Sample records for sea anemones cnidaria

  1. Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) of Moreton Bay

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne

    Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) of Moreton Bay Daphne G. FAUTIN Department of Ecology.qm.qld.gov.au 35 Citation: Fautin, D.G., Crowther, A.L. & Wallace, C.C., 2008 12 01. Sea anemones (Cnidaria

  2. Distribution of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) in Korea analyzed by environmental clustering

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne

    Distribution of sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) in Korea analyzed by environmental clustering on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Ó 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 497 #12;intertidal

  3. Formation of the Apical Flaps in Nematocysts of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne

    Formation of the Apical Flaps in Nematocysts of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) ABIGAIL J. REFT of the phylum Cnidaria (e.g., jellyfish, sea anemones, corals). Nematocysts are used in capture of prey, defense

  4. Investigating the origins of triploblasty: `mesodermal' gene expression in a diploblastic animal, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (phylum, Cnidaria; class, Anthozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Q. Martindale; Kevin Pang; John R. Finnerty

    2004-01-01

    Mesoderm played a crucial role in the radiation of the triploblastic Bilateria, permitting the evolution of larger and more complex body plans than in the diploblastic, non- bilaterian animals. The sea anemone Nematostella is a non- bilaterian animal, a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydras and jellyfish) is the likely sister group of the

  5. Environmental sensing and response genes in Cnidaria: the chemical defensome in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis has been recently established as a new model system for the study of the evolution of developmental processes, as cnidaria occupy a key evolutionary position at the base of the bilateria. Cnidaria play important roles in estuarine and reef communities, but are exposed to many environmental stressors. Here I describe the genetic components of a ‘chemical defensome’ in the genome of N. vectensis, and review cnidarian molecular toxicology. Gene families that defend against chemical stressors and the transcription factors that regulate these genes have been termed a ‘chemical defensome,’ and include the cytochromes P450 and other oxidases, various conjugating enyzymes, the ATP-dependent efflux transporters, oxidative detoxification proteins, as well as various transcription factors. These genes account for about 1% (266/27200) of the predicted genes in the sea anemone genome, similar to the proportion observed in tunicates and humans, but lower than that observed in sea urchins. While there are comparable numbers of stress-response genes, the stress sensor genes appear to be reduced in N. vectensis relative to many model protostomes and deuterostomes. Cnidarian toxicology is understudied, especially given the important ecological roles of many cnidarian species. New genomic resources should stimulate the study of chemical stress sensing and response mechanisms in cnidaria, and allow us to further illuminate the evolution of chemical defense gene networks. PMID:18956243

  6. Sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the Faroe Islands: a preliminary list and biogeographic context

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Daly, Marymegan; Cappola, Valerie A.

    2005-01-01

    We have identified 20 species of sea anemones (order Actiniaria) from BIOFAR material, eight of them new records for the Faroe Islands. This brings the total number of anemone species known thus far from the Faroes to 30. ...

  7. Taxonomy and distribution of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, Corallimorpharia) from deep water of the northeastern Pacific

    E-print Network

    Eash-Loucks, Wendy Ellyn

    2010-12-10

    and 2 corallimorpharian species in the deep sea of the northeastern Pacific, and fewer than half are known to science. I identified, using morphological characters, 14 of the largest and most abundant epibenthic deep-sea anemones including 12...

  8. Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Simões, Nuno; Tello-Musi, José Luis; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seven sea anemone species from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico are taxonomically diagnosed and images from living specimens including external and internal features, and cnidae are provided. Furthermore, the known distribution ranges from another 10 species are extended. No species records of sea anemones have been previously published in the primary scientific literature for coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico and thus, this study represents the first inventory for the local actiniarian fauna. PMID:24146599

  9. Population structure and genetic variation in two tropical sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actinidae) with different reproductive strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. M. Russo; A. M. Solé-Cava; J. P. Thorpe

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of two tropical sea anemones, Bunodosoma caissarum Correa and Actinia bermudensis McMurrich were related to their different dispersal capabilities and reproductive modes. B. caissarum reproduces sexually and has a long-lived planktotrophic larva; A. bermudensis can reproduce both sexually and asexually, supposedly with short-range dispersal. Both species were sampled along 1150 km of Brazilian coastline between

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Sea Anemone Metridium senile (Cnidaria): Introns, a Paucity of tRNA Genes, and a Near-Standard Genetic Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Timothy Beagley; Ronald Okimoto; David R. Wolstenholme

    The circular, 17,443 nucleotide-pair mitochondrial (mt) DNA molecule of the sea anemone, Metridium senile (class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria) is presented. This molecule contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins and two ribosomal (r) RNAs but, relative to other metazoan mtDNAs, has two unique features: only two transfer RNAs (tRNA f-Met and tRNA Trp ) are encoded, and the cytochrome c

  11. Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae), a new abyssal sea anemone from the Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanamyan, Nadya; Sanamyan, Karen

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes new deep-water edwardsiid sea anemone Edwardsia sojabio sp. n. which is very common on soft muddy bottoms at lower bathyal and upper abyssal depths in the Sea of Japan. It was recorded in high quantity in depths between 2545 and 3550 m and is the second abyssal species of the genus Edwardsia.

  12. Taxonomy and distribution of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia) from deep water of the northeastern Pacific

    E-print Network

    Eash-Loucks, Wendy E.; Fautin, Daphne G.

    2012-07-04

    Sea anemones sensu lato (members of cnidarian orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia) occurring in water of the northeastern Pacific Ocean greater than 1,000 m (to the abyssal plain) are poorly known. Based on the literature ...

  13. *Maractis rimicarivora*, a new genus and species of sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Actinostolidae) from an Atlantic hydrothermal vent

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Barber, Brian R.

    1999-01-01

    *Maractis rimicarivora* is a new genus and new species of medium-sized sea anemone (Actiniaria) from the TAG (Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse) hydrothermal vent fields (26°08.3'N, 44°49.6'W; 3650 m). The genus, which belongs ...

  14. Mitochondrial DNA of the sea anemone, Metridium senile (Cnidaria): Prokaryote-like genes for tRNA f-Met and small-subunit ribosomal RNA, and standard genetic code specificities for AGR and ATA codons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geneviève A. Pont-Kingdon; C. Timothy Beagley; Ronald Okimoto; David R. Wolstenholme

    1994-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the sea anemone Metridium senile (phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, order Actiniaria) has been determined, within which have been identified the genes for respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), the small-subunit rRNA (s-rRNA), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II(COII), ND4, ND6, cytochrome b (Cyt b), tRNAf-Met, and the

  15. Sea Anemone Genome Reveals Ancestral Eumetazoan Gene Repertoire and Genomic Organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas H. Putnam; Mansi Srivastava; Uffe Hellsten; Bill Dirks; Jarrod Chapman; Asaf Salamov; Astrid Terry; Harris Shapiro; Erika Lindquist; Vladimir V. Kapitonov; Jerzy Jurka; Grigory Genikhovich; Igor V. Grigoriev; Susan M. Lucas; Robert E. Steele; John R. Finnerty; Ulrich Technau; Mark Q. Martindale; Daniel S. Rokhsar

    2007-01-01

    Sea anemones are seemingly primitive animals that, along with corals, jellyfish, and hydras, constitute the oldest eumetazoan phylum, the Cnidaria. Here, we report a comparative analysis of the draft genome of an emerging cnidarian model, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The sea anemone genome is complex, with a gene repertoire, exon-intron structure, and large-scale gene linkage more similar to

  16. Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Brugler, Mercer R.; Crowley, Louise M.; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders. Although some relationships among these newly-defined groups are still ambiguous, morphological and molecular results are consistent enough to proceed with a new higher-level classification and to discuss the putative functional and evolutionary significance of several morphological attributes within Actiniaria. PMID:24806477

  17. A new species of the sea anemone *Megalactis* (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Actinodendridae) from Taiwan and designation of a neotype for the type species of the genus

    E-print Network

    Ardelean, Adorian; Fautin, Daphne G.

    2004-12-20

    *Megalactis comatus*, new species, from Taiwan is the third species in this genus of sea anemones with highly branched tentacles. The others are *M. hemprichii* Ehrenberg, 1834, from the Red Sea, and *M. griffithsi* ...

  18. A new genus and species of isanthid sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from Chilean Patagonia, Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häussermann, Verena; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2014-09-01

    We describe a new genus and species of sea anemone from Chilean Patagonia. Anthoparactis fossii n. gen. et sp. adds another acontiate genus and species to the family Isanthidae Carlgren, 1938. Anthoparactis n. gen. differs from the other isanthid genera in having the same number of mesenteries distally and proximally, acontia with basitrichs only, and a column with verrucae distally. Anthoparactis fossii n. sp. differs from the most similar species, Isoparactis fionae Lauretta et al., 2013, in the number of cycles of mesenteries and tentacles, structures of the column, colour pattern of the oral disc, cnidae, and geographical distribution. Isanthidae now includes seven genera and 11 species.

  19. Symbiont expulsion from the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt) (Cnidaria; Anthozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. McCloskey; Timothy G. Cove; E. Alan Verde

    1996-01-01

    Expulsion, mitotic index (MI), and density of two species of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae) in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt) were examined under three irradiance conditions. Expulsion of algae, regardless of species, increased directly with irradiance, while algal density remained independent of irradiance. The MI of algae in hospite was not significantly correlated with irradiance, although the MI

  20. NAD(P)H-dependent epoxidation of aldrin in vitro by sea anemone microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Heffernan; H. F. Morris; G. W. Winston

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicated the presence of a functional P450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system (MFO) in the sea anemone (Phylum: Cnidaria). Further catalytic studies have demonstrated that sea anemone microsomes can metabolize aldrin to dieldrin through an epoxidation reaction in the presence of NAD(P)H. Based upon Nickel 63 ECD gas chromatography, dieldrin was the only metabolite detected. Further, the

  1. Abyssal sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the northeast Pacific symbiotic with molluscs: *Anthosactis nomados*, a new species, and *Monactis vestita* (Gravier, 1918)

    E-print Network

    White, Tracy R.; Wakefield Pagels, April K.; Fautin, Daphne G.

    1999-12-01

    We describe *Anthosactis nomados*, new species, which belongs to family Actinostolidae, and redescribe *Monactis vestita* (Gravier, 1918), a species belonging to family Hormathiidae. Anemones of both species live attached ...

  2. (photo courtesy of T. Kato) CHARACTERISTICS OF CNIDARIA

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne

    Cnidaria (photo courtesy of T. Kato) CHARACTERISTICS OF CNIDARIA 1) Cnidae 2) Radial or biradial (biradial in polyps such as sea anemones and corals), single body #12;Section 12 CNIDARIA opening, and body. Nematocysts are a diagnostic featureof Cnidaria: if they are absent, the animal is not a cnidarian. However

  3. Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Özbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones. PMID:22048953

  4. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  5. Resistance and vulnerability of crustaceans to cytolytic sea anemone toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Giese; D Mebs; B Werding

    1996-01-01

    Crustaceans (Mithraculus, Neopetrolisthes, Periclimenes, Stenorhynchus sp.) living in association with sea anemones, shore crabs (Metopograpsus oceanicus) and brine shrimps (Artemia salina) were found to be resistent to the exposure of cytolytic sea anemone toxins (up to 100 ?g\\/ml) and to other membraneactive compounds such as gramicidin A and saponin. The gill filaments of the crustaceans were not affected, indicating that

  6. NF-?B is required for cnidocyte development in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Wolenski, Francis S; Bradham, Cynthia A; Finnerty, John R; Gilmore, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Nv) is a leading model organism for the phylum Cnidaria, which includes anemones, corals, jellyfishes and hydras. A defining trait across this phylum is the cnidocyte, an ectodermal cell type with a variety of functions including defense, prey capture and environmental sensing. Herein, we show that the Nv-NF-?B transcription factor and its inhibitor Nv-I?B are expressed in a subset of cnidocytes in the body column of juvenile and adult anemones. The size and distribution of the Nv-NF-?B-positive cnidocytes suggest that they are in a subtype known as basitrichous haplonema cnidocytes. Nv-NF-?B is primarily cytoplasmic in cnidocytes in juvenile and adult animals, but is nuclear when first detected in the 30-h post-fertilization embryo. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Nv-NF-?B expression results in greatly reduced cnidocyte formation in the 5 day-old animal. Taken together, these results indicate that NF-?B plays a key role in the development of the phylum-specific cnidocyte cell type in Nematostella, likely by nuclear Nv-NF-?B-dependent activation of genes required for cnidocyte development. PMID:23063796

  7. Sea anemone cytolysins as toxic components of immunotoxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayra Tejuca; Gregor Anderluh; Mauro Dalla Serra

    2009-01-01

    The use of membrane active toxins as toxic moieties in the construction of immunotoxins (ITs) is an attractive alternative to overcome some of the problems of classical ITs since these new conjugates are based in the use of a different mechanism of killing undesired cells. Pore-forming cytolysins from sea anemones were used in the construction of ITs targeted to different

  8. Nematocysts of sea anemones (Actiniaria, Ceriantharia and Corallimorpharia: Cnidaria): nomenclature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. England; E. A. Robson

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical review of nematocyst terminology is given and three nomenclatural problems are discussed. It is proposed to combine the terms initiated by Weill (1934) with those of Schmidt (1969). A new mesobasic grade, intermediate between microbasic and macrobasic is proposed for amastigophores and p-mastigophores possessing a short Faltstück. A more liberal interpretation of Weill's (1934) terminology for nematocysts

  9. Clonal Diversity in Introduced Populations of An Asian Sea Anemone in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy H. Ting; Jonathan B. Geller

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports hypothesized that introduced populations of the Asian sea anemone Diadumene lineata (Verill, 1870 (Presented 1869) Communications of the Essex Institution 6: 51–104), which reproduces by fission, are often monoclonal or to be composed of few clones. To test this hypothesis, sea anemones were collected from thirteen sites in three non-native regions and one native region: Chesapeake Bay, New

  10. The influence of irradiance on the severity of thermal bleaching in sea anemones that host anemonefish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Hill; Anna Scott

    2012-01-01

    Entacmaea quadricolor is a geographically widespread species of sea anemone that forms a three-way symbiosis with anemonefish and Symbiodinium. This species dominates the reef substrata at North Solitary Island, Australia, which is located in a region identified as a climate change hot spot. Their geographic location places these anemones under significant threat from rising ocean temperatures, although their upper thermal

  11. A sea anemone symbiotic with gastropods of eight species in the Mariana Islands

    E-print Network

    Goodwill, Roger H.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Furey, John; Daly, Marymegan

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two specimens of the small sea anemone *Neoaiptasia morbilla* Fautin and Goodwill, 2009, were collected attached to shells of gastropods living in shallow subtidal sand on Saipan and Tinian, Mariana Islands, in 1988 and from 2003 through 2007...

  12. Respiratory response of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cavernata (Bosc) to changes in temperature and salinity

    E-print Network

    Retzer, Kent Arnold

    1985-01-01

    RESPIRATORY RESPONSE OF THE SEA ANEMONE BUNODOSOMA CAVERNATA (BOSE) TO CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY A Thesis by KENT ARNOLD RETZER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 19BS Major Subject: Biology RESPIRATORY RESPONSE OF THE SEA ANEMONE BUNODOSOMA CAVERNATA (6OSC) TO CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY A Thesi s by KENT ARNOLD RETZER g7 Elenor R. Cox (Chairman of Committee...

  13. Continuous Drug Release by Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Stinging Microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  14. Continuous drug release by sea anemone Nematostella vectensis stinging microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Tal, Yossi; Ayalon, Ari; Sharaev, Agnesa; Kazir, Zoya; Brekhman, Vera; Lotan, Tamar

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal delivery is an attractive option for drug delivery. Nevertheless, the skin is a tough barrier and only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through it. The most difficult to deliver are hydrophilic drugs. The stinging mechanism of the cnidarians is a sophisticated injection system consisting of microcapsular nematocysts, which utilize built-in high osmotic pressures to inject a submicron tubule that penetrates and delivers their contents to the prey. Here we show, for the first time, that the nematocysts of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis can be isolated and incorporated into a topical formulation for continuous drug delivery. We demonstrate quantitative delivery of nicotinamide and lidocaine hydrochloride as a function of microcapsular dose or drug exposure. We also show how the released submicron tubules can be exploited as a skin penetration enhancer prior to and independently of drug application. The microcapsules are non-irritant and may offer an attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24473172

  15. Photosynthesis and respiration of two species of algal symbionts in the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt) (Cnidaria; Anthozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Alan Verde; L. R. McCloskey

    1996-01-01

    In parts of its range, the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt) is populated by two different symbiotic algae: zoochlorellae and zooxanthellae. Anemones with exclusively one or the other symbiont were compared under identical conditions. A zooxanthella was about twice the volume and carbon content of a zoochlorella, and contained more chlorophyll. Zooxanthellae population density was 24% less than zoochlorellae, consequently zooxanthellae

  16. Biogeography of Antarctic sea anemones (Anthozoa, Actiniaria): What do they tell us about the origin of the Antarctic benthic fauna?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rodríguez; P. J. López-González; J. M. Gili

    2007-01-01

    The present study of the biogeography of the Antarctic sea anemone fauna is based on new records and redescriptions of material collected from the Weddell Sea and Peninsula Antarctica, and on an update of the bibliographic data of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions. The faunal compositions at different levels, the geographic and bathymetric distributions of the sea anemone fauna, and

  17. Biogeography of Antarctic sea anemones (Anthozoa, Actiniaria): What do they tell us about the origin of the Antarctic benthic fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, E.; López-González, P. J.; Gili, J. M.

    2007-08-01

    The present study of the biogeography of the Antarctic sea anemone fauna is based on new records and redescriptions of material collected from the Weddell Sea and Peninsula Antarctica, and on an update of the bibliographic data of the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions. The faunal compositions at different levels, the geographic and bathymetric distributions of the sea anemone fauna, and the affinities within the continent and with the sub-Antarctic fauna have been studied. Furthermore, the relationships of the sea anemone fauna, of the Southern Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and Hawaii have been analysed. In this context, the origin of the Antarctic benthic fauna is discussed.

  18. Evolution of an ancient venom: recognition of a novel family of cnidarian toxins and the common evolutionary origin of sodium and potassium neurotoxins in sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Sunagar, Kartik; Federman Gross, Aya; Scheib, Holger; Alewood, Paul F; Moran, Yehu; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-06-01

    Despite Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids) being the oldest venomous animal lineage, structure-function relationships, phyletic distributions, and the molecular evolutionary regimes of toxins encoded by these intriguing animals are poorly understood. Hence, we have comprehensively elucidated the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary histories of pharmacologically characterized cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs). We show that despite long evolutionary histories, most cnidarian toxins remain conserved under the strong influence of negative selection-a finding that is in striking contrast to the rapid evolution of toxin families in evolutionarily younger lineages, such as cone snails and advanced snakes. In contrast to the previous suggestions that implicated SCRiPs in the biomineralization process in corals, we demonstrate that they are potent neurotoxins that are likely involved in the envenoming function, and thus represent the first family of neurotoxins from corals. We also demonstrate the common evolutionary origin of type III KTxs and NaTxs in sea anemones. We show that type III KTxs have evolved from NaTxs under the regime of positive selection, and likely represent a unique evolutionary innovation of the Actinioidea lineage. We report a correlation between the accumulation of episodically adaptive sites and the emergence of novel pharmacological activities in this rapidly evolving neurotoxic clade. PMID:25757852

  19. Comparison of developmental trajectories in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: embryogenesis, regeneration, and two forms of asexual fission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam M. Reitzel; Patrick M. Burton; Cassandra Krone; John R. Finnertya

    2007-01-01

    The starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, is a small burrowing estuarine animal, native to the Atlantic coast of North America. In recent years, this anemone has emerged as a model system in cnidarian developmental biology. Molecular studies of em- bryology and larval development in N. vectensis have provided important insights into the evolution of key metazoan traits. However, the adult

  20. Tiny Sea Anemone from the Lower Cambrian of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Han; Shin Kubota; Hiro-omi Uchida; George D. Stanley; Xiaoyong Yao; Degan Shu; Yong Li; Kinya Yasui

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAbundant fossils from the Ediacaran and Cambrian showing cnidarian grade grossly suggest that cnidarian diversification occurred earlier than that of other eumetazoans. However, fossils of possible soft-bodied polyps are scanty and modern corals are dated back only to the Middle Triassic, although molecular phylogenetic results support the idea that anthozoans represent the first major branch of the Cnidaria. Because of

  1. A new Fenestrulina (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) commensal with tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) in the tropical southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Stampar, Sergio N

    2014-01-01

    A new species of cheilostome bryozoan, Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp., was collected in December 2008 by scuba at 5-10 meters depth at Guaibura Beach, Guarapari, Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The specimen was found associated with tubes of the cerianthid Pachycerianthus sp., representing the first commensal association between a bryozoan and a tube-dwelling anemone. Fenestrulina commensalis n. sp. is the third species of the genus found in Brazilian waters; it is distinguished from other Atlantic species of Fenestrulina by its small angular orificial condyles, a single oral spine and basal anchoring rhizoids arising from abfrontal pore chambers. Morphological adaptations to encrust the tubes of cerianthids include anchoring rootlets and weakly contiguous zooids. These morphological features allow the colony the flexibility to grow around the tube and feed relatively undisturbed by silt and detritus, being raised well above the soft-sediment substratum in which the tube-anemone grows. PMID:24871841

  2. J.E. Randall D.G. Fautin Fishes other than anemonefishes that associate with sea anemones

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne

    for shelter and not just retreating to it for temporary asylum, and it seemed that at least occasional fishes that shelter at times among the stinging tentacles of large sea anemones. Colin and Heiser (1973

  3. The cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor possessed at least 56 homeoboxes: evidence from the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph F; Burton, Patrick M; Mazza, Maureen E; Kwong, Grace K; Mullikin, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2006-01-01

    Background Homeodomain transcription factors are key components in the developmental toolkits of animals. While this gene superclass predates the evolutionary split between animals, plants, and fungi, many homeobox genes appear unique to animals. The origin of particular homeobox genes may, therefore, be associated with the evolution of particular animal traits. Here we report the first near-complete set of homeodomains from a basal (diploblastic) animal. Results Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 130 homeodomains from the sequenced genome of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis along with 228 homeodomains from human and 97 homeodomains from Drosophila. The Nematostella homeodomains appear to be distributed among established homeodomain classes in the following fashion: 72 ANTP class; one HNF class; four LIM class; five POU class; 33 PRD class; five SINE class; and six TALE class. For four of the Nematostella homeodomains, there is disagreement between neighbor-joining and Bayesian trees regarding their class membership. A putative Nematostella CUT class gene is also identified. Conclusion The homeodomain superclass underwent extensive radiations prior to the evolutionary split between Cnidaria and Bilateria. Fifty-six homeodomain families found in human and/or fruit fly are also found in Nematostella, though seventeen families shared by human and fly appear absent in Nematostella. Homeodomain loss is also apparent in the bilaterian taxa: eight homeodomain families shared by Drosophila and Nematostella appear absent from human (CG13424, EMXLX, HOMEOBRAIN, MSXLX, NK7, REPO, ROUGH, and UNC4), and six homeodomain families shared by human and Nematostella appear absent from fruit fly (ALX, DMBX, DUX, HNF, POU1, and VAX). PMID:16867185

  4. Another bipolar deep-sea anemone: new species of Iosactis (Actiniaria, Endomyaria) from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2012-06-01

    A new species of deep-sea burrowing sea anemone is described and illustrated from Antarctica. Iosactis antarctica sp. nov. is characterised by easily deciduous tentacles with sphincters in the base, smooth column, endodermal marginal sphincter, same mesenteries proximally and distally, 24 perfect mesenteries regularly arranged, diffuse retractor musculature and basilar muscles well developed. Iosactis antarctica sp. nov. is the second species of the deep-sea abyssal genus Iosactis; it differs from I. vagabunda in internal anatomy, cnidae and geographic distribution. The description of I. antarctica sp. nov. provides the opportunity to revaluate the morphology of the proximal end of this genus.

  5. Relationships between host and symbiont cell cycles in sea anemones and their symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Pineda, Rea R; Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Bingham, Brian L

    2013-10-01

    The processes by which cnidarians and their algal endosymbionts achieve balanced growth and biomass could include coordination of host and symbiont cell cycles. We evaluated this theory with natural populations of sea anemones hosting symbiotic dinoflagellates, focusing on the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima symbiotic with Symbiodinium muscatinei in Washington State, USA, and the tropical anemone Stichodactyla helianthus associating with unknown Symbiodinium spp. in Belize. By extruding symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells from the relatively large tentacles of these species and using nuclear staining and flow cytometry, we selectively analyzed cell cycle distributions of the symbionts and the host gastrodermal cells that house them. We found no indications of diel synchrony in host and symbiont G2/M phases, and we observed evidence of diel periodicity only in Symbiodinium spp. associated with S. helianthus but not in the anemone itself. Seasonally, S. muscatinei showed considerable G2/M phase variability among samples collected quarterly over an annual period, while the G2/M phase of its host varied much less. Within samples taken at different times of the year, correlations between host and symbiont G2/M phases ranged from very weakly to very strongly positive, with significant correlations in only half of the samples (two of four A. elegantissima samples and one of two S. helianthus samples). Overall, the G2/M phase relationships across species and sampling periods were positive. Thus, while we found no evidence of close cell cycle coupling, our results suggest a loose, positive relationship between cell cycle processes of the symbiotic partners. PMID:24243963

  6. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-03-01

    Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl2), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl2 accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl2, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl2. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic organisms to NP in the environment. PMID:25661886

  7. Sea anemone toxin:a tool to study molecular mechanisms of nerve conduction and excitation-secretion coupling.

    PubMed Central

    Romey, G; Abita, J P; Schweitz, H; Wunderer, G; Lazdunski

    1976-01-01

    The effects of polypeptide neurotoxin from Anemonia sulcata on nerve conduction in crayfish giant axons and on frog myelinated fibers have been analyzed. The main features of toxin action are the following: (i) the toxin acts at very low doses and its action is apparently irreversible. (ii) The toxin selectively affects the closing (inactivation) of the Na+ channel by slowing it down considerably; it does not alter the opening mechanism of the Na+ channel or the steady-state potassium conductance. (iii) The tetrodotoxin-receptor association is unaffected by previous treatment of the axonal membrane with the sea anemone toxin. (iv) Conversely, the sea anemone toxin can only associate with the membrane when the Na+ channel is open for Na+; it does not bind when the channel is previously blocked by tetrodotoxin. (v) Besides its effect on the action potential, the sea anemone toxin displays a veratridine-type depolarizing action at low Ca2+ concentration which can be suppressed by tetrodotoxin. The sea anemone toxin greatly stimulates the release of gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid from neurotransmitter-loaded rat brain synaptosomes. The apparent dissociation constant of the neurotoxin-receptor complex in this system is 20 nM. The sea anemone toxin effect is antagonized by tetrodotoxin. Images PMID:1087023

  8. Severe Toxic Skin Reaction Caused by a Common Anemone and Identification of the Culprit Organism.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Özgür Deniz; Gözer, Özgür

    2015-07-01

    In a marine envenomation, identification of the culprit organism can be difficult. In this case report, we present our method to identify snakelocks anemone (Anemonia viridis or formerly Anemonia sulcata) as the culprit of a severe toxic skin reaction. A. viridis is one of the most common anemones of the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It lives at a depth of up to 10 m. It is a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, hydroids, and corals. They have toxic organelles called cnidocysts that have the capacity to inject venom with microscopic harpoon-like structures. The cnidocysts of A. viridis may cause toxic and allergic reactions, and although its venom is one of the most studied cnidarian venoms, detailed case reports are rare. PMID:26146820

  9. Asexual Propagation of Sea Anemones That Host Anemonefishes: Implications for the Marine Ornamental Aquarium Trade and Restocking Programs

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna; Hardefeldt, Jannah M.; Hall, Karina C.

