory of FTE. PMID:23848762
Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi
2014-03-01
Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ?10 s and the other at ?100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (?10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (?30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.
Statistical mechanics of a dissipative dynamical system with small noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stern, Melvin E.
1998-11-01
A “wagon” rolls up a slightly inclined plane ( effective gravity acceleration = g ?), and then it rolls down until it collides inelastically (coefficient of restitution = 1 - ?) with a piston oscillating parallel to the plane between ? = 0 and ? = ?max and with velocity ?f( ?t), where ? is amplitude ? is frequency, and f is a specified waveform (e.g., sinusoidal). In the high frequency limit ( {??}/{g ?} ? ? ) there are very many periodic solutions, but in the presence of a small noise level (e.g., the standard deviation in ?) none of these are realizable because, when ? ? ?, this noise is assumed to introduce a random phase ?tn ? ?n (mod 2?) of the piston each time ( tn) the wagon arrives at ? = ?max moving down-hill with velocity V. For mathematical simplicity we confine our attention to the case of a square wave oscillator ( f = ±1), and derive an evolution equation for the probability distribution function Pn+1 ( V). Numerical solutions reveal the approach to a unique statistically steady state ( n ? ?) independent of the assumed initial distribution P1( V), and independent of the noise level.
Fractional statistics and the dynamical gauge symmetry of Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, Mark; Toms, David J.
1990-12-01
We discuss the role of fractional statistics in determining the vacuum of a quantum field theory in 2+1 dimensions and show that the ? parameter for anyons may be determined dynamically, by the presence of a non-zero fermion condensate at finite temperature. By choosing appropriate boundary conditions, in a simplified model, the result suggests that pointlike vortices would have {3}/{2}? statistics to first order in perturbation theory on the grounds of least energy. The notion of anyons with non-abelian statistics is also considered, and it is shown that the statistics gauge group can be broken by the analogue of the Hosotani mechanism, so that there may be domains of statistics around vortices as well as Yang-Mills domains. We speculate on possible observable implications of our results.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An experimental field moisture controlled subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was designed and installed as a field trial in a Vertisol in the Alabama Black Belt region for two years. The system was designed to start hydraulic dosing only when field moisture was below field capacity. Results sho...
Residual structure within the disordered C-terminal segment of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1
Chou, James
Residual structure within the disordered C-terminal segment of p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 and its * Collin M. Stultz,2,3 * and James J. Chou4 * 1 Department of Chemistry and National Creative Research of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 Received 3 July
Statistical Physics Approaches to Respiratory Dynamics and Lung Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suki, Bela
2004-03-01
The lung consists of a branching airway tree embedded in viscoelastic tissue and provides life-sustaining gas exchange to the body. In diseases, its structure is damaged and its function is compromised. We review two recent works about lung structure and dynamics and how they change in disease. 1) We introduced a new acoustic imaging approach to study airway structure. When airways in a collapsed lung are inflated, they pop open in avalanches. A single opening emits a sound package called crackle consisting of an initial spike (s) followed by ringing. The distribution n(s) of s follows a power law and the exponent of n(s) can be used to calculate the diameter ratio d defined as the ratio of the diameters of an airway to that of its parent averaged over all bifurcations. To test this method, we measured crackles in dogs, rabbits, rats and mice by inflating collapsed isolated lungs with air or helium while recording crackles with a microphone. In each species, n(s) follows a power law with an exponent that depends on species, but not on gas in agreement with theory. Values of d from crackles compare well with those calculated from morphometric data suggesting that this approach is suitable to study airway structure in disease. 2) Using novel experiments and computer models, we studied pulmonary emphysema which is caused by cigarette smoking. In emphysema, the elastic protein fibers of the tissue are actively remodeled by lung cells due to the chemicals present in smoke. We measured the mechanical properties of tissue sheets from normal and emphysematous lungs and imaged its structure which appears as a heterogeneous hexagonal network of fibers. We found evidence that during uniaxial stretching, the collagen and elastin fibers in emphysematous tissue can fail at a critical stress generating holes of various sizes (h). We developed network models of the failure process. When the failure is governed by mechanical forces, the distribution n(h) of h is a power law which compares well with Computed Tomographic images of patients. These results suggest that the progressive nature of emphysema may be due to a complex breakdown process initiated by chemicals in the smoke and maintained by mechanical failure of the remodeled fiber network.
Mechanical-statistical modelling in ecology: from outbreak detections to pest dynamics
Jyväskylä, University of
and global warming. For most natural populations, such as pest populations, large-scale and long-term surveys in population densities caused by environmental variation like global warming. For producing such knowledgeMechanical-statistical modelling in ecology: from outbreak detections to pest dynamics S
Shiraishi, Hideaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Knake, Susanne; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Sudo, Akira; Asahina, Naoko; Egawa, Kiyoshi; Hatanaka, Keisaku; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Saitoh, Shinji; Grant, P Ellen; Dale, Anders M; Halgren, Eric
2005-04-01
Our current purpose is to evaluate the applicability of dynamic statistical parametric mapping, a novel method for localizing epileptiform activity recorded with magnetoencephalography in patients with epilepsy. We report four pediatric patients with focal epilepsies. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected with a 306-channel whole-head helmet-shaped sensor array. We calculated equivalent current dipoles and dynamic statistical parametric mapping movies of the interictal epileptiform discharges that were based in the minimum-L2 norm estimate, minimizing the square sum of the dipole element amplitudes. The dynamic statistical parametric mapping analysis of interictal epileptiform discharges can demonstrate the rapid change and propagation of interical epileptiform discharges. According to these findings, specific epileptogenic lesion-focal cortical dysplasia could be found and patients could be operated on successfully. The presurgical analysis of interictal epileptiform discharges using dynamic statistical parametric mapping seems to be promising in patients with a possible underlying focal cortical dysplasia and might help to guide the placement of invasive electrodes. PMID:15921240
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schepen, Andrew; Wang, Q. J.
2015-03-01
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology produces statistical and dynamic seasonal streamflow forecasts. The statistical and dynamic forecasts are similarly reliable in ensemble spread; however, skill varies by catchment and season. Therefore, it may be possible to optimize forecasting skill by weighting and merging statistical and dynamic forecasts. Two model averaging methods are evaluated for merging forecasts for 12 locations. The first method, Bayesian model averaging (BMA), applies averaging to forecast probability densities (and thus cumulative probabilities) for a given forecast variable value. The second method, quantile model averaging (QMA), applies averaging to forecast variable values (quantiles) for a given cumulative probability (quantile fraction). BMA and QMA are found to perform similarly in terms of overall skill scores and reliability in ensemble spread. Both methods improve forecast skill across catchments and seasons. However, when both the statistical and dynamical forecasting approaches are skillful but produce, on special occasions, very different event forecasts, the BMA merged forecasts for these events can have unusually wide and bimodal distributions. In contrast, the distributions of the QMA merged forecasts for these events are narrower, unimodal and generally more smoothly shaped, and are potentially more easily communicated to and interpreted by the forecast users. Such special occasions are found to be rare. However, every forecast counts in an operational service, and therefore the occasional contrast in merged forecasts between the two methods may be more significant than the indifference shown by the overall skill and reliability performance.
Dynamic Graphics in Excel for Teaching Statistics: Understanding the Probability Density Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coll-Serrano, Vicente; Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Alvarez-Jareno, Jose A.
2011-01-01
In this article, we show a dynamic graphic in Excel that is used to introduce an important concept in our subject, Statistics I: the probability density function. This interactive graphic seeks to facilitate conceptual understanding of the main aspects analysed by the learners.
On the Convergence of Protein Structure and Dynamics. Statistical Learning Studies of
Passerini, Andrea
in protein structure prediction consists of the integration of alternative techniques and sources that the goal of reaching reliable protein structure prediction requires new, alternative sources of informationOn the Convergence of Protein Structure and Dynamics. Statistical Learning Studies of Pseudo
A new statistical dynamic analysis of ecological niches for China’s financial centres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Huibin; Xia, Qiongqiong; Ma, Xuan; Chai, Lihe
2014-02-01
This study, undertaken from the perspective of statistical dynamics, proposes the treatment of financial centres as an ecosystem, creates a multidimensional financial centre niche (FC-niche) under given generalised entropy and constraints, and interprets the evolutionary process of an FC-niche with dynamic equations obtained from the maximum generalised entropy principle (MGEP). To solve these dynamic equations, a self-organised feature map (SOM) is designed. Finally, the values and evolutionary rules of FC-niches in China’s 29 major cities are simulated as a case study.
a Statistical Dynamic Approach to Structural Evolution of Complex Capital Market Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Xiao; Chai, Li H.
As an important part of modern financial systems, capital market has played a crucial role on diverse social resource allocations and economical exchanges. Beyond traditional models and/or theories based on neoclassical economics, considering capital markets as typical complex open systems, this paper attempts to develop a new approach to overcome some shortcomings of the available researches. By defining the generalized entropy of capital market systems, a theoretical model and nonlinear dynamic equation on the operations of capital market are proposed from statistical dynamic perspectives. The US security market from 1995 to 2001 is then simulated and analyzed as a typical case. Some instructive results are discussed and summarized.
The applications of Complexity Theory and Tsallis Non-extensive Statistics at Solar Plasma Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlos, George
2015-04-01
As the solar plasma lives far from equilibrium it is an excellent laboratory for testing complexity theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this study, we present the highlights of complexity theory and Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics as concerns their applications at solar plasma dynamics, especially at sunspot, solar flare and solar wind phenomena. Generally, when a physical system is driven far from equilibrium states some novel characteristics can be observed related to the nonlinear character of dynamics. Generally, the nonlinearity in space plasma dynamics can generate intermittent turbulence with the typical characteristics of the anomalous diffusion process and strange topologies of stochastic space plasma fields (velocity and magnetic fields) caused by the strange dynamics and strange kinetics (Zaslavsky, 2002). In addition, according to Zelenyi and Milovanov (2004) the complex character of the space plasma system includes the existence of non-equilibrium (quasi)-stationary states (NESS) having the topology of a percolating fractal set. The stabilization of a system near the NESS is perceived as a transition into a turbulent state determined by self-organization processes. The long-range correlation effects manifest themselves as a strange non-Gaussian behavior of kinetic processes near the NESS plasma state. The complex character of space plasma can also be described by the non-extensive statistical thermodynamics pioneered by Tsallis, which offers a consistent and effective theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Boltzmann - Gibbs (BG) entropy, to describe far from equilibrium nonlinear complex dynamics (Tsallis, 2009). In a series of recent papers, the hypothesis of Tsallis non-extensive statistics in magnetosphere, sunspot dynamics, solar flares, solar wind and space plasma in general, was tested and verified (Karakatsanis et al., 2013; Pavlos et al., 2014; 2015). Our study includes the analysis of solar plasma time series at three cases: sunspot index, solar flare and solar wind data. The non-linear analysis of the sunspot index is embedded in the non-extensive statistical theory of Tsallis (1988; 2004; 2009). The q-triplet of Tsallis, as well as the correlation dimension and the Lyapunov exponent spectrum were estimated for the SVD components of the sunspot index timeseries. Also the multifractal scaling exponent spectrum f(a), the generalized Renyi dimension spectrum D(q) and the spectrum J(p) of the structure function exponents were estimated experimentally and theoretically by using the q-entropy principle included in Tsallis non-extensive statistical theory, following Arimitsu and Arimitsu (2000, 2001). Our analysis showed clearly the following: (a) a phase transition process in the solar dynamics from high dimensional non-Gaussian SOC state to a low dimensional non-Gaussian chaotic state, (b) strong intermittent solar turbulence and anomalous (multifractal) diffusion solar process, which is strengthened as the solar dynamics makes a phase transition to low dimensional chaos in accordance to Ruzmaikin, Zelenyi and Milovanov's studies (Zelenyi and Milovanov, 1991; Milovanov and Zelenyi, 1993; Ruzmakin et al., 1996), (c) faithful agreement of Tsallis non-equilibrium statistical theory with the experimental estimations of: (i) non-Gaussian probability distribution function P(x), (ii) multifractal scaling exponent spectrum f(a) and generalized Renyi dimension spectrum Dq, (iii) exponent spectrum J(p) of the structure functions estimated for the sunspot index and its underlying non equilibrium solar dynamics. Also, the q-triplet of Tsallis as well as the correlation dimension and the Lyapunov exponent spectrum were estimated for the singular value decomposition (SVD) components of the solar flares timeseries. Also the multifractal scaling exponent spectrum f(a), the generalized Renyi dimension spectrum D(q) and the spectrum J(p) of the structure function exponents were estimated experimentally and theoretically by using the q-entropy principle included in Tsallis non-ext
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hao; Lu, Bo; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li
2015-09-01
A previously developed damage identification strategy, named Pseudo-Excitation (PE), was enhanced using a statistical processing approach. In terms of the local dynamic equilibrium of the structural component under inspection, the distribution of its vibration displacements, which are of necessity to construct the damage index in the PE, was re-defined using sole dynamic strains based on the statistical method. On top of those advantages inheriting from the original PE compared with traditional vibration-based damage detection including the independence of baseline signals and pre-developed benchmark structures, the enhanced PE (EPE) possesses improved immunity to the interference of measurement noise. Moreover, the EPE can facilitate practical implementation of online structural health monitoring, benefiting from the use of sole strain information. Proof-of-concept numerical study was conducted to examine the feasibility and accuracy of the EPE, and the effectiveness of the proposed statistical enhancement in re-constructing the vibration displacements was evaluated under noise influence; experimental validation was followed up by characterizing multi-cracks in a beam-like structure, in which the dynamic strains were measured using Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensors. For comparison, the original PE, the Gapped Smoothing Method (GSM), and the EPE were respectively used to evaluate the cracks. It was observed from the damage identification results that both the GSM and EPE were able to achieve higher identification accuracy than the original PE, and the robustness of the EPE in damage identification was proven to be superior than that of the GSM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradkhani, Hamid
2015-04-01
Drought forecasting is vital for resource management and planning. Both societal and agricultural requirements for water weigh heavily on the natural environment, which may become scarce in the event of drought. Although drought forecasts are an important tool for managing water in hydrologic systems, these forecasts are plagued by uncertainties, owing to the complexities of water dynamics and the spatial heterogeneities of pertinent variables. Due to these uncertainties, it is necessary to frame forecasts in a probabilistic manner. Here we present a statistical-dynamical probabilistic drought forecast framework within Bayesian networks. The statistical forecast model applies a family of multivariate distribution functions to forecast future drought conditions given the drought status in the past. The advantage of the statistical forecast model is that it develops conditional probabilities of a given forecast variable, and returns the highest probable forecast along with an assessment of the uncertainty around that value. The dynamical model relies on data assimilation to characterize the initial land surface condition uncertainty which correspondingly reflect on drought forecast. In addition, the recovery of drought will be examined. From these forecasts, it is found that drought recovery is a longer process than suggested in recent literature. Drought in land surface variables (snow, soil moisture) is shown to be persistent up to a year in certain locations, depending on the intensity of the drought. Location within the basin appears to be a driving factor in the ability of the land surface to recover from drought, allowing for differentiation between drought prone and drought resistant regions.
Gaffney, Inez M.
1973-01-01
CAN/SDI is Canada's national Selective Dissemination of Information Service offering a choice of nine data bases to its scientific and technical community. The system is based on central processing at the National Science Library combined with the utilization of decentralized expertise and resources for profile formulation and user education. Its greatest strength lies in its wide interdisciplinary quality. The major advantage of centralized processing of many data bases is that Canadians need learn only one method of profile formulation to access many files. A breakdown of services used confirms that a single tape service does not cover all the information requirements of most users. On the average each profile accesses approximately 1.5 data bases. Constant subscriber growth and a low cancellation rate indicate that CAN/SDI is and will continue to be an important element in Canada's information system. PMID:4740714
G. P. Pavlos
2012-03-18
In this study it is shown that the Tsallis q-extended statistical theory was found efficient to describe faithfully the space plasmas statistics in every case, from the planetic magnetospheres, to solar corona and solar dynamics, as well as cosmic rays and cosmic stars. Moreover, new theoretical concepts and experimental results are presented concerning the space plasma complex dynamics. The significant message of theoretical and experimental issues presented here is the necessity of generalized statistical and dynamical theory for understanding the non-equilibrium dynamics and the complex character of space plasmas. The q-extension of statistics coupled to the fractal extension of dynamics are the novel and appropriate theoretical framework for the description of space plasma complexity.
OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes
2014-05-01
The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone wishing to discover the availability of global geological web services and has new functionality to view and use such services including multiple projection support. KEYWORDS : OneGeology; GeoSciML V 3.2; Data exchange; Portal; INSPIRE; Standards; OGC; Interoperability; GeoScience information; WMS; WFS; Cookbook.
The non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of a simple geophysical fluid dynamics model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verkley, Wim; Severijns, Camiel
2014-05-01
Lorenz [1] has devised a dynamical system that has proved to be very useful as a benchmark system in geophysical fluid dynamics. The system in its simplest form consists of a periodic array of variables that can be associated with an atmospheric field on a latitude circle. The system is driven by a constant forcing, is damped by linear friction and has a simple advection term that causes the model to behave chaotically if the forcing is large enough. Our aim is to predict the statistics of Lorenz' model on the basis of a given average value of its total energy - obtained from a numerical integration - and the assumption of statistical stationarity. Our method is the principle of maximum entropy [2] which in this case reads: the information entropy of the system's probability density function shall be maximal under the constraints of normalization, a given value of the average total energy and statistical stationarity. Statistical stationarity is incorporated approximately by using `stationarity constraints', i.e., by requiring that the average first and possibly higher-order time-derivatives of the energy are zero in the maximization of entropy. The analysis [3] reveals that, if the first stationarity constraint is used, the resulting probability density function rather accurately reproduces the statistics of the individual variables. If the second stationarity constraint is used as well, the correlations between the variables are also reproduced quite adequately. The method can be generalized straightforwardly and holds the promise of a viable non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of the forced-dissipative systems of geophysical fluid dynamics. [1] E.N. Lorenz, 1996: Predictability - A problem partly solved, in Proc. Seminar on Predictability (ECMWF, Reading, Berkshire, UK), Vol. 1, pp. 1-18. [2] E.T. Jaynes, 2003: Probability Theory - The Logic of Science (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). [3] W.T.M. Verkley and C.A. Severijns, 2014: The maximum entropy principle applied to a dynamical system proposed by Lorenz, Eur. Phys. J. B, 87:7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2013-40681-2 (open access).
Alternative to the Well-known Statistical Dynamics of Linear Systems
V. N. Tibabishev
2013-01-22
The problem of determining the mathematical model of the dynamics of multi-dimensional control systems in the presence of noise under the condition that the correlation functions cannot be found. Known statistical dynamics of linear systems is a more effective alternative. Background information is presented in the form of individual implementations nonergodic stochastic processes. Such a realization is deterministic functions. We introduce the concept of systems of sets of signals for the components on the semiring. For the system of sets of linearly dependent and linearly independent of the measured signals of a certain frequency properties. Frequency method is designed to deal with the noise on the set of deterministic functions. Example is the determination of the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft in accordance with the data obtained in one automatic landing.
Development of a current collection loss management system for SDI homopolar power supplies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, D. W.
1991-04-01
High speed, high power density current collection systems have been identified as an enabling technology required to construct homopolar power supplies to meet SDI missions. This work is part of a three-year effort directed towards the analysis, experimental verification, and prototype construction of a current collection system designed to operate continuously at 2 kA/sq cm, at a rubbing speed of 200 m/s, and with acceptable losses in a space environment. To date, no system has achieved these conditions simultaneously. This is the final report covering the three year period of performance on DOE contract AC03-86SF-16518. Major areas covered include design, construction and operation of a cryogenically cooled brush test rig, design and construction of a high speed brush test rig, optimization study for homopolar machines, loss analysis of the current collection system, and an application study which defines the air-core homopolar construction necessary to achieve the goal of 80 kW/kg generator power density.
A review of gas-cooled reactor concepts for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) applications
Marshall, A.C.
1989-08-01
We have completed a review of multimegawatt gas-cooled reactor concepts proposed for SDI applications. Our study concluded that the principal reason for considering gas-cooled reactors for burst-mode operation was the potential for significant system mass savings over closed-cycle systems if open-cycle gas-cooled operation (effluent exhausted to space) is acceptable. The principal reason for considering gas-cooled reactors for steady-state operation is that they may represent a lower technology risk than other approaches. In the review, nine gas-cooled reactor concepts were compared to identify the most promising. For burst-mode operation, the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor concept emerged as a strong first choice since its performance exceeds the anticipated operational requirements and the technology has been demonstrated and is retrievable. Although the NERVA derivative concepts were determined to be the lead candidates for the Multimegawatt Steady-State (MMWSS) mode as well, their lead over the other candidates is not as great as for the burst mode. 90 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.
Development of a current collection loss management system for SDI homopolar power supplies
Hannan, W.F. III.
1987-01-01
High speed, high power density current collection systems have been identified as an enabling technology required to construct homopolar power supplies to meet SDI missions. This work is part of a three-year effort directed towards the analysis, experimental verification, and prototype construction of a current collection system designed to operated continuously at 2 kA/cm{sup 2}, at a rubbing speed of 200 m/s, and with acceptable losses in a space environment. To data, no system has achieved these conditions simultaneously. This is the annual report covering the first year period of performance on DOE contract DE-AC03-86SF16518. Major areas covered include design and construction of a cryogenically-cooled brush test rig, design of a high speed brush test rig, loss analysis of the current collection system, and an application study which defines the air core homopolar construction necessary to achieve the goal of 80--90 kW/kg generator power density. 15 figs.
Development of a current collection loss management system for SDI homopolar power supplies
Brown, D.W.
1989-01-01
High speed, high power density current collection systems have been identified as an enabling technology required to construct homopolar power supplies to meet SDI missions. This work is part of a three-year effort directed towards the analysis, experimental verification, and prototype construction of a current collection system designed to operate continuously at 2 kA/cm{sup 2}, at a rubbing speed of 200 m/s, and with acceptable losses in a space environment. To data, no system has achieved these conditions simultaneously. This is the annual report covering the second year period of performance on DOE contract DE-AC03-86SF16518. Major areas covered include design, construction and operation of a cryogenically cooled brush test rig, design and construction of a high speed brush test rig, optimization study for homopolar machines, loss analysis of the current collection system, and an application study which defines the air-core homopolar construction necessary to achieve the goal of 80--90 kW/kg generator power density. 17 figs., 2 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miksovsky, J.; Huth, R.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.; Stepanek, P.
2009-12-01
To bridge the resolution gap between the outputs of global climate models (GCMs) and finer-scale data needed for studies of the climate change impacts, two approaches are widely used: dynamical downscaling, based on application of regional climate models (RCMs) embedded into the domain of the GCM simulation, and statistical downscaling (SDS), using empirical transfer functions between the large-scale data generated by the GCM and local measurements. In our contribution, we compare the performance of different variants of both techniques for the region of Central Europe. The dynamical downscaling is represented by the outputs of two regional models run in the 10 km horizontal grid, ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (co-developed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Meteo-France) and RegCM3 (developed by the Abdus Salam Centre for Theoretical Physics). The applied statistical methods were based on multiple linear regression, as well as on several of its nonlinear alternatives, including techniques employing artificial neural networks. Validation of the downscaling outputs was carried out using measured data, gathered from weather stations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary for the end of the 20th century; series of daily values of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity were analyzed. None of the regional models or statistical downscaling techniques could be identified as the universally best one. For instance, while most statistical methods misrepresented the shape of the statistical distribution of the target variables (especially in the more challenging cases such as estimation of daily precipitation), RCM-generated data often suffered from severe biases. It is also shown that further enhancement of the simulated fields of climate variables can be achieved through a combination of dynamical downscaling and statistical postprocessing. This can not only be used to reduce biases and other systematic flaws in the generated time series, but also to further localize the RCM outputs beyond the resolution of their original grid. The resulting data then provide a suitable input for subsequent studies of the local climate and its change in the target region.
Dynamical and statistical description of multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions
Lihua Mao; Ning Wang; Li Ou
2015-09-11
To explore the roles of dynamical model and statistical model in the description of multifragmentation in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the fragments charge distributions of $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au at 35 MeV/u are analyzed by using the hybrid model of improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model plus the statistical model GEMINI. We find that, the ImQMD model can well describe the charge distributions of fragments produced in central and semi-central collisions. But for the peripheral collisions of Au+Au at 35 MeV/u, the statistical model is required at the end of the ImQMD simulations for the better description of the charge distribution of fragments. By using the hybrid model of ImQMD+GEMINI, the fragment charge distribution of Au+Au at 35 MeV/u can be reproduced reasonably well. The time evolution of the excitation energies of primary fragments is simultaneously investigated.
Statistical properties of energy levels in quantum reaction dynamics: a case study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peroncelli, Leonardo; Grossi, Gaia; Aquilanti, Vincenzo
2004-01-01
An account is presented of recent approaches to the characterization of the statistical properties of the energy level sequences of interest in quantum reaction dynamics. The case study of the quantum eigenvalues of the reactive process F+ H2? HF+ H as a function of the hyperradius (a measure of the total inertia of the three-body system) is illustrated. Previous work is extended by examining different angular momentum projection values for two recently proposed potential energy surfaces. We study spectral properties such as the standard deviation ? of the level spacings and the shape of the nearest-neighbour spacing distribution (NNSD), evaluating the q parameters of the Brody and Berry-Robnik distributions, which are alternative interpolations between the Poisson and the Wigner distributions. We also apply statistical tools, such as the ?3(L) of Dyson and Mehta) and the correlation coefficient C(r). This analysis, which is typical of current investigations on the topic of 'quantum chaos', gives insight into the nature of the reactive event and may be useful for the development of statistical theories in molecular dynamics.
Heterogeneous Structure of Stem Cells Dynamics: Statistical Models and Quantitative Predictions
Bogdan, Paul; Deasy, Bridget M.; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Roehrs, Timo; Marculescu, Radu
2014-01-01
Understanding stem cell (SC) population dynamics is essential for developing models that can be used in basic science and medicine, to aid in predicting cells fate. These models can be used as tools e.g. in studying patho-physiological events at the cellular and tissue level, predicting (mal)functions along the developmental course, and personalized regenerative medicine. Using time-lapsed imaging and statistical tools, we show that the dynamics of SC populations involve a heterogeneous structure consisting of multiple sub-population behaviors. Using non-Gaussian statistical approaches, we identify the co-existence of fast and slow dividing subpopulations, and quiescent cells, in stem cells from three species. The mathematical analysis also shows that, instead of developing independently, SCs exhibit a time-dependent fractal behavior as they interact with each other through molecular and tactile signals. These findings suggest that more sophisticated models of SC dynamics should view SC populations as a collective and avoid the simplifying homogeneity assumption by accounting for the presence of more than one dividing sub-population, and their multi-fractal characteristics. PMID:24769917
Heterogeneous Structure of Stem Cells Dynamics: Statistical Models and Quantitative Predictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdan, Paul; Deasy, Bridget M.; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Roehrs, Timo; Marculescu, Radu
2014-04-01
Understanding stem cell (SC) population dynamics is essential for developing models that can be used in basic science and medicine, to aid in predicting cells fate. These models can be used as tools e.g. in studying patho-physiological events at the cellular and tissue level, predicting (mal)functions along the developmental course, and personalized regenerative medicine. Using time-lapsed imaging and statistical tools, we show that the dynamics of SC populations involve a heterogeneous structure consisting of multiple sub-population behaviors. Using non-Gaussian statistical approaches, we identify the co-existence of fast and slow dividing subpopulations, and quiescent cells, in stem cells from three species. The mathematical analysis also shows that, instead of developing independently, SCs exhibit a time-dependent fractal behavior as they interact with each other through molecular and tactile signals. These findings suggest that more sophisticated models of SC dynamics should view SC populations as a collective and avoid the simplifying homogeneity assumption by accounting for the presence of more than one dividing sub-population, and their multi-fractal characteristics.
Cluster Statistics and Quasisoliton Dynamics in Microscopic Car-following Models
Bo Yang; Xihua Xu; John Z. F. Pang; Christopher Monterola
2014-08-20
Using the optimal velocity (OV) model as an example, we show that in the non-linear regime there is an emergent quantity that gives the extremum headways in the cluster formation, as well as the coexistence curve separating the absolute stable phase from the metastable phase. This emergent quantity is independent of the density of the traffic lane, and determines an intrinsic scale that characterizes the dynamics of localized quasisoliton structures given by the time derivative of the headways. The intrinsic scale is analogous to the "charge" of quasisolitons that controls the strength of interaction between multiple clusters, leading to non-trivial cluster statistics from random perturbations to initial uniform traffic. The cluster statistics depend both on the charge and the density of the traffic lane; the relationship is qualitatively universal for general car-following models.
Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach
Turitsyn, Konstantin S
2010-01-01
We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.
Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation.
Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman
2013-10-21
In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (~15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study, was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical (18)F-deoxyglucose patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ~30 min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole-body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection. PMID:24080994
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Peterson, Lee; Levine, Marie B.
2014-08-01
We have combined our Excel-based coronagraph dynamics error budget spreadsheets with DAKOTA scripts to perform statistical analyses of the predicted dark-hole contrast. Whereas in the past we have reported the expected contrast level for an input set of allocated parameters, we now generate confidence intervals for the predicted contrast. Further, we explore the sensitivity to individual or groups of parameters and model uncertainty factors through aleatory-epistemic simulations based on a surrogate model fitted to the error budget. We show example results for a generic high-contrast coronagraph.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittal, A. K.; Singh, U. P.; Tiwari, A.; Dwivedi, S.; Joshi, M. K.; Tripathi, K. C.
2015-08-01
In a nonlinear, chaotic dynamical system, there are typically regions in which an infinitesimal error grows and regions in which it decays. If the observer does not know the evolution law, recourse is taken to non-dynamical methods, which use the past values of the observables to fit an approximate evolution law. This fitting can be local, based on past values in the neighborhood of the present value as in the case of Farmer-Sidorowich (FS) technique, or it can be global, based on all past values, as in the case of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Short-term predictions are then made using the approximate local or global mapping so obtained. In this study, the dependence of statistical prediction errors on dynamical error growth rates is explored using the Lorenz-63 model. The regions of dynamical error growth and error decay are identified by the bred vector growth rates or by the eigenvalues of the symmetric Jacobian matrix. The prediction errors by the FS and ANN techniques in these two regions are compared. It is found that the prediction errors by statistical methods do not depend on the dynamical error growth rate. This suggests that errors using statistical methods are independent of the dynamical situation and the statistical methods may be potentially advantageous over dynamical methods in regions of low dynamical predictability.
Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes.
Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M
2015-08-01
Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O?N)] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems--age-size relationships and species extinction time--in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics. PMID:26382447
Neutral dynamics with environmental noise: Age-size statistics and species lifetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessler, David; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Shnerb, Nadav M.
2015-08-01
Neutral dynamics, where taxa are assumed to be demographically equivalent and their abundance is governed solely by the stochasticity of the underlying birth-death process, has proved itself as an important minimal model that accounts for many empirical datasets in genetics and ecology. However, the restriction of the model to demographic [O (?{N }) ] noise yields relatively slow dynamics that appears to be in conflict with both short-term and long-term characteristics of the observed systems. Here we analyze two of these problems—age-size relationships and species extinction time—in the framework of a neutral theory with both demographic and environmental stochasticity. It turns out that environmentally induced variations of the demographic rates control the long-term dynamics and modify dramatically the predictions of the neutral theory with demographic noise only, yielding much better agreement with empirical data. We consider two prototypes of "zero mean" environmental noise, one which is balanced with regard to the arithmetic abundance, another balanced in the logarithmic (fitness) space, study their species lifetime statistics, and discuss their relevance to realistic models of community dynamics.
Argonne CW Linac (ACWL)—legacy from SDI and opportunities for the future
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMichael, G. E.; Yule, T. J.
1995-09-01
The former Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) invested significant resources over a 6-year period to develop and build an accelerator to demonstrate the launching of a cw beam with characteristics suitable for a space-based Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) system. This accelerator, the CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator, was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D- to 7.5 MeV. A considerable amount of hardware was constructed and installed in the Argonne-based facility, and major performance milestones were achieved before program funding from the Department of Defense ended in October 1993. Existing assets have been turned over to Argonne. Assets include a fully functional 200 kV cw D- injector, a cw RFQ that has been tuned, leak checked and aligned, beam lines and a high-power beam stop, all installed in a shielded vault with appropriate safety and interlock systems. In addition, there are two high power (1 MW) cw rf amplifiers and all the ancillary power, cooling and control systems required for a high-power accelerator system. The SDI mission required that the CWDD accelerator structures operate at cryogenic temperatures (26K), a requirement that placed severe limitations on operating period (CWDD would have provided 20 seconds of cw beam every 90 minutes). However, the accelerator structures were designed for full-power rf operation with water cooling and ACWL (Argonne Continuous Wave Linac), the new name for CWDD in its water-cooled, positive-ion configuration, will be able to operate continuously. Project status and achievements will be reviewed. Preliminary design of a proton conversion for the RFQ, and other proposals for turning ACWL into a testbed for cw-linac engineering, will be discussed.
Velocity statistics of dynamic spinners in out-of-equilibrium magnetic suspensions.
Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S
2015-08-14
We report on the velocity statistics of an out-of-equilibrium magnetic suspension in a spinner phase confined at a liquid interface. The suspension is energized by a uniaxial alternating magnetic field applied parallel to the interface. In a certain range of the magnetic field parameters the system spontaneously undergoes a transition into a dynamic spinner phase (ensemble of hydrodynamically coupled magnetic micro-rotors) comprised of two subsystems: self-assembled spinning chains and a gas of rotating single particles. Both subsystems coexist in a dynamic equilibrium via continuous exchange of the particles. Spinners excite surface flows that significantly increase particle velocity correlations in the system. For both subsystems the velocity distributions are strongly non-Maxwellian with nearly exponential high-energy tails, P(v) ? exp(-|v/v0|). The kurtosis, the measure of the deviation from the Gaussian statistics, is influenced by the frequency of the external magnetic field. We show that in the single-particle gas the dissipation is mostly collisional, whereas the viscous damping dominates over collisional dissipation for the self-assembled spinners. The dissipation increases with the frequency of the applied magnetic field. Our results provide insights into non-trivial dissipation mechanisms determining self-assembly processes in out-of-equilibrium magnetic suspensions. PMID:26133687
A Statistical Approach for the Concurrent Coupling of Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saether, E.; Yamakov, V.; Glaessgen, E.
2007-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) methods are opening new opportunities for simulating the fundamental processes of material behavior at the atomistic level. However, increasing the size of the MD domain quickly presents intractable computational demands. A robust approach to surmount this computational limitation has been to unite continuum modeling procedures such as the finite element method (FEM) with MD analyses thereby reducing the region of atomic scale refinement. The challenging problem is to seamlessly connect the two inherently different simulation techniques at their interface. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the typical boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method uses statistical averaging of the atomistic MD domain to provide displacement interface boundary conditions to the surrounding continuum FEM region, which, in return, generates interface reaction forces applied as piecewise constant traction boundary conditions to the MD domain. The two systems are computationally disconnected and communicate only through a continuous update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM) as opposed to a direct coupling method where interface atoms and FEM nodes are individually related. The methodology is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model down to atomic scales, and permits arbitrary temperatures to be applied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kundu, Prasun K.; Marks, David A.; Travis, James E.
2014-01-01
A statistical method is developed for comparing precipitation data from measurements performed by (hypothetical) perfect instruments using a recently developed stochastic model of rainfall. The stochastic dynamical equation that describes the underlying random process naturally leads to a consistent spectrum and incorporates the subtle interdependence of the length and time scales governing the statistical fluctuations of the rain rate field. The main attraction of such a model is that the complete set of second-moment statistics embodied in the space-time covariance of both the area-averaged instantaneous rain rate (represented by radar or passive microwave data near the ground) and the time-averaged point rain rate (represented by rain gauge data) can be expressed as suitable integrals over the spectrum. With the help of this framework, the model allows one to carry out a faithful intercomparison of precipitation estimates derived from radar or passive microwave remote sensing over an area with direct observations by rain gauges or disdrometers, assuming all the measuring instruments to be ideal. A standard linear regression analysis approach to the intercomparison of radar and gauge rain rate estimates is formulated in terms of the appropriate observed and model-derived quantities. We also estimate the relative sampling error as well as separate absolute sampling errors for radar and gauge measurements of rainfall from the spectral model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellström, Cecilia; Chen, Deliang
2003-11-01
A prerequisite of a successful statistical downscaling is that large-scale predictors simulated by the General Circulation Model (GCM) must be realistic. It is assumed here that features smaller than the GCM resolution are important in determining the realism of the large-scale predictors. It is tested whether a three-step method can improve conventional one-step statistical downscaling. The method uses predictors that are upscaled from a dynamical downscaling instead of predictors taken directly from a GCM simulation. The method is applied to downscaling of monthly precipitation in Sweden. The statistical model used is a multiple regression model that uses indices of large-scale atmospheric circulation and 850-hPa specific humidity as predictors. Data from two GCMs (HadCM2 and ECHAM4) and two RCM experiments of the Rossby Centre model (RCA1) driven by the GCMs are used. It is found that upscaled RCA1 predictors capture the seasonal cycle better than those from the GCMs, and hence increase the reliability of the downscaled precipitation. However, there are only slight improvements in the simulation of the seasonal cycle of downscaled precipitation. Due to the cost of the method and the limited improvements in the downscaling results, the three-step method is not justified to replace the one-step method for downscaling of Swedish precipitation.
Avalappampatty Sivasamy, Aneetha; Sundan, Bose
2015-01-01
The ever expanding communication requirements in today's world demand extensive and efficient network systems with equally efficient and reliable security features integrated for safe, confident, and secured communication and data transfer. Providing effective security protocols for any network environment, therefore, assumes paramount importance. Attempts are made continuously for designing more efficient and dynamic network intrusion detection models. In this work, an approach based on Hotelling's T2 method, a multivariate statistical analysis technique, has been employed for intrusion detection, especially in network environments. Components such as preprocessing, multivariate statistical analysis, and attack detection have been incorporated in developing the multivariate Hotelling's T2 statistical model and necessary profiles have been generated based on the T-square distance metrics. With a threshold range obtained using the central limit theorem, observed traffic profiles have been classified either as normal or attack types. Performance of the model, as evaluated through validation and testing using KDD Cup'99 dataset, has shown very high detection rates for all classes with low false alarm rates. Accuracy of the model presented in this work, in comparison with the existing models, has been found to be much better. PMID:26357668
Sivasamy, Aneetha Avalappampatty; Sundan, Bose
2015-01-01
The ever expanding communication requirements in today's world demand extensive and efficient network systems with equally efficient and reliable security features integrated for safe, confident, and secured communication and data transfer. Providing effective security protocols for any network environment, therefore, assumes paramount importance. Attempts are made continuously for designing more efficient and dynamic network intrusion detection models. In this work, an approach based on Hotelling's T(2) method, a multivariate statistical analysis technique, has been employed for intrusion detection, especially in network environments. Components such as preprocessing, multivariate statistical analysis, and attack detection have been incorporated in developing the multivariate Hotelling's T(2) statistical model and necessary profiles have been generated based on the T-square distance metrics. With a threshold range obtained using the central limit theorem, observed traffic profiles have been classified either as normal or attack types. Performance of the model, as evaluated through validation and testing using KDD Cup'99 dataset, has shown very high detection rates for all classes with low false alarm rates. Accuracy of the model presented in this work, in comparison with the existing models, has been found to be much better. PMID:26357668
Extreme-values statistics and dynamics of water at protein interfaces.
Korb, Jean-Pierre; Goddard, Yanina; Pajski, Jason; Diakova, Galina; Bryant, Robert G
2011-11-10
Immobilized proteins present a unique interface with water. The water translational diffusive motions affect the high-frequency dynamics and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation as with all surfaces; however, rare binding sites for water in protein systems add very low-frequency components to the dynamics spectrum. Water binding sites in protein systems are not identical, thus distributions of free energies and consequent dynamics are expected. (2)H(2)O spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements as a function of magnetic field strength characterize the local rotational fluctuations for protein-bound water molecules. The measurements are sensitive to dynamics down to the kilohertz range. To account for the data, we show that the extreme-values statistics of rare events, i.e., water dynamics in rare binding sites, implies an exponential distribution of activation energies for the strongest binding events. In turn, for an activated dynamical process, the exponential energy distribution leads to a Pareto distribution for the reorientational correlation times and a power law in the Larmor frequency for the (2)H(2)O spin-lattice relaxation rate constants at low field strengths. The most strongly held water molecules escape from rare binding sites in times on the order of microseconds, which interrupts the intramolecular correlations and causes a plateau in the spin-lattice relaxation rate at very low magnetic field strengths. We examine the magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) data using two simple but related models: a protein-bound environment for water characterized by a single potential well and a protein-bound environment characterized by a double potential well where the potential functions for the local motions of the bound-state water are of different depth. This analysis is applied to D(2)O deuterium spin-lattice relaxation on cross-linked albumin and lysozyme, which is dominated by the intramolecular relaxation driven by the dynamical modulation of the nuclear electric quadrupole coupling. We also separate the intramolecular from the intermolecular contribution to water proton spin-lattice relaxation by isotope dilution and show that the intramolecular proton data map onto the deuterium relaxation by a scale factor implied by the relative strength of the quadrupole and dipolar couplings. The temperature and pH dependence of the magnetic relaxation dispersion are complex and accounted for by changing only the weighting factors in a superposition of contributions from single-well and double-well contributions. These experiments show that the reorientational dynamics spectrum for water, in and on a protein, is characterized by a strongly asymmetric distribution with a long-time tail that extends at least to microseconds. PMID:21932852
Statistical dynamic image reconstruction in state-of-the-art high-resolution PET
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmim, Arman; Cheng, Ju-Chieh; Blinder, Stephan; Camborde, Maurie-Laure; Sossi, Vesna
2005-10-01
Modern high-resolution PET is now more than ever in need of scrutiny into the nature and limitations of the imaging modality itself as well as image reconstruction techniques. In this work, we have reviewed, analysed and addressed the following three considerations within the particular context of state-of-the-art dynamic PET imaging: (i) the typical average numbers of events per line-of-response (LOR) are now (much) less than unity, (ii) due to the physical and biological decay of the activity distribution, one requires robust and efficient reconstruction algorithms applicable to a wide range of statistics and (iii) the computational considerations in dynamic imaging are much enhanced (i.e., more frames to be stored and reconstructed). Within the framework of statistical image reconstruction, we have argued theoretically and shown experimentally that the sinogram non-negativity constraint (when using the delayed-coincidence and/or scatter-subtraction techniques) is especially expected to result in an overestimation bias. Subsequently, two schemes are considered: (a) subtraction techniques in which an image non-negativity constraint has been imposed and (b) implementation of random and scatter estimates inside the reconstruction algorithms, thus enabling direct processing of Poisson-distributed prompts. Both techniques are able to remove the aforementioned bias, while the latter, being better conditioned theoretically, is able to exhibit superior noise characteristics. We have also elaborated upon and verified the applicability of the accelerated list-mode image reconstruction method as a powerful solution for accurate, robust and efficient dynamic reconstructions of high-resolution data (as well as a number of additional benefits in the context of state-of-the-art PET).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laugel, Amélie; Menendez, Melisa; Benoit, Michel; Mattarolo, Giovanni; Mendez, Fernando
2013-04-01
Wave climate forecasting is a major issue for numerous marine and coastal related activities, such as offshore industries, flooding risks assessment and wave energy resource evaluation, among others. Generally, there are two main ways to predict the impacts of the climate change on the wave climate at regional scale: the dynamical and the statistical downscaling of GCM (Global Climate Model). In this study, both methods have been applied on the French coast (Atlantic , English Channel and North Sea shoreline) under three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) simulated with the GCM ARPEGE-CLIMAT, from Météo-France (AR4, IPCC). The aim of the work is to characterise the wave climatology of the 21st century and compare the statistical and dynamical methods pointing out advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The statistical downscaling method proposed by the Environmental Hydraulics Institute of Cantabria (Spain) has been applied (Menendez et al., 2011). At a particular location, the sea-state climate (Predictand Y) is defined as a function, Y=f(X), of several atmospheric circulation patterns (Predictor X). Assuming these climate associations between predictor and predictand are stationary, the statistical approach has been used to project the future wave conditions with reference to the GCM. The statistical relations between predictor and predictand have been established over 31 years, from 1979 to 2009. The predictor is built as the 3-days-averaged squared sea level pressure gradient from the hourly CFSR database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, http://cfs.ncep.noaa.gov/cfsr/). The predictand has been extracted from the 31-years hindcast sea-state database ANEMOC-2 performed with the 3G spectral wave model TOMAWAC (Benoit et al., 1996), developed at EDF R&D LNHE and Saint-Venant Laboratory for Hydraulics and forced by the CFSR 10m wind field. Significant wave height, peak period and mean wave direction have been extracted with an hourly-resolution at 110 coastal locations along the French coast. The model, based on the BAJ parameterization of the source terms (Bidlot et al, 2007) was calibrated against ten years of GlobWave altimeter observations (2000-2009) and validated through deep and shallow water buoy observations. The dynamical downscaling method has been performed with the same numerical wave model TOMAWAC used for building ANEMOC-2. Forecast simulations are forced by the 10m wind fields of ARPEGE-CLIMAT (A1B, A2, B1) from 2010 to 2100. The model covers the Atlantic Ocean and uses a spatial resolution along the French and European coast of 10 and 20 km respectively. The results of the model are stored with a time resolution of one hour. References: Benoit M., Marcos F., and F. Becq, (1996). Development of a third generation shallow-water wave model with unstructured spatial meshing. Proc. 25th Int. Conf. on Coastal Eng., (ICCE'1996), Orlando (Florida, USA), pp 465-478. Bidlot J-R, Janssen P. and Adballa S., (2007). A revised formulation of ocean wave dissipation and its model impact, technical memorandum ECMWF n°509. Menendez, M., Mendez, F.J., Izaguirre,C., Camus, P., Espejo, A., Canovas, V., Minguez, R., Losada, I.J., Medina, R. (2011). Statistical Downscaling of Multivariate Wave Climate Using a Weather Type Approach, 12th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting and 3rd Coastal Hazard Symposium, Kona (Hawaii).
Statistical analysis of a new European Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casella, D.; Formenton, M.; Leung, W.-Y.; Mugnai, A.; Sanò, P.; Smith, E. A.; Tripoli, G. J.
2009-04-01
Physically-based algorithms for the retrieval of precipitation from satellite-borne microwave (MW) radiometers, make use of Cloud Radiation Databases (CRD's) that are composed of thousands of detailed microphysical cloud profiles, obtained from Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) simulations, coupled with the corresponding brightness temperatures (TB's), calculated by applying Radiative Transfer (RT) schemes to the CRM outputs. Usually, CRD's are generated on the basis of CRM simulations of past precipitation events and then utilized for the analysis of satellite observations of new events. Notably, retrieval precision and accuracy is strictly related to the appropriate generation of the cloud profile datasets associated to the typologies of the observed precipitation events more than to an a-posteriori statistical treatment of uncertainties. In essence, the retrieval performance can be improved by generating a statistically significant CRD by means of a large number of different CRM simulations representing all precipitation regimes that are of interest for the zone(s) and season(s) under investigation. In addition, it should be noted that despite some reasonable successes with the CRD and the Bayesian approach, there is a considerable reservoir of potential information available that has not been yet tapped. This ancillary information exists in the knowledge of the "synoptic situation" of the considered event and the geographical and temporal location of the event. This knowledge renders some entries into the CRD more relevant than others by virtue of how similar the circumstances of the simulated events are to those of the event for which the database is applied. We can capture this information in the form of "dynamical tags" which can be used to link a satellite-observed event to a subset of the entire CRD using an independent estimate of these tags. To accomplish this, we have expanded the CRD approach so as to include these "dynamical tags" and have developed a new passive MW precipitation retrieval algorithm which employs these tags in addition to the upwelling TB's. We call these the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) approach and the CDRD Algorithm, respectively. Recently, we have generated a CDRD database for Europe using a large amount of CRM simulations of precipitating systems over this area by means of the "University of Wisconsin - Non-hydrostatic Modeling System" (UW-NMS). In our presentation, we will briefly review the main design features of the CDRD approach and will show an analysis of the statistical properties of this highly-populated European CDRD database. Finally, we will compare its radiative characteristics with an equivalent set of MW radiometric measurements from polar satellites.
Choi, Ok Ran; Lim, In Kyoung
2011-04-08
Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.
Collisional statistics and dynamics of two-dimensional hard-disk systems: From fluid to solid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taloni, Alessandro; Meroz, Yasmine; Huerta, Adrián
2015-08-01
We perform extensive MD simulations of two-dimensional systems of hard disks, focusing on the collisional statistical properties. We analyze the distribution functions of velocity, free flight time, and free path length for packing fractions ranging from the fluid to the solid phase. The behaviors of the mean free flight time and path length between subsequent collisions are found to drastically change in the coexistence phase. We show that single-particle dynamical properties behave analogously in collisional and continuous-time representations, exhibiting apparent crossovers between the fluid and the solid phases. We find that, both in collisional and continuous-time representation, the mean-squared displacement, velocity autocorrelation functions, intermediate scattering functions, and self-part of the van Hove function (propagator) closely reproduce the same behavior exhibited by the corresponding quantities in granular media, colloids, and supercooled liquids close to the glass or jamming transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Kirchengast, G.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Norman, R.; Yuan, Y. B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Zhang, K.
2015-08-01
We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based radio occultation (RO) measurements. The new algorithm estimates background and observation error covariance matrices with geographically varying uncertainty profiles and realistic global-mean correlation matrices. The error covariance matrices estimated by the new approach are more accurate and realistic than in simplified existing approaches and can therefore be used in statistical optimization to provide optimal bending angle profiles for high-altitude initialization of the subsequent Abel transform retrieval of refractivity. The new algorithm is evaluated against the existing Wegener Center Occultation Processing System version 5.6 (OPSv5.6) algorithm, using simulated data on two test days from January and July 2008 and real observed CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurements from the complete months of January and July 2008. The following is achieved for the new method's performance compared to OPSv5.6: (1) significant reduction of random errors (standard deviations) of optimized bending angles down to about half of their size or more; (2) reduction of the systematic differences in optimized bending angles for simulated MetOp data; (3) improved retrieval of refractivity and temperature profiles; and (4) realistically estimated global-mean correlation matrices and realistic uncertainty fields for the background and observations. Overall the results indicate high suitability for employing the new dynamic approach in the processing of long-term RO data into a reference climate record, leading to well-characterized and high-quality atmospheric profiles over the entire stratosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Kirchengast, G.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Norman, R.; Yuan, Y. B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Zhang, K.
2015-01-01
We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based radio occultation (RO) measurements. The new algorithm estimates background and observation error covariance matrices with geographically-varying uncertainty profiles and realistic global-mean correlation matrices. The error covariance matrices estimated by the new approach are more accurate and realistic than in simplified existing approaches and can therefore be used in statistical optimization to provide optimal bending angle profiles for high-altitude initialization of the subsequent Abel transform retrieval of refractivity. The new algorithm is evaluated against the existing Wegener Center Occultation Processing System version 5.6 (OPSv5.6) algorithm, using simulated data on two test days from January and July 2008 and real observed CHAMP and COSMIC measurements from the complete months of January and July 2008. The following is achieved for the new method's performance compared to OPSv5.6: (1) significant reduction in random errors (standard deviations) of optimized bending angles down to about two-thirds of their size or more; (2) reduction of the systematic differences in optimized bending angles for simulated MetOp data; (3) improved retrieval of refractivity and temperature profiles; (4) produces realistically estimated global-mean correlation matrices and realistic uncertainty fields for the background and observations. Overall the results indicate high suitability for employing the new dynamic approach in the processing of long-term RO data into a reference climate record, leading to well characterized and high-quality atmospheric profiles over the entire stratosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecomte, Christophe
2013-05-01
This paper concerns the response of uncertain vibro-acoustic and structural dynamic systems. Here, exact expressions are presented for the statistics of systems with a random rank-one component. The expressions are derived using the Sherman-Morrison update formula that gives the exact expression of the disturbed response for any magnitude of the disturbance. It is shown that the probability density function (pdf) of any transfer function is a simple function of the pdf of the disturbance magnitude of the random component. The expressions for the mean, variance, and covariance of any transfer function, and at any frequency, of a random system necessitate non-trivial integrals. Exact, including closed-form, expressions of these integrals are derived in the particular cases of a real or complex normal disturbance magnitude, and qualitative differences between these two cases are highlighted. The theoretical and practical advantages of the theory are discussed and applied to a model of a bladed disk subjected to random damage. The comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrates that the statistics can be evaluated efficiently and precisely. The theory, derived formally in the context of discretised systems, is directly applicable to continuous systems.
Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-01-01
The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799-1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultan, B.; Oettli, P.; Vrac, M.; Baron, C.
2010-12-01
Global circulation models (GCM) are increasingly capable of making relevant predictions of seasonal and long-term climate variability, thus improving prospects of predicting impact on crop yields. This is particularly important for semi-arid West Africa where climate variability and drought threaten food security. Translating GCM outputs into attainable crop yields is difficult because GCM grid boxes are of larger scale than the processes governing yield, involving partitioning of rain among runoff, evaporation, transpiration, drainage and storage at plot scale. It therefore requires the use of downscaling methods. This study analyzes the performance of both dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques in simulating crop yield at local scale. A detailed case study is conducted using historical weather data for Senegal, applied to the crop model SARRAH for simulating several tropical cereals (sorghum, millet, maize) at local scale. This control simulation is used as a benchmark to evaluate a set of Regional Climate Models (RCM) simulations, forced by ERA-Interim, from the ENSEMBLES project and a statistical downscaling method, the CDF-Transform, used to correct biases in RCM outputs. We first evaluate each climate variable that drives the simulated yield in the control simulation (radiation, rainfall, temperatures). We then simulate crop yields with RCM outputs (with or without applying the CDG-Transform) and evaluate the performance of each RCM in regards to crop yield simulations.
[D-value estimation of dynamic spectrum based on the statistical methods].
Lin, Ling; Li, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Meng-Jun; Zhou, Mei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Bao-Ju
2012-11-01
To realize the noninvasive concentration detection of blood components and improve the drawbacks existing in the time-domain single-trial estimation method of "dynamic spectrum" (DS), the D-value estimation method based on the statistical properties was proposed. We extracted the absolute difference between two corresponding values of each wavelength to make up the DS, selected the valid DSs from the DSs of different times by statistic method, and the valid DSs were superimposed and averaged as the final output of the DS. Data collected from 48 volunteers were processed by the D-value estimation and the single-trial estimation, respectively; and then the comparison was carried out between the two methods. Compared with the single-trial estimation, the valid DSs extracted by the D-value estimation were slightly better in denoising; And the average number of the remained valid DSs is improved from 48 to 130; the average of mean square error among the valid DSs is improved from 0.39 to 0.006; the speed of data processing is increased by nearly 20 times. The new method can significantly improve the quality of the extraction of DS. PMID:23387187
Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-01-01
The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tessarotto, Massimo; Cremaschini, Claudio
2014-07-01
In this investigation, exact particular realizations are sought for the microscopic statistical description which is associated with the classical dynamical system (CDS) formed by N identical smooth hard spheres subject to elastic collisions ( S N -CDS). The problem is posed in the framework of the ab initio statistical description of S N -CDS recently developed. It is shown that the Liouville equation associated with SN-CDS admits an exact particular solution for the N-body probability density function (PDF). This is factorized in terms of the i-th particle 1-body PDF (for all i = 1, N) via suitable weighting factors, which are denoted here as particle occupation coefficients. The latter are found to depend functionally only on the 1-body PDFs which are associated with each of the remaining particles belonging to S N -CDS. Furthermore, the 1-body PDF is proved to obey a well-defined statistical equation, referred to here as Master kinetic equation. This is an exact kinetic equation which takes into account the occurrence of configuration-space correlations due to the finite size of the extended particles, while depending functionally on the same 1-body PDF only. The asymptotic approximation of the Master equation, which holds in validity of the Boltzmann-Grad limit, is shown to recover in a suitable asymptotic sense the customary Boltzmann equation. Finally, a critical analysis is presented of the original and modified versions of the Enskog kinetic equation, as well as of some of the non-linear kinetic approaches formulated in the past for dense granular gases. Their conditions of validity and main differences with respect to the present theory are pointed out.
Dislocation dynamics, plasticity and avalanche statistics using the phase-field crystal model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angheluta, Luiza
2013-03-01
The plastic deformation of stressed crystalline materials is characterized by intermittency and scaling behavior. The sudden strain bursts arise from collective interactions between depinned crystal defects such as dislocations. Recent experiments on sheared nanocrystals provide insights into the connection between the crystal plasticity and the mean field theory of the depinning transition, based on the similar power-law statistics of avalanche events. However, a complete theoretical formulation of this connection is still lacking, as are high quality numerical data. Phase field crystal modelling provides an efficient numerical approach to simulating the dynamics of dislocations in plastic flows at finite temperature. Dislocations are naturally created as defects in a periodic ground state that is being sheared, without any ad hoc creation and annihilation rules. These crystal defects interact and annihilate with one another, generating a collective effect of avalanches in the global plastic strain rate. We examine the statistics of plastic avalanches both at finite and zero temperatures, and find good agreement with the predictions of the mean field interface depinning theory. Moreover, we predict universal scaling forms for the extreme statistics of avalanches and universal relations between the power-law exponents of avalanche duration, size and extreme value. These results account for the observed power-law distribution of the maximum amplitudes in acoustic emission experiments of crystal plasticity, but are also broadly applicable to other systems in the mean-field interface depinning universality class, ranging from magnets to earthquakes. The work reported here was performed in collaboration with: Georgios Tsekenis, Michael LeBlanc, Patrick Y Chan, Jon Dantzig, Karin Dahmen, and Nigel Goldenfeld. The work was supported by the Center for Physics of Geological Processes (Norway) through a post-doctoral grant, the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-DMR-03-25939, NSF_DMR-1005209 and NSF-DMS-1069224 and DOE Subcontract No. 4000076535 (J.D.)
An Embedded Statistical Method for Coupling Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element Analyses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.H.; Yamakov, V.
2008-01-01
The coupling of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with finite element methods (FEM) yields computationally efficient models that link fundamental material processes at the atomistic level with continuum field responses at higher length scales. The theoretical challenge involves developing a seamless connection along an interface between two inherently different simulation frameworks. Various specialized methods have been developed to solve particular classes of problems. Many of these methods link the kinematics of individual MD atoms with FEM nodes at their common interface, necessarily requiring that the finite element mesh be refined to atomic resolution. Some of these coupling approaches also require simulations to be carried out at 0 K and restrict modeling to two-dimensional material domains due to difficulties in simulating full three-dimensional material processes. In the present work, a new approach to MD-FEM coupling is developed based on a restatement of the standard boundary value problem used to define a coupled domain. The method replaces a direct linkage of individual MD atoms and finite element (FE) nodes with a statistical averaging of atomistic displacements in local atomic volumes associated with each FE node in an interface region. The FEM and MD computational systems are effectively independent and communicate only through an iterative update of their boundary conditions. With the use of statistical averages of the atomistic quantities to couple the two computational schemes, the developed approach is referred to as an embedded statistical coupling method (ESCM). ESCM provides an enhanced coupling methodology that is inherently applicable to three-dimensional domains, avoids discretization of the continuum model to atomic scale resolution, and permits finite temperature states to be applied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzgerald, J.; Farrell, B.
2013-12-01
Equatorial deep jets (EDJs) are persistent, zonally-coherent jets found within one degree of the equator in all ocean basins (Luyten and Swallow, 1976). The jets are characterized by a vertically oscillating ('stacked') structure between ~500-2000m depth, with jet amplitudes on the order of 10 cm/s superimposed upon a large-scale background shear flow. EDJs are a striking feature of the equatorial climate system and play an important role in equatorial ocean transport. However, the physical mechanism responsible for the presence of EDJs remains uncertain. Previous theoretical models for EDJs have suggested mechanisms involving the reflection and constructive interference of equatorially trapped waves (Wunsch 1977, McCreary 1984) and the instability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves with EDJs as the fastest-growing eigenfunction (Hua et al. 2008, Eden et al. 2008). In this work we explore the jet formation mechanism and the parameter dependence of EDJ structure in the idealized theoretical model of the stochastically-driven equatorial beta plane. The model is formulated in three ways: 1) Fully nonlinear equations of motion 2) Quasilinear (or mean-field) dynamics 3) Statistical state dynamics employing a second order closure method (stochastic structural stability theory). Results from the three models are compared, and the implications for both the jet formation and equilibration mechanisms, as well as the role of eddy-eddy nonlinearity in the EDJ system, are discussed.
A Statistical Survey of Dynamic Pressure Pulses in the Solar Wind Based on WIND Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Xie, Yanqiong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xiaojun
2015-07-01
Solar wind dynamic pressure pulse (DPP) structures, across which the dynamic pressure changes abruptly over timescales from a few seconds to several minutes, are often observed in the near-Earth space environment. The space weather effects of DPPs on the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system have been widely investigated in the last two decades. In this study, we perform a statistical survey on the properties of DPPs near 1 AU based on nearly 20 years of observations from the WIND spacecraft. It is found that only a tiny fraction of DPPs (around 4.2%) can be regarded as interplanetary shocks. For most DPPs, the total pressure (the sum of the thermal pressure and magnetic pressure) remains in equilibrium, but there also exists a small fraction of DPPs that are not pressure-balanced. The overwhelming majority of DPPs are associated with solar wind disturbances, including coronal mass ejection-related flows, corotating interaction regions, as well as complex ejecta. The annual variations of the averaged occurrence rate of DPPs are roughly in phase with the solar activity during solar cycle 23, and during the rising phase of solar cycle 24.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2011-03-01
The idea that quantum randomness can be reduced to randomness of classical fields (fluctuating at time and space scales which are essentially finer than scales approachable in modern quantum experiments) is rather old. Various models have been proposed, e.g., stochastic electrodynamics or the semiclassical model. Recently a new model, so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), was developed. By this model a "quantum system" is just a label for (so to say "prequantum") classical random field. Quantum averages can be represented as classical field averages. Correlations between observables on subsystems of a composite system can be as well represented as classical correlations. In particular, it can be done for entangled systems. Creation of such classical field representation demystifies quantum entanglement. In this paper we show that quantum dynamics (given by Schrödinger's equation) of entangled systems can be represented as the stochastic dynamics of classical random fields. The "effect of entanglement" is produced by classical correlations which were present at the initial moment of time, cf. views of Albert Einstein.
Ni, Bo; He, Fazhi; Yuan, ZhiYong
2015-12-01
Segmenting the lesion areas from ultrasound (US) images is an important step in the intra-operative planning of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). However, accurate segmentation remains a challenge due to intensity inhomogeneity, blurry boundaries in HIFU US images and the deformation of uterine fibroids caused by patient's breathing or external force. This paper presents a novel dynamic statistical shape model (SSM)-based segmentation method to accurately and efficiently segment the target region in HIFU US images of uterine fibroids. For accurately learning the prior shape information of lesion boundary fluctuations in the training set, the dynamic properties of stochastic differential equation and Fokker-Planck equation are incorporated into SSM (referred to as SF-SSM). Then, a new observation model of lesion areas (named to RPFM) in HIFU US images is developed to describe the features of the lesion areas and provide a likelihood probability to the prior shape given by SF-SSM. SF-SSM and RPFM are integrated into active contour model to improve the accuracy and robustness of segmentation in HIFU US images. We compare the proposed method with four well-known US segmentation methods to demonstrate its superiority. The experimental results in clinical HIFU US images validate the high accuracy and robustness of our approach, even when the quality of the images is unsatisfactory, indicating its potential for practical application in HIFU therapy. PMID:26459767
Zhang, Yu J; Harte, John
2015-11-01
Model predictions for species competition outcomes highly depend on the assumed form of the population growth function. In this paper we apply an alternative inferential method based on statistical mechanics, maximizing Boltzmann entropy, to predict resource-constrained population dynamics and coexistence. Within this framework, population dynamics and competition outcome can be determined without assuming any particular form of the population growth function. The dynamics of each species is determined by two parameters: the mean resource requirement ? (related to the mean metabolic rate) and individual distinguishability Dr (related to intra- compared to interspecific functional variation). Our theory clarifies the condition for the energetic equivalence rule (EER) to hold, and provide a statistical explanation for the importance of species functional variation in determining population dynamics and coexistence patterns. PMID:26226230
Reutter, Bryan W.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Huesman, Ronald H.
2001-04-09
The estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic model parameters directly from projection data is potentially useful for clinical dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies, particularly in those clinics that have only single-detector systems and thus are not able to perform rapid tomographic acquisitions. Because the radiopharmaceutical distribution changes while the SPECT gantry rotates, projections at different angles come from different tracer distributions. A dynamic image sequence reconstructed from the inconsistent projections acquired by a slowly rotating gantry can contain artifacts that lead to biases in kinetic parameters estimated from time-activity curves generated by overlaying regions of interest on the images. If cone beam collimators are used and the focal point of the collimators always remains in a particular transaxial plane, additional artifacts can arise in other planes reconstructed using insufficient projection samples [1]. If the projection samples truncate the patient's body, this can result in additional image artifacts. To overcome these sources of bias in conventional image based dynamic data analysis, we and others have been investigating the estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic model parameters directly from dynamic SPECT projection data by modeling the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiopharmaceutical throughout the projected field of view [2-8]. In our previous work we developed a computationally efficient method for fully four-dimensional (4-D) direct estimation of spatiotemporal distributions from dynamic SPECT projection data [5], which extended Formiconi's least squares algorithm for reconstructing temporally static distributions [9]. In addition, we studied the biases that result from modeling various orders temporal continuity and using various time samplings [5]. the present work, we address computational issues associated with evaluating the statistical uncertainty of spatiotemporal model parameter estimates, and use Monte Carlo simulations to a fast algorithm for computing the covariance matrix for the parameters. Given this covariance matrix, the covariance between the time-activity curve models for the blood input function and tissue volumes of interest can be calculated and used to estimate compartmental model kinetic parameters more precisely, using nonlinear weighted least squares [10,11].
Low dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging using a statistical iterative reconstruction method
Tao, Yinghua; Chen, Guang-Hong; Hacker, Timothy A.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Speidel, Michael A.
2014-07-15
Purpose: Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging has the potential to provide both functional and anatomical information regarding coronary artery stenosis. However, radiation dose can be potentially high due to repeated scanning of the same region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of statistical iterative reconstruction to improve parametric maps of myocardial perfusion derived from a low tube current dynamic CT acquisition. Methods: Four pigs underwent high (500 mA) and low (25 mA) dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion scans with and without coronary occlusion. To delineate the affected myocardial territory, an N-13 ammonia PET perfusion scan was performed for each animal in each occlusion state. Filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction was first applied to all CT data sets. Then, a statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) method was applied to data sets acquired at low dose. Image voxel noise was matched between the low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. CT perfusion maps were compared among the low dose FBP, low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. Numerical simulations of a dynamic CT scan at high and low dose (20:1 ratio) were performed to quantitatively evaluate SIR and FBP performance in terms of flow map accuracy, precision, dose efficiency, and spatial resolution. Results: Forin vivo studies, the 500 mA FBP maps gave ?88.4%, ?96.0%, ?76.7%, and ?65.8% flow change in the occluded anterior region compared to the open-coronary scans (four animals). The percent changes in the 25 mA SIR maps were in good agreement, measuring ?94.7%, ?81.6%, ?84.0%, and ?72.2%. The 25 mA FBP maps gave unreliable flow measurements due to streaks caused by photon starvation (percent changes of +137.4%, +71.0%, ?11.8%, and ?3.5%). Agreement between 25 mA SIR and 500 mA FBP global flow was ?9.7%, 8.8%, ?3.1%, and 26.4%. The average variability of flow measurements in a nonoccluded region was 16.3%, 24.1%, and 937.9% for the 500 mA FBP, 25 mA SIR, and 25 mA FBP, respectively. In numerical simulations, SIR mitigated streak artifacts in the low dose data and yielded flow maps with mean error <7% and standard deviation <9% of mean, for 30×30 pixel ROIs (12.9 × 12.9 mm{sup 2}). In comparison, low dose FBP flow errors were ?38% to +258%, and standard deviation was 6%–93%. Additionally, low dose SIR achieved 4.6 times improvement in flow map CNR{sup 2} per unit input dose compared to low dose FBP. Conclusions: SIR reconstruction can reduce image noise and mitigate streaking artifacts caused by photon starvation in dynamic CT myocardial perfusion data sets acquired at low dose (low tube current), and improve perfusion map quality in comparison to FBP reconstruction at the same dose.
Physical insight into superdiffusive dynamics of Sinai billiard through collision statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokshenev, Valery B.; Vicentini, Eduardo
2006-02-01
We report on distinct steady-motion dynamic regimes in chaotic Sinai billiard (SB). A numerical study on elastic reflections from the SB boundary (square wall of length L and circle obstacle of radius R) is carried out for different R/L. The research is based on the exploration of the generalized diffusion equation and on the analysis of wall-collision and the circle-collision distributions observed at late times. The asymptotes for the diffusion coefficientDR and the corresponding diffusion exponentzR are established for all geometries. The universal ( R-independent) diffusion with D1?t and z1=1.5 replaces the ballistic motion regime ( z0=1) attributed to square billiard ( R=0). Geometrically, this superdiffusive regime is bounded by small radii 0
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
QseA and SdiA are two of several transcriptional regulators that regulate virulence gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 via quorum sensing (QS). QseA regulates the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE encodes for a type III secretion (T3S) sys...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leggate, P.; And Others
During a 2-year period (1970, 1971) SDI (Selective Dissemination of Information) search profiles were written for 353 biologists and other research workers with a need for biological information in academic, industrial, and government research institutions. At the beginning of the experiment a questionnaire and interview survey was made of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olive, G.; And Others
A selective dissemination of information service based on computer scanning of Nuclear Science Abstracts tapes has operated at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England since October, 1968. The performance of the mechanized SDI service has been compared with that of the pre-existing current awareness service which is based on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callamaras, Peter
1983-01-01
This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)
Temporal Evolution of Soil Moisture Statistical Fractal: Seasonal and Rainfall Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, X.; Shen, C.; Riley, W. J.
2014-12-01
Soil moisture statistical multi-fractal can potentially be an important tool for multi-scale hydrologic modeling. The fractal scaling exponents (?), the slopes of the log-log relation between soil moisture moments and scales, have the potential to predict the parameters for soil moisture distribution at higher grid-resolution. We demonstrate here that the magnitude and temporal development of ? is related to basin water storage, seasonal mode of wetting and drying, and topography. We used PAWS + CLM, a physically-based surface-subsurface process model, to explore soil moisture spatial and temporal fractal patterns by running several scenarios in two Midwest basins of the United States. We applied homogenous meteorological forcing to focus on the control from heterogeneity of watershed static properties and examined the temporal evolution of ? in different soil depths and in non-freezing days. We found that ? in the top 10cm layer is approximately linearly related to basin-average water storage. In non-freezing seasons, ? shows strong hysteretic patterns. Wetting and drying dominated processes weakens previous organization, and reorganization process is linked to the hydrologic characteristics of the basin. We explained the difference between the seasonal and event dynamic of the fractal exponents.
Dynamical and statistical behavior of discrete combustion waves: A theoretical and numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bharath, Naine Tarun; Rashkovskiy, Sergey A.; Tewari, Surya P.; Gundawar, Manoj Kumar
2013-04-01
We present a detailed theoretical and numerical study of combustion waves in a discrete one-dimensional disordered system. The distances between neighboring reaction cells were modeled with a gamma distribution. The results show that the random structure of the microheterogeneous system plays a crucial role in the dynamical and statistical behavior of the system. This is a consequence of the nonlinear interaction of the random structure of the system with the thermal wave. An analysis of the experimental data on the combustion of a gasless system (Ti + xSi) and a wide range of thermite systems was performed in view of the developed model. We have shown that the burning rate of the powder system sensitively depends on its internal structure. The present model allows for reproducing theoretically the experimental data for a wide range of pyrotechnic mixtures. We show that Arrhenius’ macrokinetics at combustion of disperse systems can take place even in the absence of Arrhenius’ microkinetics; it can have a purely thermal nature and be related to their heterogeneity and to the existence of threshold temperature. It is also observed that the combustion of disperse systems always occurs in the microheterogeneous mode according to the relay-race mechanism.
Dynamical and statistical behavior of discrete combustion waves: a theoretical and numerical study.
Bharath, Naine Tarun; Rashkovskiy, Sergey A; Tewari, Surya P; Gundawar, Manoj Kumar
2013-04-01
We present a detailed theoretical and numerical study of combustion waves in a discrete one-dimensional disordered system. The distances between neighboring reaction cells were modeled with a gamma distribution. The results show that the random structure of the microheterogeneous system plays a crucial role in the dynamical and statistical behavior of the system. This is a consequence of the nonlinear interaction of the random structure of the system with the thermal wave. An analysis of the experimental data on the combustion of a gasless system (Ti + xSi) and a wide range of thermite systems was performed in view of the developed model. We have shown that the burning rate of the powder system sensitively depends on its internal structure. The present model allows for reproducing theoretically the experimental data for a wide range of pyrotechnic mixtures. We show that Arrhenius' macrokinetics at combustion of disperse systems can take place even in the absence of Arrhenius' microkinetics; it can have a purely thermal nature and be related to their heterogeneity and to the existence of threshold temperature. It is also observed that the combustion of disperse systems always occurs in the microheterogeneous mode according to the relay-race mechanism. PMID:23679470
Exploring the String Landscape: The Dynamics, Statistics, and Cosmology of Parallel Worlds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahlqvist, Stein Pontus
This dissertation explores various facets of the low-energy solutions in string theory known as the string landscape. Three separate questions are addressed - the tunneling dynamics between these vacua, the statistics of their location in moduli space, and the potential realization of slow-roll inflation in the flux potentials generated in string theory. We find that the tunneling transitions that occur between a certain class of supersymmetric vacua related to each other via monodromies around the conifold point are sensitive to the details of warping in the near-conifold regime. We also study the impact of warping on the distribution of vacua near the conifold and determine that while previous work has concluded that the conifold point acts as an accumulation point for vacua, warping highly dilutes the distribution in precisely this regime. Finally we investigate a novel form of inflation dubbed spiral inflation to see if it can be realized near the conifold point. We conclude that for our particular models, spiral inflation seems to rely on a de Sitter-like vacuum energy. As a result, whenever spiral inflation is realized, the inflation is actually driven by a vacuum energy.
Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Taiping
1994-01-01
A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations.
Spagnolo, Filippo
95 The Role of Dynamic Interactive Technology in Teaching and Learning Statistics Gail Burrill, Michigan State University, USA burrill@msu.edu Abstract Dynamic interactive technology brings new opportunities for helping students learn central statistical concepts. Research and classroom experience can
Zilany, Muhammad S A; Carney, Laurel H
2010-08-01
Neurons in the auditory system respond to recent stimulus-level history by adapting their response functions according to the statistics of the stimulus, partially alleviating the so-called "dynamic-range problem." However, the mechanism and source of this adaptation along the auditory pathway remain unknown. Inclusion of power-law dynamics in a phenomenological model of the inner hair cell (IHC)-auditory nerve (AN) synapse successfully explained neural adaptation to sound-level statistics, including the time course of adaptation of the mean firing rate and changes in the dynamic range observed in AN responses. A direct comparison between model responses to a dynamic stimulus and to an "inversely gated" static background suggested that AN dynamic-range adaptation largely results from the adaptation produced by the response history. These results support the hypothesis that the potential mechanism underlying the dynamic-range adaptation observed at the level of the auditory nerve is located peripheral to the spike generation mechanism and central to the IHC receptor potential. PMID:20685981
Statistical properties and pre-hit dynamics of price limit hits in the Chinese stock markets.
Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2015-01-01
Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders' short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners. PMID:25874716
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gai, Lili; Iacovella, Christopher R.; Wan, Li; McCabe, Clare; Cummings, Peter T.
2015-08-01
The fluid-solid phase transition behavior of nano-confined Lennard-Jones fluids as a function of temperature and degree of nanoconfinement has been studied via statistical temperature molecular dynamics (STMD). The STMD method allows the direct calculation of the density of states and thus the heat capacity with high efficiency. The fluids are simulated between parallel solid surfaces with varying pore sizes, wall-fluid interaction energies, and registry of the walls. The fluid-solid phase transition behavior has been characterized through determination of the heat capacity. The results show that for pores of ideal-spacing, the order-disorder transition temperature (TODT) is reduced as the pore size increases until values consistent with that seen in a bulk system. Also, as the interaction between the wall and fluid is reduced, TODT is reduced due to weak constraints from the wall. However, for non-ideal spacing pores, quite different behavior is obtained, e.g., generally TODT are largely reduced, and TODT is decreased as the wall constraint becomes larger. For unaligned walls (i.e., whose lattices are not in registry), the fluid-solid transition is also detected as T is reduced, indicating non-ideality in orientation of the walls does not impact the formation of a solid, but results in a slight change in TODT compared to the perfectly aligned systems. The STMD method is demonstrated to be a robust way for probing the phase transitions of nanoconfined fluids systematically, enabling the future examination of the phase transition behavior of more complex fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondescu, Radu Paul
1999-08-01
In this dissertation we report new theoretical results-both analytical and numerical-concerning a variety of polymeric systems. Applying path-integral and differentiable manifolds techniques, we have obtained original results concerning the statistics of a Gaussian polymer embedded on a sphere, a cylinder, a cone and a torus. Generally, we found that the curvature of the surfaces induces a geometrical localization area. Next we employ field theoretical (instanton calculus) and differential equations techniques (Darboux method) to obtain approximate and exact new results regarding the average size and the Green function of a Gaussian, one- dimensional polymer chain subjected to a multi-stable potential (the tunnel effect in polymer physics). Extending the multiple scattering formalism, we have investigated the steady-state dynamics of suspensions of spheres and Gaussian polymer chains without excluded volume interactions. We have calculated the self- diffusion and friction coefficients for probe objects (sphere and polymer chain) and the shear viscosity of the suspensions. At certain values of the concentration of the ambient medium, motion of probe objects freezes. Deviation from the Stokes-Einstein behavior is observed and interpreted. Next, we have calculated the diffusion coefficient and the change in the viscosity of a dilute solution of freely translating and rotating diblock, Gaussian copolymers. Regimes that lead to increasing the efficiency of separation processes have been identified. The parallel between Navier-Stokes and Lamé equations was exploited to extend the effective medium formalism to the computation of the effective shear and Young moduli and the Poisson ratio of a composite material containing rigid, monodispersed, penetrable spheres. Our approach deals efficiently with the high concentration regime of inclusions.
Statistical Properties and Pre-Hit Dynamics of Price Limit Hits in the Chinese Stock Markets
Wan, Yu-Lei; Xie, Wen-Jie; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2015-01-01
Price limit trading rules are adopted in some stock markets (especially emerging markets) trying to cool off traders’ short-term trading mania on individual stocks and increase market efficiency. Under such a microstructure, stocks may hit their up-limits and down-limits from time to time. However, the behaviors of price limit hits are not well studied partially due to the fact that main stock markets such as the US markets and most European markets do not set price limits. Here, we perform detailed analyses of the high-frequency data of all A-share common stocks traded on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2000 to 2011 to investigate the statistical properties of price limit hits and the dynamical evolution of several important financial variables before stock price hits its limits. We compare the properties of up-limit hits and down-limit hits. We also divide the whole period into three bullish periods and three bearish periods to unveil possible differences during bullish and bearish market states. To uncover the impacts of stock capitalization on price limit hits, we partition all stocks into six portfolios according to their capitalizations on different trading days. We find that the price limit trading rule has a cooling-off effect (object to the magnet effect), indicating that the rule takes effect in the Chinese stock markets. We find that price continuation is much more likely to occur than price reversal on the next trading day after a limit-hitting day, especially for down-limit hits, which has potential practical values for market practitioners. PMID:25874716
Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model
Zhang, T. )
1994-06-01
A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations. 46 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCauley, P. I.; Su, Y. N.; Schanche, N.; Evans, K. E.; Su, C.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K. K.
2015-06-01
We present a statistical study of prominence and filament eruptions observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Several properties are recorded for 904 events that were culled from the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) and incorporated into an online catalog for general use. These characteristics include the filament and eruption type, eruption symmetry and direction, apparent twisting and writhing motions, and the presence of vertical threads and coronal cavities. Associated flares and white-light coronal mass ejections (CME) are also recorded. Total rates are given for each property along with how they differ among filament types. We also examine the kinematics of 106 limb events to characterize the distinct slow- and fast-rise phases often exhibited by filament eruptions. The average fast-rise onset height, slow-rise duration, slow-rise velocity, maximum field-of-view (FOV) velocity, and maximum FOV acceleration are 83 Mm, 4.4 hours, 2.1 km s-1, 106 km s-1, and 111 m s-2, respectively. All parameters exhibit lognormal probability distributions similar to that of CME speeds. A positive correlation between latitude and fast-rise onset height is found, which we attribute to a corresponding negative correlation in the average vertical magnetic field gradient, or decay index, estimated from potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations. We also find the decay index at the fast-rise onset point to be 1.1 on average, consistent with the critical instability threshold theorized for straight current channels. Finally, we explore relationships between the derived kinematics properties and apparent twisting motions. We find that events with evident twist have significantly faster CME speeds and significantly lower fast-rise onset heights, suggesting relationships between these values and flux rope helicity.
Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong
2012-01-01
The Newtonian and special-relativistic statistical predictions for the mean, standard deviation and probability density function of the position and momentum are compared for the periodically-delta-kicked particle at low speed. Contrary to expectation, we find that the statistical predictions, which are calculated from the same parameters and initial Gaussian ensemble of trajectories, do not always agree if the initial ensemble is sufficiently well-localized in phase space. Moreover, the breakdown of agreement is very fast if the trajectories in the ensemble are chaotic, but very slow if the trajectories in the ensemble are non-chaotic. The breakdown of agreement implies that special-relativistic mechanics must be used, instead of the standard practice of using Newtonian mechanics, to correctly calculate the statistical predictions for the dynamics of a low-speed system. PMID:22606259
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Mei; Zhang, Ren; Wang, Dong; Feng, Mang; Wang, Zhengxin; Singh, Vijay P.
2015-07-01
To address the inaccuracy of long-term El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts, a new dynamical-statistical forecasting model of the ENSO index was developed based on dynamical model reconstruction and improved self-memorization. To overcome the problem of single initial prediction values, the largest Lyapunov exponent was introduced to improve the traditional self-memorization function, thereby making it more effective for describing chaotic systems, such as ENSO. Equation reconstruction, based on actual data, was used as a dynamical core to overcome the problem of using a simple core. The developed dynamical-statistical forecasting model of the ENSO index is used to predict the sea surface temperature anomaly in the equatorial eastern Pacific and El Niño/La Niña events. The real-time predictive skills of the improved model were tested. The results show that our model predicted well within lead times of 12 months. Compared with six mature models, both temporal correlation and root mean square error of the improved model are slightly worse than those of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts model, but better than those of the other five models. Additionally, the margin between the forecast results in summer and those in winter is not great, which means that the improved model can overcome the "spring predictability barrier", to some extent. Finally, a real-time prediction experiment is carried out beginning in September 2014. Our model is a new exploration of the ENSO forecasting method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grotjahn, Richard; Black, Robert; Leung, Ruby; Wehner, Michael F.; Barlow, Mathew; Bosilovich, Mike; Gershunov, Alexander; Gutowski, William J.; Gyakum, John R.; Katz, Richard W.; Lee, Yun-Young; Lim, Young-Kwon; Prabhat
2015-05-01
The objective of this paper is to review statistical methods, dynamics, modeling efforts, and trends related to temperature extremes, with a focus upon extreme events of short duration that affect parts of North America. These events are associated with large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs). The statistics, dynamics, and modeling sections of this paper are written to be autonomous and so can be read separately. Methods to define extreme events statistics and to identify and connect LSMPs to extreme temperature events are presented. Recent advances in statistical techniques connect LSMPs to extreme temperatures through appropriately defined covariates that supplement more straightforward analyses. Various LSMPs, ranging from synoptic to planetary scale structures, are associated with extreme temperature events. Current knowledge about the synoptics and the dynamical mechanisms leading to the associated LSMPs is incomplete. Systematic studies of: the physics of LSMP life cycles, comprehensive model assessment of LSMP-extreme temperature event linkages, and LSMP properties are needed. Generally, climate models capture observed properties of heat waves and cold air outbreaks with some fidelity. However they overestimate warm wave frequency and underestimate cold air outbreak frequency, and underestimate the collective influence of low-frequency modes on temperature extremes. Modeling studies have identified the impact of large-scale circulation anomalies and land-atmosphere interactions on changes in extreme temperatures. However, few studies have examined changes in LSMPs to more specifically understand the role of LSMPs on past and future extreme temperature changes. Even though LSMPs are resolvable by global and regional climate models, they are not necessarily well simulated. The paper concludes with unresolved issues and research questions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lode, Axel U. J.; Chakrabarti, Barnali; Kota, Venkata K. B.
2015-09-01
We study the quantum many-body dynamics and the entropy production triggered by an interaction quench in a system of N =10 interacting identical bosons in an external one-dimensional harmonic trap. The multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB) is used for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation at a high level of accuracy. We consider many-body entropy measures such as the Shannon information entropy, number of principal components, and occupation entropy that are computed from the time-dependent many-body basis set used in MCTDHB. These measures quantify relevant physical features such as irregular or chaotic dynamics, statistical relaxation, and thermalization. We monitor the entropy measures as a function of time and assess how they depend on the interaction strength. For larger interaction strength, the many-body information and occupation entropies approach the value predicted for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. This implies statistical relaxation. The basis states of MCTDHB are explicitly time-dependent and optimized by the variational principle in a way that minimizes the number of significantly contributing ones. It is therefore a nontrivial fact that statistical relaxation prevails in MCTDHB computations. Moreover, we demonstrate a fundamental connection between the production of entropy, the buildup of correlations and loss of coherence in the system. Our findings imply that mean-field approaches such as the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation cannot capture statistical relaxation and thermalization because they neglect correlations. Since the coherence and correlations are experimentally accessible, their present connection to many-body entropies can be scrutinized to detect statistical relaxation. In this work we use the recent recursive software implementation of the MCTDHB (R-MCTDHB).
Dynamic topic adaptation for improved contextual modelling in statistical machine translation
Hasler, Eva Cornelia
2015-06-29
In recent years there has been an increased interest in domain adaptation techniques for statistical machine translation (SMT) to deal with the growing amount of data from different sources. Topic modelling techniques ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Nishimura, Y.
2015-05-01
Plasmaspheric hiss is known to play an important role in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons inside the plasmasphere. Using newly available Van Allen Probes wave data, which provide excellent coverage in the entire inner magnetosphere, we evaluate the global distribution of the hiss wave frequency spectrum and wave intensity for different levels of substorm activity. Our statistical results show that observed hiss peak frequencies are generally lower than the commonly adopted value (~550 Hz), which was in frequent use, and that the hiss wave power frequently extends below 100 Hz, particularly at larger L shells (> ~3) on the dayside during enhanced levels of substorm activity. We also compare electron pitch angle scattering rates caused by hiss using the new statistical frequency spectrum and the previously adopted Gaussian spectrum and find that the differences are up to a factor of ~5 and are dependent on energy and L shell. Moreover, the new statistical hiss wave frequency spectrum including wave power below 100 Hz leads to increased pitch angle scattering rates by a factor of ~1.5 for electrons above ~100 keV at L~5, although their effect is negligible at L ? 3. Consequently, we suggest that the new realistic hiss wave frequency spectrum should be incorporated into future modeling of radiation belt electron dynamics.
Notaro, Michael; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel
2008-01-05
A negative feedback of vegetation cover on subsequent annual precipitation is simulated for the mid-Holocene over North Africa using a fully coupled general circulation model with dynamic vegetation, FOAM-LPJ (Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model-Lund Potsdam Jena Model). By computing a vegetation feedback parameter based on lagged autocovariances, the simulated impact of North African vegetation on precipitation is statistically quantified. The feedback is also dynamically assessed through initial value ensemble experiments, in which North African grass cover is initially reduced and the climatic response analyzed. The statistical and dynamical assessments of the negative vegetation feedback agree in sign and relative magnitude for FOAM-LPJ. The negative feedback on annual precipitation largely results from a competition between bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration, with increases in the former outweighing reductions in the latter given reduced grass cover. This negative feedback weakens and eventually reverses sign over time during a transient simulation from the mid-Holocene to present. A similar, but weaker, negative feedback is identified in Community Climate System Model Version 2 (CCSM2) over North Africa for the mid-Holocene.
Statistical dynamics of classical systems: A self-consistent field approach
Grzetic, Douglas J. Wickham, Robert A.; Shi, An-Chang
2014-06-28
We develop a self-consistent field theory for particle dynamics by extremizing the functional integral representation of a microscopic Langevin equation with respect to the collective fields. Although our approach is general, here we formulate it in the context of polymer dynamics to highlight satisfying formal analogies with equilibrium self-consistent field theory. An exact treatment of the dynamics of a single chain in a mean force field emerges naturally via a functional Smoluchowski equation, while the time-dependent monomer density and mean force field are determined self-consistently. As a simple initial demonstration of the theory, leaving an application to polymer dynamics for future work, we examine the dynamics of trapped interacting Brownian particles. For binary particle mixtures, we observe the kinetics of phase separation.
Muir, Ryan D; Kissick, David J; Simpson, Garth J
2012-04-23
Data from photomultiplier tubes are typically analyzed using either counting or averaging techniques, which are most accurate in the dim and bright signal limits, respectively. A statistical means of adjoining these two techniques is presented by recovering the Poisson parameter from averaged data and relating it to the statistics of binomial counting from Kissick et al. [Anal. Chem. 82, 10129 (2010)]. The point at which binomial photon counting and averaging have equal signal to noise ratios is derived. Adjoining these two techniques generates signal to noise ratios at 87% to approaching 100% of theoretical maximum across the full dynamic range of the photomultiplier tube used. The technique is demonstrated in a second harmonic generation microscope. PMID:22535131
van Milligen, Boudewijn
Quiet-time statistics: A tool to probe the dynamics of self-organized-criticality systems from on the analysis of the statistics of the lapses of time between activity bursts or quiet times. The case this type of analysis. This is ensured in most sandpile models studied in the literature by halting
A. U. J. Lode; B. Chakrabarti; V. K. B. Kota
2015-07-01
We study the quantum many-body dynamics and the entropy production triggered by an interaction quench in a system of $N=10$ interacting identical bosons in an external one-dimensional harmonic trap. The multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB) is used for solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation at a high level of accuracy. We consider many-body entropy measures such as the Shannon information entropy, number of principal components, and occupation entropy that are computed from the time-dependent many-body basis set used in MCTDHB. These measures quantify relevant physical features such as irregular or chaotic dynamics, statistical relaxation and thermalization. We monitor the entropy measures as a function of time and assess how they depend on the interaction strength. For larger interaction strength, the many-body information entropy approaches the value predicted for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices and implies statistical relaxation. The basis states of MCTDHB are explicitly time-dependent and optimized by the variational principle in a way that minimizes the number of significantly contributing ones. It is therefore a non-trivial fact that statistical relaxation prevails in MCTDHB computations. Moreover, we demonstrate a fundamental connection between the production of entropy, the build-up of correlations and loss of coherence in the system. Since the coherence and correlations are experimentally accessible, their present connection to many-body entropies can be scrutinized to detect statistical relaxation. Our results are the first ones obtained for thermalization of finite quantum systems using an optimized time-dependent and genuinely many-body basis set.
[Tissue mechanical behavior of tendinous fibers under statistical and dynamic requirements].
Arnold, G; Gross, F; Moll, C
1977-01-01
With a device for dynamical processes tension tests were performed on bundles of collagen fibres of human and bovin origin. Part of the studies were performed under statical condition with an universal materials testing machine, equipped with a closed loop feed back control system. If the force is to be kept constant subsequently to a strain process on a collagen fiber bundle (isotonic condition), the fiber length must increase (creep phenomenon, retardation). The force decreases under constant length after a preceding strain process (relaxation). In analogy to the statical relaxation, statical isorheological line, and statical force recovery curve the dynamical (cyclic) relaxation, dynamical (cyclic) isorheological curve, and dynamical (cyclic) force recovery curve are described. The mechanical-rheological properties collagen fiber bundles are discussed in relation to functional anatomy. PMID:608585
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, Bogdan; Parishani, Hossein; Ayala, Orlando; Wang, Lian-Ping; Grabowski, Wojciech W.
2011-12-01
In recent years, direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach has become a reliable tool for studying turbulent collision-coalescence of cloud droplets relevant to warm rain development. It has been shown that small-scale turbulent motion can enhance the collision rate of droplets by either enhancing the relative velocity and collision efficiency or by inertia-induced droplet clustering. A hybrid DNS approach incorporating DNS of air turbulence, disturbance flows due to droplets, and droplet equation of motion has been developed to quantify these effects of air turbulence. Due to the computational complexity of the approach, a major challenge is to increase the range of scales or size of the computation domain so that all scales affecting droplet pair statistics are simulated. Here we discuss our on-going work in this direction by improving the parallel scalability of the code, and by studying the effect of large-scale forcing on pair statistics relevant to turbulent collision. New results at higher grid resolutions show a saturation of pair and collision statistics with increasing flow Reynolds number, for given Kolmogorov scales and small droplet sizes. Furthermore, we examine the orientation dependence of pair statistics which reflects an interesting coupling of gravity and droplet clustering.
Static Numbers to Dynamic Statistics: Designing a Policy-Friendly Social Policy Indicator Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Young-Mi
2012-01-01
In line with the economic crisis and rapid socio-demographic changes, the interest in "social" and "well-being" indicators has been revived. Social indicator movements of the 1960s resulted in the establishment of social indicator statistical frameworks; that legacy has remained intact in many national governments and international organisations.…
Valery B. Kokshenev; Eduardo Vicentini
2004-05-10
We report on the stationary dynamics in classical Sinai billiard (SB) corresponding to the unit cell of the periodic Lorentz gas (LG) formed by square lattice of length $L$ and dispersing circles of radius $R$ placed in the center of unit cell. Dynamic correlation effects for classical particles, initially distributed by random way, are considered within the scope of deterministic and stochastic descriptions. A temporal analysis of elastic reflections from the SB square walls and circle obstacles is given for distinct geometries in terms of the wall-collision and the circle-collision distributions. Late-time steady dynamic regimes are explicit in the diffusion exponent $z(R)$, which plays a role of the order-disorder crossover dynamical parameter. The ballistic ($z_{0}=1$) ordered motion in the square lattice (R=0) switches to the superdiffusion regime with $z_{1}=1.5$, which is geometry-independent when $Rdynamics is shown to arise from long-distance particle jumps along the diagonal and nondiagonal Bleher corridors in the LG with the infinite horizon geometry. In the corresponding SB, this universal regime is caused by the long-time wall-collision memory effects attributed to the bouncing-ball orbits. The crossover nonuniversal behavior with $1.5dynamics ensured by the normal Brownian diffusion ($z_{2}=2$) and by the normal Gaussian distribution of collisions.
p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity
Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho; Williams, Stuart; Chen, Qin M.
2011-11-15
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.
Developing a Web-based system by integrating VGI and SDI for real estate management and marketing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salajegheh, J.; Hakimpour, F.; Esmaeily, A.
2014-10-01
Property importance of various aspects, especially the impact on various sectors of the economy and the country's macroeconomic is clear. Because of the real, multi-dimensional and heterogeneous nature of housing as a commodity, the lack of an integrated system includes comprehensive information of property, the lack of awareness of some actors in this field about comprehensive information about property and the lack of clear and comprehensive rules and regulations for the trading and pricing, several problems arise for the people involved in this field. In this research implementation of a crowd-sourced Web-based real estate support system is desired. Creating a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in this system for collecting, updating and integrating all official data about property is also desired in this study. In this system a Web2.0 broker and technologies such as Web services and service composition has been used. This work aims to provide comprehensive and diverse information about property from different sources. For this purpose five-level real estate support system architecture is used. PostgreSql DBMS is used to implement the desired system. Geoserver software is also used as map server and reference implementation of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards. And Apache server is used to run web pages and user interfaces. Integration introduced methods and technologies provide a proper environment for various users to use the system and share their information. This goal is only achieved by cooperation between all involved organizations in real estate with implementation their required infrastructures in interoperability Web services format.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koukas, Ioannis; Koukoravas, Vasilis; Mantesi, Konstantina; Sakellari, Katerina; Xanthopoulou, Themis-Demetra; Zarkadoulas, Akis; Markonis, Yannis; Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris
2014-05-01
The statistical properties of over 300 different proxy records of the last two thousand years derived from the PAGES 2k database years are stochastically analysed. Analyses include estimation of their first four moments and their autocorrelation functions (ACF), as well as the determination of the presence of Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour (known also as long term persistence). The data are investigated in groups according to their proxy type and location, while their statistical properties are also compared to those of the final temperature reconstructions. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.
Dynamic stability of the Solar System: Statistically inconclusive results from ensemble integrations
Zeebe, Richard E
2015-01-01
Due to the chaotic nature of the Solar System, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ~1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (eM). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (eM ~= 0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is on average significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentricthan Jacobi coordinates and stricter er...
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a two-temperature Ising ring with conserved dynamics.
Borchers, Nicholas; Pleimling, Michel; Zia, R K P
2014-12-01
The statistical mechanics of a one-dimensional Ising model in thermal equilibrium is well-established, textbook material. Yet, when driven far from equilibrium by coupling two sectors to two baths at different temperatures, it exhibits remarkable phenomena, including an unexpected "freezing by heating." These phenomena are explored through systematic numerical simulations. Our study reveals complicated relaxation processes as well as a crossover between two very different steady-state regimes. PMID:25615050
Observation and Nature of Non-statistical Dynamic Effects in Ordinary Organic Reactions
Quijano, Larisa Mae Mangaliman 1984-
2012-10-17
that cannot be reconciled with statistical theories. This is in contrast with Lewis- acid catalyzed and thermal DA reactions, which exhibit substantial ?normal? intramolecular KIEs that are in accord with TST predictions. Finally, the Baeyer... 3.5 Conclusions ????????????????????????. 52 IV. EXPERIMENTAL AND PREDICTED KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS ON THE BAEYER-VILLIGER REACTION IN WATER ????????... 54 4.1 Introduction ???????????????????????? 54 4.2 Results and Discussion...
Sharma, V K; Bearson, S M D
2013-04-01
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) colonization of bovine intestine is mediated through the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secretion system and secreted virulence proteins that promote colonization of the recto-anal junction (RAJ) of the large intestine of cattle. The quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA, a homolog of LuxR, has been shown in vitro to repress LEE strongly when overexpressed from a multi-copy recombinant plasmid or when its activity is enhanced by the binding of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs), the quorum sensing signals that are detected by SdiA. Since LEE has been shown to be essential for colonization and persistence of O157 in bovine intestine, we examined whether a mutation in sdiA, which normally represses LEE in vitro, would also exert negative effect on colonization and long-term persistence of O157 in weaned calves. Ten-week old weaned calves (n = 4/group) were inoculated orally with 10(10) cfu of either the wild-type or sdiA mutant strain. Initial fecal shedding of the sdiA mutant and the wild-type strain were similar in magnitude and declined during the first 2 weeks post-inoculation. The sdiA mutant was detected in feces of only one of the four calves at low levels (?10(2) cfu/g feces) from days 19 - 27 post-inoculation, whereas, the fecal shedding of the wild-type strain persisted at approximately 4-logs in all four calves from days 19 - 27. We also confirmed that SdiA represses ler, which encodes a positive transcriptional regulator of LEE, in response to AHLs, and reduces adherence of O157 to HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that although in vitro the sdiA gene represses LEE and LEE-mediated adherence to cultured cells, the presence of sdiA is necessary for colonization of bovine large intestine that in turn promotes persistent fecal shedding of O157 by these animals. PMID:23415735
Nonequilibrium statistical theory of a cascade of displacements in a solid. Dynamic stage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashlev, Yu. A.; Shemaeva, I. N.