    2014-01-01

    Anemonefishes and their host sea anemones form an iconic symbiotic association in reef environments, and are highly sought after in the marine aquarium trade. This study examines asexual propagation as a method for culturing a geographically widespread and commonly traded species of host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Two experiments were done: the first to establish whether size or colour morph influenced survival after cutting into halves or quarters; and the second to see whether feeding was needed to maximise survival and growth after cutting. Survival rates were high in both experiments, with 89.3 and 93.8% of the anemones cut in half, and 62.5 and 80.4% cut in quarters surviving in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Anemones that were cut in half were larger in size, and healed and grew quicker than those cut in quarters. However, even though survival was lower when the individuals were cut in quarters, this treatment produced the greatest number of anemones. Feeding increased oral disc diameter growth and reduced wet weight loss, but did not significantly influence pedal disc diameter. Given that the anemones took up to 56 d to form an off-centre mouth, it is highly likely that feeding may have produced greater effect if the experiment was run for longer. This low technology method of propagation could be used to produce individuals throughout the year and the anemones could then be used to supply the aquarium trade or restock depleted habitats, thus supporting biodiversity conservation in coral reef areas. PMID:25314131

  10. *Stylobates*: A shell-forming sea anemone (Coelenterata, Anthozoa, Actiniidae)

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Devaney, Dennis M.; Roth, Barry

    1980-10-01

    Anatomy and cnidae distinguish two species of deep-sea actinians that produce coiled, chitinous shells inhabited by hermit crabs of the genus *Parapagurus*. The actinian type species, *Stylobates aeneus*, first assigned to the Mollusca, occurs...

  11. A muscle-specific transgenic reporter line of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Matt

    ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria was genetically complex, and that much of that complexity has been- velopmental biology aimed at reconstructing the last common ancestor of Bilateria and Cnidaria and identifying

  12. Atypical Reactive Center Kunitz-Type Inhibitor from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Leychenko, Elena; Zelepuga, Elena; Chausova, Victoria; Isaeva, Marina; Anastyuk, Stanislav; Andreev, Yaroslav; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Kozlovkaya, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The primary structure of a new Kunitz-type protease inhibitor InhVJ from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa (Radianthus macrodactylus) was determined by protein sequencing and cDNA cloning. InhVJ amino acid sequence was shown to share high sequence identity (up to 98%) with the other known Kunitz-type sea anemones sequences. It was determined that the P1 Thr at the reactive site resulted in a decrease of the Ki of InhVJ to trypsin and ?-chymotrypsin (7.38 × 10?8 M and 9.93 × 10?7 M, respectively). By structure modeling the functional importance of amino acids at the reactive site as well as at the weak contact site were determined. The significant role of Glu45 for the orientation and stabilization of the InhVJ-trypsin complex was elucidated. We can suggest that there has been an adaptive evolution of the P1 residue at the inhibitor reactive site providing specialization or functional diversification of the paralogs. The appearance of a key so-called P1 Thr residue instead of Lys might lead to refinement of inhibitor specificity in the direction of subfamilies of serine proteases. The absence of Kv channel and TRPV1-receptor modulation activity was confirmed by electrophysiological screening tests. PMID:22851925

  13. Accumulation of glutamate in sea anemones exposed to heavy metals and organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Kasschau, M.R.; Skaggs, M.M.; Chen, E.C.M.

    1980-12-01

    Stress has been reported to accelerate protein catabolism in man and animals and as a result one can expect to observe changes in certain amino acids pools of these organisms. In the present study, the Gulf Coast sea anemone, Bunodosoma cavernata, was used as the test animal and free amino acid levels of whole animals were measured following stressed conditions. Sea anemones were chosen as the test animals since they are sessile and, due to the nature of their morphology, they have few mechanisms by which they can escape environmental stress. The animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride and the organic amines, aniline, diethanol amine (DEA), and ethylene diamine (EDA). Chloride salts of mercury and cadmium were chosen rather than other anions since chloride is the most abundant anion in seawater. These two particular metals were chosen as challenge compounds due to their high toxicity in aquatic systems. The three organic amines were chosen for their relatively high water solubility and low vapor pressure in an aqueous solution, thus insuring that the toxic compound is retained in the test solution. Since organic amines are used extensively in the Gulf Coast industrial complex, there is a high probability of these compounds contaminating the marine environment. Results indicate that the reaction of B. cavernata to stress from organic amines is similar to the response to heavy metals, only more extensive.

  14. Bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke; Grathoff, Annette; Gedde, Michael

    2007-09-01

    This paper provides first information on organ-like bacterial aggregates in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile. The specimens were collected from waters near Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) and the Orkney Islands. Tentacles were prepared for morphological inspection by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as for the phylogenetic analysis of endocytic bacteria. Bacterial aggregates are located in caverns of the tentacles’ epidermis. The aggregates are enwrapped in thin envelopes, which contain coccoid and/or rod-shaped tightly packed bacteria of different division states. Most of the bacterial cells are connected by fine filamentous structures. The phylogenetic determination is based on the sequence data of the 16S rDNA derived from tentacle material. Sequence analysis revealed three different subgroups of intratentacular proteobacteria. The dominant band, detected in all of the samples tested, showed a close relationship (98%) to a gram-negative Endozoicimonas elysicola. Two bands, only detected in tentacles of M. senile from Helgoland were assigned to Pseudomonas saccherophilia (99%), a knallgas bacterium, and to Ralstonia pickettii (100%). The bacteria represent a specific bacterial community. Their DGGE profiles do not correspond to the profiles of the planktonic bacteria generated from seawater close to the habitats of the anemones. The allocation of DNA sequences to the different morphotypes, their isolation, culturing and the elucidation of the physiological functions of intratentacular bacteria are in progress.

  15. *Anthopleura mariscali*, a new species of sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Galápagos Islands

    E-print Network

    Daly, Marymegan; Fautin, Daphne G.

    2004-01-30

    . Scale bar = 0.5 mm. A. Partially contracted live specimen. Note striped appearance of distal column and well-expanded marginal projections with verrucae. Photograph by C. P. Hickman, Jr. B. Holotype. Note spots of dark pigment on tips of some ten.... Spirocyst. B. Basitrich. C. S-shaped basitrich. D. Small basitrich. E. Microbasic b-mastigophore I. F. Microbasic b-mastigophore II. G. Microbasic p-mastigophore. H. Holotrich I. I. Holotrich III. J. Holotrich II. TABLE 1.OCnidae of Anthopleura...

  16. *Metridium farcimen*, the valid name of a common North Pacific sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Acontiaria)

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Hand, Cadet

    2000-12-01

    Three older names apply to the species described by Fautin et al. in 1990 as *Metridium giganteum*. They are *Actinia pripaus* Tilesius, 1809, *Actinia farcimen* Brandt, 1835, and *Isometridium rickettsi* Carlgren, 1949. ...

  17. A bifunctional sea anemone peptide with Kunitz type protease and potassium channel inhibiting properties.

    PubMed

    Peigneur, Steve; Billen, Bert; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Debaveye, Sarah; Béress, László; Tytgat, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Sea anemone venom is a known source of interesting bioactive compounds, including peptide toxins which are invaluable tools for studying structure and function of voltage-gated potassium channels. APEKTx1 is a novel peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, containing 63 amino acids cross-linked by 3 disulfide bridges. Sequence alignment reveals that APEKTx1 is a new member of the type 2 sea anemone peptides targeting voltage-gated potassium channels (K(V)s), which also include the kalicludines from Anemonia sulcata. Similar to the kalicludines, APEKTx1 shares structural homology with both the basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), a very potent Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, and dendrotoxins which are powerful blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels. In this study, APEKTx1 has been subjected to a screening on a wide range of 23 ion channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes: 13 cloned voltage-gated potassium channels (K(V)1.1-K(V)1.6, K(V)1.1 triple mutant, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.1, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3, hERG, the insect channel Shaker IR), 2 cloned hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-sensitive cation non-selective channels (HCN1 and HCN2) and 8 cloned voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)1.2-Na(V)1.8 and the insect channel DmNa(V)1). Our data show that APEKTx1 selectively blocks K(V)1.1 channels in a very potent manner with an IC(50) value of 0.9nM. Furthermore, we compared the trypsin inhibitory activity of this toxin with BPTI. APEKTx1 inhibits trypsin with a dissociation constant of 124nM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that APEKTx1 has the unique feature to combine the dual functionality of a potent and selective blocker of K(V)1.1 channels with that of a competitive inhibitor of trypsin. PMID:21477583

  18. Familial strife on the seashore: aggression increases with relatedness in the sea anemone Actinia equina.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nicola L; Briffa, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Pairwise contests occur when two individuals compete directly over ownership of an indivisible resource. Contests vary in the degree of escalation, some encounters being settled through non-injurious behaviour while others are only resolved after dangerous fighting. Here, we investigate the role of relatedness, assessed using AFLP analysis, on the occurrence of stinging during staged contests in the beadlet sea anemone Actinia equina. Contrary to our expectations, we found that the chance of stinging, and hence the chance of inflicting damage, increased with the degree of relatedness between the two opponents. This result may be explained by the negative relationship between asymmetry in fighting ability and escalation level predicted by theory. We suggest that in order to fully understand how relatedness influences aggression, predictions from kin selection theory should be incorporated with those from contest theory. PMID:24463009

  19. Edwardsiella andrillae, a New Species of Sea Anemone from Antarctic Ice

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Marymegan; Rack, Frank; Zook, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the lower surface of the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica by the Submersible Capable of under-Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI) remotely operated vehicle discovered a new species of sea anemone living in this previously undocumented ecosystem. This discovery was a significant outcome of the Coulman High Project’s geophysical and environmental fieldwork in 2010-2011 as part of the ANDRILL (ANtarctic geologic DRILLing) program. Edwardsiella andrillae n. sp., lives with most of its column in the ice shelf, with only the tentacle crown extending into the seawater below. In addition to being the only Antarctic representative of the genus, Edwardsiella andrillae is distinguished from all other species of the genus in the number of tentacles and in the size and distribution of cnidae. The anatomy and histology of Edwardsiella andrillae present no features that explain how this animal withstands the challenges of life in such an unusual habitat. PMID:24349517

  20. The Global Diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in deep-sea exploration technology coupled with an increase in worldwide biotic surveys, biological research, and underwater photography in shallow water marine regions such as coral reefs, has allowed for a relatively rapid expansion of our knowledge in the global diversity of many groups of marine organisms. This paper is part of the PLoS ONE review collection of WoRMS (the Worldwide Register of Marine Species), on the global diversity of marine species, and treats the pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers. This also includes sea pansies, some sea whips, and various vermiform taxa. Pennatulaceans are a morphologically diverse group with an estimated 200 or more valid species, displaying worldwide geographic and bathymetric distributions from polar seas to the equatorial tropics and from intertidal flats to over 6100 m in depth. The paper treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known, as well as descriptions of life appearances in life and in situ observations at diverse depth. PMID:21829500

  1. Characterization of Circadian Behavior in the Starlet Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, William D.; Byrum, Christine A.; Meyer-Bernstein, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although much is known about how circadian systems control daily cycles in the physiology and behavior of Drosophila and several vertebrate models, marine invertebrates have often been overlooked in circadian rhythms research. This study focuses on the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, a species that has received increasing attention within the scientific community for its potential as a model research organism. The recently sequenced genome of N. vectensis makes it an especially attractive model for exploring the molecular evolution of circadian behavior. Critical behavioral data needed to correlate gene expression patterns to specific behaviors are currently lacking in N. vectensis. Methodology/Principal Findings To detect the presence of behavioral oscillations in N. vectensis, locomotor activity was evaluated using an automated system in an environmentally controlled chamber. Animals exposed to a 24 hr photoperiod (12 hr light: 12 hr dark) exhibited locomotor behavior that was both rhythmic and predominantly nocturnal. The activity peak occurred in the early half of the night with a 2-fold increase in locomotion. Upon transfer to constant lighting conditions (constant light or constant dark), an approximately 24 hr rhythm persisted in most animals, suggesting that the rhythm is controlled by an endogenous circadian mechanism. Fourier analysis revealed the presence of multiple peaks in some animals suggesting additional rhythmic components could be present. In particular, an approximately 12 hr oscillation was often observed. The nocturnal increase in generalized locomotion corresponded to a 24 hr oscillation in animal elongation. Conclusions/Significance These data confirm the presence of a light-entrainable circadian clock in Nematostella vectensis. Additional components observed in some individuals indicate that an endogenous clock of approximately 12 hr frequency may also be present. By describing rhythmic locomotor behavior in N. vectensis, we have made important progress in developing the sea anemone as a model organism for circadian rhythm research. PMID:23056482

  2. Analgesic Compound from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is the First Polypeptide Inhibitor of Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1)*

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Monastyrnaya, Margarita M.; Kozlovskaya, Emma P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Venomous animals from distinct phyla such as spiders, scorpions, snakes, cone snails, or sea anemones produce small toxic proteins interacting with a variety of cell targets. Their bites often cause pain. One of the ways of pain generation is the activation of TRPV1 channels. Screening of 30 different venoms from spiders and sea anemones for modulation of TRPV1 activity revealed inhibitors in tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa venom. Several separation steps resulted in isolation of an inhibiting compound. This is a 56-residue-long polypeptide named APHC1 that has a Bos taurus trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)/Kunitz-type fold, mostly represented by serine protease inhibitors and ion channel blockers. APHC1 acted as a partial antagonist of capsaicin-induced currents (32 ± 9% inhibition) with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) 54 ± 4 nm. In vivo, a 0.1 mg/kg dose of APHC1 significantly prolonged tail-flick latency and reduced capsaicin-induced acute pain. Therefore, our results can make an important contribution to the research into molecular mechanisms of TRPV1 modulation and help to solve the problem of overactivity of this receptor during a number of pathological processes in the organism. PMID:18579526

  3. Introduction to Cnidaria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In depth site covers Cnidarian life history, ecology, morphology, systematics, and fossil record. Organisms described include corals, anemones, sea pens, box jellies, siphonophores, hydroids, fire corals, medusae, and true jellyfish. Nice explanations, diagrams, and photos.

  4. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1?/? inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48?hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa. PMID:26081482

  5. [New polypeptide components from the Heteractis crispa sea anemone with analgesic activity].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, S A; Andreev, Ia A; Murashev, A N; Skobtsov, D I; D'iachenko, I A; Grishin, E V

    2009-01-01

    Two new polypeptide components which exhibited an analgesic effect in experiments on mice were isolated from the Heteractis crispa sea tropical anemone by the combination of chromatographic methods. The APHC2 and APHC3 new polypeptides consisted of 56 amino acid residues and contained six cysteine residues. Their complete amino acid sequence was determined by the methods of Edman sequencing, mass spectrometry, and peptide mapping. An analysis of the primary structure of the new peptides allowed for their attribution to a large group of trypsin inhibitors of the Kunitz type. An interesting biological function of the new polypeptides was their analgesic effect on mammals, which is possibly realized via the modulation of the activity of the TRPV1 receptor and was not associated with the residual inhibiting activity towards trypsin and chymotrypsin. The analgesic activity of the APHC3 polypeptide was measured on the hot plate model of acute pain and was significantly higher than that, of APHC2. Methods of preparation of the recombinant analogues were created for both polypeptides. PMID:20208578

  6. Fast Neurotransmission Related Genes Are Expressed in Non Nervous Endoderm in the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Brikner, Itzchak; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian nervous systems utilize chemical transmission to transfer signals through synapses and neurons. To date, ample evidence has been accumulated for the participation of neuropeptides, primarily RFamides, in neurotransmission. Yet, it is still not clear if this is the case for the classical fast neurotransmitters such as GABA, Glutamate, Acetylcholine and Monoamines. A large repertoire of cnidarian Fast Neurotransmitter related Genes (FNGs) has been recently identified in the genome of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. In order to test whether FNGs are localized in cnidarian neurons, we characterized the expression patterns of eight Nematostella genes that are closely or distantly related to human central and peripheral nervous systems genes, in adult Nematostella and compared them to the RFamide localization. Our results show common expression patterns for all tested genes, in a single endodermal cell layer. These expressions did not correspond with the RFamide expressing nerve cell network. Following these results we suggest that the tested Nematostella genes may not be directly involved in vertebrate-like fast neurotransmission. PMID:24705400

  7. Profiling molecular and behavioral circadian rhythms in the non-symbiotic sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Matan; Tarrant, Ann M.; Alon, Shahar; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Elbaz, Idan; Appelbaum, Lior; Levy, Oren

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous circadian clocks are poorly understood within early-diverging animal lineages. We have characterized circadian behavioral patterns and identified potential components of the circadian clock in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis: a model cnidarian which lacks algal symbionts. Using automatic video tracking we showed that Nematostella exhibits rhythmic circadian locomotor activity, which is persistent in constant dark, shifted or disrupted by external dark/light cues and maintained the same rate at two different temperatures. This activity was inhibited by a casein kinase 1?/? inhibitor, suggesting a role for CK1 homologue(s) in Nematostella clock. Using high-throughput sequencing we profiled Nematostella transcriptomes over 48?hours under a light-dark cycle. We identified 180 Nematostella diurnally-oscillated transcripts and compared them with previously established databases of adult and larvae of the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora, revealing both shared homologues and unique rhythmic genes. Taken together, this study further establishes Nematostella as a non-symbiotic model organism to study circadian rhythms and increases our understanding about the fundamental elements of circadian regulation and their evolution within the Metazoa PMID:26081482

  8. Phospholipase A2 in cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Timo J; Peuravuori, Heikki J; Quinn, Ronald J; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Benzie, John A H; Fenner, Peter J; Winkel, Ken D

    2004-12-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme present in snake and other venoms and body fluids. We measured PLA2 catalytic activity in tissue homogenates of 22 species representing the classes Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. High PLA2 levels were found in the hydrozoan fire coral Millepora sp. (median 735 U/g protein) and the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis (693 U/g) that cause skin irritation upon contact. High levels of PLA2 activity were also found in the acontia of the sea anemone Adamsia carciniopados (293 U/g). Acontia are long threads containing nematocysts and are used in defense and aggression by the animal. Tentacles of scyphozoan and cubozoan species had high PLA2 activity levels: those of the multitentacled box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri contained 184 U/g PLA2 activity. The functions of cnidarian PLA2 may include roles in the capture and digestion of prey and defense of the animal. The current observations support the idea that cnidarian PLA2 may participate in the sting site irritation and systemic envenomation syndrome resulting from contact with cnidarians. PMID:15581805

  9. Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Zelenchuk, Taras; Raveendran, Dinesh

    2007-12-21

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 GENERA OF ACTINIARIA (SEA ANEMONES sensu stricto) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 GENERA OF CORALLIMORPHARIA (coral-like sea anemones... and senior. Of the 18 available genera of Cor- allimorpharia, there are no junior homonyms, and one senior homonym. Key words: sea anemones, nomenclature, taxonomy Introduction Cnidarian order Actiniaria (sea anemones sensu stricto) is a relatively small...

  10. Genera of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia), and their type species

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Zelenchuk, Taras; Raveendran, Dinesh

    2007-12-21

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 GENERA OF ACTINIARIA (SEA ANEMONES sensu stricto) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 GENERA OF CORALLIMORPHARIA (coral-like sea anemones... are both junior and senior. Of the 18 available genera of Cor- allimorpharia, there are no junior homonyms, and one senior homonym. Key words: sea anemones, nomenclature, taxonomy Introduction Cnidarian order Actiniaria (sea anemones sensu stricto) is a...

  11. Effects of sea-anemone toxin (ATX-II) on the frequency of miniature endplate potentials at rat neuromuscular junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. B.; Tesseraux, I.

    1984-01-01

    Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were isolated from rats. The muscles were exposed to ATX-II, a toxin isolated from extracts of the sea-anemone Anemonia sulcata . The toxin caused a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of miniature endplate potentials in both types of muscle. The increase in frequency could be reversed by the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX), and could be prevented by prior exposure of the muscles to TTX. It is concluded that ATX-II causes a sodium-dependent depolarization of the nerve-terminal membrane. PMID:6144341

  12. Arrhythmogenic effect of a crude extract from sea anemone Condylactis gigantea: possible involvement of rErg1 channels.

    PubMed

    Santos, Yúlica; Martínez, Martín; Sandoval, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Armando A; Falcón, Andrés; Heimer de la Cotera, Edgar P; Aguilar, Manuel B; Flores, Pedro; Felix, Ricardo; Arreguín, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    Sea anemones possess a number of peptide toxins that target ion channels which provide powerful tools to study the molecular basis of diverse signaling pathways. It is also acknowledged that currents through Erg1 K(+) channels in cardiac myocytes are important for electrical stability of the heart and alterations in its activity has been linked to the onset of a potentially life-threatening heart condition named long QT syndrome type 2. Here, we report that a crude extract from sea anemone Condylactis gigantea significantly increases the QT interval and has arrhythmogenic effects in the rat heart. Furthermore, a bioassay-guided purification procedure allowed the isolation of a chromatographic fraction containing a major component with a molecular mass of 4478 Da from the crude extract, which causes a significant inhibition of whole-cell patch-clamp currents through recombinant Erg1 channels, responsible of the rapid delayed rectifying current crucial for electrical activity in the heart. Further studies could provide relevant information on the molecular mechanism of C. gigantea peptide toxins which represent promising tools in studying the physiology of diverse ion channels. PMID:23499927

  13. From Sea Anemone to Homo Sapiens: The Evolution of the p53 Family of Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Arnold (Institute for Advanced Study) [Institute for Advanced Study

    2009-09-14

    The human genome contains three transcription factors termed p53, p63 and p73 which are related orthologues. The function of the p53 protein is to respond to a wide variety of stresses which can disrupt the fidelity of DNA replication and cell division in somatic cells of the body. These stress signals, such as DNA damage, increase the mutation rate during DNA duplication and so an active p53 protein responds by eliminating clones of cells with mutations employing apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. In this way the p53 protein acts as a tumor suppressor preventing the mutations that can lead to cancers. The p63 and p73 proteins act in a similar fashion to protect the germ line cells in females (eggs). In addition the p63 protein plays a central role in the formation of epithelial cell layers and p73 plays a critical role in the formation of several structures in the central nervous system. Based upon their amino acid sequences and structural considerations the oldest organisms that contain an ancestor of the p53/p63/p73 gene are the sea anemone or hydra. The present day representatives of these animals contain a p63/p73 like ancestor gene and the protein functions in germ cells of this animal to enforce the fidelity of DNA replication after exposure to ultraviolet light. Thus the structure and functions of this gene family have been preserved for over one billion years of evolution. Other invertebrates such as the worm, the fly and the clam contain a very similar ancestor gene with a similar set of functions. The withdrawal of a food source from a worm results in the p63/p73 mediated apoptosis of the eggs so that new organisms will not be hatched into a poor environment. A similar response is thought to occur in humans. Thus this ancestor gene ensures the fidelity of the next generation of organisms. The first time a clearly distinct new p53 gene arises is in the cartilaginous fish and in the bony fish a separation of the p

  14. Metal accumulation and sublethal effects in the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida, after waterborne exposure to metal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brock, J R; Bielmyer, G K

    2013-09-01

    The marine environment is subjected to contamination by a complex mixture of metals from various anthropogenic sources. Measuring the biological responses of organisms to a complex mixture of metals allows for examination of metal-specific responses in an environmentally realistic exposure scenario. To address this issue, the sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida was exposed to a control and a metal mixture (copper, zinc, nickel, and cadmium) at three exposure levels (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) for 7 days. Anemones were then transferred to metal-free seawater for an additional 7 days after the metal exposure to assess metal depuration and recovery. Metal accumulation, activity of the enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase, as well as, cell density of the symbiotic zooxanthellae were measured over 14 days. Metal accumulation in A. pallida occurred in a concentration dependent manner over the 7-day exposure period. Altered enzyme activity and tentacle retraction of the host, as well as decreased zooxanthellae cell density were observed responses over the 7 days, after exposure to a metal concentration as low as 10 ?g/L. Metal depuration and physiological recovery were dependent on both the metal and the exposure concentration. Understanding how A. pallida and their symbionts are affected by metal exposures in the laboratory may allow better understanding about the responses of symbiotic cnidarians in metal polluted aquatic environments. PMID:23845877

  15. Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Shuman; Gregor Hodgson; Richard F. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    Tropical marine ornamentals comprise an increasingly important fishery worldwide. Although the potential for overexploitation\\u000a of marine ornamentals is great, few studies have addressed the population-level impacts of ornamental exploitation and few\\u000a ornamental fisheries are managed. Analysis of catch records obtained from collectors over a four-month period in the vicinity\\u000a of Cebu, Philippines, showed that anemonefish and anemones comprised close to

  16. The relationship of the abundance and distribution of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cavernata bosc to variations in the physical environment in the rocky intertidal habitats of the north Texas coast

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Elise Marie

    1988-01-01

    THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SEA ANEMONE BUNODOSOMA CAVERNATA BOSC TO VARIATIONS IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE ROCKY INTERTIDAL HABITATS OF THE NORTH TEXAS COAST A Thesis by ELISE MARIE ANDERSON Submitted... to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Zoology THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SEA ANEMONE BUNODOSOMA...