1990-06-01
On the basis of analytical solution of the kinetic equation, a single-particle distribution describing the time development of the low-energy cascade at the dynamic stage of the process is obtained. A generalized cascade function is obtained, and its dependence on the basic parameters of the theory is analyzed.
Teaching the principles of statistical dynamics Kingshuk Ghosh and Ken A. Dill
Phillips, Rob
We describe a simple framework for teaching the principles that underlie the dynamical laws of transport: Fick's law of diffusion, Fourier's law of heat flow, the Newtonian viscosity law, and the mass-action laws of chemical kinetics. In analogy with the way that the maximization of entropy over microstates
Straub, John E.
, exhibiting rugged potential energy landscapes with a high degree of frustration. STMD simulations combined by a multitude of local minima sepa- rated by barriers.1 Thus conventional canonical simulations using Monte Carlo MC or molecular dynamics MD algo- rithms can fail to sample the thermally significant phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avissar, Roni
1991-03-01
Land surface interacts strongly with the atmosphere at all scales. This has a considerable impact on the hydrologic cycle and the climate. Therefore, in order to produce realistic simulations with climate models, their land-surface processes must be parameterized accurately. Because continental surfaces are usually extremely heterogeneous over the resolvable scales considered in these models, surface parameterizations based on the ‘big leaf-big stoma’ approach (that assume grid-scale homogeneity) fail to represent the land-atmosphere interactions that occur at much smaller scales. A parameterization based on a statistical-dynamical approach is suggested here. With this approach, each surface grid element of the numerical model is divided into homogeneous land patches (i.e., patches with similar internal heterogeneity). Assuming that horizontal fluxes between the different patches within a grid element are small as compared to the vertical fluxes, patches of the same type located at different places in the grid can be regrouped into one subgrid surface class. Then, for each one of the subgrid surface classes, probability density functions (pdf) are used to characterize the variability of the different parameters of the soil-plant-atmosphere system. These pdf are combined with the equations of the model that describe the dynamic and the energy and mass conservations in the atmosphere. The potential application of this statistical-dynamical parameterization is illustrated by simulating (i) the development of an agricultural area in an arid region and (ii) the process of deforestation in a tropical region. Both cases emphasize the importance of land-atmosphere interactions on regional hydrologic processes and climate.
SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix
Michalski, D; Huq, M; Bednarz, G; Lalonde, R; Yang, Y; Heron, D
2014-06-01
Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for 4D-based clinical technologies, can be better controlled if nonlinear-based methodology, which reflects respiration characteristic, is applied. Funding provided by Varian Medical Systems via Investigator Initiated Research Project.
Bleicher, M; Keränen, A; Aichelin, Jörg; Bass, S A; Becattini, F; Redlich, Krzysztof; Werner, K
2002-01-01
The $\\bar{\\Omega}/\\Omega$ ratio originating from string decays is predicted to be larger than unity in proton proton interactions at SPS energies ($E_{\\rm lab}$=160 GeV). The anti-omega dominance increases with decreasing beam energy. This surprising behavior is caused by the combinatorics of quark-antiquark production in small and low-mass strings. Since this behavior is not found in a statistical description of hadron production in proton proton collisions, it may serve as a key observable to probe the hadronization mechanism in such collisions.
M. Bleicher; F. M. Liu; A. Keränen; J. Aichelin; S. A. Bass; F. Becattini; K. Redlich; K. Werner
2001-11-15
The $\\bar{\\Omega}/\\Omega$ ratio originating from string decays is predicted to be larger than unity in proton proton interactions at SPS energies ($E_{\\rm lab}$=160 GeV). The anti-omega dominance increases with decreasing beam energy. This surprising behavior is caused by the combinatorics of quark-antiquark production in small and low-mass strings. Since this behavior is not found in a statistical description of hadron production in proton proton collisions, it may serve as a key observable to probe the hadronization mechanism in such collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckert, Nicolas; Schläppy, Romain; Jomelli, Vincent; Naaim, Mohamed
2013-04-01
A crucial step for proposing relevant long-term mitigation measures in long term avalanche forecasting is the accurate definition of high return period avalanches. Recently, "statistical-dynamical" approach combining a numerical model with stochastic operators describing the variability of its inputs-outputs have emerged. Their main interests is to take into account the topographic dependency of snow avalanche runout distances, and to constrain the correlation structure between model's variables by physical rules, so as to simulate the different marginal distributions of interest (pressure, flow depth, etc.) with a reasonable realism. Bayesian methods have been shown to be well adapted to achieve model inference, getting rid of identifiability problems thanks to prior information. An important problem which has virtually never been considered before is the validation of the predictions resulting from a statistical-dynamical approach (or from any other engineering method for computing extreme avalanches). In hydrology, independent "fossil" data such as flood deposits in caves are sometimes confronted to design discharges corresponding to high return periods. Hence, the aim of this work is to implement a similar comparison between high return period avalanches obtained with a statistical-dynamical approach and independent validation data resulting from careful dendrogeomorphological reconstructions. To do so, an up-to-date statistical model based on the depth-averaged equations and the classical Voellmy friction law is used on a well-documented case study. First, parameter values resulting from another path are applied, and the dendrological validation sample shows that this approach fails in providing realistic prediction for the case study. This may be due to the strongly bounded behaviour of runouts in this case (the extreme of their distribution is identified as belonging to the Weibull attraction domain). Second, local calibration on the available avalanche chronicle is performed with various prior distributions resulting from expert knowledge and/or other paths. For all calibrations, a very successful convergence is obtained, which confirms the robustness of the used Metropolis-Hastings estimation algorithm. This also demonstrates the interest of the Bayesian framework for aggregating information by sequential assimilation in the frequently encountered case of limited data quantity. Confrontation with the dendrological sample stresses the predominant role of the Coulombian friction coefficient distribution's variance on predicted high magnitude runouts. The optimal fit is obtained for a strong prior reflecting the local bounded behavior, and results in a 10-40 m difference for return periods ranging between 10 and 300 years. Implementing predictive simulations shows that this is largely within the range of magnitude of uncertainties to be taken into account. On the other hand, the different priors tested for the turbulent friction coefficient influence predictive performances only slightly, but have a large influence on predicted velocity and flow depth distributions. This all may be of high interest to refine calibration and predictive use of the statistical-dynamical model for any engineering application.
Dynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Rotating and non-Rotating Vortical Flows
Lim, Chjan
2013-12-18
Three projects were analyzed with the overall aim of developing a computational/analytical model for estimating values of the energy, angular momentum, enstrophy and total variation of fluid height at phase transitions between disordered and self-organized flow states in planetary atmospheres. It is believed that these transitions in equilibrium statistical mechanics models play a role in the construction of large-scale, stable structures including super-rotation in the Venusian atmosphere and the formation of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Exact solutions of the spherical energy-enstrophy models for rotating planetary atmospheres by Kac's method of steepest descent predicted phase transitions to super-rotating solid-body flows at high energy to enstrophy ratio for all planetary spins and to sub-rotating modes if the planetary spin is large enough. These canonical statistical ensembles are well-defined for the long-range energy interactions that arise from 2D fluid flows on compact oriented manifolds such as the surface of the sphere and torus. This is because in Fourier space available through Hodge theory, the energy terms are exactly diagonalizable and hence has zero range, leading to well-defined heat baths.
Regulation of signal duration and the statistical dynamics of kinase activation by scaffold proteins
Jason W. Locasale; Arup K. Chakraborty
2008-10-29
Scaffolding proteins that direct the assembly of multiple kinases into a spatially localized signaling complex are often essential for the maintenance of an appropriate biological response. Although scaffolds are widely believed to have dramatic effects on the dynamics of signal propagation, the mechanisms that underlie these consequences are not well understood. Here, Monte Carlo simulations of a model kinase cascade are used to investigate how the temporal characteristics of signaling cascades can be influenced by the presence of scaffold proteins. Specifically, we examine the effects of spatially localizing kinase components on a scaffold on signaling dynamics. The simulations indicate that a major effect that scaffolds exert on the dynamics of cell signaling is to control how the activation of protein kinases is distributed over time. Scaffolds can influence the timing of kinase activation by allowing for kinases to become activated over a broad range of times, thus allowing for signaling at both early and late times. Scaffold concentrations that result in optimal signal amplitude also result in the broadest distributions of times over which kinases are activated. These calculations provide insights into one mechanism that describes how the duration of a signal can potentially be regulated in a scaffold mediated protein kinase cascade. Our results illustrate another complexity in the broad array of control properties that emerge from the physical effects of spatially localizing components of kinase cascades on scaffold proteins.
Double precision errors in the logistic map: Statistical study and dynamical interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oteo, J. A.; Ros, J.
2007-09-01
The nature of the round-off errors that occur in the usual double precision computation of the logistic map is studied in detail. Different iterative regimes from the whole panoply of behaviors exhibited in the bifurcation diagram are examined, histograms of errors in trajectories given, and for the case of fully developed chaos an explicit formula is found. It is shown that the statistics of the largest double precision error as a function of the map parameter is characterized by jumps whose location is determined by certain boundary crossings in the bifurcation diagram. Both jumps and locations seem to present geometric convergence characterized by the two first Feigenbaum constants. Eventually, a comparison with Benford’s law for the distribution of the leading digit of compilation of numbers is discussed.
DYNAMIC STABILITY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: STATISTICALLY INCONCLUSIVE RESULTS FROM ENSEMBLE INTEGRATIONS
Zeebe, Richard E.
2015-01-01
Due to the chaotic nature of the solar system, the question of its long-term stability can only be answered in a statistical sense, for instance, based on numerical ensemble integrations of nearby orbits. Destabilization of the inner planets, leading to close encounters and/or collisions can be initiated through a large increase in Mercury's eccentricity, with a currently assumed likelihood of ?1%. However, little is known at present about the robustness of this number. Here I report ensemble integrations of the full equations of motion of the eight planets and Pluto over 5 Gyr, including contributions from general relativity. The results show that different numerical algorithms lead to statistically different results for the evolution of Mercury's eccentricity (e{sub M}). For instance, starting at present initial conditions (e{sub M}?0.21), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over 5 Gyr is, on average, significantly higher in symplectic ensemble integrations using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates and stricter error control. In contrast, starting at a possible future configuration (e{sub M}?0.53), Mercury's maximum eccentricity achieved over the subsequent 500 Myr is, on average, significantly lower using heliocentric rather than Jacobi coordinates. For example, the probability for e{sub M} to increase beyond 0.53 over 500 Myr is >90% (Jacobi) versus only 40%-55% (heliocentric). This poses a dilemma because the physical evolution of the real system—and its probabilistic behavior—cannot depend on the coordinate system or the numerical algorithm chosen to describe it. Some tests of the numerical algorithms suggest that symplectic integrators using heliocentric coordinates underestimate the odds for destabilization of Mercury's orbit at high initial e{sub M}.
Escape beam statistics and dynamical properties for a periodically corrugated waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Silva, Mário R.; Leonel, Edson D.
2014-04-01
Some escape and dynamical properties for a beam of light inside a corrugated waveguide are discussed by using Fresnel reflectance. The system is described by a mapping and is controlled by a parameter ? defining a transition from integrability (?=0) to non integrability (??0). The phase space is mixed containing periodic islands, chaotic seas and invariant tori. The histogram of escaping orbits is shown to be scaling invariant with respect to ?. The waveguide is immersed in a region with different refractive index. Different optical materials are used to overcame the results.
Beu, T.A.
2003-04-01
The fragmentation statistics of (H{sub 2}O){sub N} and (NH{sub 3}){sub N} clusters (N=100-1000) is investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. The fragment size distributions are found to be well described by power laws over a wide range of excitation energies. The maximum fragment size depends linearly on the cluster size. A compact analytical model, implying the maximum fragment size and the power-law exponent of the fragment size distribution, is shown to fit the average fragment size profiles quite well. It is demonstrated that the proposed relationship can be used to predict reliable fragment size distributions, starting from fits of the maximum and the average fragment sizes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Avissar, Roni
1992-01-01
A parameterization of land surfaces based on a statistical-dynamical approach is presented. With this approach, the most important characteristics of the soil-plant-atmosphere system that affect the partition of energy (e.g., plant stomatal conductance, soil humidity, and surface roughness) are represented by a pdf rather than by a single 'representative' value. A primary simplified version of this parameterization is used to estimate the land-surface energy fluxes that are produced at the grid scale by various distributions of stomatal conductance under a broad range of environmental conditions. To demonstrate the approach's potential, results are compared with the same fluxes calculated with a big leaf model using the mean stomatal conductance that corresponds to the distributions. Large absolute and relative differences are obtained between the two schemes for many combinations of stomatal conductance pdfs and environmental conditions.
Nichols, J.M.; Moniz, L.; Nichols, J.D.; Pecora, L.M.; Cooch, E.
2005-01-01
A number of important questions in ecology involve the possibility of interactions or ?coupling? among potential components of ecological systems. The basic question of whether two components are coupled (exhibit dynamical interdependence) is relevant to investigations of movement of animals over space, population regulation, food webs and trophic interactions, and is also useful in the design of monitoring programs. For example, in spatially extended systems, coupling among populations in different locations implies the existence of redundant information in the system and the possibility of exploiting this redundancy in the development of spatial sampling designs. One approach to the identification of coupling involves study of the purported mechanisms linking system components. Another approach is based on time series of two potential components of the same system and, in previous ecological work, has relied on linear cross-correlation analysis. Here we present two different attractor-based approaches, continuity and mutual prediction, for determining the degree to which two population time series (e.g., at different spatial locations) are coupled. Both approaches are demonstrated on a one-dimensional predator?prey model system exhibiting complex dynamics. Of particular interest is the spatial asymmetry introduced into the model as linearly declining resource for the prey over the domain of the spatial coordinate. Results from these approaches are then compared to the more standard cross-correlation analysis. In contrast to cross-correlation, both continuity and mutual prediction are clearly able to discern the asymmetry in the flow of information through this system.
Financial price dynamics and pedestrian counterflows: A comparison of statistical stylized facts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, Daniel R.; Sornette, Didier; Helbing, Dirk
2013-01-01
We propose and document the evidence for an analogy between the dynamics of granular counterflows in the presence of bottlenecks or restrictions and financial price formation processes. Using extensive simulations, we find that the counterflows of simulated pedestrians through a door display eight stylized facts observed in financial markets when the density around the door is compared with the logarithm of the price. Finding so many stylized facts is very rare indeed among all agent-based models of financial markets. The stylized properties are present when the agents in the pedestrian model are assumed to display a zero-intelligent behavior. If agents are given decision-making capacity and adapt to partially follow the majority, periods of herding behavior may additionally occur. This generates the very slow decay of the autocorrelation of absolute return due to an intermittent dynamics. Our findings suggest that the stylized facts in the fluctuations of the financial prices result from a competition of two groups with opposite interests in the presence of a constraint funneling the flow of transactions to a narrow band of prices with limited liquidity.
How electronic dynamics with Pauli exclusion produces Fermi-Dirac statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Triet S.; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Parkhill, John
2015-04-01
It is important that any dynamics method approaches the correct population distribution at long times. In this paper, we derive a one-body reduced density matrix dynamics for electrons in energetic contact with a bath. We obtain a remarkable equation of motion which shows that in order to reach equilibrium properly, rates of electron transitions depend on the density matrix. Even though the bath drives the electrons towards a Boltzmann distribution, hole blocking factors in our equation of motion cause the electronic populations to relax to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. These factors are an old concept, but we show how they can be derived with a combination of time-dependent perturbation theory and the extended normal ordering of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg for a general electronic state. The resulting non-equilibrium kinetic equations generalize the usual Redfield theory to many-electron systems, while ensuring that the orbital occupations remain between zero and one. In numerical applications of our equations, we show that relaxation rates of molecules are not constant because of the blocking effect. Other applications to model atomic chains are also presented which highlight the importance of treating both dephasing and relaxation. Finally, we show how the bath localizes the electron density matrix.
A statistical study of plasma sheet dynamics using ISEE 1 and 2 energetic particle flux data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dandouras, J.; Reme, H.; Saint-Marc, A.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Parks, G. K.
1986-01-01
Plasma sheet dynamics during substorms are studied by analyzing 461 cases of transient dropout events of the 1.5 and 6-keV particle fluxes detected by ISEE 1 and 2 satellites. The instruments for detecting low- and high-energy particles are described. The spatial distribution of flux dropout events, and the events' relationship to magnetospheric activity level are examined. Substorm events without observed flux dropout events are investigated. The data reveal that the flux dropout distribution is isotropic, between 12-23 earth radii, and is present in the entire nightside plasma sheet; and the substorms without flux dropout are more frequent near earth and magnetospheric flanks. It is observed that tailward of 12 earth radii the flux dropout events and substorms without flux dropout are similar. The Chao et al. (1977) MHD rarefaction wave propagation model and the Hones (1973, 1980) near-tail, X-type magnetic neutral line formation model are discussed and compared to the experimental data. It is noted that neither model explains the plasma sheet dynamics observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquelin, E.; Adhikari, S.; Sinou, J.-J.; Friswell, M. I.
2015-11-01
Polynomial chaos solution for the frequency response of linear non-proportionally damped dynamic systems has been considered. It has been observed that for lightly damped systems the convergence of the solution can be very poor in the vicinity of the deterministic resonance frequencies. To address this, Aitken's transformation and its generalizations are suggested. The proposed approach is successfully applied to the sequences defined by the first two moments of the responses, and this process significantly accelerates the polynomial chaos convergence. In particular, a 2-dof system with respectively 1 and 2 parameter uncertainties has been studied. The first two moments of the frequency response were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, polynomial chaos expansion and Aitken's transformation of the polynomial chaos expansion. Whereas 200 polynomials are required to have a good agreement with Monte Carlo results around the deterministic eigenfrequencies, less than 50 polynomials transformed by the Aitken's method are enough. This latter result is improved if a generalization of Aitken's method (recursive Aitken's transformation, Shank's transformation) is applied. With the proposed convergence acceleration, polynomial chaos may be reconsidered as an efficient method to estimate the first two moments of a random dynamic response.
How electronic dynamics with Pauli exclusion produces Fermi-Dirac statistics
Nguyen, Triet S.; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Parkhill, John
2015-04-07
It is important that any dynamics method approaches the correct population distribution at long times. In this paper, we derive a one-body reduced density matrix dynamics for electrons in energetic contact with a bath. We obtain a remarkable equation of motion which shows that in order to reach equilibrium properly, rates of electron transitions depend on the density matrix. Even though the bath drives the electrons towards a Boltzmann distribution, hole blocking factors in our equation of motion cause the electronic populations to relax to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. These factors are an old concept, but we show how they can be derived with a combination of time-dependent perturbation theory and the extended normal ordering of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg for a general electronic state. The resulting non-equilibrium kinetic equations generalize the usual Redfield theory to many-electron systems, while ensuring that the orbital occupations remain between zero and one. In numerical applications of our equations, we show that relaxation rates of molecules are not constant because of the blocking effect. Other applications to model atomic chains are also presented which highlight the importance of treating both dephasing and relaxation. Finally, we show how the bath localizes the electron density matrix.
Ramalingam, Shivaji G; Hamon, Lomig; Pré, Pascaline; Giraudet, Sylvain; Le Coq, Laurence; Le Cloirec, Pierre
2012-07-01
Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is one of the best remediation techniques for controlling industrial air pollution. In this paper, a quantitative predictor model for the characteristic adsorption energy (E) of the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm model has been established with R(2) value of 0.94. A predictor model for characteristic adsorption energy (E) has been established by using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis in a statistical package MINITAB. The experimental value of characteristic adsorption energy was computed by modeling the isotherm equilibrium data (which contain 120 isotherms involving five VOCs and eight activated carbons at 293, 313, 333, and 353 K) with the Gauss-Newton method in a statistical package R-STAT. The MLR model has been validated with the experimental equilibrium isotherm data points, and it will be implemented in the dynamic adsorption simulation model PROSIM. By implementing this model, it predicts an enormous range of 1200 isotherm equilibrium coefficients of DR model at different temperatures such as 293, 313, 333, and 353K (each isotherm has 10 equilibrium points by changing the concentration) just by a simple MLR characteristic energy model without any experiments. PMID:22503987
A statistical and dynamical analysis of some Winter and Summer temperature extremes in Europe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, Cristina; Santos, João
2013-04-01
Over the last decades Europe has been facing strong extreme events, particularly temperature extremes, with foremost influence on economy, agriculture, water management and society in general. The study of the large-scale atmospheric mechanisms linked to their occurrence is thus significant and is going to be discussed for the winter and summer seasons in this region for 50 years (1961-2010). Additionally, a canonical correlation analysis, coupled with a principal component analysis (BPCCA), is applied between the monthly mean sea level pressure fields and the monthly occurrences of four temperature extreme indices (TN10p - cold nights, TN90p - warm nights, and TX90p - warm days, TX10p - cold days) within a large Euro-Atlantic sector. Each co-variability mode represents a large-scale forcing on the occurrence of those extremes. North Atlantic Oscillation-like patterns and strong anomalies in the atmospheric flow westwards of the British Isles are leading couplings between large-scale atmospheric circulation and wintertime occurrences of both cold (warm) nights and warm (cold) days in Europe. Although summer couplings show lower coherence between warm and cold events, their key driving mechanisms are significant to explain their atmospheric anomalies. In order to get a better insight for both seasons of these extremes, the main features of the statistical distributions of the minima (TNn and TXn) and maxima (TXx and TNx) are also analyzed. Moreover, statistically significant downward (upward) trends are detected in the cold nights and days (warm nights and days) occurrences over the period 1961-2010 throughout Europe for the winters. These tendencies can also be found in summer for the cold nights and warm days, which is in clear agreement with the overall warming. For the summer warm nights and cold days these tendencies are weaker and its signal is geographically dependent. This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692.
Avalanche statistics and time-resolved grain dynamics for a driven heap
A. R. Abate; H. Katsuragi; D. J. Durian
2007-08-08
We probe the dynamics of intermittent avalanches caused by steady addition of grains to a quasi-two dimensional heap. To characterize the time-dependent average avalanche flow speed v(t), we image the top free surface. To characterize the grain fluctuation speed dv(t), we use Speckle-Visibility Spectroscopy. During an avalanche, we find that the fluctuation speed is approximately one-tenth the average flow speed, and that these speeds are largest near the beginning of an event. We also find that the distribution of event durations is peaked, and that event sizes are correlated with the time interval since the end of the previous event. At high rates of grain addition, where successive avalanches merge into smooth continuous flow, the relationship between average and fluctuation speeds changes to dv Sqrt[v].
A stochastic-dynamic model for global atmospheric mass field statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghil, M.; Balgovind, R.; Kalnay-Rivas, E.
1981-01-01
A model that yields the spatial correlation structure of atmospheric mass field forecast errors was developed. The model is governed by the potential vorticity equation forced by random noise. Expansion in spherical harmonics and correlation function was computed analytically using the expansion coefficients. The finite difference equivalent was solved using a fast Poisson solver and the correlation function was computed using stratified sampling of the individual realization of F(omega) and hence of phi(omega). A higher order equation for gamma was derived and solved directly in finite differences by two successive applications of the fast Poisson solver. The methods were compared for accuracy and efficiency and the third method was chosen as clearly superior. The results agree well with the latitude dependence of observed atmospheric correlation data. The value of the parameter c sub o which gives the best fit to the data is close to the value expected from dynamical considerations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habasaki, J.; Ngai, K. L.
2013-08-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the structures along the pressure-volume diagram of network-glasses and melts exemplified by the lithium disilicate system. Experimentally, densification of the disilicate glass by elevated pressure is known and this feature is reasonably reproduced by the simulations. During the process of densification or decompression of the system, the statistics of Qn (i.e., SiO4 tetrahedron unit with n bridging oxygen linked to the silicon atom where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4) change, and the percentage of the Q3 structures show the maximum value near atmospheric pressure at around Tg. Changes of Qn distribution are driven by the changes of volume (or pressure) and are explained by the different volumes of structural units. Furthermore, some pairs of network structures with equi-volume, but having different distributions of Qn (or different heterogeneity), are found. Therefore, for molecular dynamics simulations of the Qn distributions, it is important to take into account the complex phase behavior including poly-structures with different heterogeneities as well as the position of the system in the P-V-T diagram.
Canavan, G.H.
1988-01-01
This report reviews previous attempt to develop strategic defenses, the technologies currently under consideration, their main unknowns, and their likely performance relative to evolving threats. 28 refs.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...
Ly, Cheng; Tranchina, Daniel
2009-02-01
In the probability density function (PDF) approach to neural network modeling, a common simplifying assumption is that the arrival times of elementary postsynaptic events are governed by a Poisson process. This assumption ignores temporal correlations in the input that sometimes have important physiological consequences. We extend PDF methods to models with synaptic event times governed by any modulated renewal process. We focus on the integrate-and-fire neuron with instantaneous synaptic kinetics and a random elementary excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), A. Between presynaptic events, the membrane voltage, v, decays exponentially toward rest, while s, the time since the last synaptic input event, evolves with unit velocity. When a synaptic event arrives, v jumps by A, and s is reset to zero. If v crosses the threshold voltage, an action potential occurs, and v is reset to v(reset). The probability per unit time of a synaptic event at time t, given the elapsed time s since the last event, h(s, t), depends on specifics of the renewal process. We study how regularity of the train of synaptic input events affects output spike rate, PDF and coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike interval, and the autocorrelation function of the output spike train. In the limit of a deterministic, clocklike train of input events, the PDF of the interspike interval converges to a sum of delta functions, with coefficients determined by the PDF for A. The limiting autocorrelation function of the output spike train is a sum of delta functions whose coefficients fall under a damped oscillatory envelope. When the EPSP CV, sigma A/mu A, is equal to 0.45, a CV for the intersynaptic event interval, sigma T/mu T = 0.35, is functionally equivalent to a deterministic periodic train of synaptic input events (CV = 0) with respect to spike statistics. We discuss the relevance to neural network simulations. PMID:19431264
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaittinada Ayar, Pradeebane; Vrac, Mathieu; Bastin, Sophie; Carreau, Julie; Déqué, Michel; Gallardo, Clemente
2015-05-01
Given the coarse spatial resolution of General Circulation Models, finer scale projections of variables affected by local-scale processes such as precipitation are often needed to drive impacts models, for example in hydrology or ecology among other fields. This need for high-resolution data leads to apply projection techniques called downscaling. Downscaling can be performed according to two approaches: dynamical and statistical models. The latter approach is constituted by various statistical families conceptually different. If several studies have made some intercomparisons of existing downscaling models, none of them included all those families and approaches in a manner that all the models are equally considered. To this end, the present study conducts an intercomparison exercise under the EURO- and MED-CORDEX initiative hindcast framework. Six Statistical Downscaling Models (SDMs) and five Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are compared in terms of precipitation outputs. The downscaled simulations are driven by the ERAinterim reanalyses over the 1989-2008 period over a common area at 0.44° of resolution. The 11 models are evaluated according to four aspects of the precipitation: occurrence, intensity, as well as spatial and temporal properties. For each aspect, one or several indicators are computed to discriminate the models. The results indicate that marginal properties of rain occurrence and intensity are better modelled by stochastic and resampling-based SDMs, while spatial and temporal variability are better modelled by RCMs and resampling-based SDM. These general conclusions have to be considered with caution because they rely on the chosen indicators and could change when considering other specific criteria. The indicators suit specific purpose and therefore the model evaluation results depend on the end-users point of view and how they intend to use with model outputs. Nevertheless, building on previous intercomparison exercises, this study provides a consistent intercomparison framework, including both SDMs and RCMs, which is designed to be flexible, i.e., other models and indicators can easily be added. More generally, this framework provides a tool to select the downscaling model to be used according to the statistical properties of the local-scale climate data to drive properly specific impact models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Joaquim G.; Reyers, Mark; Mömken, Julia
2014-05-01
A statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach for the regionalisation of wind energy output (Eout) over Europe with special focus on Germany is proposed. SDD uses an extended circulation weather type (CWT) analysis on global daily MSLP fields with the central point being located over Germany. 77 weather classes based on the associated circulation weather type and the intensity of the geostrophic flow are identified. Representatives of these classes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. By using weather class frequencies of different datasets the simulated representatives are recombined to probability density functions (PDFs) of near-surface wind speed and finally to Eout of a sample wind turbine for present and future climate. This is performed for reanalysis, decadal hindcasts and long-term future projections. For evaluation purposes results of SDD are compared to wind observations and to simulated Eout of purely dynamical downscaling (DD) methods. For the present climate SDD is able to simulate realistic PDFs of 10m-wind speed for most stations in Germany. The resulting spatial Eout patterns are similar to DD simulated Eout. In terms of decadal hindcasts results of SDD are similar to DD simulated Eout over Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, and Benelux, for which high correlations between annual Eout timeseries of SDD and DD are detected for selected hindcasts. Lower correlation is found for other European countries. It is demonstrated that SDD can be used to downscale the full ensemble of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. Long-term climate change projections in SRES scenarios of ECHAM5/MPI-OM as obtained by SDD agree well to results of other studies using DD methods, with increasing Eout over Northern Europe and a negative trend over Southern Europe. Despite some biases it is concluded that SDD is an adequate tool to assess regional wind energy changes in large model ensembles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Moemken, Julia
2015-04-01
A statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach for the regionalisation of wind energy output (Eout) over Europe with special focus on Germany is proposed. SDD uses an extended circulation weather type (CWT) analysis on global daily MSLP fields with the central point being located over Germany. 77 weather classes based on the associated circulation weather type and the intensity of the geostrophic flow are identified. Representatives of these classes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. By using weather class frequencies of different datasets the simulated representatives are recombined to probability density functions (PDFs) of near-surface wind speed and finally to Eout of a sample wind turbine for present and future climate. This is performed for reanalysis, decadal hindcasts and long-term future projections. For evaluation purposes results of SDD are compared to wind observations and to simulated Eout of purely dynamical downscaling (DD) methods. For the present climate SDD is able to simulate realistic PDFs of 10m-wind speed for most stations in Germany. The resulting spatial Eout patterns are similar to DD simulated Eout. In terms of decadal hindcasts results of SDD are similar to DD simulated Eout over Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, and Benelux, for which high correlations between annual Eout timeseries of SDD and DD are detected for selected hindcasts. Lower correlation is found for other European countries. It is demonstrated that SDD can be used to downscale the full ensemble of the MPI-ESM decadal prediction system. Long-term climate change projections in SRES scenarios of ECHAM5/MPI-OM as obtained by SDD agree well to results of other studies using DD methods, with increasing Eout over Northern Europe and a negative trend over Southern Europe. Despite some biases it is concluded that SDD is an adequate tool to assess regional wind energy changes in large model ensembles.
Global nannoplankton dynamics across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: A statistical approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, L. J.; Bralower, T. J.; Patzkowsky, M.; Kump, L.
2012-12-01
Global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55.8 Ma) had a profound effect on life on land and in the ocean. With global temperatures rising 5°C over ~20 kyr, the PETM is considered to be the most analogous interval to modern day climate change. Calcareous nannoplankton, a group of calcifying marine phytoplankton, have been extensively studied across this event. Results from these studies indicate nannoplankton assemblages responded to changing surface water temperatures and nutrient availability. Together, these records can provide a global picture of nannofossil assemblage dynamics during this critical interval. Issues such as the timing and nature of assemblage change on a global scale, the rate of assemblage change, and how assemblage shifts differ regionally can be further resolved. Here we use an ordination technique (detrended correspondence analysis; DCA), which condenses complex assemblage data and displays it in a simple, interpretable way. We applied the DCA to previously published nannofossil abundance data from 7 globally distributed sites and compared these results to published benthic and bulk ?13C records across the PETM. Our initial results show that changes in the nannofossil assemblage, as displayed through DCA 1, closely follow the trends of the ?13C curves at each site. This suggests that the organisms are closely linked to the carbon cycle in some way during this time period. From this study we will have a better understanding of how global nannoplankton populations responded to rapid climate change and when environmental alterations began to take place.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Kensuke; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Odaka, Masatsugu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki
2014-11-01
A series of long-term numerical simulations of moist convection in Jupiter's atmosphere are performed to investigate idealized characteristics of vertical structures of multi-composition clouds and convective motions associated with them, varying the deep abundances of condensible gases and the time constant of the auto-conversion process that is one of the most questionable parameters in the cloud microphysical parameterization. The simulations are conducted using a two-dimensional cloud resolving model that explicitly represents convective motion and microphysics of the three cloud components, H2O, NH3, and NH4SH. The results generally represent the following characteristics qualitatively similar to those found in Sugiyama et al (2011); stable layers associated with condensation and chemical reaction well behave as dynamical and compositional boundaries, intense cumulonimbus clouds develop with distinct temporal intermittency, and the active transport associated with the cumulonimbus clouds results in an establishment of the mean vertical profiles of condensates and condensible gases that are distinctly different from the hitherto accepted three-layered structure. Our results also demonstrate that the period of the intermittent cloud activity is roughly proportional to the deep abundance of H2O gas. The moist convection layer becomes potentially unstable with respect to an air parcel rising from below the H2O lifting condensation level (LCL) well before the development of cumulonimbus clouds. The instability accumulates until an appropriate trigger is provided by the H2O condensate that falls down through the H2O LCL; the H2O condensate drives a downward flow below the H2O LCL by latent cooling associated with re-evaporation of the condensate, and the returning updrafts carry moist air from below to the moist convection layer. The active cloud development is terminated when the instability is completely exhausted. The period of the intermittency is roughly equal to the time obtained by dividing the mean temperature increase caused by active cumulonimbus development, by the rate of body cooling.
Groma, István
Statistical dynamics of dislocation systems: The influence of dislocation-dislocation correlations of interacting dislocations gives rise to various patterning phenomena. A crucial and still open question is whether the long range dislocation- dislocation interactions which do not have an intrinsic range can lead
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA has been shown to enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) in the acidic compartment of bovine rumen in response to N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by the rumen bacteria. Bacteria that survive the rumen environment subsequentl...
Cerpa, Alberto E.
) weather systems can succeed in es- timating real-time and/or forecasting solar power availabil- itySDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar Irradiance Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L data for ground solar irradiance (direct normal and global irradiance) is a major obstacle for the de
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warrier, M.; Bhardwaj, U.; Hemani, H.; Schneider, R.; Mutzke, A.; Valsakumar, M. C.
2015-12-01
We report on molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations carried out in fcc Cu and bcc W using the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) code to study (i) the statistical variations in the number of interstitials and vacancies produced by energetic primary knock-on atoms (PKA) (0.1-5 keV) directed in random directions and (ii) the in-cascade cluster size distributions. It is seen that around 60-80 random directions have to be explored for the average number of displaced atoms to become steady in the case of fcc Cu, whereas for bcc W around 50-60 random directions need to be explored. The number of Frenkel pairs produced in the MD simulations are compared with that from the Binary Collision Approximation Monte Carlo (BCA-MC) code SDTRIM-SP and the results from the NRT model. It is seen that a proper choice of the damage energy, i.e. the energy required to create a stable interstitial, is essential for the BCA-MC results to match the MD results. On the computational front it is seen that in-situ processing saves the need to input/output (I/O) atomic position data of several tera-bytes when exploring a large number of random directions and there is no difference in run-time because the extra run-time in processing data is offset by the time saved in I/O.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack; Cartwright, Julyan; Gonzalez, Diego; Piro, Oreste
2010-10-01
Some time ago two apparently dissimilar presentations were given at the 2007 Helmholtz Workshop in Berlin. One by J. Douthett and R. Krantz focused on the commonality between the mathematical descriptions of musical scales and the long-ranged, one-dimensional, anti-ferromagnetic Ising model of statistical physics. The other by J. Cartwright, D. Gonzalez, and O. Piro articulated a nonlinear dynamical model of pitch perception. Both approaches lead to a Farey series devil's staircase structure. In the first case, the ground state magnetic phase diagram of the Ising model is a Farey series devil's staircase. In the second case, the ear is modeled as a nonlinear system leading to a three-frequency resonant pitch perception model of the auditory system that exhibits a devil's staircase phase-locked structure. In this poster we present a summary of each of these works side-by-side to illuminate the link between these two seemingly disparate systems. Adapted from JMM Vol. 4, No. 1, 57, Mar. 2010.
Carter, S.; Mizell, D.
1989-07-01
The design of ISI's SDI architecture simulator was intended to minimize the software development necessary to add new simulation models to the system or to refine the detail of existing ones. The key software design approach used to accomplish this goal was the modeling of each simulated defense system component by a software object called a 'technology module.' Each technology module provided a carefully defined abstract interface between the component model and the rest of the simulation system, particularly the simulation models of battle managers. This report documents the first test of the validity of this software design approach. A new technology module modeling a kinetic kill vehicle' (KKV) was added to the simulator. Although this technology module had an impact on several parts of the simulation system in the form of new data structures and functions that had to be created, the integration of the new module was accomplished without the necessity of replacing any existing code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renger, A.
A substructure for the wheel sets is developed. The problem of relating the substructures to the general body system by the calculation of statistical linearized, generalized force vectors for various linear and nonlinear joining elements is solved. Nonlinear spring and damper connections, Coulomb translation friction dampers, and Coulomb rotation friction dampers are covered. Statistically linearized dynamic connecting elements are modelized. It is shown how the general differential equation system is to be constructed. The iteration process for the determination of the free linearization parameter is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslamizadeh, H.
2015-09-01
The fission probability, pre-scission neutron, proton and alpha multiplicities, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution and the fission time have been calculated for the compound nuclei 200Pb and 197Tl based on the modified statistical model and four-dimensional dynamical model. In dynamical calculations, dissipation was generated through the chaos weighted wall and window friction formula. The projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus to the symmetry axis, K, was considered as the fourth-dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. In our dynamical calculations, we have used a constant dissipation coefficient of K, {? }K=0.077{({{MeV}} {{zs}})}-{1/2}, and a non-constant dissipation coefficient to reproduce the above-mentioned experimental data. Comparison of the theoretical results of the fission probability and pre-scission particle multiplicities with the experimental data showed that the difference between the results of both dynamical models is small whereas, for the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, it is slightly large. Furthermore, comparison of the results of the modified statistical model with the above-mentioned experimental data showed that with choosing appropriate values of the temperature coefficient of the effective potential, ? , and the scaling factor of the fission-barrier height, {r}s, the experimental data were satisfactorily reproduced.
... statistics are numbers about some aspect of health. Statistics about births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are sometimes called "vital statistics." Researchers use statistics to see patterns of diseases ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Alados-Arboledas, L.
2012-01-01
This work presents the first analysis of longterm correlative day-to-night columnar aerosol optical properties. The aim is to better understand columnar aerosol dynamic from ground-based observations, which are poorly studied until now. To this end we have used a combination of sun-and-star photometry measurements acquired in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) from 2007 to 2010. For the whole study period, mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) around 440 nm (+/-standard deviation) is 0.18 +/- 0.10 and 0.19 +/- 0.11 for daytime and nighttime, respectively, while the mean Angstr¨om exponent (alpha ) is 1.0 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 for daytime and nighttime. The ANOVA statistical tests reveal that there are no significant differences between AOD and obtained at daytime and those at nighttime. Additionally, the mean daytime values of AOD and obtained during this study period are coherent with the values obtained in the surrounding AERONET stations. On the other hand, AOD around 440 nm present evident seasonal patterns characterised by large values in summer (mean value of 0.20 +/- 0.10 both at daytime and nighttime) and low values in winter (mean value of 0.15 +/- 0.09 at daytime and 0.17 +/- 0.10 at nighttime). The Angstr¨om exponents also present seasonal patterns, but with low values in summer (mean values of 0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 at dayand night-time) and relatively large values in winter (mean values of 1.2 +/- 0.4 and 1.0 +/- 0.3 at daytime and nighttime). These seasonal patterns are explained by the differences in the meteorological conditions and by the differences in the strength of the aerosol sources. To take more insight about the changes in aerosol particles between day and night, the spectral differences of the Angstrom exponent as function of the Angstr¨om exponent are also studied. These analyses reveal increases of the fine mode radius and of the fine mode contribution to AOD during nighttime, being more remarkable in the summer seasons. These variations are explained by the changes of the local aerosol sources and by the meteorological conditions between daytime and nighttime, as well as aerosol aging processes. Case studies during summer and winter for different aerosol loads and types are also presented to clearly illustrate these findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, Jamir; Silva, Alessandro
2014-01-01
We discuss the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum Ising chain following a quantum quench of the transverse field and in the presence of a Gaussian time-dependent noise. We discuss the probability distribution of the work done on the system both for static and dynamic noise. While the effect of static noise is to smooth the low energy threshold of the statistic of the work, appearing for sudden quenches, a dynamical noise protocol affects also the spectral weight of such features. We also provide a detailed derivation of the kinetic equation for the Green's functions on the Keldysh contour and the time evolution of observables of physical interest, extending previously reported results [Marino and Silva, Phys. Rev. B 86, 060408 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.060408], and discussing the extension of the concept of prethermalization which can be used to study noisy quantum many-body Hamiltonians driven out of equilibrium.
Chang, Bey-Dih; Watanabe, Keiko; Broude, Eugenia V.; Fang, Jing; Poole, Jason C.; Kalinichenko, Tatiana V.; Roninson, Igor B.
2000-01-01
Induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1 triggers cell growth arrest associated with senescence and damage response. Overexpression of p21 from an inducible promoter in a human cell line induces growth arrest and phenotypic features of senescence. cDNA array hybridization showed that p21 expression selectively inhibits a set of genes involved in mitosis, DNA replication, segregation, and repair. The kinetics of inhibition of these genes on p21 induction parallels the onset of growth arrest, and their reexpression on release from p21 precedes the reentry of cells into cell cycle, indicating that inhibition of cell-cycle progression genes is a mechanism of p21-induced growth arrest. p21 also up-regulates multiple genes that have been associated with senescence or implicated in age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyloidosis, and arthritis. Most of the tested p21-induced genes were not activated in cells that had been growth arrested by serum starvation, but some genes were induced in both forms of growth arrest. Several p21-induced genes encode secreted proteins with paracrine effects on cell growth and apoptosis. In agreement with the overexpression of such proteins, conditioned media from p21-induced cells were found to have antiapoptotic and mitogenic activity. These results suggest that the effects of p21 induction on gene expression in senescent cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and age-related diseases. PMID:10760295
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russotto, P.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Baran, V.; Berceanu, I.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Cap, T.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Chbihi, A.; Colonna, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Di Toro, M.; Francalanza, L.; Frankland, J.; Galichet, E.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Geraci, E.; Gnoffo, B.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guazzoni, P.; Kowalski, S.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzanò, G.; Le Neindre, N.; Lombardo, I.; Maiolino, C.; Minniti, T.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Pirrone, S.; P?aneta, R.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Rizzo, F.; Schmidt, K.; Siwek-Wilczy?ska, K.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Wilczy?ski, J.; Zetta, L.; Zipper, W.
2015-01-01
Background: In heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies the production of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) is due to different reaction mechanisms and different time scales, ranging from fast dynamical processes to statistical emission from the equilibrated system. Purpose: We compare the IMF statistical and dynamical emission probabilities in collisions of a neutron-rich 124Sn+64Ni system and a neutron-poor 112Sn+58Ni system at the laboratory energy of 35 A MeV. Method: The IMFs production mechanism in semiperipheral reactions has been investigated in our previous works. In this paper, the analysis is expanded for the same set of data and production cross sections have been evaluated for dynamical and statistical emission in a coherent way for light and heavy fragments. Results: The data analysis has evidenced a strong competition between dynamical and statistical emission mechanisms. Probability of the dynamical emission of IMFs is strongly influenced by the (N /Z ) ratio of the colliding system. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that the statistical emission is equally probable for the two systems, while the dynamical emission is enhanced for the neutron-rich system, especially for heavy fragments (Z ?6 ). The observed effect points at a high sensitivity of the prompt-dynamical emission to the (N /Z ) ratio of a given system.
LaBry, Zachary Alexander
2015-01-01
One of the most difficult challenges facing the development of modern gas turbines-for power generation, and propulsion-is the mitigation of dynamic instabilities in the presence of efficiency and emissions constraints. ...
The Linked ArcView 2.1TM and XGobi Environment --GIS, Dynamic Statistical Graphics, and Spatial Data
Symanzik, Jürgen
and geographic information systems. maintained within a geo- graphic information system (GIS). We developed a bidirectional link between Arc information system (GIS), ArcView 2.1TM, and an interactive dynamic graphics program in the X Window System
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM SAMUEL WONG Department of Statistics Harvard literature. The goal of refinement is to generate a structure prediction that improves upon a given homology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jun-Hu; Yang, Liu; Hou, Wei; Liu, Gang; Zeng, Yu-Xing
2015-05-01
The cold vortex is a major high impact weather system in northeast China during the warm season, its frequent activities also affect the short-term climate throughout eastern China. How to objectively and quantitatively predict the intensity trend of the cold vortex is an urgent and difficult problem for current short-term climate prediction. Based on the dynamical-statistical combining principle, the predicted results of the Beijing Climate Center’s global atmosphere-ocean coupled model and rich historical data are used for dynamic-statistical extra-seasonal prediction testing and actual prediction of the summer 500-hPa geopotential height over the cold vortex activity area. The results show that this method can significantly reduce the model’s prediction error over the cold vortex activity area, and improve the prediction skills. Furthermore, the results of the sensitivity test reveal that the predicted results are highly dependent on the quantity of similar factors and the number of similar years. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41375078), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB955902 and 2013CB430204), and the Special Scientific Research Fund of Public Welfare Profession of China (Grant No. GYHY201306021).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volchenkov, D.; Blanchard, Ph.
2007-02-01
Different models of random walks on the dual graphs of compact urban structures are considered. Analysis of access times between streets helps to detect the city modularity. The statistical mechanics approach to the ensembles of lazy random walkers is developed. The complexity of city modularity can be measured by an informationlike parameter which plays the role of an individual fingerprint of Genius loci. Global structural properties of a city can be characterized by the thermodynamic parameters calculated in the random walk problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez-Carrasco, Susana; González-Sánchez, Lola; Aguado, Alfredo; Sanz-Sanz, Cristina; Zanchet, Alexandre; Roncero, Octavio
2012-09-01
In this work we present a dynamically biased statistical model to describe the evolution of the title reaction from statistical to a more direct mechanism, using quasi-classical trajectories (QCT). The method is based on the one previously proposed by Park and Light [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044305 (2007), 10.1063/1.2430711]. A recent global potential energy surface is used here to calculate the capture probabilities, instead of the long-range ion-induced dipole interactions. The dynamical constraints are introduced by considering a scrambling matrix which depends on energy and determine the probability of the identity/hop/exchange mechanisms. These probabilities are calculated using QCT. It is found that the high zero-point energy of the fragments is transferred to the rest of the degrees of freedom, what shortens the lifetime of H_5^+ complexes and, as a consequence, the exchange mechanism is produced with lower proportion. The zero-point energy (ZPE) is not properly described in quasi-classical trajectory calculations and an approximation is done in which the initial ZPE of the reactants is reduced in QCT calculations to obtain a new ZPE-biased scrambling matrix. This reduction of the ZPE is explained by the need of correcting the pure classical level number of the H_5^+ complex, as done in classical simulations of unimolecular processes and to get equivalent quantum and classical rate constants using Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. This matrix allows to obtain a ratio of hop/exchange mechanisms, ?(T), in rather good agreement with recent experimental results by Crabtree et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 194311 (2011), 10.1063/1.3587246] at room temperature. At lower temperatures, however, the present simulations predict too high ratios because the biased scrambling matrix is not statistical enough. This demonstrates the importance of applying quantum methods to simulate this reaction at the low temperatures of astrophysical interest.
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM ZONGMING MA Department of Statistics University (CCA) is a widely used multivariate statistical technique for exploring the relation between two sets massive data sets. However, there have been few theoretical justifications available in the literature
California at Berkeley, University of
magnetosphere is an avalanching system Vadim M. Uritsky1 and Alex J. Klimas NASA Goddard Space Flight Center the hypothesis of self-organized critical dynamics of the magnetosphere and suggest an important role for cross-scale coupling effects in the development of geomagnetic disturbances. INDEX TERMS: 2704 Magnetospheric Physics
Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 74, Nos. 3/4. 1994 Trace Maps as 3D Reversible Dynamical
Balasuriya, Sanjeeva
September 29, 1993 One link between the theory of quasicrystals and the theory of nonlinear dynamics first discuss the Fibonacci trace map and give new results concerning boundedness of orbits on certain, we show that many features of the Fibonacci trace map hold in general. The role of the Fricke
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuzuki, T.
1990-07-01
We first extend the dynamic compensation theorem of infrared divergence for the case of finite temperatures and then obtain the exact partition function of the spin-boson system, which is different from the previous ones. We find that there exists no thermodynamic equivalence between the spin-boson system and the Kondo system in general and that such equivalence is restricted to the case of high temperature limit.
Karpen, M E; Tobias, D J; Brooks, C L
1993-01-19
The microscopic interactions and mechanisms leading to nascent protein folding events are generally unknown. While such short time-scale events are difficult to study experimentally, molecular dynamics simulations of peptides can provide a useful model for studying events related to protein folding initiation. Recently, two extremely long molecular dynamics simulations (2.2 ns each) were carried out on the pentapeptide Tyr-Pro-Gly-Asp-Val [Tobias, D. J., Mertz, J. E., & Brooks, C. L., III (1991) Biochemistry 30, 6054-6058] that forms stable reverse turns in solution. Tobias et al. examined folding events in this large system (approximately 30,000 conformations) using traditional methods of trajectory analysis. The shear magnitude of this problem prompted us to develop an automated approach, based on self-organizing neural nets, to extract the key features of the molecular dynamics trajectory. The neural net is used to perform conformational clustering, which reduces the complexity of a system while minimizing the loss of information. The conformations were grouped together using distances in dihedral angle space as a measure of conformational similarity. The resulting clusters represent "conformational states", and transitions between these states were examined to identify mechanisms of conformational change. Many conformational changes involved the rotation of only a single dihedral angle, but concerted angle changes were also found. Most of the conformational information in the 30,000 samples from the full trajectories was retained in the relatively few resultant clusters, providing a powerful tool for analysis of an expanding base of large molecular simulations. PMID:8422350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ba?acký, Pavol
1986-11-01
Quantum-statistical theory of open systems, based on the projected form of the Liouville-von Neumann equation, is applied to the study of proton motion in an asymmetric double-well potential interacting with a heat bath. In Born-Markoff approximation a set of coupled equations of motion for matrix elements of the relevant density matrix is derived. It is demonstrated by the corresponding time-dependent analytic form of the product state population that the method can describe the dynamics correctly. An incoherent gain of the product state population is determiend by both, the dephasing and the decay of levels population. The rate constant, derived within the postulated theory, describes in a consistent manner the temperature dependence as well as the non-classical behaviour of the system in the limit of zero temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutz, Sebastian; Paeth, Heiko; Winkler, Stefan
2015-05-01
The long-term behaviour of Norwegian glaciers is reflected by the long mass-balance records provided by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. These show positive annual mass balances in the 1980s and 1990s at maritime glaciers followed by rapid mass loss since 2000. This study assesses the influence of various atmospheric variables on mass changes of selected Norwegian glaciers by correlation- and cross-validated stepwise multiple regression analyses. The atmospheric variables are constructed from reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Transfer functions determined by the multiple regression are applied to predictors derived from a multi-model ensemble of climate projections to estimate future mass-balance changes until 2100. The statistical relationship to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the strongest predictor, is highest for maritime glaciers and less for more continental ones. The mass surplus in the 1980s and 1990s can be attributed to a strong NAO phase and lower air temperatures during the ablation season. The mass loss since 2000 can be explained by an increase of summer air temperatures and a slight weakening of the NAO. From 2000 to 2100 the statistical model predicts predicts changes for glaciers in more continental settings of c. -20 m w.e. (water equivalent) or 0.2 m w.e./a. The corresponding range for their more maritime counterparts is -0.5 to +0.2 m w.e./a. Results from Bayesian classification of observed atmospheric states associated with high melt or high accumulation in the past into different simulated climates in the future suggest that climatic conditions towards the end of the twenty-first century favour less winterly accumulation and more ablation in summer. The posterior probabilities for high accumulation at the end of the twenty-first century are typically 1.5-3 times lower than in the twentieth century while the posterior probabilities for high melt are often 1.5-3 times higher at the end of the twenty-first century than in the twentieth and early twenty-first century.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcmillan, S. L. W.
1986-01-01
The period immediately following the core collapse phase in the evolution of a globular cluster is studied using a hybrid N-body/Fokker-Planck stellar dynamical code. Several core oscillations of the type predicted in earlier work are seen. The oscillations are driven by the formation, hardening, and ejection of binaries by three-body processes, and appear to decay on a timescale of about 10 to the 7th yr, for the choice of 'typical' cluster parameters made here. There is no evidence that they are gravothermal in nature. The mechanisms responsible for the decay are discussed in some detail. The distribution of hard binaries produced by the oscillations is compared with theoretical expectations and the longer term evolution of the system is considered.
Diegert, Carl F.
2006-12-01
We define a new diagnostic method where computationally-intensive numerical solutions are used as an integral part of making difficult, non-contact, nanometer-scale measurements. The limited scope of this report comprises most of a due diligence investigation into implementing the new diagnostic for measuring dynamic operation of Sandia's RF Ohmic Switch. Our results are all positive, providing insight into how this switch deforms during normal operation. Future work should contribute important measurements on a variety of operating MEMS devices, with insights that are complimentary to those from measurements made using interferometry and laser Doppler methods. More generally, the work opens up a broad front of possibility where exploiting massive high-performance computers enable new measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galiazzo, M. A.; Bazsó, Á.; Huber, M. S.; Losiak, A.; Dvorak, R.; Koeberl, C.
2013-11-01
The study of meteorite craters on Earth provides information about the dynamic evolution of bodies within the Solar System. the Bosumtwi crater is a well studied, 10.5 km in diameter, ca. 1.07 Myr old impact structure located in Ghana. (Koeberl et al., 1997a). The impactor was ˜ 1 km in diameter, an ordinary chondrite and struck the Earth with an angle between 30o and 45o (Artemieva et al., 2004) from the horizontal. We have used a two phase backward integration to constrain the most probable parent region of the impactor. We find that the most likely source region is a high inclination object from the Middle Main Belt.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Klemas, Vic
1993-01-01
The internal waves on the continental shelf on the Middle Atlantic Bight seen on Space Shuttle photographs taken during the STS-40 mission in June 1991 are measured and analyzed. The internal wave field in the sample area has a three-level structure which consists of packet groups, packets, and solitons. An average packet group wavelength of 17.5 km and an average soliton wavelength of 0.6 km are measured. Finite-depth theory is used to derive the dynamic parameters of the internal solitons: the maximum amplitude of 5.6 m, the characteristic phase speed of 0.42 m/s, the characteristic period of 23.8 min, the velocity amplitude of the water particles in the upper and lower layers of 0.13 m/s and 0.030 m/s respectively, and the theoretical energy per unit crest line of 6.8 x 10 exp 4 J/m. The frequency distribution of solitons is triple-peaked rather than continuous. The major generation source is at 160 m water depth, and a second is at 1800 m depth, corresponding to the upper and lower edges of the shelf break.
Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.
2014-09-15
In the present work, results of investigations into the dynamics of secondary electrons with helium atoms in the presence of the reverse electric field arising in the flare of a high-voltage pulsed beam-type discharge and leading to degradation of the primary electron beam are presented. The electric field in the discharge of this type at moderate pressures can reach several hundred V/cm and leads to considerable changes in the kinetics of secondary electrons created in the process of propagation of the electron beam generated in the accelerating gap with a grid anode. Moving in the accelerating electric field toward the anode, secondary electrons create the so-called compensating current to the anode. The character of electron motion and the compensating current itself are determined by the ratio of the field strength to the concentration of atoms (E/n). The energy and angular spectra of secondary electrons are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different ratios E/n of the electric field strength to the helium atom concentration. The motion of secondary electrons with threshold energy is studied for inelastic collisions of helium atoms and differential analysis is carried out of the collisional processes causing energy losses of electrons in helium for different E/n values. The mechanism of creation and accumulation of slow electrons as a result of inelastic collisions of secondary electrons with helium atoms and selective population of metastable states of helium atoms is considered. It is demonstrated that in a wide range of E/n values the motion of secondary electrons in the beam-type discharge flare has the character of drift. At E/n values characteristic for the discharge of the given type, the drift velocity of these electrons is calculated and compared with the available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, F.; Hall, A. D.; Walton, D.; Capps, S. B.; Reich, K.
2013-12-01
Using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques, we produced 2-km-resolution regional climate reconstructions and future projections of surface warming and snowfall changes in the Los Angeles region at the middle and end of the 21st century. Projections for both time periods were compared to a validated simulation of a baseline period (1981-2000). We examined outcomes associated with two IPCC-AR5 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios: a "business-as-usual" scenario (RCP8.5) and a "mitigation" scenario (RCP2.6). Output from all available global climate models in the CMIP5 archive was downscaled. We first statistically downscaled surface warming and then applied a statistical model between the surface temperature and snowfall to project the snowfall change. By mid-century, the mountainous areas in the Los Angeles region are likely to receive substantially less snowfall than in the baseline period. In RCP8.5, about 60% of the snowfall is most likely to persist, while in RCP2.6, the likely amount remaining is somewhat higher (about 70%). By end-of-century, however, the two scenarios diverge significantly. In RCP8.5, snowfall sees a dramatic further reduction, with only about a third of baseline snowfall persisting. For RCP2.6, snowfall sees only a negligible further reduction from mid-century. Due to significant differences in climate change outcomes across the global models, we estimated these numbers associated with uncertainty, in the range of 15-30 percentage points. For both scenarios and both time slices, the snowfall loss is consistently greatest at low elevations, and the lower-lying mountain ranges are somewhat more vulnerable to snowfall loss. The similarity in the two scenarios' most likely snowfall outcomes at mid-century illustrates the inevitability of climate change in the coming decades, no matter what mitigation measures are taken. Their stark contrast at century's end reveals that reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will help avoid a dramatic loss of snowfall by the end of the century. In addition to snowfall projections, the warming-accelerated snow melting of the already reduced snowfall will be discussed as well.
Guyonvarch, Estelle; Ramin, Elham; Kulahci, Murat; Plósz, Benedek Gy
2015-10-15
The present study aims at using statistically designed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations as numerical experiments for the identification of one-dimensional (1-D) advection-dispersion models - computationally light tools, used e.g., as sub-models in systems analysis. The objective is to develop a new 1-D framework, referred to as interpreted CFD (iCFD) models, in which statistical meta-models are used to calculate the pseudo-dispersion coefficient (D) as a function of design and flow boundary conditions. The method - presented in a straightforward and transparent way - is illustrated using the example of a circular secondary settling tank (SST). First, the significant design and flow factors are screened out by applying the statistical method of two-level fractional factorial design of experiments. Second, based on the number of significant factors identified through the factor screening study and system understanding, 50 different sets of design and flow conditions are selected using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The boundary condition sets are imposed on a 2-D axi-symmetrical CFD simulation model of the SST. In the framework, to degenerate the 2-D model structure, CFD model outputs are approximated by the 1-D model through the calibration of three different model structures for D. Correlation equations for the D parameter then are identified as a function of the selected design and flow boundary conditions (meta-models), and their accuracy is evaluated against D values estimated in each numerical experiment. The evaluation and validation of the iCFD model structure is carried out using scenario simulation results obtained with parameters sampled from the corners of the LHS experimental region. For the studied SST, additional iCFD model development was carried out in terms of (i) assessing different density current sub-models; (ii) implementation of a combined flocculation, hindered, transient and compression settling velocity function; and (iii) assessment of modelling the onset of transient and compression settling. Furthermore, the optimal level of model discretization both in 2-D and 1-D was undertaken. Results suggest that the iCFD model developed for the SST through the proposed methodology is able to predict solid distribution with high accuracy - taking a reasonable computational effort - when compared to multi-dimensional numerical experiments, under a wide range of flow and design conditions. iCFD tools could play a crucial role in reliably predicting systems' performance under normal and shock events. PMID:26248321
Manos, Thanos; Robnik, Marko
2013-06-01
We study the kicked rotator in the classically fully chaotic regime using Izrailev's N-dimensional model for various N?4000, which in the limit N?? tends to the quantized kicked rotator. We do treat not only the case K=5, as studied previously, but also many different values of the classical kick parameter 5?K?35 and many different values of the quantum parameter k?[5,60]. We describe the features of dynamical localization of chaotic eigenstates as a paradigm for other both time-periodic and time-independent (autonomous) fully chaotic or/and mixed-type Hamilton systems. We generalize the scaling variable ?=l(?)/N to the case of anomalous diffusion in the classical phase space by deriving the localization length l(?) for the case of generalized classical diffusion. We greatly improve the accuracy and statistical significance of the numerical calculations, giving rise to the following conclusions: (1) The level-spacing distribution of the eigenphases (or quasienergies) is very well described by the Brody distribution, systematically better than by other proposed models, for various Brody exponents ?(BR). (2) We study the eigenfunctions of the Floquet operator and characterize their localization properties using the information entropy measure, which after normalization is given by ?(loc) in the interval [0,1]. The level repulsion parameters ?(BR) and ?(loc) are almost linearly related, close to the identity line. (3) We show the existence of a scaling law between ?(loc) and the relative localization length ?, now including the regimes of anomalous diffusion. The above findings are important also for chaotic eigenstates in time-independent systems [Batisti? and Robnik, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 43, 215101 (2010); arXiv:1302.7174 (2013)], where the Brody distribution is confirmed to a very high degree of precision for dynamically localized chaotic eigenstates, even in the mixed-type systems (after separation of regular and chaotic eigenstates). PMID:23848746
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM JEFFREY LEEK Department of Biostatistics Johns on these results. But the fundamental belief in the medical literature was called into serious question by a paper
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
the implications of having network-structured data on statistical principles and tasks of a foundational nature, (ii) propagation of uncertainty to summary statistics of "noisy" networks, and (iii) estimation
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM PETER LATHAM Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit Both natural and artificial systems often exhibit a surprising degree of statistical regularity. One of Zipf's law in the literature for which we can identify a latent variable model. Finally, we show how
Learning Informative Statistics: A Nonparametric Approach
Ihler, Alexander
and mod- eling dynamic processes. The approach can learn a compact and informa- tive statistic which discuss the application of the technique to both noise driven dynamical systems and random processes the dynamics of random walk and the statistics of the driving noise are captured. In the second case we present
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balcer-Kubiczek, E. K.; Zhang, X. F.; Harrison, G. H.; Zhou, X. J.; Vigneulle, R. M.; Ove, R.; McCready, W. A.; Xu, J. F.
1999-01-01
PURPOSE: Differences in gene expression underlie the phenotypic differences between irradiated and unirradiated cells. The goal was to identify late-transcribed genes following irradiations differing in quality, and to determine the RBE of 1 GeV/n Fe ions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenic assay was used to determine the RBE of Fe ions. Differential hybridization to cDNA target clones was used to detect differences in expression of corresponding genes in mRNA samples isolated from MCF7 cells irradiated with iso-survival doses of Fe ions (0 or 2.5 Gy) or fission neutrons (0 or 1.2 Gy) 7 days earlier. Northern analysis was used to confirm differential expression of cDNA-specific mRNA and to examine expression kinetics up to 2 weeks after irradiation. RESULTS: Fe ion RBE values were between 2.2 and 2.6 in the lines examined. Two of 17 differentially expressed cDNA clones were characterized. hpS2 mRNA was elevated from 1 to 14 days after irradiation, whereas CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 remained elevated from 3 h to 14 days after irradiation. Induction of hpS2 mRNA by irradiation was independent of p53, whereas induction of CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 was observed only in wild-type p53 lines. CONCLUSIONS: A set of coordinately regulated genes, some of which are independent of p53, is associated with change in gene expression during the first 2 weeks post-irradiation.
Statistical Dynamics Gavin E. Crooks
of these is the fluctuation theorem, which places conditions on the entropy production probability distribution of nonequilib- rium systems. Another recently discovered far-from-equilibrium expression relates nonequilibrium of large fluctuations in nonequilibrium systems evolving according to Langevin's equations of motion
Avalanche statistics of sand heaps
Buchholtz, V.; Poeschel, T.
1996-09-01
Large-scale computer simulations are presented to investigate the avalanche statistics of sandpiles using molecular dynamics. We show that different methods of measurement lead to contradictory conclusions, presumably due to avalanches not reaching the end of the experimental table.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.
... see the Understanding Cancer Prognosis page. Cancer Statistics | Did You Know? View this video on YouTube. Information ... Cancer Registries. Related Resources State Cancer Profiles SEER Did You Know? Video Series Most text on the ...
... population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past ... by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, Claudine
Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Penfield, Douglas A.
The 30 papers in the area of educational statistics that were presented at the 1972 AERA Conference are reviewed. The papers are categorized into five broad areas of interest: (1) theory of univariate analysis, (2) nonparametric methods, (3) regression-prediction theory, (4) multivariable methods, and (5) factor analysis. A list of the papers…
Hauert, Christoph
Journal of Statistical Physics, Vol. 116, Nos. 5/6, September 2004 (© 2004) Of Dogs and Fleas, Inc. #12;1454 Hauert et al. INTRODUCTION The flea model by Ehrenfest(1,2) essentially describes the jumps of N fleas between two dogs. In each time step a single randomly selected flea jumps on the other
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
ABSTRACT Progress in science and engineering relies on building good models. Modern applications often-dimensional statistical models to capture the complexity of such problems. Most of the work in this direction has focused Research Office Young Investigator Program Award (1999), the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
Stephens, Matthew
for Partical Astrophysics Probing Cosmic Acceleration with the Dark Energy Survey: Statistical Challenges remains a mys- tery. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) aims to address the questions: why is the expansion speeding up? Is cosmic acceleration due to dark energy or does it require a modification of Einstein
Statistical characterization of dislocation ensembles
El-Azab, A; Deng, J; Tang, M
2006-05-17
We outline a method to study the spatial and orientation statistics of dynamical dislocation systems by modeling the dislocations as a stochastic fiber process. Statistical measures have been introduced for the density, velocity, and flux of dislocations, and the connection between these measures and the dislocation state and plastic distortion rate in the crystal is explained. A dislocation dynamics simulation model has been used to extract numerical data to study the evolution of these statistical measures numerically in a body-centered cubic crystal under deformation. The orientation distribution of the dislocation density, velocity and dislocation flux, as well as the dislocation correlations have been computed. The importance of the statistical measures introduced here in building continuum models of dislocation systems is highlighted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, Joseph W.