  17. The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

    1992-03-01

    The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

  18. Ancient origins of axial patterning genes: Hox genes and ParaHox genes in the Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Martindale, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Among the bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic animals (the Bilateria), a conserved set of developmental regulatory genes are known to function in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. This set includes the well-studied Hox cluster genes, and the recently described genes of the ParaHox cluster, which is believed to be the evolutionary sister of the Hox cluster (Brooke et al. 1998). The conserved role of these axial patterning genes in animals as diverse as frogs and flies is believed to reflect an underlying homology (i.e., all bilaterians derive from a common ancestor which possessed an AP axis and the developmental mechanisms responsible for patterning the axis). However, the origin and early evolution of Hox genes and ParaHox genes remain obscure. Repeated attempts have been made to reconstruct the early evolution of Hox genes by analyzing data from the triphoblastic animals, the Bilateria (Schubert et al. 1993; Zhang and Nei 1996). A more precise dating of Hox origins has been elusive due to a lack of sufficient information from outgroup taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (corals, hydras, jellyfishes, and sea anemones). In combination with outgroup taxa, another potential source of information about Hox origins is outgroup genes (e.g., the genes of the ParaHox cluster). In this article, we present cDNA sequences of two Hox-like genes (anthox2 and anthox6) from the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that anthox2 (= Cnox2) is homologous to the GSX class of ParaHox genes, and anthox6 is homologous to the anterior class of Hox genes. Therefore, the origin of Hox genes and ParaHox genes occurred prior to the evolutionary split between the Cnidaria and the Bilateria and predated the evolution of the anterior-posterior axis of bilaterian animals. Our analysis also suggests that the central Hox class was invented in the bilaterian lineage, subsequent to their split from the Cnidaria. PMID:11324016

  19. BcsTx3 is a founder of a novel sea anemone toxin family of potassium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Orts, Diego J B; Moran, Yehu; Cologna, Camila T; Peigneur, Steve; Madio, Bruno; Praher, Daniela; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin; Bicudo, José E P W; Tytgat, Jan; de Freitas, José C

    2013-10-01

    Sea anemone venoms have become a rich source of peptide toxins which are invaluable tools for studying the structure and functions of ion channels. In this work, BcsTx3, a toxin found in the venom of a Bunodosoma caissarum (population captured at the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil) was purified and biochemically and pharmacologically characterized. The pharmacological effects were studied on 12 different subtypes of voltage-gated potassium channels (K(V)1.1-K(V)1.6; K(V)2.1; K(V)3.1; K(V)4.2; K(V)4.3; hERG and Shaker IR) and three cloned voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms (Na(V)1.2, Na(V)1.4 and BgNa(V)1.1) expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. BcsTx3 shows a high affinity for Drosophila Shaker IR channels over rKv1.2, hKv1.3 and rKv1.6, and is not active on NaV channels. Biochemical characterization reveals that BcsTx3 is a 50 amino acid peptide crosslinked by four disulfide bridges, and sequence comparison allowed BcsTx3 to be classified as a novel type of sea anemone toxin acting on K(V) channels. Moreover, putative toxins homologous to BcsTx3 from two additional actiniarian species suggest an ancient origin of this newly discovered toxin family. PMID:23895459

  20. Modeling habitat distribution from organism occurrences and environmental data: Case study using anemonefishes and their sea anemone hosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guinotte, J.M.; Bartley, J.D.; Iqbal, A.; Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the KGSMapper (Kansas Geological Survey Mapper), a straightforward, web-based biogeographic tool that uses environmental conditions of places where members of a taxon are known to occur to find other places containing suitable habitat for them. Using occurrence data for anemonefishes or their host sea anemones, and data for environmental parameters, we generated maps of suitable habitat for the organisms. The fact that the fishes are obligate symbionts of the anemones allowed us to validate the KGSMapper output: we were able to compare the inferred occurrence of the organism to that of the actual occurrence of its symbiont. Characterizing suitable habitat for these organisms in the Indo-West Pacific, the region where they naturally occur, can be used to guide conservation efforts, field work, etc.; defining suitable habitat for them in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is relevant to identifying areas vulnerable to biological invasions. We advocate distinguishing between these 2 sorts of model output, terming the former maps of realized habitat and the latter maps of potential habitat. Creation of a niche model requires adding biotic data to the environmental data used for habitat maps: we included data on fish occurrences to infer anemone distribution and vice versa. Altering the selection of environmental variables allowed us to investigate which variables may exert the most influence on organism distribution. Adding variables does not necessarily improve precision of the model output. KGSMapper output distinguishes areas that fall within 1 standard deviation (SD) of the mean environmental variable values for places where members of the taxon occur, within 2 SD, and within the entire range of values; eliminating outliers or data known to be imprecise or inaccurate improved output precision mainly in the 2 SD range and beyond. Thus, KGSMapper is robust in the face of questionable data, offering the user a way to recognize and clean such data. It also functions well with sparse datasets. These features make it useful for biogeographic meta-analyses with the diverse, distributed datasets that are typical for marine organisms lacking direct commercial value. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  1. Two Alleles of NF-?B in the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis Are Widely Dispersed in Nature and Encode Proteins with Distinct Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Sullivan; Francis S. Wolenski; Adam M. Reitzel; Courtney E. French; Nikki Traylor-Knowles; Thomas D. Gilmore; John R. Finnerty

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundNF-?B is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that controls the expression of genes involved in many key organismal processes, including innate immunity, development, and stress responses. NF-?B proteins contain a highly conserved DNA-binding\\/dimerization domain called the Rel homology domain.Methods\\/Principal FindingsWe characterized two NF-?B alleles in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis that differ at nineteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten of these

  2. Differential accumulation of heavy metals in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima as a function of symbiotic state

    E-print Network

    to either cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc chloride (0, 10, 100 mg l(1 for Cd, Cu and Ni; 0, 100, 1000 mg l(1 for Zn) for 42 days followed by a 42-day recovery period in ambient seawater. Anemones were analyzed levels than symbiotic anemones. Following recovery in ambient seawater, all tissue metal levels were

  3. Analogs of the Sea Anemone Potassium Channel Blocker ShK for the Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2012-01-01

    CCR7? effector memory T (TEM) lymphocytes are involved in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. These cells express Kv1.3 potassium channels that play a major role in their activation. Blocking these channels preferentially inhibits the activation of CCR7? TEM cells, with little or no effects on CCR7+ naïve and central memory T cells. Blockers of lymphocyte Kv1.3 channels therefore show considerable potential as therapeutics for autoimmune diseases. ShK, a 35-residue polypeptide isolated from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, blocks Kv1.3 channels at picomolar concentrations. Although ShK was effective in treating rats with delayed type hypersensitivity and a model of multiple sclerosis, it lacks selectivity for Kv1.3 channels over closely-related Kv1 channels. Extensive mutagenesis studies combined with elucidation of the structure of ShK led to models of ShK docked with the channel. This knowledge was valuable in the development of new ShK analogs with improved selectivity and increasing stability, which have proven efficacious in preventing and/or treating animal models of delayed type hypersensitivity, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis without inducing generalized immunosuppression. They are currently undergoing further evaluation as potential immunomodulators for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21824083

  4. In silico assessment of interaction of sea anemone toxin APETx2 and acid sensing ion channel 3.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Taufiq; Smith, Ewan St John

    2014-07-18

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system and have been implicated in mediating sensory perception of noxious stimuli. Amongst the six ASIC isoforms, ASIC1a, 1b, 2a and 3 form proton-gated homomers, which differ in their activation and inactivation kinetics, expression profiles and pharmacological modulation; protons do not gate ASIC2b and ASIC4. As with many other ion channels, structure-function studies of ASICs have been greatly aided by the discovery of some toxins that act in isoform-specific ways. ASIC3 is predominantly expressed by sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system where it acts to detect acid as a noxious stimulus and thus plays an important role in nociception. ASIC3 is the only ASIC subunit that is inhibited by the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)-derived toxin APETx2. However, the molecular mechanism by which APETx2 interacts with ASIC3 remains largely unknown. In this study, we made a homology model of ASIC3 and used extensive protein-protein docking to predict for the first time, the probable sites of APETx2 interaction on ASIC3. Additionally, using computational alanine scanning, we also suggest the 'hot-spots' that are likely to be critical for ASIC3-APETx2 interaction. PMID:24942880

  5. Evaluation of the sea anemone Anthothoe albocincta as an augmentative biocontrol agent for biofouling on artificial structures.

    PubMed

    Atalah, Javier; Bennett, Holly; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, defined as the use of indigenous natural enemies to control pest populations, has not been explored extensively in marine systems. This study tested the potential of the anemone Anthothoe albocincta as a biocontrol agent for biofouling on submerged artificial structures. Biofouling biomass was negatively related to anemone cover. Treatments with high anemone cover (>35%) led to significant changes in biofouling assemblages compared to controls. Taxa that contributed to these changes differed among sites, but included reductions in cover of problematic fouling organisms, such as solitary ascidians and bryozoans. In laboratory trials, A. albocincta substantially prevented the settlement of larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina when exposed to three levels of larval dose, suggesting predation as an important biocontrol mechanism, in addition to space pre-emption. This study demonstrated that augmentative biocontrol using anemones has the potential to reduce biofouling on marine artificial structures, although considerable further work is required to refine this tool before its application. PMID:23682610

  6. The influence of UV radiation on number and ultrastructure of the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus (Anthozoa: Actiniaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannack, K.; Kestler, P.; Sicken, O.; Westheide, W.

    1998-02-01

    The sea anemone Cereus pedunculatus was artificially UV-irradiated to test the effect of UV-light on the number of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in its gastrodermis and on their ultrastructure. Anemones were kept in the laboratory in a light: dark cycle (LD 12?12; 13 W m-2) at 18 °C and briefly (2, 5 and 9 d) exposed to UV radiation at quasisolar intensities, 0.5 or 1 W m-2. Their tentacles were then examined in the electron microscope for qualitative and quantitative changes in the zooxanthellae. There was an intensity-dependent decrease in the number of symbionts, which in some cases were lost altogether (bleaching). Irradiated anemones contained a larger proportion of symbionts with ultrastructural abnormalities, namely diminished starch, some mitochondria with altered matrix and, in particular, characteristic changes in the chloroplasts; instead of being densely stacked, the thylakoids were spread apart and swollen at the ends of their membranes to form vesicle-like structures. Relatively large vesicles also appeared in the cytoplasm. The resulting enlargement of the whole dinoflagellate cell was documented morphometrically. Another intensity-dependent effect was a significant decrease in mitosis rate, established by counting dividing symbiont cells in TEM micrographs. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A03B6037 00006

  7. Predicting suitable habitat for the gold coral Savalia savaglia (Bertoloni, 1819) (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) in the South Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Michela; Innocenti, Carlo; Canese, Simonepietro

    2014-06-01

    The gold coral Savalia savaglia (Cnidaria, Zoantharia) is a rare component of the mesophotic zone of the Mediterranean Sea and northeastern Atlantic Ocean. During two field campaigns along the Italian coast in the South Tyrrhenian Sea, two populations of this species were discovered. The specimens were filmed and photographed by means of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). To identify the role of local bathymetry and other derived variables on presence and distribution of S. savaglia we used a Habitat Suitability (HS) modeling technique based on Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA), utilizing high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and ROV data. Among the set of environmental variables derived from multibeam data, slope, rugosity, eastness and distance to rocks, appear to be the main variables involved in S. savaglia distribution, pointing out that the habitat differs considerably from the mean environmental conditions over the study area, and that S. savaglia ecological niche is significantly narrower than the available habitat. The HS map was developed to differentiate the sea floor into suitability classes. The comparison between suitability classes and presence data showed that the HS map is coherent with the observed spatial distribution of the species. The most suitable habitat for S. savaglia is characterized by a rough sea floor with rocks that is steeply sloped, oriented northeast, and within a water depth range of 34-77 m. Our study suggests that predictive modeling is an approach that can be applied to other deep coral species to locate areas with a suitable habitat. Considering the difficulties to reach the habitats in which these species live, this approach could be essential to planning further studies that help define areas where the species may be present.

  8. Neptunomonas phycophila sp. nov. isolated from a culture of Symbiodinium sp., a dinoflagellate symbiont of the sea anemone Aiptasia tagetes.

    PubMed

    Frommlet, Jörg; Guimarães, Bárbara; Sousa, Lígia; Serôdio, João; Alves, Artur

    2015-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SYM1(T), was isolated from a culture of Symbiodinium sp., an algal symbiont of the sea anemone Aiptasia tagetes collected in Puerto Rico. Growth was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and with 0.5-8?% (optimum 2?%) (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SYM1(T) was a member of the genus Neptunomonas with the type strain of Neptunomonas naphthovorans as the closest phylogenetic relative with a pairwise sequence similarity of 98.15?%. However, DNA-DNA relatedness between strain SYM1(T) and N. naphthovorans CIP 106451(T) was 24?%. Moreover, strain SYM1(T) could be distinguished from its closest relative by several phenotypic characteristics such as NaCl, pH and temperature tolerance, nitrate reduction and utilization of carbon substrates. The major cellular fatty acids were C16?:?0, C18?:?1?7c and summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SYM1(T) was 45 mol%. Ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) was the only respiratory quinone detected. Based on a polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain SYM1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Neptunomonas, for which the name Neptunomonas phycophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SYM1(T) (?=?LMG 28329(T)?=?CECT 8716(T)). PMID:25563909

  9. Mechanical and electrophysiological effects of sea anemone (Anemonia sulcata) toxins on rat innervated and denervated skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Alsen, C.; Harris, J. B.; Tesseraux, I.

    1981-01-01

    1 Some effects of the sea-anemone toxin ATX-II on mammalian nerve-muscle preparations have been described. 2 When ATX-II (10(-8)-10(-6) M) was applied to rat hemidiaphragm preparations, both directly and indirectly generated twitch responses were potentiated and prolonged. At the same time the resting tension of the preparations increased. 3 The increase in resting tension caused by ATX-II in innervated muscles was not prevented by curarization, but was reversed by exposure to tetrodotoxin. The increase in denervated muscles was not completely reversed by tetrodotoxin. 4 At concentrations exceeding 1 x 10(-7) M, ATX-II caused a sodium-dependent depolarization of both normal and denervated muscles. The depolarization of the denervated muscles was only partially reversed by tetrodotoxin. 5 In the presence of ATX-II repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps) were evoked by single shocks to the motor nerves in many fibres, and in those in which a single e.p.p. was still observed, the quantum content (m) was increased. Miniature e.p.p. frequency was not increased by ATX-II, even when muscle fibres were depolarized by 30 mV. 6 The indirectly and directly elicited action potentials of normal and denervated muscle fibres were much prolonged by ATX-II. The action potentials remained sodium-dependent. The sodium-dependent tetrodotoxin-resistant action potential of the denervated muscle fibre was also prolonged by ATX-II. 7 It is concluded that ATX-II both activates, and delays inactivation of, sodium channels in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres, probably in interacting with the channel "gate'. PMID:6115695

  10. The Evolution of MicroRNA Pathway Protein Components in Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Praher, Daniela; Fredman, David; Technau, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, it became evident that posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is a central biological process in both plants and animals. Yet, our knowledge about microRNA biogenesis and utilization in animals stems mostly from the study of Bilateria. In this study, we identified genes encoding the protein components of different parts of the microRNA pathway in Cnidaria, the likely sister phylum of Bilateria. These genes originated from three cnidarian lineages (sea anemones, stony corals, and hydras) that are separated by at least 500 My from one another. We studied the expression and phylogeny of the cnidarian homologs of Drosha and Pasha (DGCR8) that compose the microprocessor, the RNAse III enzyme Dicer and its partners, the HEN1 methyltransferase, the Argonaute protein effectors, as well as members of the GW182 protein family. We further reveal that whereas the bilaterian dicer partners Loquacious/TRBP and PACT are absent from Cnidaria, this phylum contains homologs of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein HYL1, the Dicer partner found in plants. We also identified HYL1 homologs in a sponge and a ctenophore. This finding raises questions regarding the independent evolution of the microRNA pathway in plants and animals, and together with the other results shed new light on the evolution of an important regulatory pathway. PMID:24030553

  11. Development of Highly Selective Kv1.3-Blocking Peptides Based on the Sea Anemone Peptide ShK

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Michael W.; Chang, Shih Chieh; Chauhan, Satendra; Huq, Redwan; Tajhya, Rajeev B.; Chhabra, Sandeep; Norton, Raymond S.; Beeton, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ShK, from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, is a 35-residue disulfide-rich peptide that blocks the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 at ca. 10 pM and the related channel Kv1.1 at ca. 16 pM. We developed an analog of this peptide, ShK-186, which is currently in Phase 1b-2a clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. While ShK-186 displays a >100-fold improvement in selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1 compared with ShK, there is considerable interest in developing peptides with an even greater selectivity ratio. In this report, we describe several variants of ShK that incorporate p-phophono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus coupled with internal substitutions at Gln16 and Met21. In addition, we also explored the combinatorial effects of these internal substitutions with an alanine extension at the C-terminus. Their selectivity was determined by patch-clamp electrophysiology on Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 channels stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. The peptides with an alanine extension blocked Kv1.3 at low pM concentrations and exhibited up to 2250-fold selectivity for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Analogs that incorporates p-phosphono-phenylalanine at the N-terminus blocked Kv1.3 with IC50s in the low pM range and did not affect Kv1.1 at concentrations up to 100 nM, displaying a selectivity enhancement of >10,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. Other potentially important Kv channels such as Kv1.4 and Kv1.6 were only partially blocked at 100 nM concentrations of each of the ShK analogs. PMID:25603346

  12. The partial purification and bioassay of a toxin present in extracts of the sea anemone, Tealia felina (L.).

    PubMed Central

    Aldeen, S. I.; Elliott, R. C.; Sheardown, M.

    1981-01-01

    1. Column chromatography with Agarose A50m followed by Sephadex G100 was used to separate a fraction (extract II) in the molecular weight range 12,000 to 14,000 daltons from saline extracts of the sea anemone, Tealia felina. 2. Extract II inhibited histamine-induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum and produced haemolysis of human blood, effects on which bioassays were based. 3. The potency of extracts was assayed. A standard unit of activity (= AU) was defined such that 100 AU produced 90% inhibition of histamine-induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum after 30 to 35 min exposure. 4. The relationship between activity of the extracts measured on the ileum and their haemolytic activity was studied, providing a second assay method based on the latter property. 5 Based on values from both methods of assay, the calculated yield in AU at the end of the separation procedure was 0.53 AU for each AU present in the original extract. In crude extract there were 5.0 AU/mg dry weight and 36.7 AU/mg protein, and after separation (extract II) there were 11.2 AU/mg dry weight and 312.2 AU/mg protein. 6 The acute LD50 values determined in mice (i.v.) were: for crude extract 124 mg/kg for extract I, 76 mg/kg and for extract II, 69 mg/kg. 7 Extract II (0.18 to 0.72 AU/ml) produced a slowly developing contraction of guinea-pig ileum. Indomethacin (2.8 x 10(-5) M) substantially reduced this response. 8 Extract II (0.03 AU/ml) reduced the contractile response of the guinea-pig ileum to acetylcholine by 39 +/- 8%, n = 6, and the response to histamine by 26 +/- 6.6%, n = 6. The response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was not reduced by 0.08 AU/ml of extract II, a concentration that actually increased the contractile response to KC1 by 32 +/- 11.2% n = 7. 9 It is proposed that for future work on the extract a new AU should be used. This AU is defined such that 50 AU produce 50% inhibition of histamine-induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileum after 30 to 35 min exposure. PMID:6111370

  13. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Stopar; Andreja Ramšak; Peter Trontelj; Alenka Malej

    2010-01-01

    The genetic structure of the holopelagic scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca was inferred based on the study of 144 adult medusae. The areas of study were five geographic regions in two European seas (Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea). A 655-bp sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and a 645-bp sequence of two nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2)

  14. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the K{sub D} values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of ({sup 125}I)-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace ({sup 125}I)-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin.

  15. Evidence for involvement of TRPA1 in the detection of vibrations by hair bundle mechanoreceptors in sea anemones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janna L. Mahoney; Erin M. Graugnard; Patricia Mire; Glen M. Watson

    2011-01-01

    A homolog of TRPA1 was identified in the genome of the anemone, Nematostella vectensis (nv-TRPA1a), and predicted to possess six ankyrin repeat domains at the N-terminus and an ion channel domain near the C-terminus.\\u000a Transmembrane segments of the ion channel domain are well conserved among several known TRPA1 polypeptides. Inhibitors of\\u000a TRPA1 including ruthenium red decrease vibration-dependent discharge of nematocysts

  16. Development of a chronic, early life-stage sub-lethal toxicity test and recovery assessment for the tropical zooxanthellate sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pelli L; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Clark, Malcolm W

    2014-02-01

    There is an urgent need to identify additional tropical marine species and develop sensitive sub-lethal and chronic toxicity test methods for routine ecotoxicology. The tropical symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella is a suitable species for use in ecotoxicology and here we have assessed the effects of trace metal exposures on the development of asexually produced A. pulchella pedal lacerates to a juvenile stage. Concentrations of 55 µg/L for cadmium, 262 µg/L for cobalt, 5 µg/L for copper, and 269 µg/L for zinc were estimated to inhibit normal development by 50 percent after 8-d exposures, and are among the most sensitive available toxicity estimates for marine organisms. This work illustrates the potential value of this species and sub-lethal toxicological endpoint for routine ecotoxicology in tropical marine environments. PMID:24238742

  17. Population dynamics of Eudendrium glomeratum (Cnidaria: Anthomedusae) on the Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Boero; A. Balduzzi; G. Bavestrello; B. Caffa; R. Cattaneo Vietti

    1986-01-01

    Eudendrium glomeratum Picard, in the Ligurian Sea, is one of the major components of hard-bottom sessile zoobenthos in the cold season. It settles mainly between 10 and 40 m depth, forming a seasonal facies. The presence of E. glomeratum has been evaluated by measuring in situ the height of the colonies present within a standard surface of 1 m2. Observations

  18. Reproduction of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the White Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei A. Slobodov; Nickolai N. Marfenin

    Populations of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata in the White Sea reproduce asexually by frustule formation. Young medusae appear in the plankton during July and August.\\u000a The number of medusae rarely exceeds 36 per m3, and the average number varies every year from 0.4 to 10 per m3. The size of medusae is smaller than reported from other regions. The

  19. Character evolution in light of phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of the zooxanthellate sea anemone families Thalassianthidae and Aliciidae

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Andrea Louise

    2013-05-31

    , respectively The species and generic delineations in Thalassianthidae and Aliciidae are unclear. Stephenson (in Carlgren 1949, p. 4) suspected that Carlgren (1949), in his survey of Actiniaria, had recognized too many genera of anemones as valid, stating “I...,600 base pairs fragment at the 3’ end of the molecule, 16 referred to as 3’ fragment in Table 2.2. Any fragment over 2,000 base pairs had overlap with the published molecule. Concatenated datasets were partitioned into separate genes so each gene...

  20. Daly, M. and D.G. Fautin. 2004. Anthopleura mariscali, a new species of sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Galapagos Islands. Zootaxa 416:1-8.

    E-print Network

    Daly, Marymegan; Fautin, Daphne G.

    2004-01-30

    . Scale bar = 0.5 mm. A. Partially contracted live specimen. Note striped appearance of distal column and well-expanded marginal projections with verrucae. Photograph by C. P. Hickman, Jr. B. Holotype. Note spots of dark pigment on tips of some ten.... Spirocyst. B. Basitrich. C. S-shaped basitrich. D. Small basitrich. E. Microbasic b-mastigophore I. F. Microbasic b-mastigophore II. G. Microbasic p-mastigophore. H. Holotrich I. I. Holotrich III. J. Holotrich II. TABLE 1.OCnidae of Anthopleura...

  1. A new species, *Adamsia obvolva* (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria), from the Gulf of Mexico, and a discussion of the taxonomy of carcinoecium-forming sea anemones

    E-print Network

    Daly, Marymegan; Ardelean, Adorian; Cha, Ha-Rim; Campbell, Andrew C.; Fautin, Daphne G.

    2004-01-01

    , with umbilicus (Fig. 3B); ornamentation (Fig. 3C) re?ects that of underlying gastropod shell. In all specimens examined, column longitudinal axis paral- lel to columella of shell. Pedal disc diameter of specimens examined 23–41 mm. Mesenteries and Internal..., secretes thin, chitinous carcinoecium (Fig. 5E,F) which may extend beyond shell aperture. Limbus thickened, rolled at junction with car- cinoecium (Fig. 5F). Column perpendicular to columella of shell; apex of shell may distort column wall. Mesenteries...

  2. Functional Expression in Escherichia coli of the Disulfide-Rich Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2, a Potent Blocker of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    PubMed Central

    Anangi, Raveendra; Rash, Lachlan D.; Mobli, Mehdi; King, Glenn F.

    2012-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated sodium channels present in the central and peripheral nervous system of chordates. ASIC3 is highly expressed in sensory neurons and plays an important role in inflammatory and ischemic pain. Thus, specific inhibitors of ASIC3 have the potential to be developed as novel analgesics. APETx2, isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, is the most potent and selective inhibitor of ASIC3-containing channels. However, the mechanism of action of APETx2 and the molecular basis for its interaction with ASIC3 is not known. In order to assist in characterizing the ASIC3-APETx2 interaction, we developed an efficient and cost-effective Escherichia coli periplasmic expression system for the production of APETx2. NMR studies on uniformly 13C/15N-labelled APETx2 produced in E. coli showed that the recombinant peptide adopts the native conformation. Recombinant APETx2 is equipotent with synthetic APETx2 at inhibiting ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using this system we mutated Phe15 to Ala, which caused a profound loss of APETx2’s activity on ASIC3. These findings suggest that this expression system can be used to produce mutant versions of APETx2 in order to facilitate structure-activity relationship studies. PMID:22851929

  3. Effects of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn on asexual reproduction and early development of the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pelli L; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Clark, Malcolm W

    2014-11-01

    Currently few studies present sub-lethal toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there are no routine toxicity tests using marine cnidarians. The symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella has been identified as a useful species for ecotoxicological risk assessment, and would provide a tropical marine cnidarian representative. Chronic sub-lethal toxicity tests assessing the effects of 28-day trace metal exposure on asexual reproduction in A. pulchella were investigated, and concentration-dependant reductions in the number of offspring that were produced were evident for all metal exposures. Metal concentration estimates causing 50% reductions in the numbers of asexually-reproduced juveniles after 28-day exposures (28-day effect concentrations 50%: EC50s) were 14 µg/L for copper, 63 µg/L for zinc, 107 µg/L for cobalt, 145 µg/L for cadmium, and 369 µg/L for nickel. Slightly higher 28-day EC50s of 16 µg/L for copper, 192 µg/L for zinc, 172 µg/L for cobalt, 185 µg/L for cadmium, and 404 µg/L for nickel exposures and were estimated based on reductions in the total number of live developed and undeveloped offspring. These sensitive and chronic sub-lethal toxicity estimates help fill the knowledge gap related to metal effects on cnidarians over longer exposure periods, and this newly-developed bioassay may provide a much needed tool for ecotoxicological risk assessment relevant to tropical marine environments. PMID:25119449

  4. Two-dimensional crystallization on lipid monolayers and three-dimensional structure of sticholysin II, a cytolysin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Benito, J; Gavilanes, F; de Los Ríos, V; Mancheño, J M; Fernández, J J; Gavilanes, J G

    2000-01-01

    Sticholysin II (Stn II), a potent cytolytic protein isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, has been crystallized on lipid monolayers. With Fourier-based methods, a three-dimensional (3D) model of Stn II, up to a resolution of 15 A, has been determined. The two-sided plane group is p22(1)2, with dimensions a = 98 A, b = 196 A. The 3D model of Stn II displays a Y-shaped structure, slightly flattened, with a small curvature along its longest dimension (51 A). This protein, with a molecular mass of 19. 2 kDa, is one of the smallest structures reconstructed with this methodology. Two-dimensional (2D) crystals of Stn II on phosphatidylcholine monolayers present a unit cell with two tetrameric motifs, with the monomers in two different orientations: one with its longest dimension lying on the crystal plane and the other with this same axis leaning at an angle of approximately 60 degrees with the crystal plane. PMID:10827995

  5. The p53 Tumor Suppressor-Like Protein nvp63 Mediates Selective Germ Cell Death in the Sea Anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir

    2007-01-01

    Here we report the identification and molecular function of the p53 tumor suppressor-like protein nvp63 in a non-bilaterian animal, the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. So far, p53-like proteins had been found in bilaterians only. The evolutionary origin of p53-like proteins is highly disputed and primordial p53-like proteins are variably thought to protect somatic cells from genotoxic stress. Here we show that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at low levels selectively induces programmed cell death in early gametes but not somatic cells of adult N. vectensis polyps. We demonstrate with RNA interference that nvp63 mediates this cell death in vivo. Nvp63 is the most archaic member of three p53-like proteins found in N. vectensis and in congruence with all known p53-like proteins, nvp63 binds to the vertebrate p53 DNA recognition sequence and activates target gene transcription in vitro. A transactivation inhibitory domain at its C-terminus with high homology to the vertebrate p63 may regulate nvp63 on a molecular level. The genotoxic stress induced and nvp63 mediated apoptosis in N. vectensis gametes reveals an evolutionary ancient germ cell protective pathway which relies on p63-like proteins and is conserved from cnidarians to vertebrates. PMID:17848985

  6. Improved purification and enzymatic properties of a mixture of Sticholysin I and II: isotoxins with hemolytic and phospholipase A(2) activities from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.