2000-07-01
The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research
Mitrikas, V G
2014-01-01
The on-going 24th solar cycle (SC) is distinguished from the previous ones by low activity. On the contrary, levels of proton fluxes from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are high, which increases the proton flow striking the Earth's radiation belts (ERB). Therefore, at present the absorbed dose from ERB protons should be calculated with consideration of the tangible increase of protons intensity built into the model descriptions based on experimental measurements during the minimum between cycles 19 and 20, and the cycle 21 maximum. The absorbed dose from GCR and ERB protons copies galactic protons dynamics, while the ERB electrons dose copies SC dynamics. The major factors that determine the absorbed dose value are SC phase, ISS orbital altitude and shielding of the dosimeter readings of which are used in analysis. The paper presents the results of dynamic analysis of absorbed doses measured by a variety of dosimeters, namely, R-16 (2 ionization chambers), DB8-1, DB8-2, DB8-3, DB8-4 as a function of ISS orbit altitude and SC phase. The existence of annual variation in the absorbed dose dynamics has been confirmed; several additional variations with the periods of 17 and 52 months have been detected. Modulation of absorbed dose variations by the SC and GCR amplitudes has been demonstrated. PMID:25035897
Department of Statistics STATISTICS COLLOQUIUM
of Texas at Austin Evidence that the Brain Codes a Scalar Variable with Diverse Populations of Continuous of representation and communication in the brain -- are forgetful and noisy. How does the brain overcome-dimensional continuous attractor dynamics in the brain. Simultaneously, I will describe how the same system clearly
Covariant Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics
E. Lehmann
2006-02-25
A manifest covariant equilibrium statistical mechanics is constructed starting with a 8N dimensional extended phase space which is reduced to the 6N physical degrees of freedom using the Poincare-invariant constrained Hamiltonian dynamics describing the micro-dynamics of the system. The reduction of the extended phase space is initiated forcing the particles on energy shell and fixing their individual time coordinates with help of invariant time constraints. The Liouville equation and the equilibrium condition are formulated in respect to the scalar global evolution parameter which is introduced by the time fixation conditions. The applicability of the developed approach is shown for both, the perfect gas as well as the real gas. As a simple application the canonical partition integral of the monatomic perfect gas is calculated and compared with other approaches. Furthermore, thermodynamical quantities are derived. All considerations are shrinked on the classical Boltzmann gas composed of massive particles and hence quantum effects are discarded.
Statistical mechanics of the vacuum
Christian Beck
2012-03-01
The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.
MIKYOUNG JUN Department of Statistics
Stephens, Matthew
and their application to air pollution" Monday July 11, 2005 at 3:00 pm 110 Eckhart Hall, 5734 S. University Avenue ABSTRACT New statistical procedures to evaluate the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) using of such processes should not only be positive definite on sphere×time, but also be capable of capturing the dynamics
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics
2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vangelder, B. H. W.
1978-01-01
Non-Bayesian statistics were used in simulation studies centered around laser range observations to LAGEOS. The capabilities of satellite laser ranging especially in connection with relative station positioning are evaluated. The satellite measurement system under investigation may fall short in precise determinations of the earth's orientation (precession and nutation) and earth's rotation as opposed to systems as very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and lunar laser ranging (LLR). Relative station positioning, determination of (differential) polar motion, positioning of stations with respect to the earth's center of mass and determination of the earth's gravity field should be easily realized by satellite laser ranging (SLR). The last two features should be considered as best (or solely) determinable by SLR in contrast to VLBI and LLR.
Zweimüller, Roland
Return-time statistics, Hitting-time statistics and Inducing Nicolai Haydn, Nicole Winterberg- formations, we prove that the limiting return-time statistics and hitting-time statistics persist if we pass of return-time and hitting-time distributions of small sets H in an ergodic probability-preserving dynamical
Statistical ecology comes of age
Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric
2014-01-01
The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151
Statistical ecology comes of age.
Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric
2014-12-01
The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151
Quantum particles from classical statistics
C. Wetterich
2010-02-11
Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.
Krommes, J.A. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Kim, Chang-Bae . Inst. for Fusion Studies)
1990-06-01
The fundamental problem in the theory of turbulent transport is to find the flux {Gamma} of a quantity such as heat. Methods based on statistical closures are mired in conceptual controversies and practical difficulties. However, it is possible to bound {Gamma} by employing constraints derived rigorously from the equations of motion. Brief reviews of the general theory and its application to passive advection are given. Then, a detailed application is made to anomalous resistivity generated by self-consistent turbulence in a reversed-field pinch. A nonlinear variational principle for an upper bound on the turbulence electromotive force for fixed current is formulated from the magnetohydrodynamic equations in cylindrical geometry. Numerical solution of a case constrained solely by energy balance leads to a reasonable bound and nonlinear eigenfunctions that share intriguing features with experimental data: the dominant mode numbers appear to be correct, and field reversal is predicted at reasonable values of the pinch parameter. Although open questions remain upon considering all bounding calculations to date one can conclude, remarkably, that global energy balance constrains transport sufficiently so that bounds derived therefrom are not unreasonable and that bounding calculations are feasible even for involved practical problems. The potential of the method has hardly been tapped; it provides a fertile area for future research. 29 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krommes, John A.; Kim, Chang-Bae
1990-06-01
The fundamental problem in the theory of turbulent transport is to find the flux ? of a quantity such as heat. Methods based on statistical closures are mired in conceptual controversies and practical difficulties. However, it is possible to bound ? by employing constraints derived rigorously from the equations of motion. Brief reviews of the general theory and its application to passive advection are given. Then, a detailed application is made to anomalous resistivity generated by self-consistent turbulence in a reversed-field pinch. A nonlinear variational principle for an upper bound on the turbulent electromotive force for fixed current is formulated from the magnetohydrodynamic equations in cylindrical geometry. Numerical solution of a case constrained solely by energy balance leads to a reasonable bound and nonlinear eigenfunctions that share intriguing features with experimental data: The dominant mode numbers appear to be correct, and field reversal is predicted at reasonable values of the pinch parameter. Although open questions remain, upon considering all bounding calculations to date it can be concluded, remarkably, that global energy balance constrains transport sufficiently so that bounds derived therefrom are not unreasonable and that bounding calculations are feasible even for involved practical problems. The potential of the method has hardly been tapped; it provides a fertile area for future research.
Multimedia Statistical Labs & Toolkit (TILE) Deborah Nolan
Nolan, Deborah
is exchanged between user and machine (in both directions); dynamic information can be updated on the fly is not as transparent. It requires more than a simple translation of textbooks into HTML and statistical software with individual solutions. Indeed, marrying easy-to-use statistical software with interactive exercises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanoh, K. S.; Adohi, B. J.-P.; Coulibaly, I. S.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Kobea, A. T.; Assamoi, P.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we report on the night-time equatorial F-layer height behaviour at Korhogo (9.2° N, 5° W; 2.4° S dip lat), Ivory Coast, in the West African sector during the solar minimum period 1995-1997. The data were collected from quarter-hourly ionograms of an Ionospheric Prediction Service (IPS) 42-type vertical sounder. The main focus of this work was to study the seasonal changes in the F-layer height and to clarify the equinox transition process recently evidenced at Korhogo during 1995, the year of declining solar flux activity. The F-layer height was found to vary strongly with time, with up to three main phases. The night-to-night variability of these morphological phases was then analysed. The early post-sunset slow rise, commonly associated with rapid chemical recombination processes in the bottom part of the F layer, remained featureless and was observed regardless of the date. By contrast, the following event, either presented like the post-sunset height peak associated with the evening E × B drift, or was delayed to the midnight sector, thus involving another mechanism. The statistical analysis of the occurrence of these events throughout the solar minimum period 1995-1997 revealed two main F-layer height patterns, each characteristic of a specific season. The one with the post-sunset height peak was associated with the northern winter period, whereas the other, with the midnight height peak, characterized the northern summer period. The transition process from one pattern to the other took place during the equinox periods and was found to last only a few weeks. We discuss these results in the light of earlier works.
Hauke Rabbel; Holger Frey; Friederike Schmid
2015-11-06
The reaction of $AB_m$ monomers (m=2,3) with a multifunctional B_f-type polymer chain ("hypergrafting") is studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The $AB_m$ monomers are hypergrafted using the slow monomer addition strategy. Fully dendronized, i.e., perfectly branched polymers are also simulated for comparison. The degree of branching DB of the molecules obtained with the "hypergrafting" process critically depends on the rate with which monomers attach to inner monomers compared to terminal monomers. This ratio is more favorable if the $AB_m$ monomers have lower reactivity, since the free monomers then have time to diffuse inside the chain. Configurational chain properties are also determined, showing that the stretching of the polymer backbone as a consequence of the "hypergrafting" procedure is much less pronounced than for perfectly dendronized chains. Furthermore, we analyze the scaling of various quantities with molecular weight M for large M (M>100). The Wiener index scales as $M^2.3$, which is intermediate between linear chains ($M^3$) and perfectly branched polymers ($M^2 \\ln(M)$). The polymer size, characterized by the radius of gyration $R_g$ or the hydrodynamic radius $R_h$, is found to scale as $R_{g,h}~M^{\
Rabbel, Hauke; Frey, Holger; Schmid, Friederike
2015-12-28
The reaction of ABm monomers (m = 2, 3) with a multifunctional Bf-type polymer chain ("hypergrafting") is studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The ABm monomers are hypergrafted using the slow monomer addition strategy. Fully dendronized, i.e., perfectly branched polymers are also simulated for comparison. The degree of branching of the molecules obtained with the "hypergrafting" process critically depends on the rate with which monomers attach to inner monomers compared to terminal monomers. This ratio is more favorable if the ABm monomers have lower reactivity, since the free monomers then have time to diffuse inside the chain. Configurational chain properties are also determined, showing that the stretching of the polymer backbone as a consequence of the "hypergrafting" procedure is much less pronounced than for perfectly dendronized chains. Furthermore, we analyze the scaling of various quantities with molecular weight M for large M (M > 100). The Wiener index scales as M(2.3), which is intermediate between linear chains (M(3)) and perfectly branched polymers (M(2)ln(M)). The polymer size, characterized by the radius of gyration Rg or the hydrodynamic radius Rh, is found to scale as Rg,h ? M(?) with ? ? 0.38, which lies between the exponent of diffusion limited aggregation (? = 0.4) and the mean-field exponent predicted by Konkolewicz and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 238301 (2007)] (? = 0.33). PMID:26723610
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabbel, Hauke; Frey, Holger; Schmid, Friederike
2015-12-01
The reaction of ABm monomers (m = 2, 3) with a multifunctional Bf-type polymer chain ("hypergrafting") is studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The ABm monomers are hypergrafted using the slow monomer addition strategy. Fully dendronized, i.e., perfectly branched polymers are also simulated for comparison. The degree of branching of the molecules obtained with the "hypergrafting" process critically depends on the rate with which monomers attach to inner monomers compared to terminal monomers. This ratio is more favorable if the ABm monomers have lower reactivity, since the free monomers then have time to diffuse inside the chain. Configurational chain properties are also determined, showing that the stretching of the polymer backbone as a consequence of the "hypergrafting" procedure is much less pronounced than for perfectly dendronized chains. Furthermore, we analyze the scaling of various quantities with molecular weight M for large M (M > 100). The Wiener index scales as M2.3, which is intermediate between linear chains (M3) and perfectly branched polymers (M2ln(M)). The polymer size, characterized by the radius of gyration Rg or the hydrodynamic radius Rh, is found to scale as Rg,h ? M? with ? ? 0.38, which lies between the exponent of diffusion limited aggregation (? = 0.4) and the mean-field exponent predicted by Konkolewicz and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 238301 (2007)] (? = 0.33).
Statistical thermodynamics of biomembranes.
Devireddy, Ram V
2010-02-01
An overview of the major issues involved in the statistical thermodynamic treatment of phospholipid membranes at the atomistic level is summarized: thermodynamic ensembles, initial configuration (or the physical system being modeled), force field representation as well as the representation of long-range interactions. This is followed by a description of the various ways that the simulated ensembles can be analyzed: area of the lipid, mass density profiles, radial distribution functions (RDFs), water orientation profile, deuterium order parameter, free energy profiles and void (pore) formation; with particular focus on the results obtained from our recent molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of phospholipids interacting with dimethylsulfoxide (Me(2)SO), a commonly used cryoprotective agent (CPA). PMID:19460363
Statistical physics ""Beyond equilibrium
Ecke, Robert E
2009-01-01
The scientific challenges of the 21st century will increasingly involve competing interactions, geometric frustration, spatial and temporal intrinsic inhomogeneity, nanoscale structures, and interactions spanning many scales. We will focus on a broad class of emerging problems that will require new tools in non-equilibrium statistical physics and that will find application in new material functionality, in predicting complex spatial dynamics, and in understanding novel states of matter. Our work will encompass materials under extreme conditions involving elastic/plastic deformation, competing interactions, intrinsic inhomogeneity, frustration in condensed matter systems, scaling phenomena in disordered materials from glasses to granular matter, quantum chemistry applied to nano-scale materials, soft-matter materials, and spatio-temporal properties of both ordinary and complex fluids.
Graphene Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowick, Mark; Kosmrlj, Andrej; Nelson, David; Sknepnek, Rastko
2015-03-01
Graphene provides an ideal system to test the statistical mechanics of thermally fluctuating elastic membranes. The high Young's modulus of graphene means that thermal fluctuations over even small length scales significantly stiffen the renormalized bending rigidity. We study the effect of thermal fluctuations on graphene ribbons of width W and length L, pinned at one end, via coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics simulations and compare with analytic predictions of the scaling of width-averaged root-mean-squared height fluctuations as a function of distance along the ribbon. Scaling collapse as a function of W and L also allows us to extract the scaling exponent eta governing the long-wavelength stiffening of the bending rigidity. A full understanding of the geometry-dependent mechanical properties of graphene, including arrays of cuts, may allow the design of a variety of modular elements with desired mechanical properties starting from pure graphene alone. Supported by NSF grant DMR-1435794
Masci, Frank
The principal part of this paper is devoted to the study of the distribution auid density functions of the ratio to an easy derivation of the density function in terms of the Cauchy density and the normal density and integial. A number of graphs of the possible shapes of the density are given, together with an indication
SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fiala, Harvey E.
1990-01-01
The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.
Karp, S.; Rooslid, S.
1986-10-01
When silicon replaced germanium in the early 1960's as the semiconductor of choice for solid state devices, it converted the entire industry in just a few years because of two important characteristics. First, silicon has a higher energy bandgap, which permits silicon-based devices to operate over a wider temperature range (a feature especially important to the military). Second, and more important, silicon has a native oxide that provided for improved stability and planar, rather than mesa, type devices. Planar technology soon spawned integrated circuits. The integrated circuit in turn brought on the electronics revolution, allowing the complexity of circuits to increase by a factor of two every year (Moore's Law) and bringing us from single transistors to megabit memory chips.
Statistical Ensemble of Large Eddy Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, Daniele; Rogers, Michael M.; Wray, Alan A.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A statistical ensemble of large eddy simulations (LES) is run simultaneously for the same flow. The information provided by the different large scale velocity fields is used to propose an ensemble averaged version of the dynamic model. This produces local model parameters that only depend on the statistical properties of the flow. An important property of the ensemble averaged dynamic procedure is that it does not require any spatial averaging and can thus be used in fully inhomogeneous flows. Also, the ensemble of LES's provides statistics of the large scale velocity that can be used for building new models for the subgrid-scale stress tensor. The ensemble averaged dynamic procedure has been implemented with various models for three flows: decaying isotropic turbulence, forced isotropic turbulence, and the time developing plane wake. It is found that the results are almost independent of the number of LES's in the statistical ensemble provided that the ensemble contains at least 16 realizations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spouge, John L.
This chapter gives some simple, useful techniques for approximating the p-values of various types of optimal alignment scores. It starts with general techniques: if, e.g., a dynamic programming computation has probabilistically independent inputs, its successive states form a Markov chain. Thus, if the states are not too numerous, a "Markov computation" yields their distribution. The chapter reviews the three extreme-value distributions, which are relevant to approximating the distribution of random maxima, in the same way the normal distribution is relevant to approximating the distribution of random sums. In general, convergence to an extreme-value distribution is often painfully slow, so the Poisson approximation for counting rare and weakly dependent events can be a more flexible tool for approximating the distribution of maxima. In particular, the extreme-value and Poisson distributionsyield an approximate distribution for the optimal local alignment score of two random sequences, and a finite-size correction can increase the accuracy of statistical approximations if the sequences are relatively short. Moreover, the concept of "islands" permits many statistical approximation problems in local alignment to be transformed to combinatorial problems. Finally, the "Independent Diagonals Approximation" broadens the application of many of the previous methods, and an "Independent Alignments Approximation" converts many alignment variants into the combinatorial problem of determining an "effective length".
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caine, Robert; And Others
1978-01-01
Presents arguments for offering introductory statistics courses to undergraduate sociology majors taught within departments of sociology rather than using statistics courses taught by other departments. (Author)
... Education Mental Health Information Publications Educational Resources Clinical Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental ... Statistics Understanding the scope of mental illnesses and their treatment is central ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laird, Philip
1992-01-01
We distinguish static and dynamic optimization of programs: whereas static optimization modifies a program before runtime and is based only on its syntactical structure, dynamic optimization is based on the statistical properties of the input source and examples of program execution. Explanation-based generalization is a commonly used dynamic optimization method, but its effectiveness as a speedup-learning method is limited, in part because it fails to separate the learning process from the program transformation process. This paper describes a dynamic optimization technique called a learn-optimize cycle that first uses a learning element to uncover predictable patterns in the program execution and then uses an optimization algorithm to map these patterns into beneficial transformations. The technique has been used successfully for dynamic optimization of pure Prolog.
Statistical Reference Datasets
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access) The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.
Teaching Introductory Statistics: From dull to Dynamic!
Utts, Jessica
attacks, and other diseases Growing better plants (pest resistant, high yield, etc) Determining what public service announcements help change behavior (smoking, safe-sex, etc) Deciding whether building, meditation, taking an aspirin a day, night-lights for children) As intelligent, curious beings, we want
Statistical dynamics of early river networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ping; Hao, Rui; Huo, Jie
2012-10-01
Based on local erosion rule and fluctuations in rainfall, geology and parameters of a river channel, a generalized Langevin equation is proposed to describe the random prolongation of a river channel. This equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to follow the early evolution of a river network and the variation of probability distribution of channel lengths. The general solution of the equation is in the product form of two terms. One term is in power form and the other is in exponent form. This distribution shows a complete history of a river network evolving from its infancy to “adulthood”). The infancy is characterized by the Gaussian distribution of the channel lengths, while the adulthood is marked by a power law distribution of the channel lengths. The variation of the distribution from the Gaussian to the power law displays a gradual developing progress of the river network. The distribution of basin areas is obtained by means of Hack's law. These provide us with new understandings towards river networks.
statistical physics statistics of radiation Black Holes
statistical physics statistics of radiation Black Holes The entropy of a black hole coefficients). (a) Use dimensional analysis to determine C. (b) Assume that the black hole has mass m outward form the black hole. By using classical Newtonian gravity, determine the maximum radius r
Accelerated molecular dynamics methods
Perez, Danny
2011-01-04
The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.
Introductory statistical mechanics for electron storage rings
Jowett, J.M.
1986-07-01
These lectures introduce the beam dynamics of electron-positron storage rings with particular emphasis on the effects due to synchrotron radiation. They differ from most other introductions in their systematic use of the physical principles and mathematical techniques of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of fluctuating dynamical systems. A self-contained exposition of the necessary topics from this field is included. Throughout the development, a Hamiltonian description of the effects of the externally applied fields is maintained in order to preserve the links with other lectures on beam dynamics and to show clearly the extent to which electron dynamics in non-Hamiltonian. The statistical mechanical framework is extended to a discussion of the conceptual foundations of the treatment of collective effects through the Vlasov equation.
Pneumocystis Pneumonia Statistics
... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Pneumocystis pneumonia Statistics Before the beginning of the HIV/AIDS ... Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Statistics More Resources Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...
Statistical mechanics of polymer systems. Final
Kovac, J.
1993-06-01
Work on computer simulation of polymer dynamics and the statistical mechanics of quenched systems carried out over seven years with the support of this grant is reviewed. The computer simulation work has focused on elucidation the roles of the excluded volume and the nearest-neighbor attractive interactions in the dynamics of polymers. To study quenched systems we have applied the formalism suggested long ago by Mazo to two model systems and found qualitative agreement with the properties of real glasses.
Nonlinear Statistical Modeling of Speech
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, S.; Ma, T.; May, D.; Lazarou, G.; Picone, J.
2009-12-01
Contemporary approaches to speech and speaker recognition decompose the problem into four components: feature extraction, acoustic modeling, language modeling and search. Statistical signal processing is an integral part of each of these components, and Bayes Rule is used to merge these components into a single optimal choice. Acoustic models typically use hidden Markov models based on Gaussian mixture models for state output probabilities. This popular approach suffers from an inherent assumption of linearity in speech signal dynamics. Language models often employ a variety of maximum entropy techniques, but can employ many of the same statistical techniques used for acoustic models. In this paper, we focus on introducing nonlinear statistical models to the feature extraction and acoustic modeling problems as a first step towards speech and speaker recognition systems based on notions of chaos and strange attractors. Our goal in this work is to improve the generalization and robustness properties of a speech recognition system. Three nonlinear invariants are proposed for feature extraction: Lyapunov exponents, correlation fractal dimension, and correlation entropy. We demonstrate an 11% relative improvement on speech recorded under noise-free conditions, but show a comparable degradation occurs for mismatched training conditions on noisy speech. We conjecture that the degradation is due to difficulties in estimating invariants reliably from noisy data. To circumvent these problems, we introduce two dynamic models to the acoustic modeling problem: (1) a linear dynamic model (LDM) that uses a state space-like formulation to explicitly model the evolution of hidden states using an autoregressive process, and (2) a data-dependent mixture of autoregressive (MixAR) models. Results show that LDM and MixAR models can achieve comparable performance with HMM systems while using significantly fewer parameters. Currently we are developing Bayesian parameter estimation and discriminative training algorithms for these new models to improve noise robustness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strasser, Nora
2007-01-01
Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…
Environmental Statistics Peter Guttorp
Washington at Seattle, University of
Environmental Statistics Peter Guttorp NRCSE T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t S e r i e s NRCSE-TRS No. 032 The NRCSE was established in 1996 through a cooperative agreement with the United States Statistics Peter Guttorp National Research Center for Statistics and the Environment University of Washington
Statistical quality management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanderlaan, Paul
1992-10-01
Some aspects of statistical quality management are discussed. Quality has to be defined as a concrete, measurable quantity. The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM), Statistical Process Control (SPC), and inspection are explained. In most cases SPC is better than inspection. It can be concluded that statistics has great possibilities in the field of TQM.
Statistics of interacting optical solitons.
Falkovich, G E; Stepanov, M G; Turitsyn, S K
2001-12-01
We examine statistics of two interacting optical solitons and describe timing jitter caused by spontaneous emission noise and enhanced by pulse interaction. Dynamics of phase difference is shown to be of crucial importance in determining the probability distribution function (PDF) of the distance between solitons. We find analytically the non-Gaussian tail of the PDF to be exponential. The propagation distance that corresponds to a given bit-error rate is described as a function of system parameters (filtering and noise level), initial distance, and initial phase difference between solitons. We find the interval of parameters where a larger propagation distance can be achieved for higher density of information. PMID:11736321
The Statistical Mechanics of Zombies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alemi, Alexander A.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Myers, Christopher R.; Sethna, James P.
2015-03-01
We present results and analysis from a large scale exact stochastic dynamical simulation of a zombie outbreak. Zombies have attracted some attention lately as a novel and interesting twist on classic disease models. While most of the initial investigations have focused on the continuous, fully mixed dynamics of a differential equation model, we have explored stochastic, discrete simulations on lattices. We explore some of the basic statistical mechanical properties of the zombie model, including its phase diagram and critical exponents. We report on several variant models, including both homogeneous and inhomogeneous lattices, as well as allowing diffusive motion of infected hosts. We build up to a full scale simulation of an outbreak in the United States, and discover that for `realistic' parameters, we are largely doomed.
STATWIZ - AN ELECTRONIC STATISTICAL TOOL (ABSTRACT)
StatWiz is a web-based, interactive, and dynamic statistical tool for researchers. It will allow researchers to input information and/or data and then receive experimental design options, or outputs from data analysis. StatWiz is envisioned as an expert system that will walk rese...
Random paths and current fluctuations in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics
Gaspard, Pierre
2014-07-15
An overview is given of recent advances in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics about the statistics of random paths and current fluctuations. Although statistics is carried out in space for equilibrium statistical mechanics, statistics is considered in time or spacetime for nonequilibrium systems. In this approach, relationships have been established between nonequilibrium properties such as the transport coefficients, the thermodynamic entropy production, or the affinities, and quantities characterizing the microscopic Hamiltonian dynamics and the chaos or fluctuations it may generate. This overview presents results for classical systems in the escape-rate formalism, stochastic processes, and open quantum systems.
This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...
Heat equation and Non-equilibrium (Classical) Statistical Mechanics
Liverani, Carlangelo
. Now assume (Fourier Law) j = k u, then tu = div(k u) 2 #12;But Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844 Â1906-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics and Dynamical Systems (Sinai, Ruelle, Gallavotti, .....) Kinetic limit and Boltzmann
Statistical instability of barrier microdischarges operating in townsend regime
Nagorny, V. P.
2007-01-15
The dynamics of barrier microdischarges operating in a Townsend regime is studied analytically and via kinetic particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that statistical fluctuations of the number of charged particles in the discharge gap strongly influence the dynamics of natural oscillations of the discharge current and may even lead to a disruption of the discharge. Analysis of the statistical effects based on a simple model is suggested. The role of external sources in stabilizing microdischarges is clarified.
Real-Time Statistical Learning For Robotics and Human Augmentation
Vijayakumar, Sethu
Dynamic Brain Project (ERATO/JST), 2-2 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, 619-02 Kyoto, Japan {sschaal have been developing special statistical learning methods that meet the demands of on-line learning network, the statistical, or the machine learning literature. However, the current focus in learning
Acceleration Statistics of Inertial Particles from High Resolution DNS Turbulence
Cencini, Massimo
Acceleration Statistics of Inertial Particles from High Resolution DNS Turbulence Federico Toschi1 the statistics of particle acceleration. We focus on the probability density function of the normalised acceleration. 2 Heavy Particle Dynamics and Numerical Simulations The equations of motion of a small, rigid
Power-law tails in triple system decay statistics
A. V. Bogomolov; S. A. Pavluchenko; A. V. Toporensky
2011-04-16
We have investigated the decay statistics of triple systems with different masses in Newtonial dynamics. We demonstrate that in a broad interval of mass ratios this statistics has good approximation by power-law tails. The power indices do not show any significant dependence on mass ratios.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain
2004-01-01
Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.
2007-01-01
Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…
Introduction Quantum Statistics
Gill, Richard D.
in the zoo. We are scrutinizing records of events long after they have happened." #12;Are there quantum jumpsIntroduction to Quantum Statistics Richard Gill Mathematical Institute University of Leiden Seminar notions: states, measurements, channels Current topics in Quantum Statistics State estimation; Quantum
Statistical Mapping by Computer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Utano, Jack J.
The function of a statistical map is to provide readers with a visual impression of the data so that they may be able to identify any geographic characteristics of the displayed phenomena. The increasingly important role played by the computer in the production of statistical maps is manifested by the varied examples of computer maps in recent…
Reform in Statistical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huck, Schuyler W.
2007-01-01
Two questions are considered in this article: (a) What should professionals in school psychology do in an effort to stay current with developments in applied statistics? (b) What should they do with their existing knowledge to move from surface understanding of statistics to deep understanding? Written for school psychologists who have completed…
Pestana, Dinis
2013-01-01
Statistics is a privileged tool in building knowledge from information, since the purpose is to extract from a sample limited information conclusions to the whole population. The pervasive use of statistical software (that always provides an answer, the question being adequate or not), and the absence of statistics to confer a scientific flavour to so much bad science, has had a pernicious effect on some disbelief on statistical research. Would Lord Rutherford be alive today, it is almost certain that he would not condemn the use of statistics in research, as he did in the dawn of the 20th century. But he would indeed urge everyone to use statistics quantum satis, since to use bad data, too many data, and statistics to enquire on irrelevant questions, is a source of bad science, namely because with too many data we can establish statistical significance of irrelevant results. This is an important point that addicts of evidence based medicine should be aware of, since the meta analysis of two many data will inevitably establish senseless results. PMID:24192087
Statistics 101 for Radiologists.
Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E
2015-10-01
Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including ? statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26466186
Explorations in Statistics: Power
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2010-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fifth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" revisits power, a concept fundamental to the test of a null hypothesis. Power is the probability that we reject the null hypothesis when it is false. Four things affect…
Deconstructing Statistical Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2014-01-01
Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…
Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Vatsavai, Raju; Bright, Eddie A
2008-01-01
Statistical properties of high-resolution overhead images representing different land use categories are analyzed using various local and global statistical image properties based on the shape of the power spectrum, image gradient distributions, edge co-occurrence, and inter-scale wavelet coefficient distributions. The analysis was performed on a database of high-resolution (1 meter) overhead images representing a multitude of different downtown, suburban, commercial, agricultural and wooded exemplars. Various statistical properties relating to these image categories and their relationship are discussed. The categorical variations in power spectrum contour shapes, the unique gradient distribution characteristics of wooded categories, the similarity in edge co-occurrence statistics for overhead and natural images, and the unique edge co-occurrence statistics of downtown categories are presented in this work. Though previous work on natural image statistics has showed some of the unique characteristics for different categories, the relationships for overhead images are not well understood. The statistical properties of natural images were used in previous studies to develop prior image models, to predict and index objects in a scene and to improve computer vision models. The results from our research findings can be used to augment and adapt computer vision algorithms that rely on prior image statistics to process overhead images, calibrate the performance of overhead image analysis algorithms, and derive features for better discrimination of overhead image categories.
Statistical laws in linguistics
Altmann, Eduardo G
2015-01-01
Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...
SHARE: Statistical hadronization with resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrieri, G.; Steinke, S.; Broniowski, W.; Florkowski, W.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.
2005-05-01
SHARE is a collection of programs designed for the statistical analysis of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With the physical input of intensive statistical parameters, it generates the ratios of particle abundances. The program includes cascade decays of all confirmed resonances from the Particle Data Tables. The complete treatment of these resonances has been known to be a crucial factor behind the success of the statistical approach. An optional feature implemented is the Breit-Wigner distribution for strong resonances. An interface for fitting the parameters of the model to the experimental data is provided. Program summaryTitle of the program:SHARE, October 2004, version 1.2 Catalogue identifier: ADVD Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVD Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: PC, Pentium III, 512 MB RAM (not hardware dependent) Operating system: Linux: RedHat 6.1, 7.2, FEDORA, etc. (not system dependent) Programming language:FORTRAN77: g77, f77 as well as Mathematica, ver. 4 or 5, for the case of full chemical equilibrium and particle widths set to zero Size of the package: 645 KB directory including example programs (87 KB compressed distribution archive) External routines: KERNLIB, MATHLIB and PACKLIB from the CERN Program Library (see http://cernlib.web.cern.ch for download and installation instructions) Distribution format: tar.gz Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 277 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 88 522 Computer: Any computer with an f77 compiler Nature of the physical problem: Statistical analysis of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions involves the formation and the subsequent decays of a large number of resonances. With the physical input of thermal parameters, such as the temperature and fugacities, and considering cascading decays, along with weak interaction feed-down corrections, the observed hadron abundances are obtained. SHARE incorporates diverse physical approaches, with a flexibility of choice of the details of the statistical hadronization model, including the selection of a chemical (non-)equilibrium condition. SHARE also offers evaluation of the extensive properties of the source of particles, such as energy, entropy, baryon number, strangeness, as well as the determination of the best intensive input parameters fitting a set of experimental yields. This allows exploration of a proposed physical hypothesis about hadron production mechanisms and the determination of the properties of their source. Method of solving the problem: Distributions at freeze-out of both the stable particles and the hadronic resonances are set according to a statistical prescription, technically calculated via a series of Bessel functions, using CERN library programs. We also have the option of including finite particle widths of the resonances. While this is computationally expensive, it is necessary to fully implement the essence of the strong interaction dynamics within the statistical hadronization picture. In fact, including finite width has a considerable effect when modeling directly detectable short-lived resonances ( ?(1520),K, etc.), and is noticeable in fits to experimentally measured yields of stable particles. After production, all hadronic resonances decay. Resonance decays are accomplished by addition of the parent abundances to the daughter, normalized by the branching ratio. Weak interaction decays receive a special treatment, where we introduce daughter particle acceptance factors for both strongly interacting decay products. An interface for fitting to experimental particle ratios of the statistical model parameters with the help of MINUIT[1] is provided. The ? function is defined in the standard way. For an investigated quantity f and experimental error ? f, ?=((N=N-N. (note that systematic and statistical errors are independent, since the systematic error is not a random variable). Aside of ?, the pr
Statistical complexity measure of pseudorandom bit generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, C. M.; Larrondo, H. A.; Rosso, O. A.