    PubMed

    del Monte-Martínez, Alberto; González-Bacerio, Jorge; Romero, Lázara; Aragón, Carlos; Martínez, Diana; de Los Á Chávez, María; Álvarez, Carlos; Lanio, María E; Guisán, José M; Díaz, Joaquín

    2014-03-01

    Sticholysin I and Sticholysin II (StI and StII) are two potent hemolysins which form pores in natural and model membranes at nanomolar concentrations. These proteins were purified from the aqueous extract of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, Ellis 1768, by gel filtration and ionic exchange chromatography. This procedure rendered StI and StII with high purity (purification factors: 36 and 50, respectively) but a low yield of hemolytic activity, HA (<3%). Additionally, these toxins exhibited very low phospholipase activity (10(-3)U/mg of protein). In this work, a mixture StI-StII was obtained (yield >95%, with an increase in specific activity: 14 times) from the animal extract using an oxidized phospholipid-based affinity chromatographic matrix binding phospholipases. Cytolysin identification in the mixture was performed by immunoblotting and N-terminal sequence analyses. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of StI-StII was relatively high (1.85U/mg) and dependent of Ca(2+). The activity resulted optimum when was measured with the mostly unsaturated soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC), when compared to the less unsaturated egg PC or completely saturated dipalmitoyl PC, in the presence of 40mM Ca(2+) at pH 8.0. This Ca(2+) concentration did not exert any effect on binding of StI-StII with soybean PC monolayers. Then, PLA2 activity seems not be required to binding to membranes. PMID:24326193

  7. Production of a reference transcriptome and transcriptomic database (EdwardsiellaBase) for the lined sea anemone, Edwardsiella lineata, a parasitic cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is an informative model system for evolutionary-developmental studies of parasitism. In this species, it is possible to compare alternate developmental pathways leading from a larva to either a free-living polyp or a vermiform parasite that inhabits the mesoglea of a ctenophore host. Additionally, E. lineata is confamilial with the model cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic, molecular and organismal studies. Description We generated a reference transcriptome for E. lineata via high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated from five developmental stages (parasite; parasite-to-larva transition; larva; larva-to-adult transition; adult). The transcriptome comprises 90,440 contigs assembled from >15 billion nucleotides of DNA sequence. Using a molecular clock approach, we estimated the divergence between E. lineata and N. vectensis at 215–364 million years ago. Based on gene ontology and metabolic pathway analyses and gene family surveys (bHLH-PAS, deiodinases, Fox genes, LIM homeodomains, minicollagens, nuclear receptors, Sox genes, and Wnts), the transcriptome of E. lineata is comparable in depth and completeness to N. vectensis. Analyses of protein motifs and revealed extensive conservation between the proteins of these two edwardsiid anemones, although we show the NF-?B protein of E. lineata reflects the ancestral structure, while the NF-?B protein of N. vectensis has undergone a split that separates the DNA-binding domain from the inhibitory domain. All contigs have been deposited in a public database (EdwardsiellaBase), where they may be searched according to contig ID, gene ontology, protein family motif (Pfam), enzyme commission number, and BLAST. The alignment of the raw reads to the contigs can also be visualized via JBrowse. Conclusions The transcriptomic data and database described here provide a platform for studying the evolutionary developmental genomics of a derived parasitic life cycle. In addition, these data from E. lineata will aid in the interpretation of evolutionary novelties in gene sequence or structure that have been reported for the model cnidarian N. vectensis (e.g., the split NF-?B locus). Finally, we include custom computational tools to facilitate the annotation of a transcriptome based on high-throughput sequencing data obtained from a “non-model system.” PMID:24467778

  8. Different visible colors and green fluorescence were obtained from the mutated purple chromoprotein isolated from sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins have been studied with the aim of developing fluorescent proteins. Since the property of color variation is understudied, we isolated a novel GFP-like chromoprotein from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla haddoni, termed shCP. Its maximum absorption wavelength peak (?(max)) is located at 574 nm, resulting in a purple color. The shCP protein consists of 227 amino acids (aa), sharing 96 % identity with the GFP-like chromoprotein of Heteractis crispa. We mutated aa residues to examine any alteration in color. When E63, the first aa of the chromophore, was replaced by serine (E63S), the ?(max) of the mutated protein shCP-E63S was shifted to 560 nm and exhibited a pink color. When Q39, T194, and I196, which reside in the surrounding 5 Å of the chromophore's microenvironment, were mutated, we found that (1) the ?(max) of the mutated protein shCP-Q39S was shifted to 518 nm and exhibited a red color, (2) shCP-T194I exhibited a purple-blue color, and (3) an additional mutation at I196H of the mutated protein shCP-E63L exhibited green fluorescence. In contrast, when the aa located neither at the chromophore nor within its microenvironment were mutated, the resultant proteins shCP-L122H, -E138G, -S137D, -T95I, -D129N, -T194V, -E138Q, -G75E, -I183V, and -I70V never altered their purple color, suggesting that mutations at the shCP chromophore and the surrounding 5 Å microenvironment mostly control changes in color expression or cause fluorescence to develop. Additionally, we found that the cDNAs of shCP and its mutated varieties are faithfully and stably expressed both in Escherichia coli and zebrafish embryos. PMID:24488042

  9. Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity How has so much diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 1. Polyp and medusa forms ­ Provide the basic diversity by offering two different ways of life diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 2. Colony formation ­ Most common results of budding ability

  10. Phylogenetic Relationships within the Class Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) Based on Nuclear 18S rDNA Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewann A. Berntson; Scott C. France; Lauren S. Mullineaux

    1999-01-01

    Taxonomic relationships within the corals and anemones (Phylum Cnidaria: Class Anthozoa) are based upon few morphological characters. The significance of any given character is debatable, and there is little fossil record available for deriving evolutionary relationships. We analyzed complete 18S ribosomal sequences to examine subclass-level and ordinal-level organization within the Anthozoa. We suggest that the Subclass Ceriantipatharia is not an

  11. Metamorphosis in the Cnidaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner A. Müller; Thomas Leitz

    2002-01-01

    The free-living stages of sedentary organisms are an adaptation that enables immobile species to exploit scattered or transient ecological niches. In the Cnidaria the task of prospecting for and identifying a congenial habitat is consigned to tiny planula larvae or larva-like buds, stages that actually transform into the sessile polyp. However, the sensory equipment of these larvae does not qualify

  12. Hydralysins, a New Category of -Pore-forming Toxins in Cnidaria*S

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Hydralysins, a New Category of -Pore-forming Toxins in Cnidaria*S Received for publication, March Cristalografia, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid, Spain Cnidaria are venomous animals that produce diverse protein

  13. The differentiation of nematocysts and associated structures in the cnidaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane A. Westfall

    1966-01-01

    The differentiation of nematocysts and associated structures in the tentacles of the sea anemone Metridium senile fimbriatum and in the tentacles of medusae of the hydroid Obelia longissima was studied by electron microscopy. Stages in the morphogenesis of nematocysts are: 1. transformation of an interstitial cell into a cnidoblast in which the primordium of the nematocyst arises from Golgi vacuoles,

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE R. Schama A. M. Sole -Cava J. P. Thorpe

    E-print Network

    Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    and west Atlantic populations of Actinia spp. sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniidae) Received: 30 January 2004. Introduction Species boundaries within the phylum Cnidaria are often difficult to assess because of the small

  15. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    Technau, Ulrich; Steele, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, jellyfish and hydroids) to investigate the evolution of key aspects of animal development, such as the formation of the third germ layer (mesoderm), the nervous system and the generation of bilaterality. The recent sequencing of the Nematostella and Hydra genomes, and the establishment of methods for manipulating gene expression, have inspired new research efforts using cnidarians. Here, we present the main features of cnidarian models and their advantages for research, and summarize key recent findings using these models that have informed our understanding of the evolution of the developmental processes underlying metazoan body plan formation. PMID:21389047

  16. Two new species of deep-water Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Northeast Pacific, *Corallimorphus denhartogi* and *C. pilatus*

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.; White, Tracy R.; Pearson, Katherine E.

    2002-04-01

    Corallimorpharia is currently considered an order of hexacorallian anthozoans. Being skeletonless, its members are sometimes referred to as sea anemones, but they are morphologically more similar to members of Scleractinia ...

  17. Introduction The invention of mesoderm was crucial to the evolution of

    E-print Network

    Finnerty, John R.

    of mesoderm, we must compare the triploblastic Bilateria with diploblastic outgroup taxa. The phylum Cnidaria, as mounting molecular evidence suggests that the phylum Cnidaria is the sister group to the Bilateria is a non- bilaterian animal, a member of the phylum Cnidaria. The phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals

  18. Developmental and light-entrained expression of melatonin and its relationship to the circadian clock in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary hormone of the vertebrate pineal gland, melatonin, has been identified broadly throughout the eukaryotes. While the role for melatonin in cyclic behavior via interactions with the circadian clock has only been reported in vertebrates, comparative research has shown that the transcription-translation loops of the animal circadian clock likely date to the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor, leaving open significant questions about the evolutionary origin of melatonin signaling in circadian behavior by interacting with the molecular clock. Results Expression of melatonin in adult anemones showed peak expression at the end of light period (zeitgeber time (ZT)?=?12) when cultured under diel conditions, coinciding with expression of genes and enzyme activity for members of the melatonin synthesis pathway (tryptophan hydroxylase and hydroxyindol-O-methyltransferase), which also showed rhythmic expression. During embryogenesis and juvenile stages, melatonin showed cyclic oscillations in concentration, peaking in midday. Spatial (in situ hybridization) and quantitative (real-time PCR) transcription of clock genes during development of N. vectensis showed these ‘clock’ genes are expressed early in the development, prior to rhythmic oscillations, suggesting functions independent of a function in the circadian clock. Finally, time-course studies revealed that animals transferred from diel conditions to constant darkness lose circadian expression for most of the clock genes within 4 days, which can be reset by melatonin supplementation. Conclusions Our results support an ancient role for melatonin in the circadian behavior of animals by showing cyclic expression of this hormone under diel conditions, light-dependent oscillations in genes in the melatonin synthesis pathway, and the function of melatonin in initiating expression of circadian clock genes in the cnidarian N. vectensis. The differences in expression melatonin and the circadian clock gene network in the adult stage when compared with developmental stages of N. vectensis suggests new research directions to characterize stage-specific mechanisms of circadian clock function in animals. PMID:25243057

  19. Phospholipase A2 in Cnidaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo J. Nevalainen; Heikki J. Peuravuori; Ronald J. Quinn; Lyndon E. Llewellyn; John A. H. Benzie; Peter J. Fenner; Ken D. Winkel

    2004-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme present in snake and other venoms and body fluids. We measured PLA2 catalytic activity in tissue homogenates of 22 species representing the classes Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. High PLA2 levels were found in the hydrozoan fire coral Millepora sp. (median 735 U\\/g protein) and the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis

  20. The relationship of the abundance and distribution of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cavernata bosc to variations in the physical environment in the rocky intertidal habitats of the north Texas coast 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Elise Marie

    1988-01-01

    mesurements more accurately reflected the conditions that an anemone would encounter. In addition to water flow and turbidity measurements, the information obtained for each sampled quadrat included the relative proportion of hard substrate and soft... were also recorded. The number and size of B. cavernata in each sampled quadrat were recorded as well as the specific substrate to which they were attached. Following a similar procedure outlined in Sousa (1979), estimates of hard and soft...

  1. Invertebrate introductions in marine habitats: two species of hydromedusae (Cnidaria) native to the Black Sea, Maeotias inexspectata and Blackfordia virginica , invade San Francisco Bay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Mills; F. Sommer

    1995-01-01

    The hydrozoans Maeotias inexspectata Ostroumoff, 1896 and Blackfordia virginica Mayer, 1910, believed to be native to the Black Sea (i.e. Sarmatic) and resident in a variety of estuarine habitats worldwide, were found as introduced species in the Petaluma River and Napa River, California, in 1992 and 1993. These rivers are mostly-estuarine tributaries that flow into north San Francisco Bay. Both

  2. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. StellaBase: The Nematostella vectensis Genomics Database

    E-print Network

    Finnerty, John R.

    , it is necessary to consult non-bilaterian outgroups taxa such as the phylum Cnidaria (sea anemones, corals, hydras is the first member of the basal animal phylum Cnidaria, and the first basal animal generally, to have its in the laboratory (8­10). An important advantage of Nematostella and other Cnidaria relative to the major animal

  4. Interannual variability, growth, reproduction and feeding of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Straits of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea): Linkages with temperature and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, S.; Pansera, M.; Granata, A.; Guglielmo, L.

    2013-02-01

    To identify some of the possible environmental factors stimulating the increasingly frequent outbreaks of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca in the Straits of Messina, we investigated its abundance, growth, reproduction and feeding over a 4-year period, from 2007 to 2011, at two coastal sites. Using either field investigations and manipulative experiments we show that, among the various factors considered, shifts in water temperature (influencing medusae metabolism, growth and reproduction rates) and the size structure of the zooplankton community (their natural preys) can promote the proliferation of P. noctiluca. In particular, we show that increased temperature let jellyfishes to grow more rapidly and reach exceptional sizes. We also report a peculiar opportunistic behavior of P. noctiluca, which makes this species a potentially strong competitor in the pelagic trophic web of the Straits ecosystem. We therefore propose that more frequent P. noctiluca outbreaks stimulated by increasing sea surface temperature and shifts in their prey availability and composition would become, in the near future, a major cause of ecosystem shift.

  5. Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose of Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.)†

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Stanley; Shabi, Ezra; Katan, Talma

    2000-01-01

    Anthracnose, or leaf-curl disease of anemone, caused by Colletotrichum sp., has been reported to occur in Australia, western Europe, and Japan. Symptoms include tissue necrosis, corm rot, leaf crinkles, and characteristic spiral twisting of floral peduncles. Three epidemics of the disease have been recorded in Israel: in 1978, in 1990 to 1993, and in 1996 to 1998. We characterized 92 Colletotrichum isolates associated with anthracnose of anemone (Anemone coronaria L.) for vegetative compatibility (72 isolates) and for molecular genotype (92 isolates) and virulence (4 isolates). Eighty-six of the isolates represented the three epidemics in Israel, one isolate was from Australia, and five isolates originated from western Europe. We divided these isolates into three vegetative-compatibility groups (VCGs). One VCG (ANE-A) included all 10 isolates from the first and second epidemics, and 13 of 62 examined isolates from the third epidemic in Israel, along with the isolate from Australia and 4 of 5 isolates from Europe. Another VCG (ANE-F) included most of the examined isolates (49 of the 62) from the third epidemic, as well as Colletotrichum acutatum from strawberry, in Israel. Based on PCR amplification with species-specific primers, all of the anemone isolates were identified as C. acutatum. Anemone and strawberry isolates of the two VCGs were genotypically similar and indistinguishable when compared by arbitrarily primed PCR of genomic DNA. Only isolate NL-12 from The Netherlands, confirmed as C. acutatum but not compatible with either VCG, had a distinct genotype; this isolate represents a third VCG of C. acutatum. Isolates from anemone and strawberry could infect both plant species in artificial inoculations. VCG ANE-F was recovered from natural infections of both anemone and strawberry, but VCG ANE-A was recovered only from anemone. This study of C. acutatum from anemone illustrates the potential of VCG analysis to reveal distinct subspecific groups within a pathogen population which appears to be genotypically homogeneous by molecular assays. PMID:11097901

  6. Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose of anemone (Anemone coronaria L.).

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Shabi, E; Katan, T

    2000-12-01

    Anthracnose, or leaf-curl disease of anemone, caused by Colletotrichum sp., has been reported to occur in Australia, western Europe, and Japan. Symptoms include tissue necrosis, corm rot, leaf crinkles, and characteristic spiral twisting of floral peduncles. Three epidemics of the disease have been recorded in Israel: in 1978, in 1990 to 1993, and in 1996 to 1998. We characterized 92 Colletotrichum isolates associated with anthracnose of anemone (Anemone coronaria L.) for vegetative compatibility (72 isolates) and for molecular genotype (92 isolates) and virulence (4 isolates). Eighty-six of the isolates represented the three epidemics in Israel, one isolate was from Australia, and five isolates originated from western Europe. We divided these isolates into three vegetative-compatibility groups (VCGs). One VCG (ANE-A) included all 10 isolates from the first and second epidemics, and 13 of 62 examined isolates from the third epidemic in Israel, along with the isolate from Australia and 4 of 5 isolates from Europe. Another VCG (ANE-F) included most of the examined isolates (49 of the 62) from the third epidemic, as well as Colletotrichum acutatum from strawberry, in Israel. Based on PCR amplification with species-specific primers, all of the anemone isolates were identified as C. acutatum. Anemone and strawberry isolates of the two VCGs were genotypically similar and indistinguishable when compared by arbitrarily primed PCR of genomic DNA. Only isolate NL-12 from The Netherlands, confirmed as C. acutatum but not compatible with either VCG, had a distinct genotype; this isolate represents a third VCG of C. acutatum. Isolates from anemone and strawberry could infect both plant species in artificial inoculations. VCG ANE-F was recovered from natural infections of both anemone and strawberry, but VCG ANE-A was recovered only from anemone. This study of C. acutatum from anemone illustrates the potential of VCG analysis to reveal distinct subspecific groups within a pathogen population which appears to be genotypically homogeneous by molecular assays. PMID:11097901

  7. Analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of three members of the Montastraea annularis coral species complex (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironobu Fukami; Nancy Knowlton

    2005-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two individuals each of Montastraea annularis, Montastraea faveolata, and Montastraea franksi were determined. Gene composition and order differed substantially from the sea anemone Metridium senile, but were identical to that of the phylogenetically distant coral genus Acropora. However, characteristics of the non-coding regions differed between the two scleractinian genera. Among members of the M. annularis

  8. Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families Oceanidae and Pachycordylidae. - This paper reviews the European-Kossowska, 1905) comb. n. Key-words: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Antoathecata - Oceanidae

  9. High In Situ Repeatability of Behaviour Indicates Animal Personality in the Beadlet Anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Briffa; Julie Greenaway

    2011-01-01

    ‘Animal personality’ means that individuals differ from one another in either single behaviours or suites of related behaviours in a way that is consistent over time. It is usually assumed that such consistent individual differences in behaviour are driven by variation in how individuals respond to information about their environment, rather than by differences in external factors such as variation

  10. Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Stampar, Sergio N; Maronna, Maximiliano M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Silveira, Fabio L d; Morandini, André C

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three Atlantic species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of Atlantic Ocean, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the Atlantic Ocean. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the Atlantic Ocean. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific Ocean as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed. PMID:22815928

  11. Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose of Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STANLEY FREEMAN; EZRA SHABI; TALMA KATAN

    2000-01-01

    Anthracnose, or leaf-curl disease of anemone, caused by Colletotrichum sp., has been reported to occur in Australia, western Europe, and Japan. Symptoms include tissue necrosis, corm rot, leaf crinkles, and char- acteristic spiral twisting of floral peduncles. Three epidemics of the disease have been recorded in Israel: in 1978, in 1990 to 1993, and in 1996 to 1998. We characterized

  12. Statolith formation in Cnidaria: effects of cadmium on Aurelia statoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Statolith formation in Cnidaria was reviewed with an emphasis on Aurelia statoliths. The review provides information on the chemical composition, mechanisms of initiation of mineralization, and effects of environmental factors on Cnidarian statolith formation. Environmental factors discussed included modified sea water ingredients, X-irradiation, clinostat rotation, and petroleum oil ingredients. A detailed account of the effects of cadmium on mineralization and demineralization of Aurelia statoliths is given. Cadmium at dosages of 2 to 4 micromoles significantly reduces statolith numbers in developing ephyrae. At a dosage of 3 micromoles, cadmium accelerates statolith loss in unfed ephyrae studied at 4 and 8 days following ephyrae release from strobilae. Cadmium, therefore, is shown to reduce statolith numbers in developing ephyrae and to cause greater reduction of statolith numbers in unfed ephyrae after 4 and 8 days than occurred in controls. Supplementation of Cd(2+)-containing artificial sea water (ASW) with calcium (3X and 5X ASW calcium content) results in higher numbers of statoliths at day 4 as compared with cadmium-treated ephyrae. At 8 days only the 5X calcium supplemented ASW is effective in enhancing statolith numbers in Cd(2+)-treated ephyrae. These results suggest that cadmium competes in some manner with calcium at the mineralizing sites of Aurelia.

  13. Calibration of stable oxygen isotopes in Siderastrea radians (Cnidaria:Scleractinia): Implications for slow-growing corals

    E-print Network

    Swart, Peter K.

    Calibration of stable oxygen isotopes in Siderastrea radians (Cnidaria:Scleractinia): Implications. Swart, and R. E. Dodge (2006), Calibration of stable oxygen isotopes in Siderastrea radians (Cnidaria

  14. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  15. Macrofouling of deep-sea instrumentation after three years at 3690 m depth in the Charlie Gibbs fracture zone, mid-Atlantic ridge, with emphasis on hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Shields, M. A.; Jamieson, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Macrofouling is a common problem when deploying underwater instrumentation for long periods of time. It is a problem which can effect scientific experiments and monitoring missions though the creation of artificial reefs (thus increasing local biological activity) and reduce the quality of scientific data. Macrofouling is an issue typically considered to be restricted to the photic zones and is absent or negligible in the deep sea. To the contrary, the recovery of an accidentally lost deep-sea lander after 3 years submergence at 3960 m on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (North Atlantic) revealed dense colonisation of macrofouling organisms. These organisms were found attached to all surfaces of the lander regardless of orientation and materials. The occurrence of such deep-sea macrofouling should be carefully investigated given the recent developments in long-term deep-sea observatory networks.

  16. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5. - This study reviews. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - revision - taxonomy - north- eastern Atlantic - Mediterranean

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule

    E-print Network

    Lavrov, Dennis V.

    Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us

  18. Differential Gene Expression in the Siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) Assessed with Multiple Next-

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Casey

    Differential Gene Expression in the Siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) Assessed with Multiple polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long (Cnidaria) Assessed with Multiple Next-Generation Sequencing Workflows. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22953. doi:10

  19. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3. - This study reviews belonging to Turritopsis dohrnii (Weismann, 1883). Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - Hydractiniidae

  20. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4. - This study reviews not replace M. hargitti or M. amboinense. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa ­ Eudendriidae - revision

  1. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2. - This study reviews affinis (Hartlaub, 1914). Keywords: Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Bougainvilliidae - Pandeidae - Cytaeididae

  2. Early evolution of a homeobox gene: the parahox gene Gsx in the Cnidaria and the Bilateria

    E-print Network

    Finnerty, John R.

    Early evolution of a homeobox gene: the parahox gene Gsx in the Cnidaria and the Bilateria John R, the best studied homeobox gene from the phylum Cnidaria, a very ancient lineage of animals. Among three of the surprisingly high degree of variability in gsx expression within the Cnidaria, it is currently not possible

  3. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1. - This study reviews used since their original introduction by Haeckel. Keywords: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa

  4. Betaines and dimethylsulfoniopropionate as major osmolytes in cnidaria with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Paul H; Heppenstall, Marina; Ly, Steven; Andrell, Raymond M; Gates, Ruth D; Carter, Virginia L; Hagedorn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates and algae are osmoconformers whose cells accumulate organic osmolytes that provide half or more of cellular osmotic pressure. These solutes are primarily free amino acids and glycine betaine in most invertebrates and small carbohydrates and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in many algae. Corals with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) have been reported to obtain from the symbionts potential organic osmolytes such as glycerol, amino acids, and DMSP. However, corals and their endosymbionts have not been fully analyzed for osmolytes. We quantified small carbohydrates, free amino acids, methylamines, and DMSP in tissues of the corals Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocillopora meandrina, Montipora capitata, Porites compressa, and Porites lobata (all with symbionts) plus Tubastrea aurea (asymbiotic) from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Hawaii). Glycine betaine, at 33-69 mmol/kg wet mass, was found to constitute 90% or more of the measured organic solutes in all except the Porites species. Those were dominated by proline betaine and dimethyltaurine. DMSP was found at 0.5-3 mmol/kg in all species with endosymbionts. Freshly isolated Symbiodinium from Fungia, P. damicornis, and P. compressa were also analyzed. DMSP and glycine betaine dominated in the first two; Porites endosymbionts had DMSP, proline betaine, and dimethyltaurine. In all specimens, glycerol and glucose were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography only at 0-1 mmol/kg wet mass. An enzymatic assay for glycerol plus glycerol 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate yielded 1-10 mmol/kg. Cassiopeia andromeda (upside-down jelly; Scyphozoan) and Aiptasia puchella (solitary anemone; Anthozoan) were also analyzed; both have endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. In both, glycine betaine, taurine, and DMSP were the dominant osmolytes. In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino acids, as do congeners. However, little glycerol was present as an osmolyte and was probably metabolized before it could accumulate. PMID:19922288

  5. Mitochondrial DNA of Hydra attenuata (Cnidaria): A Sequence That Includes an End of One Linear Molecule and the Genes for l-rRNA,

    E-print Network

    Warrior, Rahul

    Mitochondrial DNA of Hydra attenuata (Cnidaria): A Sequence That Includes an End of One Linear linear mitochondrial (mt) DNA molecules of Hydra attenuata (phylum Cnidaria, class Hydrozoa, order distinct helical elements. Key words: Hydra attenuata -- Cnidaria -- Mito- chondrial genes -- Nucleotide

  6. HPLC separation of toxic fraction components extracted from planktonic and benthic Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, M; Garzoglio, R; Mariottini, G L; Carli, A

    1994-01-01

    HPLC separation of crude extract components derived from nematocysts and extranematocystic tissues of macroplanktonic jellyfish Aequorea aequorea and Rhizostoma pulmo and benthic sea-anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata was carried out by different columns. A satisfactory peak separation was obtained analyzing the toxin of Rhizostoma pulmo by cationic and C18 columns. Low molecular weight fragments were separated by C18 column and U.V. monitored varying pH values and obtaining the displacement of significant peaks. Clear differences between chromatographic plots concerning planktonic and benthic species was evidenced by anionic column; this result can point out a clear ecological analogy between species living in the same environment and a similar toxin biosynthesis, due to selective actions related to both the environment and the phylogenetic relationships; these organisms could have developed similar mechanisms useful to tackle the environment. PMID:7857600

  7. Germination characters in wild and cultivated Anemone coronaria L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Auguste Horovitz; Susan Bullowa; Moshe Negbi

    1975-01-01

    Achenes of wild forms of Anemone coronaria growing in Israel differ in their germination requirements from achenes of the cultivated de Caen type. The optimum temperature for dark germination was between 10–15°C in the former and between 15–20°C in the latter. Maximum daily rates of germination were higher, reaching 16% per day, and the minimum lag period between sowing and

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Lavrov, Dennis V.