2005-08-01
Pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) are extensively used in Monte Carlo simulations, gambling machines and cryptography as substitutes of ideal random number generators (RNG). Each application imposes different statistical requirements to PRNGs. As L’Ecuyer clearly states “the main goal for Monte Carlo methods is to reproduce the statistical properties on which these methods are based whereas for gambling machines and cryptology, observing the sequence of output values for some time should provide no practical advantage for predicting the forthcoming numbers better than by just guessing at random”. In accordance with different applications several statistical test suites have been developed to analyze the sequences generated by PRNGs. In a recent paper a new statistical complexity measure [Phys. Lett. A 311 (2003) 126] has been defined. Here we propose this measure, as a randomness quantifier of a PRNGs. The test is applied to three very well known and widely tested PRNGs available in the literature. All of them are based on mathematical algorithms. Another PRNGs based on Lorenz 3D chaotic dynamical system is also analyzed. PRNGs based on chaos may be considered as a model for physical noise sources and important new results are recently reported. All the design steps of this PRNG are described, and each stage increase the PRNG randomness using different strategies. It is shown that the MPR statistical complexity measure is capable to quantify this randomness improvement. The PRNG based on the chaotic 3D Lorenz dynamical system is also evaluated using traditional digital signal processing tools for comparison.
Spectral Reduction: A Statistical Description of Turbulence
Bowman, John C.; Shadwick, B. A.; Physics Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 ; Morrison, P. J.
1999-12-27
A method is described for predicting statistical properties of turbulence. Collections of Fourier amplitudes are represented by nonuniformly spaced modes with enhanced coupling coefficients. The statistics of the full dynamics can be recovered from the time-averaged predictions of the reduced model. A Liouville theorem leads to inviscid equipartition solutions. Excellent agreement is obtained with two-dimensional forced-dissipative pseudospectral simulations. For the two-dimensional enstrophy cascade, logarithmic corrections to the high-order structure functions are observed. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Christopher H. Joyner; Sebastian Müller; Martin Sieber
2013-02-11
Energy levels statistics following the Gaussian Symplectic Ensemble (GSE) of Random Matrix Theory have been predicted theoretically and observed numerically in numerous quantum chaotic systems. However in all these systems there has been one unifying feature: the combination of half-integer spin and time-reversal invariance. Here we provide an alternative mechanism for obtaining GSE statistics that is based on geometric symmetries of a quantum system which alleviates the need for spin. As an example, we construct a quantum graph with a particular discrete symmetry given by the quaternion group Q8. GSE statistics is then observed within one of its subspectra.
Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2014-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much investigation, by greatly extending the statistical theory of ideal MHD turbulence. The mathematical details of broken ergodicity, in fact, give a quantitative explanation of how coherent structure, dynamic alignment and force-free states appear in turbulent magnetofluids. The relevance of these ideal results to real MHD turbulence occurs because broken ergodicity is most manifest in the ideal case at the largest length scales and it is in these largest scales that a real magnetofluid has the least dissipation, i.e., most closely approaches the behavior of an ideal magnetofluid. Furthermore, the effects grow stronger when cross and magnetic helicities grow large with respect to energy, and this is exactly what occurs with time in a real magnetofluid, where it is called selective decay. The relevance of these results found in ideal MHD turbulence theory to the real world is that they provide at least a qualitative explanation of why confined turbulent magnetofluids, such as the liquid iron that fills the Earth's outer core, produce stationary, large-scale magnetic fields, i.e., the geomagnetic field. These results should also apply to other planets as well as to plasma confinement devices on Earth and in space, and the effects should be manifest if Reynolds numbers are high enough and there is enough time for stationarity to occur, at least approximately. In the presentation, details will be given for both theoretical and numerical results, and references will be provided.
(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium
?umer, Slobodan
(Quantum) chaos theory and statistical physics far from equilibrium: Introducing the group for Non (Nonlinear dynamics, chaos theory) Quantum information theory Our group is also a part of the bigger program Quantum maps, quantum chaos, random matrix theory: wave-dynamics, wave-chaos, PT-symmetric Hamiltonians
Principles of statistical radiophysics 1
Rytov, S.M.; Kravtsov, Y.A.; Tatarskii, V.I.
1987-01-01
In four volumes, the ''Principles'' develop the theory of random functions, the main tool in statistical radiophysics and a variety of other branches of physics and engineering. Examples dealing with real physical problems as well as exercises are included to facilitate the introduction into the subject and application of the concepts developed. It provides the uninitiated reader with sufficient background for reading monographs and papers on the subject and for independent active research. The first volume contains the essential mathematical prerequisites and definitions related to this topic. It deals in particular with the physics of random pulse processes, shot and flicker noises, fluctuations in self-oscillatory systems, random actions on linear and nonlinear discrete dynamical systems, Markov processes and stochastic differential equations.
... Disease FAQs Data & Statistics Research & Tracking ADDM CADDRE SEED Frequently Asked Questions Georgia SEED What to Expect How to Prepare Articles & Key ... enrolled in CDC's Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). (Published June 6, 2015) Key Findings: The association ...
JM Harrison; JP Keating; JM Robbins
2011-01-07
Quantum graphs are commonly used as models of complex quantum systems, for example molecules, networks of wires, and states of condensed matter. We consider quantum statistics for indistinguishable spinless particles on a graph, concentrating on the simplest case of abelian statistics for two particles. In spite of the fact that graphs are locally one-dimensional, anyon statistics emerge in a generalized form. A given graph may support a family of independent anyon phases associated with topologically inequivalent exchange processes. In addition, for sufficiently complex graphs, there appear new discrete-valued phases. Our analysis is simplified by considering combinatorial rather than metric graphs -- equivalently, a many-particle tight-binding model. The results demonstrate that graphs provide an arena in which to study new manifestations of quantum statistics. Possible applications include topological quantum computing, topological insulators, the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity and molecular physics.
Computational Statistics Canonical Forest
Ahn, Hongshik
Computational Statistics Canonical Forest --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: COST-D-12-00160R3 Full Title: Canonical Forest Article Type: Original Paper Keywords: Canonical linear discriminant analysis; Classification; Ensemble; Linear discriminant analysis; Rotation Forest Corresponding Author
Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takis, Sandra L.
1999-01-01
Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)
Cooperative Learning in Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others
1994-01-01
Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Testa, Massimo
2015-08-01
Starting with the basic principles of Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, we give a rigorous, but completely elementary proof of the relation between fundamental observables of a statistical system, when measured within two inertial reference frames, related by a Lorentz transformation.
... Hemophilia Women Healthcare Providers Partners Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that children who were treated on a regular basis to prevent bleeding had less evidence of joint ...
Massimo Testa
2015-07-30
Based on the fundamental principles of Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, we give a rigorous, but completely elementary, proof of the relation between fundamental observables of a statistical system when measured relatively to two inertial reference frames, connected by a Lorentz transformation.
... Ovarian Prostate Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women ...
... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... per year in the United States: 1900-2012. Plague Worldwide Plague epidemics have occurred in Africa, Asia, ...
LTCC Basic Statistics Course Title: Fundamental Theory of Statistical Inference
Burton, Geoffrey R.
. - Syllabus: (1) Approaches to statistical inference: frequentist, Bayesian, Fisherian. [1] (2) Decision) Bayesian methods: fundamental ideas, general form of Bayes rules, choice of prior, empirical BayesLTCC Basic Statistics Course · Title: Fundamental Theory of Statistical Inference · Basic Details
Poisson statistics in the high temperature QCD Dirac spectrum
Tamás G. Kovács; Ferenc Pittler
2011-11-15
We analyze the eigenvalue statistics of the staggered Dirac operator above $T_{c}$ in QCD with 2+1 flavors of dynamical quarks. We use physical quark masses in our simulations. We compare the eigenvalue statistics from several parts of the Dirac spectrum with the predictions of Random Matrix Theory for this universality class and with Poisson statistics. We show that at the low end of the spectrum the eigenmodes are localized and obey Poisson statistics. Above a boundary region the eigenmodes become delocalized and obey Random Matrix statistics. Thus the QCD Dirac spectrum with physical dynamical quarks also has the Poisson to Random Matrix transition previously seen in the quenched SU(2) theory.
Softening the Complexity of Entropic Motion on Curved Statistical Manifolds
Cafaro, Carlo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano
2011-01-01
We study the information geometry and the entropic dynamics of a 3D Gaussian statistical model. We then compare our analysis to that of a 2D Gaussian statistical model obtained from the higher-dimensional model via introduction of an additional information constraint that resembles the quantum mechanical canonical minimum uncertainty relation. We show that the chaoticity (temporal complexity) of the 2D Gaussian statistical model, quantified by means of the Information Geometric Entropy (IGE) and the Jacobi vector field intensity, is softened with respect to the chaoticity of the 3D Gaussian statistical model.
Softening the Complexity of Entropic Motion on Curved Statistical Manifolds
Carlo Cafaro; Adom Giffin; Cosmo Lupo; Stefano Mancini
2011-10-31
We study the information geometry and the entropic dynamics of a 3D Gaussian statistical model. We then compare our analysis to that of a 2D Gaussian statistical model obtained from the higher-dimensional model via introduction of an additional information constraint that resembles the quantum mechanical canonical minimum uncertainty relation. We show that the chaoticity (temporal complexity) of the 2D Gaussian statistical model, quantified by means of the Information Geometric Entropy (IGE) and the Jacobi vector field intensity, is softened with respect to the chaoticity of the 3D Gaussian statistical model.
Counting statistics for mesoscopic conductors with internal degrees of freedom
Christopher Birchall; Henning Schomerus
2010-04-29
We consider the transport of electrons passing through a mesoscopic device possessing internal dynamical quantum degrees of freedom. The mutual interaction between the system and the conduction electrons contributes to the current fluctuations, which we describe in terms of full counting statistics. We identify conditions where this discriminates coherent from incoherent internal dynamics, and also identify and illustrate conditions under which the device acts to dynamically bunch transmitted or reflected electrons, thereby generating super-Poissonian noise.
Contingency and statistical laws in replicate microbial closed ecosystems.
Hekstra, Doeke R; Leibler, Stanislas
2012-05-25
Contingency, the persistent influence of past random events, pervades biology. To what extent, then, is each course of ecological or evolutionary dynamics unique, and to what extent are these dynamics subject to a common statistical structure? Addressing this question requires replicate measurements to search for emergent statistical laws. We establish a readily replicated microbial closed ecosystem (CES), sustaining its three species for years. We precisely measure the local population density of each species in many CES replicates, started from the same initial conditions and kept under constant light and temperature. The covariation among replicates of the three species densities acquires a stable structure, which could be decomposed into discrete eigenvectors, or "ecomodes." The largest ecomode dominates population density fluctuations around the replicate-average dynamics. These fluctuations follow simple power laws consistent with a geometric random walk. Thus, variability in ecological dynamics can be studied with CES replicates and described by simple statistical laws. PMID:22632978
Local Statistics of Realizable Vertex Models
Zhongyang Li
2010-06-19
We study planar "vertex" models, which are probability measures on edge subsets of a planar graph, satisfying certain constraints at each vertex, examples including dimer model, and 1-2 model, which we will define. We express the local statistics of a large class of vertex models on a finite hexagonal lattice as a linear combination of the local statistics of dimers on the corresponding Fisher graph, with the help of a generalized holographic algorithm. Using an $n\\times n$ torus to approximate the periodic infinite graph, we give an explicit integral formula for the free energy and local statistics for configurations of the vertex model on an infinite bi-periodic graph. As an example, we simulate the 1-2 model by the technique of Glauber dynamics.
Exclusion Statistics in Classical Mechanics
T. H. Hansson; S. B. Isakov; J. M. Leinaas; U. Lindstrom
2000-04-28
We present a general method to derive the classical mechanics of a system of identical particles in a way that retains information about quantum statistics. The resulting statistical mechanics can be interpreted as a classical version of Haldane's exclusion statistics.
Escape time statistics for mushroom billiards
T. Miyaguchi
2006-12-27
Chaotic orbits of mushroom billiards display intermittent behaviors. We investigate statistical properties of this system by constructing an infinite partition on the chaotic part of a Poincar\\'e surface which illustrates details of chaotic dynamics. Each piece of the infinite partition has an unique escape time from the half disk region, and from this result it is shown that, for fixed values of the system parameters, the escape time distribution obeys power law $1/t_{\\rm esc}^3$.
Spike train statistics and Gibbs distributions.
Cessac, B; Cofré, R
2013-11-01
This paper is based on a lecture given in the LACONEU summer school, Valparaiso, January 2012. We introduce Gibbs distribution in a general setting, including non stationary dynamics, and present then three examples of such Gibbs distributions, in the context of neural networks spike train statistics: (i) maximum entropy model with spatio-temporal constraints; (ii) generalized linear models; and (iii) conductance based integrate and fire model with chemical synapses and gap junctions. PMID:23501168
Statistical mechanics of fullerene coalescence growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maul, Jochen; Berg, Thomas; Marosits, Edit; Schönhense, Gerd; Huber, Gerhard
2006-10-01
Among the different carbon allotropes fullerenes are exceptionally intriguing for their spheroidal topology out of pentagons and hexagons. However, the dominant formation mode is still ambiguous. Here, we analyze the fullerene formation process by the statistical analysis of fullerene sizes produced in a laser-induced microplasma finding that a simple two-parameter lognormal distribution describes impressively well the cluster frequencies under various conditions. Our findings clearly reveal coalescent growth following a classical collision dynamics and disagree with several earlier assumptions.
Statistical Physics of Fracture
Alava, Mikko; Nukala, Phani K; Zapperi, Stefano
2006-05-01
Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.
Suite versus composite statistics
Balsillie, J.H.; Tanner, W.F.
1999-01-01
Suite and composite methodologies, two statistically valid approaches for producing statistical descriptive measures, are investigated for sample groups representing a probability distribution where, in addition, each sample is probability distribution. Suite and composite means (first moment measures) are always equivalent. Composite standard deviations (second moment measures) are always larger than suite standard deviations. Suite and composite values for higher moment measures have more complex relationships. Very seldom, however, are they equivalent, and they normally yield statistically significant but different results. Multiple samples are preferable to single samples (including composites) because they permit the investigator to examine sample-to-sample variability. These and other relationships for suite and composite probability distribution analyses are investigated and reported using granulometric data.
Statistical Reconstruction of Qutrits
Yu. I. Bogdanov; M. V. Chekhova; L. A. Krivitsky; S. P. Kulik; L. C. Kwek; C. H. Oh; A. N. Penin; M. K. Tey; A. A. Zhukov
2004-04-23
We discuss a procedure of measurement followed by the reproduction of the quantum state of a three-level optical system - a frequency- and spatially degenerate two-photon field. The method of statistical estimation of the quantum state based on solving the likelihood equation and analyzing the statistical properties of the obtained estimates is developed. Using the root approach of estimating quantum states, the initial two-photon state vector is reproduced from the measured fourth moments in the field . The developed approach applied to quantum states reconstruction is based on the amplitudes of mutually complementary processes. Classical algorithm of statistical estimation based on the Fisher information matrix is generalized to the case of quantum systems obeying Bohr's complementarity principle. It has been experimentally proved that biphoton-qutrit states can be reconstructed with the fidelity of 0.995-0.999 and higher.
Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1998-07-15
The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore »significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less
Pearson's Goodness of Fit Statistic as a Score Test Statistic
Smyth, Gordon K.
Pearson's Goodness of Fit Statistic as a Score Test Statistic Gordon K. Smyth Abstract For any generalized linear model, the Pearson goodness of fit statistic is the score test statistic for testing; exponential family nonlinear model; saturated model. 1 Introduction Goodness of fit tests go back at least
The Statistical Reservoir Model: calibrating faults and fractures, and predicting reservoir.main@ed.ac.uk) 2 Reservoir Dynamics Ltd, Surrey KT24 6PB, UK 3 School of Mathematics and Statistics, University 2XB, UK Abstract: This paper describes the new concept of a `Statistical Reservoir Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukose, Rajan Mathew
The World Wide Web and the Internet are rapidly expanding spaces, of great economic and social significance, which offer an opportunity to study many phenomena, often previously inaccessible, on an unprecedented scale and resolution with relative ease. These phenomena are measurable on the scale of tens of millions of users and hundreds of millions of pages. By virtue of nearly complete electronic mediation, it is possible in principle to observe the time and ``spatial'' evolution of nearly all choices and interactions. This cyber-space therefore provides a view into a number of traditional research questions (from many academic disciplines) and creates its own new phenomena accessible for study. Despite its largely self-organized and dynamic nature, a number of robust quantitative regularities are found in the aggregate statistics of interesting and useful quantities. These regularities can be understood with the help of models that draw on ideas from statistical physics as well as other fields such as economics, psychology and decision theory. This thesis develops models that can account for regularities found in the statistics of Internet congestion and user surfing patterns and discusses some practical consequences. practical consequences.
Non equilibrium statistical mechanics of geophysical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchet, F.
2012-04-01
Onsager first proposed to explain the self organization of turbulent flows using the statistical mechanics framework. Generalization of those ideas to the class of 2D-Euler and Quasi-Gestrophic models led to the Robert-Sommeria-Miller theory. This approach was successful in modeling many geophysical phenomena: the Great Red Spot of Jupiter [2, 1], drift of mesoscale ocean vortices [3, 1], self-organization of Quasi-Geostrophic dynamics in mid-basin jets similar to the Gulf-Stream and the Kuroshio [3, 1], and so on. However, this type of equilibrium theories fail to take into account forces and dissipation. This is a strong limitation for many geophysical phenomena. Interestingly, it is possible to circumvent these difficulties using the most modern theoretical development of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics: large deviation [4] and instanton theories. As an example, we will discuss geophysical turbulent flows which have more than one attractor (bistability or mutistability). For instance, paths of the Kuroshio [5], the Earth's magnetic field reversal, atmospheric flows [6], MHD experiments [7], 2D turbulence experiments [8, 9], 3D flows [10] show this kind of behavior. On Navier-Stokes and Quasi-Geostrophic turbulent flows, we predict the conditions for existence of rare transitions between attractors, and the dynamics of those transitions. We discuss how these results are probably connected to the long debated existence of multi-stability in the atmosphere and oceans, and how non-equilibrium statistical mechanics can allow to settle this issue. Generalization of statistical mechanics to more comprehensive hydrodynamical models, which include gravity wave dynamics and allow for the possibility of energy transfer through wave motion, would be extremely interesting. Namely, both are essential in understanding energy balance of geophysical flows. However, due to difficulties in essential theoretical parts of the statistical mechanics approach, previous methods describing statistical equilibria were up to now limited to the use of quasi-geostrophic models. We will discuss a recent study that fills this gap [11]. The new theory we propose describes geophysical phenomena using statistical mechanics applied to the shallow water model, and is easily generalizable to the primitive equations. Invariant measures of the shallow water model are built based on the Hamiltonian structure and the Liouville theorem. We discuss applications to the selection of vortex profiles.
STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE
Karney, Charles
results related to the Chirikov-Taylor (C-T) model, also called stan- dard mapping,', in the presenceSTATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE CHIRIKOV-TAYLOR MODEL IN THE PRESENCE OF NOISE A. B. RECHESTER Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas R. B. WHITE AND C. F. F. KARNEY
Statistical Energy Analysis Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferebee, R. C.; Trudell, R. W.; Yano, L. I.; Nygaard, S. I.
1985-01-01
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is powerful tool for estimating highfrequency vibration spectra of complex structural systems and incorporated into computer program. Basic SEA analysis procedure divided into three steps: Idealization, parameter generation, and problem solution. SEA computer program written in FORTRAN V for batch execution.
Statistics for Learning Genetics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Abigail Sheena
2012-01-01
This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in,…
... medicine in the United States 2000-2005: an analysis of bed numbers, occupancy rates, payer mix and costs. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:65-71. Health Forum, LLC. American Hospital Association Hospital Statistics, 2011 (2009 survey data). Chicago, IL: ...
Beyond quantum microcanonical statistics
Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J.
2011-02-07
Descriptions of molecular systems usually refer to two distinct theoretical frameworks. On the one hand the quantum pure state, i.e., the wavefunction, of an isolated system is determined to calculate molecular properties and their time evolution according to the unitary Schroedinger equation. On the other hand a mixed state, i.e., a statistical density matrix, is the standard formalism to account for thermal equilibrium, as postulated in the microcanonical quantum statistics. In the present paper an alternative treatment relying on a statistical analysis of the possible wavefunctions of an isolated system is presented. In analogy with the classical ergodic theory, the time evolution of the wavefunction determines the probability distribution in the phase space pertaining to an isolated system. However, this alone cannot account for a well defined thermodynamical description of the system in the macroscopic limit, unless a suitable probability distribution for the quantum constants of motion is introduced. We present a workable formalism assuring the emergence of typical values of thermodynamic functions, such as the internal energy and the entropy, in the large size limit of the system. This allows the identification of macroscopic properties independently of the specific realization of the quantum state. A description of material systems in agreement with equilibrium thermodynamics is then derived without constraints on the physical constituents and interactions of the system. Furthermore, the canonical statistics is recovered in all generality for the reduced density matrix of a subsystem.
American Indian Population Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.
This report summarizes American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population statistics from the 1990 Census. In 1990 there were about 2 million persons who identified themselves as American Indians in the United States, a 38 percent increase over the 1980 census. More than half of the Indian population lived in six states, with Oklahoma having the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense -- Comptroller (DOD), Washington, DC.
This document contains summaries of basic manpower statistical data for the Department of Defense, with the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force totals shown separately and collectively. Included are figures for active duty military personnel, civilian personnel, reserve components, and retired military personnel. Some of the data show…
Education Statistics Quarterly, 2003.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marenus, Barbara; Burns, Shelley; Fowler, William; Greene, Wilma; Knepper, Paula; Kolstad, Andrew; McMillen Seastrom, Marilyn; Scott, Leslie
2003-01-01
This publication provides a comprehensive overview of work done across all parts of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Each issue contains short publications, summaries, and descriptions that cover all NCES publications and data products released in a 3-month period. Each issue also contains a message from the NCES on a timely…
Applied Statistics: Modern Applications
Burton, Geoffrey R.
· Medical images · Images extracted from cameras and videos · Statistical algorithms are being develop amounts of data every day Bank and shopping transactions Web sites and pages visited Images and videos Real-time vehicle tracking Pollution levels Medical and genetic information .... Saturday, 5 February
Introduction Statistical Models
Paciorek, Chris
functions of the X variable(s) (nonparametric regression), Terms to capture spatial, temporal and spatio Methods Modern Regression Modern statistical regression involves a vast array of extensions to the usual Y.g., regression trees), Known functional forms of the X variable(s), f (x, ) (nonlinear regression), Unknown
Recommendations on Statistics February 23, 2000 Forensic Sci. Comm. 2(3); available on-line at http://www.fbi the mixture data under two (or more) alternative hypotheses; in its simplest form LR = 1/RMP a b c d P(E H2) P
Department of Statistical Science
Keinan, Alon
Corporate Strategy Manager Senior Data Analyst Statistician Risk Analyst Statistical Modeler Consulting/Marketing-, and grid computing Employed 63% Sample Job Titles Retirement Pension Fund Manager Marketing Assistant Cornell University Digital Risk LLC Dratfield Analytics Marketing Epsilon Hyundai Fire & Marine Insurance
Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.
2009-04-30
The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.
The Statistical Drake Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Claudio
2010-12-01
We provide the statistical generalization of the Drake equation. From a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake equation is now turned into the product of seven positive random variables. We call this "the Statistical Drake Equation". The mathematical consequences of this transformation are then derived. The proof of our results is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics. In loose terms, the CLT states that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable. This is called the Lyapunov Form of the CLT, or the Lindeberg Form of the CLT, depending on the mathematical constraints assumed on the third moments of the various probability distributions. In conclusion, we show that: The new random variable N, yielding the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy, follows the LOGNORMAL distribution. Then, as a consequence, the mean value of this lognormal distribution is the ordinary N in the Drake equation. The standard deviation, mode, and all the moments of this lognormal N are also found. The seven factors in the ordinary Drake equation now become seven positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be ARBITRARY. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into our statistical Drake equation by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both physically realistic and practically very useful, of course. An application of our statistical Drake equation then follows. The (average) DISTANCE between any two neighboring and communicating civilizations in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of N. Then, in our approach, this distance becomes a new random variable. We derive the relevant probability density function, apparently previously unknown and dubbed "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies. DATA ENRICHMENT PRINCIPLE. It should be noticed that ANY positive number of random variables in the Statistical Drake Equation is compatible with the CLT. So, our generalization allows for many more factors to be added in the future as long as more refined scientific knowledge about each factor will be known to the scientists. This capability to make room for more future factors in the statistical Drake equation, we call the "Data Enrichment Principle," and we regard it as the key to more profound future results in the fields of Astrobiology and SETI. Finally, a practical example is given of how our statistical Drake equation works numerically. We work out in detail the case, where each of the seven random variables is uniformly distributed around its own mean value and has a given standard deviation. For instance, the number of stars in the Galaxy is assumed to be uniformly distributed around (say) 350 billions with a standard deviation of (say) 1 billion. Then, the resulting lognormal distribution of N is computed numerically by virtue of a MathCad file that the author has written. This shows that the mean value of the lognormal random variable N is actually of the same order as the classical N given by the ordinary Drake equation, as one might expect from a good statistical generalization.
Statistical physical models of cellular motility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banigan, Edward J.
Cellular motility is required for a wide range of biological behaviors and functions, and the topic poses a number of interesting physical questions. In this work, we construct and analyze models of various aspects of cellular motility using tools and ideas from statistical physics. We begin with a Brownian dynamics model for actin-polymerization-driven motility, which is responsible for cell crawling and "rocketing" motility of pathogens. Within this model, we explore the robustness of self-diffusiophoresis, which is a general mechanism of motility. Using this mechanism, an object such as a cell catalyzes a reaction that generates a steady-state concentration gradient that propels the object in a particular direction. We then apply these ideas to a model for depolymerization-driven motility during bacterial chromosome segregation. We find that depolymerization and protein-protein binding interactions alone are sufficient to robustly pull a chromosome, even against large loads. Next, we investigate how forces and kinetics interact during eukaryotic mitosis with a many-microtubule model. Microtubules exert forces on chromosomes, but since individual microtubules grow and shrink in a force-dependent way, these forces lead to bistable collective microtubule dynamics, which provides a mechanism for chromosome oscillations and microtubule-based tension sensing. Finally, we explore kinematic aspects of cell motility in the context of the immune system. We develop quantitative methods for analyzing cell migration statistics collected during imaging experiments. We find that during chronic infection in the brain, T cells run and pause stochastically, following the statistics of a generalized Levy walk. These statistics may contribute to immune function by mimicking an evolutionarily conserved efficient search strategy. Additionally, we find that naive T cells migrating in lymph nodes also obey non-Gaussian statistics. Altogether, our work demonstrates how physical principles and techniques can be applied to understand biological phenomena mechanistically and/or quantitatively.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perepiczka, Michelle; Chandler, Nichelle; Becerra, Michael
2011-01-01
Statistics plays an integral role in graduate programs. However, numerous intra- and interpersonal factors may lead to successful completion of needed coursework in this area. The authors examined the extent of the relationship between self-efficacy to learn statistics and statistics anxiety, attitude towards statistics, and social support of 166…
Statistical evaluation of forecasts.
Mader, Malenka; Mader, Wolfgang; Gluckman, Bruce J; Timmer, Jens; Schelter, Björn
2014-08-01
Reliable forecasts of extreme but rare events, such as earthquakes, financial crashes, and epileptic seizures, would render interventions and precautions possible. Therefore, forecasting methods have been developed which intend to raise an alarm if an extreme event is about to occur. In order to statistically validate the performance of a prediction system, it must be compared to the performance of a random predictor, which raises alarms independent of the events. Such a random predictor can be obtained by bootstrapping or analytically. We propose an analytic statistical framework which, in contrast to conventional methods, allows for validating independently the sensitivity and specificity of a forecasting method. Moreover, our method accounts for the periods during which an event has to remain absent or occur after a respective forecast. PMID:25215714
Pitfalls in computer statistics
Kinnison, R.R.
1983-03-01
The monograph discusses the computation of sums of squares, one of the most common statistical computations, and also one of the most sensitive quantities to finite numerical representation errors. Examples show that the computational device as well as the form of the mathematical formulas are an important consideration. Statistical computations suchas sums of squares are easy (but tedious) to perform accurately with paper and pencil. However, the difficulty in accurately calculating these results on computers is demonstrated. The problem is especially acute on microcomputers, where the user does not have access to double precision variables. Calculation of sums of squares in the single precision, one pass algorithm, can give highly inaccurate results. If double precision is not available (such as in BASIC), the update algorithms presented should be used.
1979 DOE statistical symposium
Gardiner, D.A.; Truett T.
1980-09-01
The 1979 DOE Statistical Symposium was the fifth in the series of annual symposia designed to bring together statisticians and other interested parties who are actively engaged in helping to solve the nation's energy problems. The program included presentations of technical papers centered around exploration and disposal of nuclear fuel, general energy-related topics, and health-related issues, and workshops on model evaluation, risk analysis, analysis of large data sets, and resource estimation.
International petroleum statistics report
1995-04-01
The International Petroleum Statistic Report, a monthly publication, presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The four sections of this April 1995 report are as follows: time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); oil supply/demand balance for the world; data on oil imports by OECD countries; annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.
Relativistic statistical arbitrage.
Wissner-Gross, A D; Freer, C E
2010-11-01
Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage. PMID:21230542
Guta, Madalin; Butucea, Cristina
2010-10-15
The notion of a U-statistic for an n-tuple of identical quantum systems is introduced in analogy to the classical (commutative) case: given a self-adjoint 'kernel' K acting on (C{sup d}){sup '}x{sup r} with r
Turbulence via information field dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ensslin, Torsten A.
2015-08-01
Turbulent flows exhibit-scale free regimes, for which information on the statistical properties of the dynamics exists for many length-scales. The simulation of turbulent systems can benefit from the inclusion of such information on sub-grid process. How can statistical information about the flow on small scales be optimally be incorporated into simulation schemes? Information field dynamics (IFD) is a novel information theoretical framework to design schemes that exploit such statistical knowledge on sub-grid flow fluctuations. In this talk, I will introduce the basic idea of IFD, present its first toy applications, and discuss the next steps towards its usage in complex turbulence simulations.
Summer Institute in Statistical Genetics Module 3: Computing for Statistical
Rice, Ken
Manipulating datasets Doing common (genetic) analyses · Using R for sophisticated analyses Doing some Prof Lumley · Associate Prof, UW Biostat · R Core developer · Genetic/Genomic researchSummer Institute in Statistical Genetics Module 3: Computing for Statistical Genetics Thomas Lumley
Statistical mechanics of monatomic liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, Duane C.
1997-10-01
Two key experimental properties of elemental liquids, together with an analysis of the condensed-system potential-energy surface, lead us logically to the dynamical theory of monatomic liquids. Experimentally, the ion motional specific heat is approximately 3Nk for N ions, implying the normal modes of motion are approximately 3N independent harmonic oscillators. This implies the potential surface contains nearly harmonic valleys. The equilibrium configuration at the bottom of each valley is a ``structure.'' Structures are crystalline or amorphous, and amorphous structures can have a remnant of local crystal symmetry, or can be random. The random structures are by far the most numerous, and hence dominate the statistical mechanics of the liquid state, and their macroscopic properties are uniform over the structure class, for large-N systems. The Hamiltonian for any structural valley is the static structure potential, a sum of harmonic normal modes, and an anharmonic correction. Again from experiment, the constant-density entropy of melting contains a universal disordering contribution of Nk?, suggesting the random structural valleys are of universal number wN, where lnw=?. Our experimental estimate for ? is 0.80. In quasiharmonic approximation, the liquid theory for entropy agrees with experiment, for all currently analyzable experimental data at elevated temperatures, to within 1-2% of the total entropy. Further testable predictions of the theory are mentioned.
STATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2006; 25:24692482
Wand, Matt
of spatial data for understanding environmental processes such as global warming. Similarly, in the ÿeldSTATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2006; 25:24692482 Published online 11 October 2005 in Wiley-referenced failure time data B. Ganguli1;; and M. P. Wand2 1Department of Statistics; University of Calcutta; India 2
STATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2008; 27:34303441
Marx, Brian D.
STATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2008; 27:34303441 Published online 8 January 2008 in Wiley for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany 3Department of Experimental Statistics, Louisiana State University by lifestyle factors such as smoking but also by seasonally fluctuating forces such as the climate and air
Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, James A.
2008-01-01
Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…
Statistics 470: Data Analytics and Statistical Computing Syllabus Fall 2015
Buja, Andreas
Statistics 470: Data Analytics and Statistical Computing Syllabus Fall 2015 Organization: · If you through event handling (k) The world of R packages: a selection i. Big-data structures in R ii. Web used R language, · principles and techniques that are broadly useful for statistical data analysis
Statistical Literacy: Developing a Youth and Adult Education Statistical Project
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conti, Keli Cristina; Lucchesi de Carvalho, Dione
2014-01-01
This article focuses on the notion of literacy--general and statistical--in the analysis of data from a fieldwork research project carried out as part of a master's degree that investigated the teaching and learning of statistics in adult education mathematics classes. We describe the statistical context of the project that involved the…
STATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2000; 19:23092320
Gelman, Andrew
in mapping methods illustrated by application to headbanging Andrew Gelman1;; , Phillip N. Price2 and Chia, empirical Bayes, loess, headbanging, resmoothed medians and median polish) by using statistics relatedSTATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2000; 19:23092320 A method for quantifying artefacts
On the statistical interpretation of optical rogue waves
Erkintalo, Miro; Dudley, John M
2010-01-01
Numerical simulations are used to discuss various aspects of "optical rogue wave" statistics observed in noise-driven fiber supercontinuum generation associated with highly incoherent spectra. In particular, we consider how long wavelength spectral filtering influences the characteristics of the statistical distribution of peak power, and we contrast the statistics of the spectrally filtered SC with the statistics of both the peak power of the most red-shifted soliton in the SC and the maximum peak power across the full temporal field with no spectral selection. For the latter case, we show that the unfiltered statistical distribution can still exhibit a long-tail, but the extreme-events in this case correspond to collisions between solitons of different frequencies. These results confirm the importance of collision dynamics in supercontinuum generation. We also show that the collision-induced events satisfy an extended hydrodynamic definition of "rogue wave" characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Hong-Yi; Hu, Li-Yun
2009-04-01
By introducing a fictitious mode to be a counterpart mode of the system mode under review we introduce the entangled state representation langle?|, which can arrange master equations of density operators ?(t) in quantum statistics as state-vector evolution equations due to the elegant properties of langle?|. In this way many master equations (respectively describing damping oscillator, laser, phase sensitive, and phase diffusion processes with different initial density operators) can be concisely solved. Specially, for a damping process characteristic of the decay constant ? we find that the matrix element of ?(t) at time t in langle?| representation is proportional to that of the initial ?0 in the decayed entangled state langle?e-?t| representation, accompanying with a Gaussian damping factor. Thus we have a new insight about the nature of the dissipative process. We also set up the so-called thermo-entangled state representation of density operators, ? = ?(d2?/?)langle?|?rangleD(?), which is different from all the previous known representations.
Entropic cosmology through non-gaussian statistics
Rafael C. Nunes; Edésio M. Barboza Jr.; Everton M. C. Abreu; Jorge Ananias Neto
2015-09-16
Based on the relationship between thermodynamics and gravity, and with the aid of Verlinde's formalism, we propose an alternative interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there through non-gaussian statistical theories proposed by Tsallis and Kaniadakis. We use the most recent data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble expansion rate function to constrain the free parameters on the $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models modified by the non-gaussian statistics. We evaluate the problem of age and we note that such modifications solve the problem at 1$\\sigma$ level confidence. Also we analyze the effects on the linear growth of matter density perturbations.
Towards a Statistical Physics of Human Mobility
Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro
2012-01-01
In this paper, we extend some ideas of statistical physics to describe the properties of human mobility. From a physical point of view, we consider the statistical empirical laws of private cars mobility, taking advantage of a GPS database which contains a sampling of the individual trajectories of 2% of the whole vehicle population in an Italian region. Our aim is to discover possible "universal laws" that can be related to the dynamical cognitive features of individuals. Analyzing the empirical trip length distribution we study if the travel time can be used as universal cost function in a mesoscopic model of mobility. We discuss the implications of the elapsed times distribution between successive trips that shows an underlying Benford's law, and we study the rank distribution of the average visitation frequency to understand how people organize their daily agenda. We also propose simple stochastic models to suggest possible explanations of the empirical observations and we compare our results with analogo...
Entropic cosmology through non-gaussian statistics
Nunes, Rafael C; Abreu, Everton M C; Neto, Jorge Ananias
2015-01-01
Based on the relationship between thermodynamics and gravity, and with the aid of Verlinde's formalism, we propose an alternative interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there through non-gaussian statistical theories proposed by Tsallis and Kaniadakis. We use the most recent data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble expansion rate function to constrain the free parameters on the $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models modified by the non-gaussian statistics. We evaluate the problem of age and we note that such modifications solve the problem at 1$\\sigma$ level confidence. Also we analyze the effects on the linear growth of matter density perturbations.
Emergent irreversibility and entanglement spectrum statistics.
Chamon, Claudio; Hamma, Alioscia; Mucciolo, Eduardo R
2014-06-20
We study the problem of irreversibility when the dynamical evolution of a many-body system is described by a stochastic quantum circuit. Such evolution is more general than a Hamiltonian one, and since energy levels are not well defined, the well-established connection between the statistical fluctuations of the energy spectrum and irreversibility cannot be made. We show that the entanglement spectrum provides a more general connection. Irreversibility is marked by a failure of a disentangling algorithm and is preceded by the appearance of Wigner-Dyson statistical fluctuations in the entanglement spectrum. This analysis can be done at the wave-function level and offers an alternative route to study quantum chaos and quantum integrability. PMID:24996072
Statistical challenges in modern astronomy
Babu, G. Jogesh
Statistical challenges in modern astronomy Eric Feigelson (Astro & Astrophys) & Jogesh Babu (Stat) Penn State University #12;Overview of modern astronomy & astrophysics Eternal expansion Continuing star Interstellar gas & dust Compact stars · White dwarfs · Neutron stars · Black holes #12;Astronomy & statistics
Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts
... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freilich, M. H.; Pawka, S. S.
1987-01-01
The statistics of Sxy estimates derived from orthogonal-component measurements are examined. Based on results of Goodman (1957), the probability density function (pdf) for Sxy(f) estimates is derived, and a closed-form solution for arbitrary moments of the distribution is obtained. Characteristic functions are used to derive the exact pdf of Sxy(tot). In practice, a simple Gaussian approximation is found to be highly accurate even for relatively few degrees of freedom. Implications for experiment design are discussed, and a maximum-likelihood estimator for a posterior estimation is outlined.
Statistical quality control procedures.
Westgard, James O
2013-03-01
The right quality control (QC) should ensure the detection of important errors. Statistical QC (SQC) should be included in all QC plans. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) C24A3 provides guidance for the application of SQC in medical laboratories. It describes a QC planning process and provides an SQC selection tool that relates the sigma-metric of a testing process to the medically important systematic error and the rejection characteristics of different SQC procedures. Once the right SQC has been selected, the laboratory must implement SQC right. CLSI C24A3 also provides guidance for establishing run length and control limits. PMID:23331732
Who Needs Statistics? | Poster
You may know the feeling. You have collected a lot of new data on an important experiment. Now you are faced with multiple groups of data, a sea of numbers, and a deadline for submitting your paper to a peer-reviewed journal. And you are not sure which data are relevant, or even the best way to present them. The statisticians at Data Management Services (DMS) know how to help. This small group of experts provides a wide array of statistical and mathematical consulting services to the scientific community at NCI at Frederick and NCI-Bethesda.
International petroleum statistics report
1995-10-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.
Wave statistics in a coastal focal zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, T. T.; Herbers, T. H. C.; Pearman, D. W.; Van Ettinger, E.; Smit, P. B.
2014-12-01
Wave-current dynamics in wave focal zones in exposed coastal inlets and river mouths are still poorly understood. This is in part due to lack of observations, which are complicated due to the presence of energetic waves, strong (tidal) currents, dynamic seabed morphology, and often busy ship traffic. Conventional (fixed) instruments, such as buoys and bottom-mounted current or pressure sensors, are difficult to maintain in such areas, and the spatial variability of the wave field is difficult to capture with single point measurements, or even arrays of fixed measurements. In addition to the observational difficulties, the effects of e.g. current shear, wave blocking, statistical inhomogeneity [see Smit & Janssen, 2013, J. Phys. Ocean., 43, pp 1741-1758], and nonlinearity [see Janssen & Herbers, 2009, J. Phys Ocean., 39, pp 1948-1964] on wave statistics are not fully understood, not accounted for in operational stochastic wave models, and - as a consequence - often ignored. In this paper, we consider new observational data of waves approaching the Mouth of the Columbia River undergoing bottom refraction and strong wave-current interaction. The data were collected during the 2013 ONR RIVET experiment using an array of free drifting wave-current buoys. The Lagrangian instruments capture the spatial variability of the wave field in the inlet and, by deploying them in large ensembles, resolve the (inhomogeneous and nonlinear) wave statistics in the focal zone. We discuss the use of free-drifting instruments to measure wave statistics in a coastal wave focal zone, consider the observed effects of wave inhomogeneity, and show that non-Gaussian effects are important and affect extreme wave occurrences in the Mouth of the Columbia River.
Statistical properties of Chinese phonemic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao; Xu, Chunshan
2011-04-01
The study of properties of speech sound systems is of great significance in understanding the human cognitive mechanism and the working principles of speech sound systems. Some properties of speech sound systems, such as the listener-oriented feature and the talker-oriented feature, have been unveiled with the statistical study of phonemes in human languages and the research of the interrelations between human articulatory gestures and the corresponding acoustic parameters. With all the phonemes of speech sound systems treated as a coherent whole, our research, which focuses on the dynamic properties of speech sound systems in operation, investigates some statistical parameters of Chinese phoneme networks based on real text and dictionaries. The findings are as follows: phonemic networks have high connectivity degrees and short average distances; the degrees obey normal distribution and the weighted degrees obey power law distribution; vowels enjoy higher priority than consonants in the actual operation of speech sound systems; the phonemic networks have high robustness against targeted attacks and random errors. In addition, for investigating the structural properties of a speech sound system, a statistical study of dictionaries is conducted, which shows the higher frequency of shorter words and syllables and the tendency that the longer a word is, the shorter the syllables composing it are. From these structural properties and dynamic properties one can derive the following conclusion: the static structure of a speech sound system tends to promote communication efficiency and save articulation effort while the dynamic operation of this system gives preference to reliable transmission and easy recognition. In short, a speech sound system is an effective, efficient and reliable communication system optimized in many aspects.
Forensic Statistics: Ready for consumption?
Gill, Richard D.
to develop (empirically calibrated) likelihood ratio (solve curse of dimension: empirical Bayes?, statistical of problems with the LR approach. Big challenges (both from legal and statistical point of view). Two- wayForensic Statistics: Ready for consumption? Richard Gill Mathematical Institute, Leiden University
STATISTICAL FILTERING* John B. Moore~
Moore, John Barratt
. In the late 1950's and 1960's, a statistical filtering theory was #12;1.2 developed [3-6] which did networks. The nonstationary statistical theory soon became known as Kalman filter theory. Since the theorySTATISTICAL FILTERING* by John B. Moore~ September, 1977 * Work supported by the Australian
Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Amanda S.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Teaching Statistics Online Using "Excel"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jerome, Lawrence
2011-01-01
As anyone who has taught or taken a statistics course knows, statistical calculations can be tedious and error-prone, with the details of a calculation sometimes distracting students from understanding the larger concepts. Traditional statistics courses typically use scientific calculators, which can relieve some of the tedium and errors but…
International petroleum statistics report
1997-05-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.
[Comment on] Statistical discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinn, Douglas
In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.
On the statistics of the gravitational field
A. Del Popolo
2001-10-26
In this paper we extend Chandrasekhar and von Neumann's analysis of the statistics of the gravitational field to systems in which particles (e.g. stars, galaxies) are not homogeneously distributed. We derive a distribution function W(F,d F/dt) giving the joint probability that a test particle is subject to a force F and an associated rate of change of F given by d F/dt. We calculate the first moment of d F/dt to study the effects of inhomogenity on dynamical friction.
Statistical Cognition: Towards Evidence-Based Practice in Statistics and Statistics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff
2008-01-01
Practitioners and teachers should be able to justify their chosen techniques by taking into account research results: This is evidence-based practice (EBP). We argue that, specifically, statistical practice and statistics education should be guided by evidence, and we propose statistical cognition (SC) as an integration of theory, research, and…
Basic statistics in cell biology.
Vaux, David L
2014-01-01
The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind. PMID:25000992
General relativistic statistical mechanics
Carlo Rovelli
2012-11-19
Understanding thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in the full general relativistic context is an open problem. I give tentative definitions of equilibrium state, mean values, mean geometry, entropy and temperature, which reduce to the conventional ones in the non-relativistic limit, but remain valid for a general covariant theory. The formalism extends to quantum theory. The construction builds on the idea of thermal time, on a notion of locality for this time, and on the distinction between global and local temperature. The last is the temperature measured by a local thermometer, and is given by kT = hbar d tau/ds, with k the Boltzmann constant, hbar the Planck constant, ds proper time and d tau the equilibrium thermal time.
International petroleum statistics report
Not Available
1993-03-26
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91 (Section 205(a)(2)) that states: ``The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze and disseminate data and information ... `` The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1991; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1991; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1991.
Applications of Computer Simulations and Statistical Mechanics in Surface Electrochemistry
Rikvold, P A; Juwono, T; Robb, D T; Novotny, M A; 10.1007/978-0-387-49586-6_4
2009-01-01
We present a brief survey of methods that utilize computer simulations and quantum and statistical mechanics in the analysis of electrochemical systems. The methods, Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and quantum-mechanical density-functional theory, are illustrated with examples from simulations of lithium-battery charging and electrochemical adsorption of bromine on single-crystal silver electrodes.
Tsallis Non-Extensive Statistics. Theory and Applications
G. P. Pavlos; L. P. Karakatsanis; M. N. Xenakis; A. E. G. Pavlos; A. C. Iliopoulos; D. V. Sarafopoulos
2012-03-26
In this study the q-statistics of Tsallis theory is testified in various complex physical systems. Especially the Tsallis q-triplet is estimated for space plasmas atmospheric dynamics and seismogenesis as well as for the brain and cardiac activity. The coincidence of theoretical predictions following after Tsallis theory and experimental estimations were found to be excellent in all cases
Visualizing and Understanding Probability and Statistics: Graphical Simulations Using Excel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.
2009-01-01
The authors describe a collection of dynamic interactive simulations for teaching and learning most of the important ideas and techniques of introductory statistics and probability. The modules cover such topics as randomness, simulations of probability experiments such as coin flipping, dice rolling and general binomial experiments, a simulation…
Mathematical-Statistical Modeling to Inform the Design of HIV
Davidian, Marie
Mathematical-Statistical Modeling to Inform the Design of HIV Treatment Strategies and Clinical (MGH and Harvard Medical School) Modeling for Design of HIV Treatment and Trials 1 #12;Outline · Objectives · HIV therapy and structured treatment interruption (STI) · HIV dynamic models and control
Statistical Mechanics Approaches to the Modeling of Nonlinear Earthquake Physics
1 Statistical Mechanics Approaches to the Modeling of Nonlinear Earthquake Physics John B. Rundle1, IN Abstract. We discuss the problem of earthquake forecasting in the context of new models for the dynamics to the modeling of earthquake faults. We show that the frictional failure physics of earthquakes in these complex
An Experimental Approach to Teaching and Learning Elementary Statistical Mechanics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Frank B.; Ellis, David C.
2008-01-01
Introductory statistical mechanics is studied for a simple two-state system using an inexpensive and easily built apparatus. A large variety of demonstrations, suitable for students in high school and introductory university chemistry courses, are possible. This article details demonstrations for exothermic and endothermic reactions, the dynamic…
Toward a wave turbulence formulation of statistical nonlinear optics
Garnier, Josselin
Toward a wave turbulence formulation of statistical nonlinear optics Josselin Garnier,1, * Mietek optical waves have been reported in the literature. This article is aimed at providing a generalized wave, the process of optical wave thermalization to thermo- dynamic equilibrium, which slows down significantly
J-adaptive estimation with estimated noise statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jazwinski, A. H.; Hipkins, C.
1973-01-01
The J-adaptive sequential estimator is extended to include simultaneous estimation of the noise statistics in a model for system dynamics. This extension completely automates the estimator, eliminating the requirement of an analyst in the loop. Simulations in satellite orbit determination demonstrate the efficacy of the sequential estimation algorithm.
Applications of Computer Simulations and Statistical Mechanics in Surface Electrochemistry
P. A. Rikvold; I. Abou Hamad; T. Juwono; D. T. Robb; M. A. Novotny
2009-10-12
We present a brief survey of methods that utilize computer simulations and quantum and statistical mechanics in the analysis of electrochemical systems. The methods, Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and quantum-mechanical density-functional theory, are illustrated with examples from simulations of lithium-battery charging and electrochemical adsorption of bromine on single-crystal silver electrodes.
A Statistical Analysis of Morphemes in Japanese Terminology Kyo KAGEURA
A Statistical Analysis of Morphemes in Japanese Terminology Kyo KAGEURA National Center for Science elements of Japanese terminology. In Japanese technical terms, the linguistic contri- bution of morphemes is applied, which can prop- erly characterise the dynamic nature of mor- phemes in terminology on the basis
The University of Chicago Department of Statistics
The University of Chicago Department of Statistics Seminar Mohsen Pourahmadi Division of Statistics, Northern Illinois University and the Department of Statistics, The University of Chicago "Generalized
The University of Chicago Department of Statistics
The University of Chicago Department of Statistics Seminar Series GREGORY LAWLER Departments of Mathematics and Statistics University of Chicago Conformal Invariance and Two-Dimensional Statistical Physics
The University of Chicago Department of Statistics
The University of Chicago Department of Statistics Seminar Series ROBERT GROSSMAN Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago Building Statistical Models
Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs in Wildfire Suppression
Carlson, Jean
Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs in Wildfire Suppression Nada Petrovic1 theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical
The statistical mechanics of schooling fish captures their interactions
Romenskyy, Maksym; Ward, Ashley J W; Sumpter, David J T
2015-01-01
While a rich variety of self-propelled particle models propose to explain the collective motion of fish and other animals, rigorous statistical comparison between models and data remains a challenge. Plausible models should be flexible enough to capture changes in the collective behaviour of animal groups at their different developmental stages and group sizes. Here we analyse the statistical properties of schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer) through a combination of experiments and simulations. We make novel use of a Boltzmann inversion method, usually applied in molecular dynamics, to identify the potential of the mean force of fish interactions. Specifically, we show that larger fish have a larger repulsion zone, but stronger attraction, resulting in greater alignment in their collective motion. We model the collective dynamics of schools using a self-propelled particle model, modified to include varying particle speed and a local repulsion rule. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the fish ...
Simple Statistical Model for Branched Aggregates: Application to Cooee Bitumen.
Lemarchand, Claire A; Hansen, Jesper S
2015-11-01
We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule, given that it already has bonds with others. The model is applied here to asphaltene nanoaggregates observed in molecular dynamics simulations of Cooee bitumen. The variation with temperature of the probabilities deduced from this model is discussed in terms of statistical mechanics arguments. The relevance of the statistical model in the case of asphaltene nanoaggregates is checked by comparing the predicted value of the probability for one molecule to have exactly i bonds with the same probability directly measured in the molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement is satisfactory. PMID:26458140
Statistical fractal analysis of 25 young star clusters
Gregorio-Hetem, J; Santos-Silva, T; Fernandes, B
2015-01-01
A large sample of young stellar groups is analysed aiming to investigate their clustering properties and dynamical evolution. A comparison of the Q statistical parameter, measured for the clusters, with the fractal dimension estimated for the projected clouds shows that 52% of the sample has substructures and tends to follow the theoretically expected relation between clusters and clouds, according to calculations for artificial distribution of points. The fractal statistics was also compared to structural parameters revealing that clusters having radial density profile show a trend of parameter s increasing with mean surface stellar density. The core radius of the sample, as a function of age, follows a distribution similar to that observed in stellar groups of Milky Way and other galaxies. They also have dynamical age, indicated by their crossing time that is similar to unbound associations. The statistical analysis allowed us to separate the sample into two groups showing different clustering characteristi...
Computationally efficient statistical differential equation modeling using homogenization
Hooten, Mevin B.; Garlick, Martha J.; Powell, James A.
2013-01-01
Statistical models using partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe dynamically evolving natural systems are appearing in the scientific literature with some regularity in recent years. Often such studies seek to characterize the dynamics of temporal or spatio-temporal phenomena such as invasive species, consumer-resource interactions, community evolution, and resource selection. Specifically, in the spatial setting, data are often available at varying spatial and temporal scales. Additionally, the necessary numerical integration of a PDE may be computationally infeasible over the spatial support of interest. We present an approach to impose computationally advantageous changes of support in statistical implementations of PDE models and demonstrate its utility through simulation using a form of PDE known as “ecological diffusion.” We also apply a statistical ecological diffusion model to a data set involving the spread of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in Idaho, USA.
Synchronization from Second Order Network Connectivity Statistics
Zhao, Liqiong; Beverlin, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden; Nykamp, Duane Q.
2011-01-01
We investigate how network structure can influence the tendency for a neuronal network to synchronize, or its synchronizability, independent of the dynamical model for each neuron. The synchrony analysis takes advantage of the framework of second order networks, which defines four second order connectivity statistics based on the relative frequency of two-connection network motifs. The analysis identifies two of these statistics, convergent connections, and chain connections, as highly influencing the synchrony. Simulations verify that synchrony decreases with the frequency of convergent connections and increases with the frequency of chain connections. These trends persist with simulations of multiple models for the neuron dynamics and for different types of networks. Surprisingly, divergent connections, which determine the fraction of shared inputs, do not strongly influence the synchrony. The critical role of chains, rather than divergent connections, in influencing synchrony can be explained by their increasing the effective coupling strength. The decrease of synchrony with convergent connections is primarily due to the resulting heterogeneity in firing rates. PMID:21779239
Beyond SDI: Integrating Science and Communities to Create
Camara, Gilberto
in the next years1 . The Amazon rainforest covers, in Brazil alone, an area of over 4 million km2 for the Sustainability of the Amazon Clodoveu A. Davis Jr.1 , Frederico T. Fonseca2 , Gilberto Câmara3 1 Universidade. We use the Amazon region as a starting point for the discussion. Environmental policy making
Mod I f iedEstendedSdi SeatedRotatio
Nicholson, Bruce J.
. Komen for the Cure (Award No. SAB08-00005) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI; Award No. K22 CA to post-treatment breast cancer survivors. The protocol was developed by a licensed physical therapist$Modified$Sun$Salutation$ ! The physical and mental benefits for properly designed exercise for post-treatment breast cancer survivors
"Star Wars" on Campus: Scientists Debate the Wisdom of SDI.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenblatt, Jean
1987-01-01
President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative is opposed by many university scientists, but government officials have no problem placing research contracts. Specific arrangements and personal opinions are cited, and the text of the Star Wars Petition signed by 6,500 faculty and graduate student scientists is included. (MSE)
arXiv:1209.6172v1[stat.AP]27Sep2012 The Annals of Applied Statistics
Shen, Haipeng
arXiv:1209.6172v1[stat.AP]27Sep2012 The Annals of Applied Statistics 2012, Vol. 6, No. 3, 870 to the yield literature is pragmatic: we introduce a dynamic factor model with functional coefficients which of Mathematical Statistics in The Annals of Applied Statistics, 2012, Vol. 6, No. 3, 870894. This reprint differs
Czaplewski, Raymond L
2015-01-01
Wall-to-wall remotely sensed data are increasingly available to monitor landscape dynamics over large geographic areas. However, statistical monitoring programs that use post-stratification cannot fully utilize those sensor data. The Kalman filter (KF) is an alternative statistical estimator. I develop a new KF algorithm that is numerically robust with large numbers of study variables and auxiliary sensor variables. A National Forest Inventory (NFI) illustrates application within an official statistics program. Practical recommendations regarding remote sensing and statistical issues are offered. This algorithm has the potential to increase the value of synoptic sensor data for statistical monitoring of large geographic areas. PMID:26393588
Czaplewski, Raymond L.
2015-01-01
Wall-to-wall remotely sensed data are increasingly available to monitor landscape dynamics over large geographic areas. However, statistical monitoring programs that use post-stratification cannot fully utilize those sensor data. The Kalman filter (KF) is an alternative statistical estimator. I develop a new KF algorithm that is numerically robust with large numbers of study variables and auxiliary sensor variables. A National Forest Inventory (NFI) illustrates application within an official statistics program. Practical recommendations regarding remote sensing and statistical issues are offered. This algorithm has the potential to increase the value of synoptic sensor data for statistical monitoring of large geographic areas. PMID:26393588
Finding Statistically Significant Communities in Networks
Lancichinetti, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo; Ramasco, José J.; Fortunato, Santo
2011-01-01
Community structure is one of the main structural features of networks, revealing both their internal organization and the similarity of their elementary units. Despite the large variety of methods proposed to detect communities in graphs, there is a big need for multi-purpose techniques, able to handle different types of datasets and the subtleties of community structure. In this paper we present OSLOM (Order Statistics Local Optimization Method), the first method capable to detect clusters in networks accounting for edge directions, edge weights, overlapping communities, hierarchies and community dynamics. It is based on the local optimization of a fitness function expressing the statistical significance of clusters with respect to random fluctuations, which is estimated with tools of Extreme and Order Statistics. OSLOM can be used alone or as a refinement procedure of partitions/covers delivered by other techniques. We have also implemented sequential algorithms combining OSLOM with other fast techniques, so that the community structure of very large networks can be uncovered. Our method has a comparable performance as the best existing algorithms on artificial benchmark graphs. Several applications on real networks are shown as well. OSLOM is implemented in a freely available software (http://www.oslom.org), and we believe it will be a valuable tool in the analysis of networks. PMID:21559480
Towards a Statistical Physics of Human Mobility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccardo, Gallotti; Armando, Bazzani; Sandro, Rambaldi
2012-09-01
In this paper, we extend some ideas of statistical physics to describe the properties of human mobility. From a physical point of view, we consider the statistical empirical laws of private cars mobility, taking advantage of a GPS database which contains a sampling of the individual trajectories of 2% of the whole vehicle population in an Italian region. Our aim is to discover possible "universal laws" that can be related to the dynamical cognitive features of individuals. Analyzing the empirical trip length distribution we study if the travel time can be used as universal cost function in a mesoscopic model of mobility. We discuss the implications of the elapsed times distribution between successive trips that shows an underlying Benford's law, and we study the rank distribution of the average visitation frequency to understand how people organize their daily agenda. We also propose simple stochastic models to suggest possible explanations of the empirical observations and we compare our results with analogous results on statistical properties of human mobility presented in the literature.
Algebraic generalization of quantum statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoilova, N. I.; Van der Jeugt, J.
2008-08-01
Generalized quantum statistics such as para-Bose and para-Fermi statistics are related to the basic classical Lie superalgebras B(0|n) and Bn. We give a quite general definition of 'a generalized quantum statistics associated to a Lie superalgebra G'. This definition is closely related to a certain Z-grading of G. The generalized quantum statistics is determined by a set of root vectors (the creation and annihilation operators of the statistics) and the set of algebraic relations for these operators. Then we give a complete classification of all generalized quantum statistics associated to the Lie superalgebras An, Bn, Cn, Dn, G2, F4, E6, E7, E8, A(m|n), B(m|n), C(n), D(m|n), G(3), F(4) and D(2; 1; ?).
International petroleum statistics report
1996-05-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.
International petroleum statistics report
1996-10-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.
Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton.
Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J Rudi
2015-01-01
Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar "microscopic" quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the "ecological temperature" of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean's swimming behavior. PMID:26270537
Statistical Mechanics of Zooplankton
Hinow, Peter; Nihongi, Ai; Strickler, J. Rudi
2015-01-01
Statistical mechanics provides the link between microscopic properties of many-particle systems and macroscopic properties such as pressure and temperature. Observations of similar “microscopic” quantities exist for the motion of zooplankton, as well as many species of other social animals. Herein, we propose to take average squared velocities as the definition of the “ecological temperature” of a population under different conditions on nutrients, light, oxygen and others. We test the usefulness of this definition on observations of the crustacean zooplankton Daphnia pulicaria. In one set of experiments, D. pulicaria is infested with the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. We find that infested D. pulicaria under light exposure have a significantly greater ecological temperature, which puts them at a greater risk of detection by visual predators. In a second set of experiments, we observe D. pulicaria in cold and warm water, and in darkness and under light exposure. Overall, our ecological temperature is a good discriminator of the crustacean’s swimming behavior. PMID:26270537
International petroleum statistics report
1997-07-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.
International Petroleum Statistics Report
Not Available
1992-04-24
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, consumption, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil consumption and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/consumption balance for the market economies (i.e. non-communist countries). This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, consumption, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD consumption data are for the years 1970 through 1990; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1990; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1990.
International petroleum statistics report
1995-11-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.
International petroleum statistics report
Not Available
1995-02-01
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.
Statistical mechanics of nucleosomes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chereji, Razvan V.
Eukaryotic cells contain long DNA molecules (about two meters for a human cell) which are tightly packed inside the micrometric nuclei. Nucleosomes are the basic packaging unit of the DNA which allows this millionfold compactification. A longstanding puzzle is to understand the principles which allow cells to both organize their genomes into chromatin fibers in the crowded space of their nuclei, and also to keep the DNA accessible to many factors and enzymes. With the nucleosomes covering about three quarters of the DNA, their positions are essential because these influence which genes can be regulated by the transcription factors and which cannot. We study physical models which predict the genome-wide organization of the nucleosomes and also the relevant energies which dictate this organization. In the last five years, the study of chromatin knew many important advances. In particular, in the field of nucleosome positioning, new techniques of identifying nucleosomes and the competing DNA-binding factors appeared, as chemical mapping with hydroxyl radicals, ChIP-exo, among others, the resolution of the nucleosome maps increased by using paired-end sequencing, and the price of sequencing an entire genome decreased. We present a rigorous statistical mechanics model which is able to explain the recent experimental results by taking into account nucleosome unwrapping, competition between different DNA-binding proteins, and both the interaction between histones and DNA, and between neighboring histones. We show a series of predictions of our new model, all in agreement with the experimental observations.
International petroleum statistics report
1995-07-27
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.
Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, B. C., Jr.; Redner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.
1976-01-01
A necessary and sufficient condition is developed such that there exists a continous linear sufficient statistic T for a dominated collection of totally finite measures defined on the Borel field generated by the open sets of a Banach space X. In particular, corollary necessary and sufficient conditions are given so that there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T for any finite collection of probability measures having n-variate normal densities. In this case a simple calculation, involving only the population means and covariances, determines the smallest integer K for which there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T (as well as an associated statistic T itself).
SOCR: Statistics Online Computational Resource
Dinov, Ivo D.
2011-01-01
The need for hands-on computer laboratory experience in undergraduate and graduate statistics education has been firmly established in the past decade. As a result a number of attempts have been undertaken to develop novel approaches for problem-driven statistical thinking, data analysis and result interpretation. In this paper we describe an integrated educational web-based framework for: interactive distribution modeling, virtual online probability experimentation, statistical data analysis, visualization and integration. Following years of experience in statistical teaching at all college levels using established licensed statistical software packages, like STATA, S-PLUS, R, SPSS, SAS, Systat, etc., we have attempted to engineer a new statistics education environment, the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR). This resource performs many of the standard types of statistical analysis, much like other classical tools. In addition, it is designed in a plug-in object-oriented architecture and is completely platform independent, web-based, interactive, extensible and secure. Over the past 4 years we have tested, fine-tuned and reanalyzed the SOCR framework in many of our undergraduate and graduate probability and statistics courses and have evidence that SOCR resources build student’s intuition and enhance their learning. PMID:21451741
Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)
2010-01-01
This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...
Neural network uncertainty assessment using Bayesian statistics with application to remote sensing
Aires, Filipe
Neural network uncertainty assessment using Bayesian statistics with application to remote sensing for many inversion problems in remote sensing; however, uncertainty estimates are rarely provided Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: General or miscellaneous; KEYWORDS: remote sensing, uncertainty, neural
Statistics and properties of coupled hole pairs in superconducting ceramics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplan, I. G.; Navarro, O.
It is shown that in site representation the hole-pair operators obey the same commutation relations (paulionic) as the Cooper pair operators in impulse representation, although the latter describe delocalized quasiparticles. In quasi-impulse representation the hole-pair operators are also delocalized but the exact commutation relations correspond to a modified parafermi statistics [1] of rank ? (? is the number of sites in a “superlattice” formed by the centers of mass of each hole pair). From this follows that one state can be occupied by up to ? pairs. Even in the absence of dynamic interaction, the system of hole pairs is characterized by some immanent interaction, named after Dyson as kinematic interaction. This interaction appears because of the deviation of the quasiparticle statistics from the Bose (Fermi) statistics and its magnitude depends on the concentration of hole pairs. In spite of the non-bosonic behavior, there is no statistical prohibition on the Bose-Einstein condensation of coupled hole pairs.
Observing fermionic statistics with photons in arbitrary processes
Matthews, Jonathan C. F.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Meinecke, Jasmin D. A.; Politi, Alberto; Peruzzo, Alberto; Ismail, Nur; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics defines two classes of particles-bosons and fermions-whose exchange statistics fundamentally dictate quantum dynamics. Here we develop a scheme that uses entanglement to directly observe the correlated detection statistics of any number of fermions in any physical process. This approach relies on sending each of the entangled particles through identical copies of the process and by controlling a single phase parameter in the entangled state, the correlated detection statistics can be continuously tuned between bosonic and fermionic statistics. We implement this scheme via two entangled photons shared across the polarisation modes of a single photonic chip to directly mimic the fermion, boson and intermediate behaviour of two-particles undergoing a continuous time quantum walk. The ability to simulate fermions with photons is likely to have applications for verifying boson scattering and for observing particle correlations in analogue simulation using any physical platform that can prepare the entangled state prescribed here. PMID:23531788
The Statistical Basis of Chemical Equilibria.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hauptmann, Siegfried; Menger, Eva
1978-01-01
Describes a machine which demonstrates the statistical bases of chemical equilibrium, and in doing so conveys insight into the connections among statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, Maxwell Boltzmann statistics, statistical thermodynamics, and transition state theory. (GA)
STATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2000; 19:25392554
Boehning, Dankmar
-Poisson variation using hierarchical Bayesian or empirical Bayes methods [2; 3]. The observed disease counts Oi terms for unstructured and spatially structured variation [4]. The hierarchical Bayes approach requiresSTATISTICS IN MEDICINE Statist. Med. 2000; 19:25392554 Non-parametric maximum likelihood
statistical physics statistics of radiation Efficiency of a Solar Cell
statistical physics statistics of radiation Efficiency of a Solar Cell In this problem, we will show that simple physics constrains the efficiency of a solar cell. Consider a planar solar cell) Suppose that the solar cell can only absorb radiation quanta from the sun with an energy greater than