    The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mt of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) ­ the first from the class Hydrozoa ­ has been determined that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria

  9. Ordered progression of nematogenesis from stem cells through differentiation stages in the tentacle bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Matt

    bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) Elsa Denker, Michaël Manuel, Lucas Leclère, Hervé Le, the production of stinging cells (nematocytes) in Cnidaria, can be considered as a model neurogenic process. Most: Cnidaria; Clytia hemisphaerica; Nematocyte; Nematogenesis; Medusa; Tentacle bulb; Minicollagens; Piwi; NOWA

  10. Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara B. Hoot; Jeffrey D. Palmer

    1994-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements.

  11. The effect of light and heterotrophy on carotenoid concentrations in the Caribbean anemone Aiptasia pallida (Verrill)

    E-print Network

    Gleason, Daniel F.

    The effect of light and heterotrophy on carotenoid concentrations in the Caribbean anemone Aiptasia that carotenoids are potent antioxidants that can mitigate oxygen radical damage, but the origin of these compounds), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400­700 nm) on carotenoid lev- els in zooxanthellate anthozoans. Anemones

  12. The mud flat anemone-cockle association: mutualism in the intertidal zone?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim N. Mouritsen; Robert Poulin

    2003-01-01

    The intertidal cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi exists in a symbiotic relationship with the mud flat anemone Anthopleura aureoradiata, the latter using the shell of buried cockles as the only available hard substrate for attachment. The cockles are also host to a detrimental larval trematode Curtuteria australis that invades the bivalves through the filtration current, and here we demonstrate that the anemones

  13. Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Lynam; Stephen J. Hay; Andrew S. Brierley

    2004-01-01

    Pronounced interannual variability in the abundance of medusae of the jellyfish species Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii, and Cyanea capillata (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Scyphozoa) in the North Sea was evident in data arising from the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas International 0-group Gadoid Surveys between 1971 and 1986. Possible climatic forcing of jellyfish abundance, via the North Atlantic

  14. Lipids of gelatinous antarctic zooplankton: Cnidaria and Ctenophora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew M. Nelson; Charles F. Phleger; Ben D. Mooney; Peter D. Nichols

    2000-01-01

    Antarctic gelatinous zooplankton, including Cnidaria (Calycopsis borchgrevinki, Diphyes antarctica, Stygiomedusa gigantea, Atolla wyvillei, Dimophyes arctica) and Ctenophora (Beroe cucumis, B. forskalii, Pleurobrachia pileus, Bolinopsis infundibulum) were collected near Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, during January and February 1997 and 1998. Total lipid was\\u000a low in all zooplankton (0.1–5 mg g?1 wet mass) and included primarily polar lipids (59–96% of total

  15. Anthocyanins from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenjiro Toki; Norio Saito; Atsushi Shigihara; Toshio Honda

    2001-01-01

    Three acylated anthocyanins were isolated from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria ‘St. Brigid Red’ along with a known pigment, pelargonidin 3-lathyroside. The structures of the acylated pigments were based on a pelargonidin 3-lathyroside skeleton acylated at different positions with malonic acid. The first pigment was identified as pelargonidin 3-O-[2-(?-d-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-?-d-galactopyranoside], the second was pelargonidin 3-O-[2-O-(?-d-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(methyl-malonyl)-?-d-galactopyranoside], and the third was (6?-O-(pelargonidin

  16. Buffering role of the intertidal anemone Anthopleura aureoradiata in cercarial transmission from snails to crabs

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    aureoradiata Cercariae Cercariophagy Macrophthalmus hirtipes Maritrema novaezealandensis Parasitism's infective stages (cercariae). In contrast, the presence of the anemone Anthopleura aureoradiata to control mesocosms. Observations on fluorescent- dyed cercariae confirmed that they are ingested

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE WIDELY INTRODUCED ESTUARINE ANEMONE NEMATOSTELLA VECTENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We characterized ten polymorphic microsatellite loci from Nematostella vectensis, a burrowing anemone recently introduced to estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America and the southeast coast of England. Preliminary results indicate high variability and significant depar...

  18. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chagai Rot; Itay Goldfarb; Micha Ilan; Dorothée Huchon

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges

  19. Analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of three members of the Montastraea annularis coral species complex (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Hironobu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2005-11-01

    Complete mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two individuals each of Montastraea annularis, Montastraea faveolata, and Montastraea franksi were determined. Gene composition and order differed substantially from the sea anemone Metridium senile, but were identical to that of the phylogenetically distant coral genus Acropora. However, characteristics of the non-coding regions differed between the two scleractinian genera. Among members of the M. annularis complex, only 25 of 16,134 base pair positions were variable. Sixteen of these occurred in one colony of M. franksi, which (together with additional data) indicates the existence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages in this species. Overall, rates of evolution for these mitochondrial genomes were extremely slow (0.03 0.04% per million years based on the fossil record of the M. annularis complex). At higher taxonomic levels, patterns of genetic divergence and synonymous/nonsynonymous substitutions suggest non-neutral and unequal rates of evolution between the two lineages to which Montastraea and Acropora belong.

  20. The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus

    E-print Network

    Daly, Marymegan; Brugler, Mercer R.; Cartwright, Paulyn; Collins, Allen G.; Dawson, Michael N.; Fautin, Daphne G.; France, Scott C.; McFadden, Catherine; Opresko, Dennis M.; Rodriguez, Estefania; Romano, Sandra L.; Stake, Joel L.

    2007-12-21

    Systema Naturae includes representatives of every major lineage of the animal phylum Cnidaria. However, Linnaeus did not classify the members of the phylum as is now done, and the diversity of the group is not well ...

  1. Anthocyanins from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Toki, K; Saito, N; Shigihara, A; Honda, T

    2001-04-01

    Three acylated anthocyanins were isolated from the scarlet flowers of Anemone coronaria 'St. Brigid Red' along with a known pigment, pelargonidin 3-lathyroside. The structures of the acylated pigments were based on a pelargonidin 3-lathyroside skeleton acylated at different positions with malonic acid. The first pigment was identified as pelargonidin 3-O-[2-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], the second was pelargonidin 3-O-[2-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(methyl-malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside], and the third was (6''-O-(pelargonidin 3-O-[2''-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]))((4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-O-tartatryl)malonate. PMID:11314957

  2. Antiperoxidation activity of triterpenoids from rhizome of Anemone raddeana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Lu, Jincai; He, Wenfei; Chi, Haidong; Yamashita, Koichi; Manabe, Masanobu; Kodama, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-01

    Four triterpenoid compounds hederacolchiside E (1), hederasaponin B (2), raddeanoside 20 (3) and raddeanoside 21 (4) were isolated from ethanol extracts of rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel. The effects of these triterpenoids on superoxide generation, tyrosyl phosphorylation of proteins and translocation of cytosolic compounds, such as p47(phox), p67(phox) and Rac to the cell membrane in human neutrophils was investigated. The superoxide generation induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was slightly suppressed by hederasaponin B, raddeanoside 20 and raddeanoside 21 in a concentration dependent manner. The superoxide generation induced by arachidonic acid (AA) was suppressed by hederasaponin B and raddeanoside 21 significantly. fMLP- and AA-induced tyrosyl phosphorylation and translocation of the cytosolic proteins: p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac to the cell membrane were suppressed in parallel with the suppression of stimulus-induced superoxide generation. PMID:19084054

  3. Correction: Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria

    E-print Network

    Evans, Nathaniel M.; Lindner, Alberto; Raikova, Ekaterina V.; Collins, Allen G.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2009-07-15

    ral ssBioMed CentBMC Evolutionary Biology Open AcceCorrection Correction: Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria Nathaniel M Evans1, Alberto Lindner2, Ekaterina V Raikova3, Allen G.... Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evol Biol, 2008, 8:139. Correction Following the publication of this study [1] it was brought to our attention that the partial 28S rDNA sequence...

  4. @Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

  5. Circadian Clocks in the Cnidaria: Environmental Entrainment, Molecular Regulation, and Organismal Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Adam M.; Tarrant, Ann M.; Levy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock is a molecular network that translates predictable environmental signals, such as light levels, into organismal responses, including behavior and physiology. Regular oscillations of the molecular components of the clock enable individuals to anticipate regularly fluctuating environmental conditions. Cnidarians play important roles in benthic and pelagic marine environments and also occupy a key evolutionary position as the likely sister group to the bilaterians. Together, these attributes make members of this phylum attractive as models for testing hypotheses on roles for circadian clocks in regulating behavior, physiology, and reproduction as well as those regarding the deep evolutionary conservation of circadian regulatory pathways in animal evolution. Here, we review and synthesize the field of cnidarian circadian biology by discussing the diverse effects of daily light cycles on cnidarians, summarizing the molecular evidence for the conservation of a bilaterian-like circadian clock in anthozoan cnidarians, and presenting new empirical data supporting the presence of a conserved feed-forward loop in the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. Furthermore, we discuss critical gaps in our current knowledge about the cnidarian clock, including the functions directly regulated by the clock and the precise molecular interactions that drive the oscillating gene-expression patterns. We conclude that the field of cnidarian circadian biology is moving rapidly toward linking molecular mechanisms with physiology and behavior. PMID:23620252

  6. Benthic Community Composition and Seabed Characteristics of a Chukchi Sea Pockmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Bluhm, B.; Iken, K.; Gagaev, S.; Robinson, S.

    2005-12-01

    Several dozen seafloor features were mapped by Larry Mayer and his colleagues using swath bathymetry during a 2003 cruise with the USCGC HEALY near the eastern edge of the Chukchi Plateau (Chukchi Sea 76.6N, 163.9W). These were sub-circular depressions ranging from approximately 250 to over 1000m in width, with depths of up to 50m below the surrounding seabed, and situated in water depths from 500 to 950m. The origin of these features was undetermined, but one possibility was that they were pockmarks formed as a result of gas or fluid expulsion processes. We report here on benthic sampling undertaken at one of these pockmarks on 18 July 2005, also from USCGC HEALY. This elongated feature had maximum water depth of approximately 940m, was 1200m in maximum width, and was depressed approximately 40m below the surrounding seabed. The ocean in the vicinity of the pockmark was heavily ice-covered, which tightly restricted the ship's mobility during sampling operations. We used an ROV to collect and photograph the benthic epifauna during a 6h transit that crossed from the outside of the pockmark to near the center over a distance of 900m. We used a down-looking digital camera to collect over 800 pictures of the benthos at altitudes of 2 to 3m above the seabed. We also collected three cores with a 25x25cm box corer. Our investigations did not provide any direct evidence for gas or fluid flux through the seabed of this feature. Neither did we see any secondary indications of methane flux such as authigenic carbonates or bacterial mats. The abundance and diversity of benthic epifauna at this station was the highest among 8 stations sampled using similar methods during a 30 day cruise. The ROV observed brittle stars, various types of anemones, shrimps, eel pouts, stalked crinoids, benthic ctenophore (likely new species), burrows and mounts, gooseneck barnacles, mysids. Holothurians (c.f. Peneagone sp.) were the single most abundant group and were often photographed in densities of over 50 individuals per square meter. Preliminary analysis of the box core samples: Polychaetes (e.g. Chaetozone setose, Aricidea sp., Ophelina sp., Progoniada sp., Proclea graffi, Protula globifera), Foraminifera, Nemertini, Coronata (Cnidaria tubes), Sipunculida (Golfingia), Bivalvia, Anthozoa.

  7. Structural rearrangements, including parallel inversions, within the chloroplast genome of Anemone and related genera.

    PubMed

    Hoot, S B; Palmer, J D

    1994-03-01

    Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements. A single inversion of a 42-kb segment was found in the large single-copy region of Adonis aestivalis. Two types of rearrangements were found in the chloroplast genome of Clematis, Anemone, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia: An approximately 4-kb expansion of the inverted repeat and four inversions within the large single-copy region. These rearrangements support the monophyletic status of these genera, clearly separating them from Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis. Two further inversions were found in two Clematis species and three Anemone species. While appearing to support a monophyletic grouping for these taxa, these two inversions conflict with data from both chloroplast restriction sites and morphology and are better interpreted as having occurred twice independently. These are the first two documented cases of homoplastic inversions in chloroplast DNA. Finally, the second intron of the chloroplast rps 12 gene was shown to have been lost in the common ancestor of the same three Anemone species that feature the two homoplastic inversions. PMID:8006994

  8. Transmission genetics of allorecognition in Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Mokady, O.; Buss, L.W. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Allorecognition is ubiquitous, or nearly so, amongst colonial invertebrates. Despite the prominent role that such phenomena have played both in evolutionary theory and in speculations on the origin of the vertebrate immune system, unambiguous data on the transmission genetics of fusibility (i.e., the ability of two individuals to fuse upon tissue contact) is lacking for any metazoan outside of the phylum Chordata. We have developed lines of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Phylum Cnidaria) inbred for fusibility and here report results of breeding experiments establishing that fusibility segregates as expected for a single locus with codominantly expressed alleles, with one shared allele producing a fusible phenotype. Surveys of fusibility in field populations and additional breeding experiments indicate the presence of an extensive allele series. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. New phylogenomic and comparative analyses provide corroborating evidence that Myxozoa is Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Yang, Ya-Lin; Yao, Bin; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Miao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Myxozoa, a diverse group of morphologically simplified endoparasites, are well known fish parasites causing substantial economic losses in aquaculture. Despite active research, the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa remains ambiguous. After obtaining the genome and transcriptome data of the myxozoan Thelohanellus kitauei, we examined the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa from three different perspectives. First, phylogenomic analyses with the newly sequenced genomic data strongly supported the monophyly of Myxozoa and that Myxozoa is sister to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Second, we detected two homologs to cnidarian-specific minicollagens in the T. kitauei genome with molecular characteristics similar to cnidarian-specific minicollagens, suggesting that the minicollagen homologs in T. kitauei may have functions similar to those in Cnidaria and that Myxozoa is Cnidaria. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the minicollagens in myxozoans and medusozoans have a common ancestor. Third, we detected 11 of the 19 proto-mesodermalgenes in the T. kitauei genome, which were also present in the cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata, indicating Myxozoa is within Cnidaria. Thus, our results robustly support Myxozoa as a derived cnidarian taxon with an affinity to Medusozoa, helping to understand the diversity of the morphology, development and life cycle of Cnidaria and its evolution. PMID:25192780

  10. Are Hox Genes Ancestrally Involved in Axial Patterning? Evidence from the Hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria)

    PubMed Central

    Chiori, Roxane; Jager, Muriel; Denker, Elsa; Wincker, Patrick; Da Silva, Corinne; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution and diversification of Hox-related genes in eumetazoans has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses concerning the evolutionary conservation of their role in axial patterning and the pre-bilaterian origin of the Hox and ParaHox clusters. The diversification of Hox/ParaHox genes clearly predates the origin of bilaterians. However, the existence of a “Hox code” predating the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor and supporting the deep homology of axes is more controversial. This assumption was mainly based on the interpretation of Hox expression data from the sea anemone, but growing evidence from other cnidarian taxa puts into question this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Hox, ParaHox and Hox-related genes have been investigated here by phylogenetic analysis and in situ hybridisation in Clytia hemisphaerica, an hydrozoan species with medusa and polyp stages alternating in the life cycle. Our phylogenetic analyses do not support an origin of ParaHox and Hox genes by duplication of an ancestral ProtoHox cluster, and reveal a diversification of the cnidarian HOX9-14 genes into three groups called A, B, C. Among the 7 examined genes, only those belonging to the HOX9-14 and the CDX groups exhibit a restricted expression along the oral-aboral axis during development and in the planula larva, while the others are expressed in very specialised areas at the medusa stage. Conclusions/Significance Cross species comparison reveals a strong variability of gene expression along the oral-aboral axis and during the life cycle among cnidarian lineages. The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations. PMID:19156208

  11. Floral characteristics and gametophyte development of Anemone coronaria L. and Ranunculus asiaticus L. (Ranunculaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmy Dhooghe; Wim Grunewald; Dirk Reheul; Paul Goetghebeur; Marie-Christine Van Labeke

    Anemone coronaria and Ranunculus asiaticus both belong to the Ranunculaceae, a large plant family with many ornamentals of horticultural importance. In this study, the floral characteristics and the development of reproductive structures of these two cut flowers are investigated. On a macro-level, flower morphology was analysed by dissections, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The female and male gametophyte

  12. !Yes~igation of the Matina Svstem and Reproduction in The Pasque Flower (Anemone patens)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Mein

    Klein Anne The buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) exhlbits a lot of variation in pollination methods and breeding strategies, where outcrossing (xenogamy) is typical, but self-fertilization (autogamy) has been observed. This study is an investigation of the breeding system and the pollination biology of Anemone patens, which exhibits both xenogamy and autogamy. Treatment groups were set up and analyzed to look at

  13. Similar specificities of symbiont uptake by adults and larvae in an anemone model system for coral biology

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Elizabeth A.; Guse, Annika; Pringle, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals depend for much of their energy on photosynthesis by symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) that live within their gastrodermal cells. However, the cellular mechanisms underpinning this ecologically critical symbiosis, including those governing the specificity of symbiont uptake by the host, remain poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties of working with corals in the laboratory. Here, we used the small symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia as an experimentally tractable model system to analyze the specificity and timing of symbiosis onset in larval and adult animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Using four clonal, axenic Symbiodinium strains, we found no difference in uptake specificity between larvae (even when very young) and adults. Although both compatible and incompatible algal strains were found within the larval guts, only the former appeared to be internalized by gastrodermal cells, and they (but not incompatible algae) proliferated rapidly within the larvae in the absence of detectable exchange with other larvae. Older larvae showed reduced ingestion of both compatible and incompatible algae, and the addition of food failed to promote the uptake of an incompatible algal strain. Thus, Aiptasia adults and larvae appear to have similar mechanisms for discriminating between compatible and incompatible dinoflagellate types prior to phagocytosis by host gastrodermal cells. Whether a particular algal strain is compatible or incompatible appears to be stable during years of axenic culture in the absence of a host. These studies provide a foundation for future analyses of the mechanisms of symbiont-uptake specificity in this emerging model system. PMID:24526722

  14. Anemone: using end-systems as a rich network management platform Microsoft Technical Report, MSR-TR-2005-62

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Mortier; Rebecca Isaacs; Paul Barham

    Enterprise networks contain hundreds, if not thousands, of cooperative end-systems. This paper advocates devoting a small fraction of their idle cycles, free disk space and network bandwidth to create Anemone, a rich platform for network management. This contrasts with current approaches that rely on traffic statistics provided by network devices. Anemone infers network-wide traffic patterns by synthesizing end-system flow statistics

  15. Triterpene glycosides from the tubers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Matsuo, Yukiko; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Six new triterpene glycosides (1-6), together with 11 known ones (7-17), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the tubers of Anemone coronaria L. (Ranunculaceae). On the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR data, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage, the structures of 1-6 were determined to be 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4), 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-2beta-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), and 3beta-[(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-23-hydroxyolean-18-en-28-oic acid O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6), respectively. Furthermore, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:19571419

  16. Clarifying the identity of the Japanese Habu-kurage, Chironex yamaguchii, sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHERYL LEWIS; BASTIAN BENTLAGE

    Here we describe the new species Chironex yamaguchii (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. This highly venomous cubomedusa, commonly referred to as Habu-kurage in Japan, is the culprit for several fatalities in Japanese waters. The scientific name adopted for this species in the literature is Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, but our taxonomic investigations show that this represents a case of mistaken

  17. A review of bipolarity concepts: History and examples from Radiolaria and Medusozoa (Cnidaria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. STEPANJANTS; G. Cortese; S. B. KRUGLIKOVA; K. R. BJØRKLUND

    2006-01-01

    Bipolarity, its history and general interpretation are investigated and discussed herein. Apart from the classical view, namely that a bipolar distribution is a peculiar biogeographical phenomenon, we propose that it is ecologically controlled too. This approach was used for bipolarity assessment within the following groups: Phaeodaria, Nassellaria, Spumellaria (Radiolaria) and Medusozoa (Cnidaria). We recognize 46 bipolar radiolarian species and three

  18. Morphology and morphodynamics of the stenotele nematocyst of Hydra attenuata Pall. (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Tardent; Thomas Holstein

    1982-01-01

    This light- and electron-microscopic study has investigated the structure, the morphodynamics of discharge, and the impact of the stenotele cyst of Hydra attenuata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) on the prey's integument. The triggered capsule, which is ejected from the cell, discharges its tubular content (shaft, stylets and tubule) by a process of evagination. In doing so the three joined stylets punch a

  19. Carbon metabolism and strobilation in Cassiopea andromedea (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa): Significance of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Hofmann; B. P. Kremer

    1981-01-01

    Scyphopolyps and scyphomedusae of Cassiopea andromeda Forskål (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) containing dinoflagellate endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) were investigated for rates and pathways of carbon fixation. Photosynthesis by the algae, accounting for 80 and 15 µmol C h-1 on a dry weight basis in medusae and polyps, respectively, by far exceeds dark incorporation of inorganic carbon by the intact association. Photosynthetic carbon fixation is

  20. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria

    E-print Network

    Evans, Nathaniel Michael; Linder, Alberto; Raikova, Ekaterina V.; Collins, Allen G.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2008-05-09

    in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Results: Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal...

  1. Pollination ecology of the red Anemone coronaria (Ranunculaceae): honeybees may select for early flowering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamar Keasar; Avi Shmida; Asaph Zylbertal

    2008-01-01

    Large red bowl-shaped flowers characterize the Mediterranean “poppy guild” plants, and were suggested to reflect convergence for beetle pollination. However, the earliest-blooming species in this guild, Anemone coronaria (L.), starts flowering about a month before beetle emergence. Early flowering can be adaptive if the plant receives sufficient pollination by other means during this period. We investigated A. coronaria’s pollination prospects

  2. Geophytes–herbivore interactions: reproduction and population dynamics of Anemone coronaria L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Perevolotsky; R. Schwartz-Tzachor; R. Yonathan; G. Ne’eman

    2011-01-01

    Anemone coronaria, an attractive Mediterranean geophyte, seems to disappear from grazing-protected areas in Israel. We experimentally examined\\u000a the ecological mechanism driving the decline of this geophyte. Ten plot-pairs were established, half we fenced as grazing\\u000a exclosures and half were grazed by beef cattle. Grazing clearly reduced herbaceous biomass, increased relative solar photosynthetic\\u000a active radiation (PAR) at ground level, but had

  3. Discovery of c-SNPs in Anemone coronaria L. and Assessment of Genetic Variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shamay; J. Fang; N. Pollak; A. Cohen; N. Yonash; U. Lavi

    2006-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered in 44 cDNA clones from leaves by comparison of the commercial cultivar\\u000a ‘Mona Lisa‘ with a wild population of Anemone coronaria L. One hundred and fifty five SNPs were discovered with an average frequency of one SNP per 167 bp. Forty nine percent of\\u000a the SNPs are transitions, 43 are transversions, 26 are heterozygotes and

  4. Molecular structure and chromosome distribution of three repetitive DNA families in Anemone hortensis L. (Ranunculaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Mlinarec; Mike Chester; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Dražena Papeš; Andrew R. Leitch; Višnja Besendorfer

    2009-01-01

    The structure, abundance and location of repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes can characterize the nature of higher plant\\u000a genomes. Here we report on three new repeat DNA families isolated from Anemone hortensis L.; (i) AhTR1, a family of satellite DNA (stDNA) composed of a 554–561 bp long EcoRV monomer; (ii) AhTR2, a stDNA family composed of a 743 bp long HindIII monomer

  5. Comparison of chromosome size in species of anemone and their hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Heimburger

    1962-01-01

    Total complement length has been determined in six species ofAnemone L. comprising 4 diploids (A. silvestris L.,A. virginiana L.,A. riparia Fern., andA. cylindrica Gray), 1 tetraploid (A. multifida Poir.), and 1 hexaploid (A. drummondii S. Wats.). Since chromosome complements of the parents fall in three definite size classes, the fate of the parental chromosomes can be followed in interclass hybrids.

  6. Oregon's Rocky Shore Species: Anemones Giant Green Anemones get their bright coloration from symbiotic, single-celled

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Species: Molluscs Black Katy aka the leather chiton for it's leathery appearance Whelks, small littorine snails, and barnacles A common species, the finger limpet A small, colorful lined chiton A lemon nudibranch aka sea slug The underside of a gumboot chiton, the worlds largest chiton The mossy chiton gets

  7. Early development, pattern, and reorganization of the planula nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagayasu Nakanishi; David Yuan; David K. Jacobs; Volker Hartenstein

    2008-01-01

    We examined the development of the nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from the early planula to the polyp stage using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Fluorescently\\u000a labeled anti-FMRFamide, antitaurine, and antityrosinated tubulin antibodies were used to visualize the nervous system. The\\u000a first detectable FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity occurs in a narrow circumferential belt toward the anterior\\/aboral end of\\u000a the ectoderm in

  8. Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic "orphan worm" Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias. PMID:23382916

  9. Toxicity of jellyfish and sea-anemone venoms on cultured V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Carli, A; Bussotti, S; Mariottini, G L; Robbiano, L

    1996-04-01

    Cnidarian toxins exert an influence on human activities and public health. The cytotoxicity of crude toxins (nematocyst and surrounding tissue venom) of Aequorea aequorea, Rhizostoma pulmo and Anemonia sulcata was assessed on V79 cells. Rhizostoma pulmo and Anemonia sulcata crude venoms showed remarkable cytotoxicity and killed all treated cells at highest tested concentration within 2 and 3 hr, respectively. Aequorea aequorea crude venom greatly affected growth rate during long-term experiments. No genotoxic effect was observed. PMID:8735250

  10. Properties of a toxin from the sea anemone Stoichacis helianthus, including specific binding to sphingomyelin.

    PubMed Central

    Bernheimer, A W; Avigad, L S

    1976-01-01

    Stoichactis helianthus toxin, a protein derived presumably from the nematocysts, was purified to homogeneity. It has a molecular weight of about 16,000, an isoelectric pH of 9.8, and it contains approximately 3.7% carbohydrate. It is powerfully hemolytic for erythrocytes derived from a variety of animal species, those of the cat being the most sensitive and those of the guinea pig the most resistant. The toxin is lytic also for rabbit blood platelets, and it destroys cultured fibroblasts but is inactive for several kinds of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts. The hemolytic activity is specifically inhibited by sphingomyelin, and it is proposed that this phospholipid is the constituent of the membrane which functions as receptor for the toxin. Supporting evidence includes the findings that enzymes known to destroy sphingomyelin (a) prevent erythrocyte membranes from inhibiting hemolysis, and (b) render erythrocytes resistant to lysis by the toxin. The mechanism underlying hemolysis may involve translocation of membrane sphingomyelin by virtue of a specific affinity of the coelenterate protein for this phospholipid. PMID:1757

  11. Comparison of developmental trajectories in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis: embryogenesis, regeneration,

    E-print Network

    Finnerty, John R.

    reproduction, (2) asexual reproduction via physal pinching, (3) asexual reproduction via polarity reversal sequences of embryogenesis, asexual reproduction, and regenera- tion have not been explicitly compared: embryogenesis, regeneration, and two forms of asexual fission Adam M. Reitzel, Patrick M. Burton, Cassandra

  12. Functional Characterisation of a TRPM2 orthologue from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Frank J. P.; Kühn, Cornelia; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The human non-selective cation channel TRPM2 represents a mediator of apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress. The principal agonist ADP-ribose binds to the cytosolic domain of TRPM2, which is homologous to the human ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase NUDT9. To further elucidate the structure-function relationship of this channel, we characterised a TRPM2 orthologue from the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, after its expression in a human cell line. This far distant relative shows only 31% total sequence similarity to hTRPM2, while its C-terminal domain has a greater resemblance to the NUDT9 enzyme. Current through nvTRPM2 was induced by ADPR, with a more pronounced sensitivity and faster kinetics than in hTRPM2. In contrast to hTRPM2, there was no response to H2O2 and hardly any modulatory effect by intracellular Ca2+. The deletion of a stretch of 15 residues from the NUDT9 domain of nvTRPM2, which is absent in hTRPM2, did not change the response to ADPR but enabled activation of the channel by H2O2 and increased the effects of intracellular Ca2+. These findings shed new light on the evolution of TRPM2 and establish nvTRPM2 as a promising tool to decipher its complex gating mechanisms. PMID:25620041

  13. Accumulation of glutamate in sea anemones exposed to heavy metals and organic amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret R. Kasschau; Merton M. Skaggs; Edward C. M. Chert

    1980-01-01

    Stress has been reported to accelerate protein catabolism in man and animals and as a result one can expect to observe changes in certain amino acids pools of these organisms (NICHOL and ROSEN 1963). The levels of specific free amino acids (FAA) in molluscs have been reported to fluctuate as a function of environmental stress. 3EFFRIES (1972) has shown a

  14. PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS, TAXONOMY, AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF JELLYFISH (CNIDARIA: MEDUSOZOA)

    E-print Network

    Bentlage, Bastian

    2012-08-31

    approaches that make use of the limited data available may be of much value for making predictions about species distributions. Similarly, species distributions in the open oceans, in particular in the deep sea, are poorly understood and documented. A new...

  15. Variations of ATP content in V79 cells treated with crude toxins of--Aequorea aequorea (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) and Rhizostoma pulmo (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mariottini, G L; Carli, A

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria exerts a noticeable influence on some human activities, such as fishery and bathing, and on public health. As toxins of Mediterranean Cnidaria are located in nematocysts and in tissues, in this study the influence of crude toxins (nematocyst and surrounding tissue venom) extracted from the jellyfish Aequorea aequorea and Rhizostoma pulmo on ATP content of cultured V79 cells was assessed. Using the crude toxin of A. aequorea an increase of ATP levels in treated cells was noted; highest values (41.2 10(-7) mM/ml after 180 min treatment) were reached using the highest dose. Otherwise, a generalized decrease of ATP levels was observed treating cells with crude toxin of R. pulmo; recorded values showed the complete depletion of cell ATP at 115 min treatment with the highest dose. A statistical significance was recorded between treatment times and between doses using crude toxin of R. pulmo, and only between treatment times for A. aequorea. PMID:11822199

  16. MULTIPLE PLASMA EJECTIONS AND INTERMITTENT NATURE OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Isobe, H. [Unit of Synergetic Study for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nishizuka, N., E-mail: singh@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nishida@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shibata@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: isobe@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nishizuka.naoto@jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    The recent discovery of chromospheric anemone jets with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode has shown an indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere. However, the basic nature of magnetic reconnection in chromosphere is still unclear. We studied nine chromospheric anemone jets from SOT/Hinode using Ca II H filtergrams, and we found multiple bright, plasma ejections along the jets. In most cases, the major intensity enhancements (larger than 30% relative to the background intensity) of the loop correspond to the timing of the plasma ejections. The typical lifetime and size of the plasma ejecta are about 20-60 s and 0.3-1.5 Mm, respectively. The height-time plot of jet shows many sub-structures (or individual jets) and the typical lifetime of the individual jet is about one to five minutes. Before the onset of the jet activity, a loop appears in Ca II H and gradually increases in size, and after few minutes several jets are launched from the loop. Once the jet activity starts and several individual jets are launched, the loop starts shrinking with a speed of {approx}4 km s{sup -1}. In some events, a downward moving blob with a speed of {approx}35 km s{sup -1} was observed, associated with the upward moving plasma along one of the legs of the loop hosting the jets. The upward moving plasma gradually developed into jets. Multiple plasma ejections in chromospheric anemone jet show the strongly time-dependent as well as intermittent nature of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere.

  17. Die Nesselkapseln der Cnidaria, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Hydroida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Werner

    1965-01-01

    Long-term investigations on the ecology, morphology and systematics of hydroids, both of the North Sea and the Mediterranean, confirmed the results of earlier authors that most species differ in number and quality of their nematocysts. The classification byWeill (1934) facilitates a satisfactory diagnosis of the different types of nematocysts present in marine Cnidarians; it is based on morphological characteristics of

  18. P. Schuchert 2001a. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser om Grnland 53: 1-184.

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    P. Schuchert 2001a. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser om Grønland Kramp (1949) page 42: the existence of the Greenlandic species Zyzzyzus robustus Petersen, 1990 was only noted after the typesetting of the manuscript. page 46: section Distribution: "esatern Greenland" should

  19. Acylated anthocyanins from the blue-violet flowers of Anemone coronaria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norio; Toki, Kenjiro; Moriyama, Hidekazu; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2002-06-01

    Five polyacylated anthocyanins were isolated from blue-violet flowers of Anemone coronaria 'St. Brigid'. They were identified as delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-3'-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranoside], and its demalonylated form, delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(2-O-tartaryl)malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-3'-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranoside], and its cyanidin analog as well as delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-O-(2-O-(tartaryl)malonyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]. PMID:12031427

  20. Global Diversity and Review of Siphonophorae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Mapstone, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review the history of discovery of siphonophores, from the first formal description by Carl Linnaeus in 1785 to the present, is summarized, and species richness together with a summary of world-wide distribution of this pelagic group within the clade Hydrozoa discussed. Siphonophores exhibit three basic body plans which are briefly explained and figured, whilst other atypical body plans are also noted. Currently, 175 valid siphonophore species are recognized in the latest WoRMS world list, including 16 families and 65 genera. Much new information since the last review in 1987 is revealed from the first molecular analysis of the group, enabling identification of some new morphological characters diagnostic for physonect siphonophores. Ten types of nematocysts (stinging cells) are identified in siphonophores, more than in any other cnidarian; these are incorporated into batteries in the side branches of the tentacles in most species (here termed tentilla), and tentilla are reviewed in the last section of this paper. Their discharge mechanisms are explained and also how the tentilla of several physonect siphonophores are modified into lures. Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a previously unknown red fluorescent lure in the tentilla of the deep sea physonect Erenna, the first described example of emission of red light by an invertebrate to attract prey. PMID:24516560

  1. New records of Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in Brazilian deep waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Renata C. M.; Loiola, Livia L.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of octocorals occurring in Brazilian deep waters is still lacking, with only a few studies conducted so far, most of which focused on large-scale marine habitats characterization. Primnoidae are common and characteristic of seamounts and deepwater coral banks, often providing habitat for other marine species. Although primnoids occur in all ocean basins, only Primnoella and Plumarella species were recorded along the Brazilian coast before this study. Primnoid specimens were obtained through dredging and remotely operated vehicles (ROV) sampling, collected by research projects conducted off the Brazilian coast, between 15 and 34°S. Taxonomic assessment resulted in 5 new records of Primnoidae genera in Brazil: Calyptrophora, Candidella, Dasystenella, Narella and Thouarella. The occurrences of Narella-off Salvador and Vitória, and in Campos Basin (935-1700 m), and Calyptrophora-in Campos Basin (1059-1152 m), are herein reported for the first time in the South Atlantic. Calyptrophora microdentata was previously known in Lesser Antilles, New England and Corner Rise Seamounts, between 686 and 2310 m. Candidella imbricata geographical distribution includes Western and Eastern Atlantic (514-2063 m and 815-2139 m, respectively), being registered herein in Campos Basin, between 1059 and 1605 m. Dasystenella acanthina collected off Rio Grande do Sul state (810 m) and occurs also off Argentina and Southern Ocean, between 150 and 5087 m. Plumarella diadema, which type locality is off São Sebastião, Brazil, has its geographical range extended northwards, occurring in Campos Basin (650 m). Thouarella koellikeri previously known for Patagonia and Antartic Peninsula, is registered for the off Brazil for the first time, in Campos Basin and off São Sebastião (609-659 m). There is a lot of work yet to be done in terms of taxonomic knowledge of Brazilian deep-sea octocorals. Research projects focusing on the investigations, including ROV sampling, of other geographical regions and depth ranges along Brazilian coast will certainly reveal other new octocorals occurrences and species.

  2. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Polypodium hydriforme is a parasite with an unusual life cycle and peculiar morphology, both of which have made its systematic position uncertain. Polypodium has traditionally been considered a cnidarian because it possesses nematocysts, the stinging structures characteristic of this phylum. However, recent molecular phylogenetic studies using 18S rDNA sequence data have challenged this interpretation, and have shown that Polypodium is a close relative to myxozoans and together they share a closer affinity to bilaterians than cnidarians. Due to the variable rates of 18S rDNA sequences, these results have been suggested to be an artifact of long-branch attraction (LBA). A recent study, using multiple protein coding markers, shows that the myxozoan Buddenbrockia, is nested within cnidarians. Polypodium was not included in this study. To further investigate the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium, we have performed phylogenetic analyses of metazoans with 18S and partial 28S rDNA sequences in a large dataset that includes Polypodium and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa. Results Analyses of a combined dataset of 18S and partial 28S sequences, and partial 28S alone, support the placement of Polypodium within Cnidaria. Removal of the long-branched myxozoans from the 18S dataset also results in Polypodium being nested within Cnidaria. These results suggest that previous reports showing that Polypodium and Myxozoa form a sister group to Bilateria were an artifact of long-branch attraction. Conclusion By including 28S rDNA sequences and a comprehensive sampling of cnidarian taxa, we demonstrate that previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement of Polypodium can be reconciled. Specifically, the data presented provide evidence that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata. The former hypothesis is consistent with the traditional view that Polypodium should be placed in its own cnidarian class, Polypodiozoa. PMID:18471296

  3. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehsan Kayal; Dennis V. Lavrov

    2008-01-01

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) – the first from the class Hydrozoa – has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement

  4. Internal and external relationships of the Cnidaria: implications of primary and predicted secondary structure of the 5'-end of the 23S-like rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Odorico, D M; Miller, D J

    1997-01-01

    Since both internal (class-level) and external relationships of the Cnidaria remain unclear on the basis of analyses of 18S and (partial) 16S rDNA sequence data, we examined the informativeness of the 5'-end of the 23S-like rDNA. Here we describe analyses of both primary and predicted secondary structure data for this region from the ctenophore Bolinopsis sp., the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, the sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila, and representatives of all four cnidarian classes. Primary sequence analyses clearly resolved the Cnidaria from other lower Metazoa, supported sister group relationships between the Scyphozoa and Cubozoa and between the Ctenophora and the Placozoa, and confirmed the basal status of the Anthozoa within the Cnidaria. Additionally, in the ctenophore, placozoan and sponge, non-canonical base pairing is required to maintain the secondary structure of the B12 region, whereas amongst the Cnidaria this is not the case. Although the phylogenetic significance of this molecular character is unclear, our analyses do not support the close relationship between Cnidaria and Placozoa suggested by previous studies. PMID:9061962

  5. Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates.

    PubMed

    Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-11-01

    The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10,000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ?10(11). This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform. PMID:25220106

  6. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Lewis, Cheryl; Richards, Gemma S.; Collins, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of Cubozoa has been limited by the lack of a sound phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Here, we present a comprehensive cubozoan phylogeny based on ribosomal genes coding for near-complete nuclear 18S (small subunit) and 28S (large subunit) and partial mitochondrial 16S. We discuss the implications of this phylogeny for our understanding of cubozoan venom evolution, biogeography and life-history evolution. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (i) the last common ancestor of Carybdeida probably possessed the mechanism(s) underlying Irukandji syndrome, (ii) deep divergences between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific clades may be explained by ancient vicariant events, and (iii) sexual dimorphism evolved a single time in concert with complex sexual behaviour. Furthermore, several cubozoan taxa are either para- or polyphyletic, and we address some of these taxonomic issues by designating a new family, Carukiidae, a new genus, Copula, and by redefining the families Tamoyidae and Tripedaliidae. Lastly, cubozoan species identities have long been misunderstood and the data presented here support many of the recent scientific descriptions of cubozoan species. However, the results of a phylogeographic analysis of Alatina moseri from Hawai'i and Alatina mordens from Australia indicate that these two nominal species represent a single species that has maintained metapopulation cohesion by natural or anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:19923131

  7. Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James D; Poliseno, Angelo; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Central Indo-Pacific (CIP) and the Indonesian Archipelago being a well-known region of coral reef biodiversity, particularly in the 'Coral Triangle', little published information is available on its zoantharians (Cnidaria: Hexacorallia: Zoantharia). In order to provide a basis for future research on the Indo-Pacific zoantharian fauna and facilitate comparisons between more well-studied regions such as Japan and the Great Barrier Reef, this report deals with CIP zoantharian specimens in the Naturalis collection in Leiden, the Netherlands; 106 specimens were placed into 24 morpho-species and were supplemented with 88 in situ photographic records from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. At least nine morpho-species are likely to be undescribed species, indicating that the region needs more research in order to properly understand zoantharian diversity within the CIP. The Naturalis' zoantharian specimens are listed by species, as well as all relevant collection information, and in situ images are provided to aid in future studies on zoantharians in the CIP. PMID:25349499

  8. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bentlage, Bastian; Cartwright, Paulyn; Yanagihara, Angel A; Lewis, Cheryl; Richards, Gemma S; Collins, Allen G

    2010-02-01

    Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of Cubozoa has been limited by the lack of a sound phylogenetic hypothesis for the group. Here, we present a comprehensive cubozoan phylogeny based on ribosomal genes coding for near-complete nuclear 18S (small subunit) and 28S (large subunit) and partial mitochondrial 16S. We discuss the implications of this phylogeny for our understanding of cubozoan venom evolution, biogeography and life-history evolution. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (i) the last common ancestor of Carybdeida probably possessed the mechanism(s) underlying Irukandji syndrome, (ii) deep divergences between Atlantic and Indo-Pacific clades may be explained by ancient vicariant events, and (iii) sexual dimorphism evolved a single time in concert with complex sexual behaviour. Furthermore, several cubozoan taxa are either para- or polyphyletic, and we address some of these taxonomic issues by designating a new family, Carukiidae, a new genus, Copula, and by redefining the families Tamoyidae and Tripedaliidae. Lastly, cubozoan species identities have long been misunderstood and the data presented here support many of the recent scientific descriptions of cubozoan species. However, the results of a phylogeographic analysis of Alatina moseri from Hawai'i and Alatina mordens from Australia indicate that these two nominal species represent a single species that has maintained metapopulation cohesion by natural or anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:19923131

  9. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Gareth J.; Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Davy, Simon K.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted gross and microscopic characterizations of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. We found growth anomalies (GA) to be the most commonly encountered lesion. Cases of discoloration and tissue loss were rare. GAs had a focal or multi-focal distribution and were predominantly nodular, exophytic, and umbonate. In scleractinians, the majority of GAs manifested as hyperplasia of the basal body wall (52% of cases), with an associated absence or reduction of polyp structure (mesenteries and filaments, actinopharynx and tentacles), and depletion of zooxanthellae in the gastrodermis of the upper body wall. In the soft corals Sinularia sp. and Lobophytum sp., GAs exclusively manifested as prominent hyperplasia of the coenenchyme with an increased density of solenia. In contrast to scleractinians, soft coral GAs displayed an inflammatory and necrotizing component with marked edema of the mesoglea, accompanied by infiltrates of variably-sized granular amoebocytes. Fungi, algae, sponges, and Crustacea were present in some scleractinian GAs, but absent in soft coral GAs. Fragmentation of tissues was a common finding in Acropora acuminata and Montipora cf. dilatata colonies with tissue loss, although no obvious causative agents were seen. Discoloration in the zoanthid, Palythoa tuberculosa, was found to be the result of necrosis, while in Lobophytum sp. discoloration was the result of zooxanthellar depletion (bleaching). Soft corals with discoloration or tissue loss showed a marked inflammatory response, however no obvious causative organisms were seen. Lesions that appeared similar at the gross level were revealed to be distinct by microscopy, emphasizing the importance of histopathology.

  10. Anemone-like nanostructures for non-lithographic, reproducible, large-area, and ultra-sensitive SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglar, Bihter; Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Khudiyev, Tural; Dogan, Tamer; Tobail, Osama; Altuntas, Sevde; Buyukserin, Fatih; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform.The melt-infiltration technique enables the fabrication of complex nanostructures for a wide range of applications in optics, electronics, biomaterials, and catalysis. Here, anemone-like nanostructures are produced for the first time under the surface/interface principles of melt-infiltration as a non-lithographic method. Functionalized anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are used as templates to provide large-area production of nanostructures, and polycarbonate (PC) films are used as active phase materials. In order to understand formation dynamics of anemone-like structures finite element method (FEM) simulations are performed and it is found that wetting behaviour of the polymer is responsible for the formation of cavities at the caps of the structures. These nanostructures are examined in the surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) experiment and they exhibit great potential in this field. Reproducible SERS signals are detected with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 7.2-12.6% for about 10 000 individual spots. SERS measurements are demonstrated at low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G (R6G), even at the picomolar level, with an enhancement factor of ~1011. This high enhancement factor is ascribed to the significant electric field enhancement at the cavities of nanostructures and nanogaps between them, which is supported by finite difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These novel nanostructured films can be further optimized to be used in chemical and plasmonic sensors and as a single molecule SERS detection platform. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images of the AAO membrane and bare polymer film, FEM simulations of anemone-like polymeric nanopillars depending on the time and pressure, and detailed calculation of the enhancement factor both including experimental and theoretical approaches. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03909b

  11. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Breedy, Odalisca [University of Costa Rica

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  12. Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea!

    E-print Network

    Pickart, Robert S.

    Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea! Herald Shoal Hanna Shoal Barrow Canyon Herald Canyon Bering Strait of the Alaska Coastal Current (a) Bering Strait! (b) Central Shelf! (c) BCH! (d) BCC/DBO! (e) BCM! BCC avg the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait is transported across the shallow and expansive Chukchi Sea through

  13. Eucheilota menoni Kramp 1959 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Lovenellidae), an Indo-Pacific species new to the Atlantic fauna from the Bay of Biscay (north of Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro Altuna

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific hydrozoan Eucheilota menoni Kramp 1959 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Lovenellidae) is recorded from the Basque coast (Bay of Biscay, Spain, northeastern Atlantic). This is the first record of the species from the Atlantic. Polyps of the species, previously unknown to science, were discovered on the floating docks of a fishing harbour, and colonies were releasing medusae at the time of

  14. Pore formation by the sea anemone cytolysin equinatoxin II in red blood cells and model lipid membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanna Belmonte; Cecilia Pederzolli; Peter Ma?ek; Gianfranco Menestrina

    1993-01-01

    The interaction ofActinia equina equinatoxin II (EqT-II) with human red blood cells (HRBC) and with model lipid membranes was studied. It was found that HRBC hemolysis by EqT-II is the result of a colloid-osmotic shock caused by the opening of toxin-induced ionic pores. In fact, hemolysis can be prevented by osmotic protectants of adequate size. The functional radius of the

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Developing the anemone Aiptasia as a tractable

    E-print Network

    Pringle, John

    are declining globally due to a number of stressors, including rising sea-surface temperatures and pollution, disease, destructive fishing practices, increased sea-surface temperatures, and ocean acidification all Pringle* Abstract Background: Coral reefs are hotspots of oceanic biodiversity, forming the foundation

  16. Cnidarian microRNAs frequently regulate targets by cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Fredman, David; Praher, Daniela; Li, Xin Z.; Wee, Liang Meng; Rentzsch, Fabian; Zamore, Phillip D.; Technau, Ulrich; Seitz, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In bilaterians, which comprise most of extant animals, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the majority of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) via base-pairing of a short sequence (the miRNA “seed”) to the target, subsequently promoting translational inhibition and transcript instability. In plants, many miRNAs guide endonucleolytic cleavage of highly complementary targets. Because little is known about miRNA function in nonbilaterian animals, we investigated the repertoire and biological activity of miRNAs in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, a representative of Cnidaria, the sister phylum of Bilateria. Our work uncovers scores of novel miRNAs in Nematostella, increasing the total miRNA gene count to 87. Yet only a handful are conserved in corals and hydras, suggesting that microRNA gene turnover in Cnidaria greatly exceeds that of other metazoan groups. We further show that Nematostella miRNAs frequently direct the cleavage of their mRNA targets via nearly perfect complementarity. This mode of action resembles that of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and plant miRNAs. It appears to be common in Cnidaria, as several of the miRNA target sites are conserved among distantly related anemone species, and we also detected miRNA-directed cleavage in Hydra. Unlike in bilaterians, Nematostella miRNAs are commonly coexpressed with their target transcripts. In light of these findings, we propose that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs functions differently in Cnidaria and Bilateria. The similar, siRNA-like mode of action of miRNAs in Cnidaria and plants suggests that this may be an ancestral state. PMID:24642861

  17. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; ? = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that the current distribution of A. alicemartinae may be explained by an increase in population size from one small ancestral population probably from the south of Peru, with subsequent human-mediated southward transport, probably associated with regional-scale maritime activities.

  18. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial protein-coding sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. McFadden; Scott C. France; Juan A. Sánchez; Phil Alderslade

    2006-01-01

    Despite their abundance and ecological importance in a wide variety of shallow and deep water marine communities, octocorals (soft corals, sea fans, and sea pens) are a group whose taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships remain poorly known and little studied. The group is currently divided into three orders (O: Alcyonacea, Pennatulacea, and Helioporacea); the large O. Alcyonacea (soft corals and sea

  19. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kayal, Ehsan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2008-02-29

    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs, as is typical for cnidarians. All genes have the same transcriptional orientation and their arrangement in the genome is similar to that of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. In addition, a partial copy of cox1 is present at one end of the molecule in a transcriptional orientation opposite to the rest of the genes, forming a part of inverted terminal repeat characteristic of linear mtDNA and linear mitochondrial plasmids. The sequence close to at least one end of the molecule contains several homonucleotide runs as well as small inverted repeats that are able to form strong secondary structures and may be involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genes of H. oligactis and other cnidarians supports the Medusozoa hypothesis but also suggests that Anthozoa may be paraphyletic, with octocorallians more closely related to the Medusozoa than to the Hexacorallia. The latter inference implies that Anthozoa is paraphyletic and that the polyp (rather than a medusa) is the ancestral body type in Cnidaria. PMID:18222615

  20. Internal anatomy of Haliclystus antarcticus (Cnidaria, Staurozoa) with a discussion on histological features used in Staurozoan taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lucília S; Collins, Allen G; Marques, Antonio C

    2013-12-01

    Stauromedusae have relatively few macromorphological characters, making both their taxonomy and identification difficult. For this reason, histological characters are also employed in the taxonomy of the group. This study presents a detailed description of the histomorphology of Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Cnidaria, Staurozoa). We make new observations for the species and for the class, and address functional, taxonomical, and evolutionary aspects of staurozoan histo-anatomy. A complete reconstruction of H. antarcticus body plan is used to guide a more detailed observation, based on light microscopy, of structures rarely cited in the literature, such as the intertentacular lobules, the ostia between adjacent perradial pockets, and the male and female gonadal vesicles. Two possible regions of nematocyst formation are hypothesized and discussed. We also provide a review of the current use of histological characters in the taxonomy of the group. Understanding the body plan of stauromedusae is a challenge, because each single individual presents characters found in medusae and in polyps of other medusozoans. Comprehensive histological descriptions are important to establish relations of homology within Staurozoa and Cnidaria, providing crucial data on their evolution. PMID:24072690

  1. Sea Education Association (SEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

  2. Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., a remarkable deep-sea stylasterid (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae) from the southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D; Zibrowius, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Leptohelia flexibilis gen. nov. et sp. nov., the first stylasterid with a combined calcified and non-calcified skeleton, is described from seamounts and the slope off the islands of New Caledonia, in the southwestern Pacific. The new species is distinguished from all other species of the family Stylasteridae by having a non-calcified organic axis, internal to the basal portion of the calcified corallum. The internal axis is flexible and enclosed by a series of up to 10 calcified annuli, allowing passive lateral bending of the colony. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Leptohelia flexibilis is a stylasterid coral and reveal that the species is closely related to Leptohelia microstylus comb. nov., a southwestern Pacific stylasterid that lacks an internal axis. PMID:25543758

  3. Long-term fluctuations of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphomedusa) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Prediction by climatic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, Jacquelinn; Morand, Pierre; Etienne, Michéle

    1989-02-01

    The archives of the Station Zoologique at Villefranche-sur-Mer contain records of "years with Pelagia noctiluca" and 'years without Pelagia". These records, plus additional data, indicate that over the past 200 years (1785-1985) outburst of Pelagia have occured about every 12 years. Using a forecasting model, climatic variables, notably temperature, rainfall and atmospheric pressure, appear to predict "years with Pelagia".

  4. Differences in the protein profiles of cultured and endosymbiotic symbiodinium sp. (pyrrophyta) from the anemone aiptasia pallida (anthozoa)

    SciTech Connect

    Stochaj, W.R.; Grossman, A.R. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    One- and two-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunological analyses were used to visualize differences in polypeptides synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. from the anemone Aiptasia pallida when grown in the cultured and endosymbiotic states (freshly isolated zooxanthellae). Surprisingly, a comparison of proteins in cultured and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium sp. revealed only four major polypeptides with similar isoelectric and molecular mass characteristics. Using monospecific antibodies, we demonstrated differences in specific proteins synthesized by the dinoflagellate in the two different growth states. The dimeric, 14 kDa form of the peripheral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a binding protein predominates under endosymbiotic conditions, whereas the monomeric, 35 kDa form predominates under the culture conditions used in this study. Antibodies to form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase revealed 62 and 60 kDa forms of this protein in the alga grown as an endosymbiont and in culture, respectively. Differences in the integral membrane peridinin-chlorophyll a-c-binding proteins were also observed. These results demonstrate that there are major changes in the populations of proteins synthesized by Symbiodinium sp. in response to the conditions in hospite. Such changes may reflect a developmental switch that tailors the physiology of the alga to the conditions encountered in the endosymbiotic state. 77 refs., 6 figs.

  5. The impact of invasive grasses on the population growth of Anemone patens, a long-lived native forb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jennifer L; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2006-12-01

    Negative impacts of invasive plants on natives have been well documented, but much less is known about whether invasive plants can cause population level declines. We used demographic models to investigate the effects of two invasive grasses on the demography and population growth of Anemone patens, a long-lived native perennial of North American grasslands. Demographic data of A. patens growing in patches characterized by Bromus inermis, Poa pratensis, or native grasses were used to parameterize integral projection models. Models based on both average conditions and those allowing for environmental stochasticity indicate that A. patens is slowly increasing in patches of native grass (lambda = 1.02) and declining in patches of invasive grasses, particularly those dominated by B. inermis (lambda = 0.93). Extinction probabilities indicate that A. patens should persist in native grass patches, but has a much higher probability of extinction in Bromus patches compared to Poa patches. While sensitivity analyses showed that survival had the biggest effect on population growth rates in all habitats, results of a Life Table Response Experiment (LTRE) revealed that slower individual growth rates in patches of invasive grasses contributed the most to the observed reduction in population growth. These results suggest that invasive grasses may cause slow declines in A. patens, despite short-term coexistence, and that controlling B. inermis only would not be sufficient to ensure A. patens persistence. PMID:17249243

  6. A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of the Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Based on Mitochondrial CO1 Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Marcelo V.; Cairns, Stephen D.; Stolarski, Jaros?aw; Blair, David; Miller, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Classical morphological taxonomy places the approximately 1400 recognized species of Scleractinia (hard corals) into 27 families, but many aspects of coral evolution remain unclear despite the application of molecular phylogenetic methods. In part, this may be a consequence of such studies focusing on the reef-building (shallow water and zooxanthellate) Scleractinia, and largely ignoring the large number of deep-sea species. To better understand broad patterns of coral evolution, we generated molecular data for a broad and representative range of deep sea scleractinians collected off New Caledonia and Australia during the last decade, and conducted the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis to date of the order Scleractinia. Methodology Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 deep-sea (azooxanthellate) scleractinians and 11 shallow-water species. These new data were aligned with 158 published sequences, generating a 234 taxon dataset representing 25 of the 27 currently recognized scleractinian families. Principal Findings/Conclusions There was a striking discrepancy between the taxonomic validity of coral families consisting predominantly of deep-sea or shallow-water species. Most families composed predominantly of deep-sea azooxanthellate species were monophyletic in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses but, by contrast (and consistent with previous studies), most families composed predominantly of shallow-water zooxanthellate taxa were polyphyletic, although Acroporidae, Poritidae, Pocilloporidae, and Fungiidae were exceptions to this general pattern. One factor contributing to this inconsistency may be the greater environmental stability of deep-sea environments, effectively removing taxonomic “noise” contributed by phenotypic plasticity. Our phylogenetic analyses imply that the most basal extant scleractinians are azooxanthellate solitary corals from deep-water, their divergence predating that of the robust and complex corals. Deep-sea corals are likely to be critical to understanding anthozoan evolution and the origins of the Scleractinia. PMID:20628613

  7. Small-scale distribution of deep-sea demersal nekton and other megafauna in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felley, J. D.; Vecchione, M.; Wilson, R. R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Videotapes from manned submersibles diving in the area of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge were used to investigate the distribution of fishes, large crustaceans, epifaunal and sessile organisms, and environmental features along a series of transects. Submersibles MIR 1 and MIR 2 conducted paired dives in an area of mixed sediment and rock (beginning depth ca. 3000 m) and on a large pocket of abyssal-like sediments (depth ca. 4000 m). In the shallower area, the submersibles passed over extremely heterogeneous terrain with a diversity of nekton, epifaunal forms and sessile forms. In the first pair of dives, MIR 1 rose along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from 3000 to 1700 m, while MIR 2 remained near the 3000 m isobath. Nekton seen in these relatively shallow dives included large and small macrourids (genus Coryphaenoides), shrimp (infraorder Penaeidea), Halosauropsis macrochir, Aldrovandia sp., Antimora rostrata, and alepocephalids. The last two were more characteristic of the upper areas of the slope reached by MIR 1, as it rose along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to depths less than 3000 m. Distributions of some forms seemed associated with depth and/or the presence of hard substrate. Sessile organisms such as sponges and large cnidaria were more likely to be found in rocky areas. The second pair of dives occurred in an abyssal area and the submersibles passed over sediment-covered plains, with little relief and many fewer countable organisms and features. The most evident of these were holes, mounds, small cerianthid anemones, small macrourids and the holothurian Benthodytes sp. A few large macrourids and shrimp also were seen in these deeper dives, as well as squat lobsters ( Munidopsis sp.). Sponges and larger cnidaria were mostly associated with a few small areas of rocky substrate. Holes and mounds showed distributions suggesting large-scale patterning. Over all dives, most sessile and epifaunal forms showed clumped distributions. However, large holothurians and large nekton often had distributions not significantly different from random.

  8. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  9. A Diploblastic Radiate Animal at the Dawn of Cambrian Diversification with a Simple Body Plan: Distinct from Cnidaria?

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Kinya; Reimer, James D.; Liu, Yunhuan; Yao, Xiaoyong; Kubo, Daisuke; Shu, Degan; Li, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microfossils of the genus Punctatus include developmental stages such as blastula, gastrula, and hatchlings, and represent the most complete developmental sequence of animals available from the earliest Cambrian. Despite the extremely well-preserved specimens, the evolutionary position of Punctatus has relied only on their conical remains and they have been tentatively assigned to cnidarians. We present a new interpretation of the Punctatus body plan based on the developmental reconstruction aided by recent advances in developmental biology. Results Punctatus developed from a rather large egg, gastrulated in a mode of invagination from a coeloblastura, and then formed a mouth directly from the blastopore. Spiny benthic hatchlings were distinguishable from swimming or crawling ciliate larvae found in cnidarians and sponges. A mouth appeared at the perihatching embryonic stage and was renewed periodically during growth, and old mouths transformed into the body wall, thus elongating the body. Growing animals retained a small blind gut in a large body cavity without partitioning by septa and did not form tentacles, pedal discs or holdfasts externally. A growth center at the oral pole was sufficient for body patterning throughout life, and the body patterning did not show any bias from radial symmetry. Conclusions Contrary to proposed cnidarian affinity, the Punctatus body plan has basic differences from that of cnidarians, especially concerning a spacious body cavity separating ectoderm from endoderm. The lack of many basic cnidarian characters in the body patterning of Punctatus leads us to consider its own taxonomic group, potentially outside of Cnidaria. PMID:23840375

  10. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Isobe, H., E-mail: singh@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Unit for Synergetic Study for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  11. Reproduction of Dendronephthya hemprichi (Cnidaria: Octocorallia): year-round spawning in an azooxanthellate soft coral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dahan; Y. Benayahu

    1997-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in the azooxanthellate octocoral Dendronephthya hemprichi Klunzinger, 1877 was studied in Eilat (Red Sea) for 2 years beginning March 1989. D. hemprichi is a gonochoric broadcasting species. Gonads at all developmental stages were found throughout the year. Small-sized oocytes\\u000a and sperm sacs, 51 to 100 ?m in diameter, are highly abundant, accompanied by numerous smaller primordial gonads. These

  12. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Deep-Sea Cup Coral Desmophyllum dianthus by 454 Sequencing and Cross-Species Amplifications in Scleractinia Order.

    PubMed

    Addamo, Anna M; García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Taviani, Marco; Machordom, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated for the first time for the deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. We developed conditions for amplifying 24 markers in 10 multiplex reactions. Three to 16 alleles per locus were detected across 25 samples analyzed from Santa Maria di Leuca coral province (Mediterranean Sea). For the 24 polymorphic loci, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.211 to 0.880 and 0.383 to 0.910, respectively; 3 loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, after null allele and sequential Holm-Bonferroni corrections. These newly isolated microsatellites are very useful genetic markers that provide data for future conservation strategies. Cross-amplification of these microsatellites, tested in 46 coral species, representing 40 genera, and 10 families of the phylum Cnidaria, produced informative allelic profiles for 1 to 24 loci. The utility of extending analyses to cross-species amplifications is also discussed. PMID:25810120

  13. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule encoding a putative DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhiyong; Graf, Shannon; Chaga, Oleg Y; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2006-10-15

    The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from Metazoa - has been determined. This sequence contains genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, small and large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. In addition, two open reading frames of 324 and 969 base pairs in length have been found. The deduced amino-acid sequence of one of them, ORF969, displays extensive sequence similarity with the polymerase [but not the exonuclease] domain of family B DNA polymerases, and this ORF has been tentatively identified as dnab. This is the first report of dnab in animal mtDNA. The genes in A. aurita mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities; transcription proceeding toward the ends of the molecule. The determined sequences at the ends of the molecule are nearly identical but inverted and lack any obvious potential secondary structures or telomere-like repeat elements. The acquisition of mitochondrial genomic data for the second class of Cnidaria allows us to reconstruct characteristic features of mitochondrial evolution in this animal phylum. PMID:16945488

  14. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-01

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists. PMID:19026540

  15. Sea Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, aren’t doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathan’s investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  16. Sea Chest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

  17. Marine Biodiversity ISSN 1867-1616

    E-print Network

    Benayahu, Yehuda

    of Saudi Arabian Red Sea octocorals (Cnidaria: Alcyonacea) Roxanne D. Haverkort-Yeh, Catherine S. Mc at link.springer.com". #12;ORIGINAL PAPER A taxonomic survey of Saudi Arabian Red Sea octocorals (Cnidaria

  18. Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-26

    In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  19. Deep-sea food web analysis using cross-reacting antisera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Robert J.; Zagursky, Gregory; Day, Elizabeth A.

    1985-04-01

    The high incidence of unrecognizable prey in the stomachs of deep-sea predators prompted the application of serological methods for identification of trophic connections. Antisera to whole-organism extracts of estuarine taxa cross-reacted with antigenic protein extracts of mid-water and deep-sea taxa along phylogenetically correct lines, indicating their potential as tools for gut contents immunoassay. Stomach, intestine, and rectum contents of grenadiers ( Coryphaenoides armatus) trapped at 2500 m in the North Atlantic were analyzed visually and with 32 antisera representing taxa from 10 common deep-sea phyla. While visual analysis only revealed the presence of fluids, parasites, crustacean exoskeletons, and gastropod opercula, the immunoassay indicated the presence of antigenic proteins from holothurian, anemone, gastropod, decapod, and foraminiferan prey in the same samples. This qualitative serological identification of prey at non-specific taxonomic levels provides evidence that benthic predation may be important within deep-sea communities. The immunoassay technique, although not a panacea for elucidating food web dynamics in remote environments, may be useful when other methods fail to identify trophic pathways.

  20. Personality and habitat segregation in giant sea anemones (Condylactis gigantea) Nicholai M. Hensley, Taylor C. Cook, Mason Lang, Matthew B. Petelle, Daniel T. Blumstein

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    , grow slowly, or explore than shyer animals. Personality types within a population can also differ. Ultimately, personality types are segregated by habitat type, which suggests that such variation could lead of certain per- sonality types. One dimension of personality has been labeled the shy­bold con- tinuum (Bell

  1. Highly conserved caspase and Bcl-2 homologues from the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida: lower metazoans as models for the study of apoptosis evolution.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Simon R; Phillips, Wendy S; Spatafora, Joseph W; Green, Douglas R; Weis, Virginia M

    2006-07-01

    Key insight into the complexities of apoptosis may be gained from the study of its evolution in lower metazoans. In this study we describe two genes from a cnidarian, Aiptasia pallida, that are homologous to key genes in the apoptotic pathway from vertebrates. The first is a novel ancient caspase, acasp, that displays attributes of both initiator and executioner caspases and includes a caspase recruitment domain (CARD). The second, a Bcl-2 family member, abhp, contains a BH1 and BH2 domain and shares structural characteristics and phylogenetic affinity with a group of antiapoptotic Bcl-2s including A1 and Bcl-2L10. The breadth of occurrence of other invertebrate homologues across the phylogenetic trees of both genes suggests that the complexity of apoptotic pathways is an ancient trait that predates the evolution of vertebrates and higher invertebrates such as nematodes and flies. This paves the way for establishing new lower metazoan model systems for the study of apoptosis. PMID:16770683

  2. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  3. A vertical wall dominated by Acesta excavata and Neopycnodonte zibrowii, part of an undersampled group of deep-sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark P; White, Martin; Wilson, Annette; Würzberg, Laura; Schwabe, Enrico; Folch, Helka; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel biotope at 633 to 762 m depth on a vertical wall in the Whittard Canyon, an extensive canyon system reaching from the shelf to the deep sea on Ireland's continental margin. We explored this wall with an ROV and compiled a photomosaic of the habitat. The assemblage contributing to the biotope was dominated by large limid bivalves, Acesta excavata (mean shell height 10.4 cm), and deep-sea oysters, Neopycnodonte zibrowii, at high densities, particularly at overhangs. Mean density of N. zibrowii increased with depth, with densities of the most closely packed areas of A. excavata also increasing with depth. Other taxa associated with the assemblage included the solitary coral Desmophyllum dianthus, cerianthid anemones, comatulid crinoids, the trochid gastropod Margarites sp., the portunid crab Bathynectes longispina and small fish of the family Bythitidae. The scleractinian coral Madrepora oculata, the pencil urchin Cidaris cidaris and a species of Epizoanthus were also common. Prominent but less abundant species included the flytrap anemone Actinoscyphia saginata, the carrier crab Paramola cuvieri, and the fishes Lepidion eques and Conger conger. Observations of the hydrography of the canyon system identified that the upper 500 m was dominated by Eastern North Atlantic Water, with Mediterranean Outflow Water beneath it. The permanent thermocline is found between 600 and 1000 m depth, i.e., in the depth range of the vertical wall and the dense assemblage of filter feeders. Beam attenuation indicated nepheloid layers present in the canyon system with the greatest amounts of suspended material at the ROV dive site between 500 and 750 m. A cross-canyon CTD transect indicated the presence of internal waves between these depths. We hypothesise that internal waves concentrate suspended sediment at high concentrations at the foot of the vertical wall, possibly explaining the large size and high density of filter-feeding molluscs. PMID:24260319

  4. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Guberski, M.R.; Wood, D.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) are working cooperatively to map and interpret features of the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. This report presents multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar data obtained during NOAA survey H11446, which was conducted in a 12-km2 area in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, NY. In addition, sediment and photographic data from 26 stations obtained during a USGS verification cruise are presented. Overall, the sea floor slopes gently seaward, but topography is more complex in sand-wave and boulder areas, which are evident in the multibeam and sidescan-sonar data from the study area. Sand waves generally have north-south-oriented crests with 10- to 20-m wavelengths. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates eastward net sediment transport in the east and westward net sediment transport in the northern and western parts of the study area. Areas with boulders on the sea floor are typically hummocky and are part of a glacial moraine system. Boulders are typically encrusted with seaweed, sponges, and anemones as shown in the bottom photography.

  5. Sea ice in the China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Shuqi [National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts, Beijing (China)

    1993-12-31

    In every winter, sea ice occurring in Bohai Sea and the North Yellow Sea is the first-year ice which is going through generating, developing and thawing processes. Therefore, it is necessary to spatially and temporally describe ice period, freezing range, thickness variations and general motion of sea ice. The purpose of this paper is to provide initial general situation and features of sea ice for forecasting and researching sea ice.

  6. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  7. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  8. Compound-Specific Amino Acid Isotopic Analysis of Benthic Food Webs in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Cooper, L. W.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chukchi Sea is known for locally high standing stocks of benthic macrofauna and strong coupling between pelagic-benthic components of the ecosystem. However, benthic food structure is not fully understood, due to varied sources of particulate organic matter (POM) and the high diversity of benthic invertebrates. We provide the first demonstration of the application of compound-specific amino acid isotope analysis to study the dietary sources and trophic structure for this Arctic marginal sea. About 20 stations in Chukchi Sea were sampled during cruises in August of 2012 and 2013. At each station, phytoplankton, POM and benthic fauna were collected, processed and analyzed using GC-C-IRMS (gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). Among benthic fauna, dominant species included the following taxonomic groups: Ophiuroidea, Amphipoda, Polychaeta, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Cnidaria. The benthic fauna showed similar patterns of individual amino acid ?13C, with glycine the most enriched in 13C and leucine the most depleted in 13C. Specific amino acids including phenylalanine showed spatial variability in ?13C and ?15N values within the sampled area, indicating contributions of different dietary sources including phytoplankton, sea ice algae, benthic algae and terrestrial organic materials. ?15N values of individual amino acids such as the difference between glutamic acid and phenylalanine, i.e. ?15Nglu-phe (?15Nglu - ?15Nphe), were also used to identify trophic levels of benthic invertebrates relative to estimates available from bulk ?15N values. These data will ultimately be used to evaluate the spatial variability of organic carbon sources and trophic level interactions of dominant benthic species in the Chukchi Sea.

  9. Aral Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The retreating shoreline leaves the surface encrusted with salt and with agrochemicals brought in by the rivers. As the Sea's moderating ... Large Aral, and may be associated with windblown snow and/or salt particles carried aloft. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome of a Deep-Sea Bamboo Coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Isididae): Genome Structure and Putative Origins of Replication Are Not Conserved Among Octocorals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mercer R. Brugler; Scott C. France

    2008-01-01

    Octocoral mitochondrial (mt) DNA is subject to an exceptionally low rate of substitution, and it has been suggested that mt\\u000a genome content and structure are conserved across the subclass, an observation that has been supported for most octocorallian\\u000a families by phylogenetic analyses using PCR products spanning gene boundaries. However, failure to recover amplification products\\u000a spanning the nad4L–msh1 gene junction in

  11. Numerical Investigation of a Coronal Mass Ejection from an Anemone Active Region: Reconnection and Deflection of the 2005 August 22 Eruption

    E-print Network

    Lugaz, N; Shibata, K; Roussev, I I; Asai, A; Gombosi, T

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the coronal evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2005 August 22 using a 3-D thermodynamics magnetohydrodynamic model, the SWMF. The source region of the eruption was anemone active region (AR) 10798, which emerged inside a coronal hole. We validate our modeled corona by producing synthetic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images, which we compare to EIT images. We initiate the CME with an out-of-equilibrium flux rope with an orientation and chirality chosen in agreement with observations of a H-alpha filament. During the eruption, one footpoint of the flux rope reconnects with streamer magnetic field lines and with open field lines from the adjacent coronal hole. It yields an eruption which has a mix of closed and open twisted field lines due to interchange reconnection and only one footpoint line-tied to the source region. Even with the large-scale reconnection, we find no evidence of strong rotation of the CME as it propagates. We study the CME deflection and find t...

  12. Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this resource, students will discover that there are notable differences between sea ice and fresh-water ice, such as density. In on segment, students learn that the first sign of freezing on the sea is an oily appearance of the water caused by the formation of needle-like crystals. The site explains the relationship between growth and the rate at which heat flows from the water and that the ice pack can alter its shape and dimension due to the movement of winds, currents, thermal expansion, and contraction of the ice. Types of ice described here include new ice, nilas, young ice, first-year ice, and old ice while the forms of ice covered include pancake ice, brash ice, ice cake, floe, and fast ice. The site also explains the meteorological and oceanographic factors that control the amount and movement of ice.

  13. Sea World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

  14. Mini-review: the evolution of neuropeptide signaling.

    PubMed

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank

    2012-08-10

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have an early evolutionary origin and are already abundant in basal animals with primitive nervous systems such as cnidarians (Hydra, jellyfishes, corals, and sea anemones). Most animals emerging after the Cnidaria belong to two evolutionary lineages, the Protostomia (to which the majority of invertebrates belong) and Deuterostomia (to which some minor groups of invertebrates, and all vertebrates belong). These two lineages split about 700 million years (Myr) ago. Many mammalian neuropeptide GPCRs have orthologues in the Protostomia and this is also true for some of the mammalian neuropeptides. Examples are oxytocin/vasopressin, GnRH, gastrin/CCK, and neuropeptide Y and their GPCRs. These results implicate that protostomes (for example insects and nematodes) can be used as models to study the biology of neuropeptide signaling. PMID:22726357

  15. Corallimorphus niwa new species (Cnidaria: Anthozoa), New Zealand members of Corallimorphus, and redefinition of Corallimorphidae and its members

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.

    2011-02-24

    The new species of anthozoan Corallimorphus niwa occurs at depths of 926–1773 m in seas around New Zealand. This new species shares with other members of Corallimorphus stiff and hyaline mesoglea, short column relative to its broad oral disc...

  16. Reproduction of Cnidaria

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.

    2002-01-01

    1983; Harrison and Wallace 1990; Richmond 1997), some with a geographical focus (Richmond and Hunter 1990; Shlesinger et al. 1998). Cutting through the subject of cnidarian repro- duction in alternative ways, Ryland (1997b) reviewed repro- duction... by Harrison and Wallace (1990) and Richmond and Hunter (1990), led to generaliza- tions such as that of Wells. Since those reviews were pub- lished, reports have appeared on more species from more places, including Okinawa (Hayashibara et al. 1993; Kinzie 1993...

  17. Reproduction of Cnidaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne Gail Fautin

    2002-01-01

    Empirical and experimental data on cnidarian reproduction show it to be more variable than had been thought, and many patterns that had previously been deduced hold up poorly or not at all in light of additional data. The border between sexual and asexual reproduction appears to be faint. This may be due to analytical tools being in- sufficiently powerful to

  18. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Central Rhode Island Sound Southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Nadeau, M.A.; Wood, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study sea-floor environments off the northeast coast of the United States. During 2008, NOAA survey H11996 collected multibeam echosounder data in a 65-square kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island. During 2010, the USGS collected bottom photographs and sediment samples from 25 stations in this study area. The bathymetry, photography, and sediment data are used to interpret sea-floor features including scour depressions, sand waves, trawl marks, and dredge spoils. Scour depressions cover the bathymetric highs in much of the study area. Sand waves are located mostly in the southwest, and trawl marks tend to be in the northern regions. Dredge spoils are located at a disposal site in a bathymetric low in the western end of the study area. Most stations have a sea-floor surface of sand or silty sand, but eight of the stations have boulders to pea-sized gravel or gravelly sediment on the surface. Photographs show sandy areas typically have scattered burrows, shells, amphipod communities, and worm tubes. Boulders and cobbles are commonly overgrown with hydrozoans and anemones.

  19. Climate-mediated changes in zooplankton community structure for the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Andrews, Alexander G.

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels in the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Previous studies from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf documented substantial differences in zooplankton taxa in the Middle and Inner Shelf Domains between warm and cold years. Our investigation expands this analysis into the northern Bering Sea and the south Outer Domain, looking at zooplankton community structure during a period of climate-mediated, large-scale change. Elevated air temperatures in the early 2000s resulted in regional warming and low sea-ice extent in the southern shelf whereas the late 2000s were characterized by cold winters, extensive spring sea ice, and a well-developed pool of cold water over the entire Middle Domain. The abundance of large zooplankton taxa such as Calanus spp. (C. marshallae and C. glacialis), and Parasagitta elegans, increased from warm to cold periods, while the abundance of gelatinous zooplankton (Cnidaria) and small taxa decreased. Biomass followed the same trends as abundance, except that the biomass of small taxa in the southeastern Bering Sea remained constant due to changes in abundance of small copepod taxa (increases in Acartia spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. and decreases in Oithona spp.). Statistically significant changes in zooplankton community structure and individual species were greatest in the Middle Domain, but were evident in all shelf domains, and in both the northern and southern portions of the eastern shelf. Changes in community structure did not occur abruptly during the transition from warm to cold, but seemed to begin gradually and build as the influence of the sea ice and cold water temperatures persisted. The change occurred one year earlier in the northern than the southern Middle Shelf. These and previous observations demonstrate that lower trophic levels within the eastern Bering Sea respond to climate-mediated changes on a variety of time scales, including those shorter than the commonly accepted quasi-decadal time periods. This lack of resilience or inertia at the lowest trophic levels affects production at higher trophic levels and must be considered in management strategy evaluations of living marine resources.

  20. Diversity, Distribution and Nature of Faunal Associations with Deep-Sea Pennatulacean Corals in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Baillon, Sandrine; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Anthoptilum grandiflorum and Halipteris finmarchica are two deep-sea corals (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) common on soft bottoms in the North Atlantic where they are believed to act as biogenic habitat. The former also has a worldwide distribution. To assist conservation efforts, this study examines spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance, diversity, and nature of their faunal associates. A total of 14 species were found on A. grandiflorum and 6 species on H. finmarchica during a multi-year and multi-site sampling campaign in eastern Canada. Among those, 7 and 5 species, respectively, were attached to the sea pens and categorized as close associates or symbionts. Rarefaction analyses suggest that the most common associates of both sea pens have been sampled. Biodiversity associated with each sea pen is analyzed according to season, depth and region using either close associates or the broader collection of species. Associated biodiversity generally increases from northern to southern locations and does not vary with depth (?100–1400 m). Seasonal patterns in A. grandiflorum show higher biodiversity during spring/summer due to the transient presence of early life stages of fishes and shrimps whereas it peaks in fall for H. finmarchica. Two distinct endoparasitic species of highly modified copepods (families Lamippidae and Corallovexiidae) commonly occur in the polyps of A. grandiflorum and H. finmarchica, and a commensal sea anemone frequently associates with H. finmarchica. Stable isotope analyses (?13C and ?15N) reveal potential trophic interactions between the parasites and their hosts. Overall, the diversity of obligate/permanent associates of sea pens is moderate; however the presence of mobile/transient associates highlights an ecological role that has yet to be fully elucidated and supports their key contribution to the enhancement of biodiversity in the Northwest Atlantic. PMID:25369515

  1. Activity of drugs and components of natural origin in the severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (dravet syndrome).

    PubMed

    Berio, Agostino; Piazzi, Attilia

    2015-01-01

    The sea anemones (Cnidaria) produce neurotoxins, polypeptides active on voltage-gated sodium channels, which induce a non-inactivating condition, with consequent seizures and paralysis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In humans, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) is due to SCN1A gene mutation, which causes a non-inactivating sodium channels condition with seizures. Some symptoms, such as age of first seizure, repetitive events, frequent status epilepticus, scarce responsiveness to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), may be due to superimposed environmental causes. The authors report a case of SMEI treated for years with benzodiazepines and subsequently with valproate. The attenuation of the frequency of epileptic events and of time in seizing, but no change in burst duration and EEG events was observed. These results are similar to those reported in the literature about zebrafish scn1Lab mutant, which recapitulates the SCN1A symptoms and AED resistance occurring in humans. During seizures the production of polypeptides similar to sea anemones neurotoxins, causing repetitive seizures, status epilepticus, and AED resistance can be hypothesized in subjects with SCN1A mutation. PMID:25924876

  2. California Sea Grant 1 California Sea Grant

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    California Sea Grant 1 California Sea Grant Strategic Plan 2010­2013 #12;2 Strategic Plan 2010­2013 The National Sea Grant College Program, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, supported this publication under NOAA grant number NA08OAR4170669, project number C/P-1 through

  3. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  4. Metazoan meiofauna in deep-sea canyons and adjacent open slopes: A large-scale comparison with focus on the rare taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchelli, S.; Gambi, C.; Zeppilli, D.; Danovaro, R.

    2010-03-01

    Metazoan meiofaunal abundance, total biomass, nematode size and the richness of taxa were investigated along bathymetric gradients (from the shelf break down to ca. 5000-m depth) in six submarine canyons and on five adjacent open slopes of three deep-sea regions. The investigated areas were distributed along >2500 km, on the Portuguese to the Catalan and South Adriatic margins. The Portuguese and Catalan margins displayed the highest abundances, biomass and richness of taxa, while the lowest values were observed in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The comparison between canyons and the nearby open slopes showed the lack of significant differences in terms of meiofaunal abundance and biomass at any sampling depth. In most canyons and on most slopes, meiofaunal variables did not display consistent bathymetric patterns. Conversely, we found that the different topographic features were apparently responsible for significant differences in the abundance and distribution of the rare meiofaunal taxa (i.e. taxa accounting for <1% of total meiofaunal abundance). Several taxa belonging to the temporary meiofauna, such as larvae/juveniles of Priapulida, Holothuroidea, Ascidiacea and Cnidaria, were encountered exclusively on open slopes, while others (including the Tanaidacea and Echinodea larvae) were found exclusively in canyons sediments. Results reported here indicate that, at large spatial scales, differences in deep-sea meiofaunal abundance and biomass are not only controlled by the available food sources, but also by the region or habitat specific topographic features, which apparently play a key role in the distribution of rare benthic taxa.

  5. New taxa and revisionary systematics of alcyonacean octocorals from the Pacific coast of North America (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic assessment of four species of octocorals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean (British Columbia to California) is provided. Included here are a new species of clavulariid stolonifieran Cryptophyton, a new species of the nephtheid soft coral Gersemia, an undetermined species of soft coral in the genus Alcyonium that has been referred in the literature by several other names, and a new genus is named for a plexaurid sea fan originally described in the Indo-Pacific genus Euplexaura. Discussions are included that compare the species to related taxa, or provide revisionary assessments. PMID:23794840

  6. Syst. Biol. 54(6):916935, 2005 Copyright c Society of Systematic Biologists

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Casey

    / 1076-836X online DOI: 10.1080/10635150500354837 Molecular Phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria@hawaii.edu Abstract.-- Siphonophores are a group of pelagic colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) that have long been of short-stemmed taxa, are polyphyletic. [Cnidaria; colonial animals; deep sea; division of labor

  7. Evolution and functional diversity of jellyfish opsins.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Cnidaria are the most basal animal phylum possessing complex eyes [1]. Their eyes predominantly use ciliary photoreceptor cells (c-PRCs) like vertebrates, whereas insect eyes use rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells (r-PRCs) [1-4]. These two cell types show not only different cytoarchitectures but distinct phototransduction cascades, which are triggered by the respective types of opsins (e.g., [5]), ciliary opsins (c-opsins) and rhabdomeric opsins (r-opsins) [6]. Recent reports suggested that the c- and r-PRCs and their respective opsins diverged at least before the deuterostome-protostome split [7-9]. To study the earlier evolution of animal PRCs and opsins, we investigated two hydrozoan jellyfishes. We report here the first-characterized cnidarian opsins. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the cloned 20 jellyfish opsins, together with all the opsins from a hydra and some from a sea anemone, are more closely related to the c-opsins than to any other major opsin subfamily, indicating that the divergence of c- and r-opsins antedates the Cnidaria-Bilateria split. Possible scenarios of animal PRC evolution are discussed. Furthermore, Cladonema opsins show several distinct tissue- and stage-specific expression patterns. The expression of specific opsins in the eyes suggests a role in vision, whereas that in the gonads suggests a role in light-controlled release of gametes. PMID:18160295

  8. Evolution of the tetraploid Anemone multifida (2n = 32) and hexaploid A. baldensis (2n = 48) (Ranunculaceae) was accompanied by rDNA loci loss and intergenomic translocation: evidence for their common genome origin

    PubMed Central

    Mlinarec, J.; Šatovi?, Z.; Malenica, N.; Ivan?i?-Ba?e, I.; Besendorfer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In the genus Anemone two small groups of taxa occur with the highest ploidy levels 2n = 6x = 48, belonging to the closely related clades: the montane/alpine Baldensis clade and the more temperate Multifida clade. To understand the formation of polyploids within these groups, the evolution of allohexaploid A. baldensis (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 48) from Europe and allotetraploid Anemone multifida (BBDD, 2n = 4x = 32) from America was analysed. Methods Internal transcribed spacer and non-transcribed spacer sequences were used as molecular markers for phylogenetic analyses. Cytogenetic studies, including genomic in situ hybridization with genomic DNA of potential parental species as probe, fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 18S rDNA as probes and 18S rDNA restriction analyses, were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes and to study genomic changes following polyploidization. Key Results This study shows that A. multifida (BBDD, 2n= 4x = 32) and A. baldensis (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 48) are allopolyploids originating from the crosses of diploid members of the Multifida (donor of the A and B subgenomes) and Baldensis groups (donor of the D subgenome). The A and B subgenomes are closely related to the genomes of A. sylvestris, A. virginiana and A. cylindrica, indicating that these species or their progeny might be the ancestral donors of the B subgenome of A. multifida and A and B subgenomes of A. baldensis. Both polyploids have undergone genomic changes such as interchromosomal translocation affecting B and D subgenomes and changes at rDNA sites. Anemone multifida has lost the 35S rDNA loci characteristic of the maternal donor (B subgenome) and maintained only the rDNA loci of the paternal donor (D subgenome). Conclusions It is proposed that A. multifida and A. baldensis probably had a common ancestor and their evolution was facilitated by vegetation changes during the Quaternary, resulting in their present disjunctive distribution. PMID:22711694

  9. Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-10-30

    Users can search for and view sea surface temperature imagery. They may choose from the latest image, or browse archived imagery that dates back approximately two weeks. Links to other sea surface temperature datasets are included.

  10. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  11. Sea ice transports in the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Sabine; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Strass, Volker H.

    2001-05-01

    Time series of sea ice draft in the Weddell Sea are evaluated together with hydrographic observations, satellite passive microwave data, and ice drift for estimation of the freshwater fluxes into and out of the Weddell Sea. Ice draft is measured with moored upward looking sonars since 1990 along two transects across the Weddell Gyre. One transect, extending from the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula to Kapp Norvegia, was sampled between 1990 and 1994 and covers the flow into and out of the southern Weddell Sea. The other transect, sampled since 1996 and extending from the Antarctic continent northward along the Greenwich meridian, covers the exchange of water masses between the eastern and the western Weddell Sea. In order to relate results obtained during the different time periods, empirical relationships are established between the length of the sea ice season, derived from the satellite passive microwave data and defined as the number of days per year with the sea ice concentration exceeding 15%, and (1) the annual mean ice draft and (2) the annual mean ice volume transport. By using these empirical relationships, estimates of annual mean ice drafts and ice volume transports are derived at all mooring sites for the period February 1979 through February 1999. Wind and current force a westward ice transport in the coastal areas of the eastern Weddell Sea and a northward ice transport in the west. During the 2-year period 1991/1992 the mean ice volume export from the Weddell Sea is (50 ± 19) × 103 m3 s-1. This freshwater export is representative for a longer-term (20-year) mean and exceeds the average amount of freshwater gained by precipitation and ice shelf melt by about 19×103 m3 s-1, yielding an upper bound for the formation rate of newly ventilated bottom water in the Weddell Sea of 2.6 Sv.

  12. Calibration of stable oxygen isotopes in Siderastrea radians (Cnidaria:Scleractinia): Implications for slow-growing corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Swart, Peter K.; Dodge, Richard E.

    2006-09-01

    Geochemical proxies in the skeletons of corals used for the purpose of reconstructing environmental records have typically been obtained from relatively fast-growing corals (usually >8 mm yr-1) and from only a few key genera (most commonly Porites and Montastraea). In many areas, however, there are no suitable fast-growing corals available for such reconstructions. Here, we investigate the potential of Siderastrea radians, a slow-growing Atlantic and Caribbean zooxanthellate coral, as an archive of sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity over the period from 1891 to 2002. Sampling the skeleton of three corals from the Cape Verde Islands, we were able to reproduce a clear seasonal signal, but with limited correlation to monthly SST, arising from inadequate chronologic constraint of the individual samples. The SST-?18O calibration slopes for different sampling scales on several cores can range from about -9°C ‰-1 to +2°C ‰-1 (compared to other published values of around -5 to -4°C ‰-1). Careful treatment produced a ?18O-SST calibration equation where SST(°C) = 12.56(±1.20) - 3.86(±0.39)*(?c-?w). The recognition of the limitations of calibration at such small growth rates due to skeletal complexity and suspicion of environmental interferences suggests the need for careful consideration in the interpretation of climate proxy results from S. radians and other slow-growing corals.

  13. The non-Siphonophoran Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Salento, Italy with notes on their life-cycles: an illustrated guide.

    PubMed

    Gravili, Cinzia; Vito, Doris De; Camillo, Cristina Gioia Di; Martell, Luis; Piraino, Stefano; Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The majority of Hydrozoa is represented by not readily noticeable, small species. In recent decades, however, taxonomic knowledge of the group has increased worldwide, with a significant number of investigations focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Over more than two decades, 115 species of hydrozoans were recorded from coastal waters along nearly 300 km of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, Italy). For each species, records from different collections were merged into single sheets of a general database.        For each species, the following information is reported: description, cnidome, biology, occurrence in Salento, worldwide distribution, and bibliography. Descriptions refer to the benthic hydroid stage and, when present, also to the planktonic medusa stage. The 115 species of Hydrozoa, recorded along the Salento coastline, represent 25% of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa fauna (totaling 461 species), and nearly 3% of 3,702 world's known species covered in a recent monograph. Four species are non-indigenous, three of them with invasive behavior (Clytia hummelincki, Clytia linearis, and Eudendrium carneum), and one species now very common (Eudendrium merulum) in Salento. The complete life cycle of Clytia paulensis (Vanhöffen, 1910) is described for the first time.  PMID:25661429

  14. Mapping Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Alaska Fairbanks

    2008-01-01

    In this activity related to climate change, learners create and explore topographical maps as a means of studying sea level rise. Learners use various everyday materials including ice and a potato to investigate the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise, create and use a topographical map to predict sea level rise, and discuss how sea level rise will affect Alaska's coastline. This lesson plan includes detailed activity procedure guidelines, critical thinking questions, an overhead, and handouts. NOTE: material cost does not include cost to purchase DVD since it is not essential to the activity.

  15. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    PubMed

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210

  16. Nonperturbative Quark Sea Asymmetries

    E-print Network

    Harleen Dahiya; Neetika Sharma

    2010-08-27

    The effects of nonperturbatively generated ``quark sea'' have been investigated to determine the flavor structure of the octet baryons. The chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM), which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, is able to explain the qualitative generation of the requisite amount of quark sea. The importance of quark sea has been studied at different values of the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ by including it phenomenologically in the sea quark distribution functions. The results for the quark sea asymmetries like $\\bar d(x)-\\bar u(x)$, $\\bar d(x)/\\bar u(x)$ and Gottfried integral for the octet baryons strengthen the significance of quark sea at lower values of $x$.

  17. SeaWIFS Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), a NASA project using satellites to collect ocean color data to quantify phytoplankton abundance. Provides background information on SeaWIFS project, technology and data. Teacher Resource section has: online presentation on how and why scientists study ocean color; Living Ocean Teacher's Guide with brief information on ocean color, carbon cycle and greenhouse gas effect; and, links to other websites with ocean color activities.

  18. Focus on Sea Otters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A Monterey Bay Aquarium website where you can learn about the biology and population recovery of sea otters. Features include the opportunity to "meet" the otters on exhibit at the aquarium and viewing them through the live otter cam. Many sea otter-related games, activities, and resources. Links to other fascinating exhibits at the Aquarium. Several downloadable videos available, each with their own enjoyable sea otter antics.

  19. Semi-automated image analysis for the assessment of megafaunal densities at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN.

    PubMed

    Schoening, Timm; Bergmann, Melanie; Ontrup, Jörg; Taylor, James; Dannheim, Jennifer; Gutt, Julian; Purser, Autun; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2012-01-01

    Megafauna play an important role in benthic ecosystem function and are sensitive indicators of environmental change. Non-invasive monitoring of benthic communities can be accomplished by seafloor imaging. However, manual quantification of megafauna in images is labor-intensive and therefore, this organism size class is often neglected in ecosystem studies. Automated image analysis has been proposed as a possible approach to such analysis, but the heterogeneity of megafaunal communities poses a non-trivial challenge for such automated techniques. Here, the potential of a generalized object detection architecture, referred to as iSIS (intelligent Screening of underwater Image Sequences), for the quantification of a heterogenous group of megafauna taxa is investigated. The iSIS system is tuned for a particular image sequence (i.e. a transect) using a small subset of the images, in which megafauna taxa positions were previously marked by an expert. To investigate the potential of iSIS and compare its results with those obtained from human experts, a group of eight different taxa from one camera transect of seafloor images taken at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN is used. The results show that inter- and intra-observer agreements of human experts exhibit considerable variation between the species, with a similar degree of variation apparent in the automatically derived results obtained by iSIS. Whilst some taxa (e. g. Bathycrinus stalks, Kolga hyalina, small white sea anemone) were well detected by iSIS (i. e. overall Sensitivity: 87%, overall Positive Predictive Value: 67%), some taxa such as the small sea cucumber Elpidia heckeri remain challenging, for both human observers and iSIS. PMID:22719868

  20. Semi-Automated Image Analysis for the Assessment of Megafaunal Densities at the Arctic Deep-Sea Observatory HAUSGARTEN

    PubMed Central

    Schoening, Timm; Bergmann, Melanie; Ontrup, Jörg; Taylor, James; Dannheim, Jennifer; Gutt, Julian; Purser, Autun; Nattkemper, Tim W.

    2012-01-01

    Megafauna play an important role in benthic ecosystem function and are sensitive indicators of environmental change. Non-invasive monitoring of benthic communities can be accomplished by seafloor imaging. However, manual quantification of megafauna in images is labor-intensive and therefore, this organism size class is often neglected in ecosystem studies. Automated image analysis has been proposed as a possible approach to such analysis, but the heterogeneity of megafaunal communities poses a non-trivial challenge for such automated techniques. Here, the potential of a generalized object detection architecture, referred to as iSIS (intelligent Screening of underwater Image Sequences), for the quantification of a heterogenous group of megafauna taxa is investigated. The iSIS system is tuned for a particular image sequence (i.e. a transect) using a small subset of the images, in which megafauna taxa positions were previously marked by an expert. To investigate the potential of iSIS and compare its results with those obtained from human experts, a group of eight different taxa from one camera transect of seafloor images taken at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN is used. The results show that inter- and intra-observer agreements of human experts exhibit considerable variation between the species, with a similar degree of variation apparent in the automatically derived results obtained by iSIS. Whilst some taxa (e. g. Bathycrinus stalks, Kolga hyalina, small white sea anemone) were well detected by iSIS (i. e. overall Sensitivity: 87%, overall Positive Predictive Value: 67%), some taxa such as the small sea cucumber Elpidia heckeri remain challenging, for both human observers and iSIS. PMID:22719868

  1. Sea Turtle Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This packet includes background information, quick facts, links to additional sea turtle resources, and a classroom modeling activity that demonstrates population estimation, life history, and hatching success rates.

  2. Bering Sea Expedition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alaska Seas and Rivers Curriculum

    In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

  3. Antarctica: Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, shows how sea ice forms in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and how its seasonal fluctuation dramatically changes the continent. The segment, two minutes thirty-five seconds in length, includes rare footage of the destruction of the British ship 'Endurance', trapped and crushed by sea ice in 1914.

  4. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  5. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

    1999-01-01

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

  6. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  7. Sea ice: Antarctic aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. SCHWERDTFEGER

    The relevance and limitations of theoretical and laboratory investiga- tions of sea ice to the Antarctic is discussed. Because of the complex thermal and mechanical perturbations suffered by sea ice under such oceanic conditions, analogue computations are suggested as being amongst the most promising methods of analysis. In the light of basic heat economy determinations, it is suggested that the

  8. Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  9. Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  10. Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Report's Topic in Depth explores the world of sea cucumbers, or Holothuroidea, a diverse group of intriguing marine animals. The first site (1), from the Tree of Life Web Project, provides nice clear images of sea cucumbers and brief concise sections on Characteristics, The Orders of Holothuroidea, Fossil History, and Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships. The second site (2), from the Charles Darwin Research Station, displays short answers to commonly asked questions about sea cucumbers like: What is their importance within the marine communities?; How do sea cucumbers reproduce?; and What is the potential environment impact of overexploiting sea cucumber populations? From Enchanted Learning, the third site (3) features a diagrammed print-out of a s ea cucumber along with short descriptions of Holothuroidea anatomy, diet, classification, and predators. Hosted by the Royal BC Museum, the fourth site (4) contains a brief research paper by curator Philip Lambert on taxonomy issues concerning sea cucumbers. The fifth site (5), developed by Richard Fox of Lander University, contains detailed instructions for a laboratory exercise with Sclerodactyla briareus, a species of sea cucumber. From MoonDragon's Health & Wellness website, the sixth site (6) contains a sea cucumber recipe and briefly discusses sea cucumber cuisine and health benefits. Hosted by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, the seventh site (7) provides information about an international conference titled: Conservation of s ea cucumbers in Malaysia, their Taxonomy, Ecology and Trade. The site contains concluding remarks, abstracts from papers presented at the conference, and a list of email contacts for conference participants. The final (8) site from the Environmental News Network'features a short article about an Ecuadorian court upholding sea cucumber fishing limits in the Galapagos islands.

  11. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project, Duxbury Reef, Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Prescutti, K.; Ball, O.; Chang, E.; Darakananda, K.; Jessup, K.; Poutian, J.; Schwalbe, H.; Storm, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B), and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities of aggregating anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima, for seasonal abundance variations as well as long-term population trends. We will also follow the seasonal and long-term population fluctuations of red algal turf, Endocladia muricata and Gelidium coulteri, and black turban snails, Tegula funebralis. Comparing populations of turf algae and the herbivorous black turban snails gathered before and after the November 7, 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill shows very little impact on the Duxbury Reef intertidal inhabitants. Future analyses will include intertidal abiotic factors to enhance insights into the workings of the Duxbury Reef ecosystem. Kathy Soave The Branson School 39 Fernhill Rd. Ross, CA 94957 (415) 454-3612 x 323 Amy Dean Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association, PO Box 29386 San Francisco, CA 94129, 415-561-6625 x 303 AGU Sponsor, Ines Cifuentes, AGU membership number 10189667

  12. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2012-2103

    E-print Network

    Safety Administrative Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety #12;SEAS Safety ProgramSEAS Safety Program Services Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety · Relay relevant information back to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend

  13. SEA GRANT PROGRAM SITE VISITS Sea Grant Program Webinar

    E-print Network

    SEA GRANT PROGRAM SITE VISITS Sea Grant Program Webinar May 2014 Sami J. Grimes, NSGO #12;OVERVIEW Sea Grant Evaluation Process Why Site Visits? Results from Previous Site Visit Cycle Overview of How Site Visits are Conducted Site Visit Terms Changes from the Previous Site Visit Cycle Sea Grant

  14. Is The Sea Level?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    In this activity students will observe that the sea level changes and will hypothesize what causes this change. They will then check their hypothesis with a data set. Many students are surprised to learn that sea level is not the same everywhere on earth and that it changes with the seasons. The main cause of this change is the temperature change in the ocean - warmer waters are higher than colder waters. Students will discover this information as they complete the activity and then see if the temperature effect holds true on another data set showing temperature and sea height changes caused by the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  15. Is the Sea Level?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this video-based activity, students learn that sea level is an average measurement of the height of the ocean, and sea level changes with the seasons and over time. El Niño and La Ninña events are compared, demonstrating that sea height is a function of temperature.Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

  16. Sea Perch Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    David Lalejini, an employee of the Naval Research Laboratory at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, helps a pair of teachers deploy a remotely-operated underwater Sea Perch robot during workshop activities Dec. 11. The Stennis Education Office teamed with Naval Research Laboratory counterparts to conduct a two-day workshop Dec. 10-11 for Louisiana and Mississippi teachers. During the no-cost workshop, teachers learned to build and operate Sea Perch robots. The teachers now can take the Sea Perch Program back to students.

  17. Arctic Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

  18. 3. The Sea Urchin Introduction

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jeff

    3. The Sea Urchin leffHardin Introduction The sea urchin embryo has been used for more than of echinoderms and, in particular, of sea urchins, that was carried out at these marine stations was influential; Morgan, 1927). Later, in the early part of the twentieth century, the experiments performed on sea urchin

  19. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    E-print Network

    Eisenman, Ian

    Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean 17 September 2014 Available online 28 September 2014 Keywords: Sea ice Ice growth/melt Sea ice motion Heat flux Climate dynamics Bering Sea a b s t r a c t The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability

  20. Smart Sea Lions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2009-08-31

    This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores whether animals and humans are more similar than we think. Meet Rio, a sea lion who demonstrates to researchers reasoning skills once thought limited to humans.

  1. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  2. Purple sea urchin swarm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-04

    Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

  3. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  4. All About Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Launched by the National Snow and Ice Data Center, the "All About Sea Ice" website is designed as an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expeditions in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains over 80 pages of information on sea ice, including a glossary of sea ice terms and links to more information. The primary focus of the site is as a resource for the general public, educators and students in middle school and above. It may also be useful to researchers as a source of imagery, sample data, references, and basic information.

  5. Stellar Sea Lion Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

  6. Sea Floor Spreading I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Activity and Starting Point page by R.M. MacKay. Clark College, Physics and Meteorology.

    In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

  7. Global sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

  8. Sea Urchin Embryology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Advanced high school level laboratory activities using sea urchins to observe fertilization and early developmental stages. This is a comprehensive site complete with multiple labs, support lessons, background information, animated graphics illustrating lab techniques, printable overheads (also available in Spanish and French), and a glossary of terms. A one-stop site for sea urchin information, experiments, suppliers, and research. Links to additional resources are available.

  9. National Sea Grant Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Only facility housing complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, obtain citations, abstracts and over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of the histone gene cluster in the coral acropora formosa (cnidaria; scleractinia): Features of histone gene structure and organization are common to diploblastic and triploblastic metazoans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Miller; P. L. Harrison; T. J. Mahony; J. P. McMillan; A. Miles; D. M. Odorico; M. R. ten Lohuis

    1993-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the core histone gene cluster from the Cnidarian Acropora formosa. This is the first histone gene cluster to be sequenced from a diploblastic organism and the predicted amino acid sequences most resemble those of sea urchin equivalents. Each of the Cnidarian histone genes has two conserved regions 3' of the coding sequences and these

  11. Microdistribution of faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Rogers, Alex D; Sweeting, Christopher J; Tyler, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of vent biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and hydrothermal activity in a vent field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of hydrothermal activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m(2) of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from vent sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to vent sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m(-2)), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m(-2)). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for vent fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in ?(34)S values of primary consumers with distance from vent sources, and variation in their ?(13)C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the vent fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a vent environment over a greater extent than previous studies, these results provide a baseline for determining temporal change and investigations of processes structuring faunal assemblages at Southern Ocean vents. PMID:23144754

  12. Phylogenetics of Hydroidolina (Hydrozoa: Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Cartwright, Paulyn; Evans, Nathaniel Michael; Dunn, Casey W.; Marques, Antonio C.; Miglietta, Maria Pia; Schuchert, Peter; Collins, Allen G.

    2008-05-08

    35036 Physophoridae Physophora hydrostatica EU272582 AY937342 AY935300 YPM 35046 Rhodaliidae Stephalia dilata EU305534 AY937357 AY935315 YPM 35358 Cystonectae Physaliidae Physalia physalis EU448095 AY358065 AY935284 YPM 35345 Trachylina Aeginidae Aegina...

  13. Cnidarian Diversity Classes of Cnidaria

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    ­ kleptoparasite of siphonophores Macropinna microstoma Physalia physalis Physalia physalis · Portuguese Man of War jellyfish Nomeus gronoviiNomeus gronovii Physalia physalis · The PortugueseMan-o'-War consists of four main Mouth The Portuguese man-o'war, Physalia physalis, is one of around 175 species in the order

  14. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  15. Endobiotic bacteria and their pathogenic potential in cnidarian tentacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Christian; Doepke, Hilke

    2010-09-01

    Endobiotic bacteria colonize the tentacles of cnidaria. This paper provides first insight into the bacterial spectrum and its potential of pathogenic activities inside four cnidarian species. Sample material originating from Scottish waters comprises the jellyfish species Cyanea capillata and C. lamarckii, hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa and sea anemone Sagartia elegans. Mixed cultures of endobiotic bacteria, pure cultures selected on basis of haemolysis, but also lyophilized samples were prepared from tentacles and used for DGGE-profiling with subsequent phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA fragments. Bacteria were detected in each of the cnidarian species tested. Twenty-one bacterial species including four groups of closely related organisms were found in culture material. The species within these groups could not be differentiated from each other (one group of Pseudoalteromonas spp., two groups of Shewanella spp., one group of Vibrio spp.). Each of the hosts exhibits a specific endobacterial spectrum. Solely Cyanea lamarckii harboured Moritella viscosa. Only in Cyanea capillata, members of the Shewanella group #2 and the species Pseudoalteromonas arctica, Shewanella violacea, Sulfitobacter pontiacus and Arcobacter butzleri were detected. Hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa provided an amazingly wide spectrum of nine bacterial species. Exclusively, in the sea anemone Sagartia elegans, the bacterial species P. aliena was found. Overall eleven bacterial species detected were described recently as novel species. Four 16S rDNA fragments generated from lyophilized material displayed extremely low relationship to their next neighbours. These organisms are regarded as members of the endobiotic “terra incognita”. Since the origin of cnidarian toxins is unclear, the possible pathogenic activity of endobiotic bacteria has to be taken into account. Literature data show that their next neighbours display an interesting diversity of haemolytic, septicaemic and necrotic actions including the production of cytotoxins, tetrodotoxin and R-toxin. Findings of haemolysis tests support the literature data. The potential producers are Endozoicimonas elysicola, Moritella viscosa, Photobacterium profundum, P. aliena, P. tetraodonis, Shewanella waksmanii, Vibrio splendidus, V. aestuarius, Arcobacter butzleri.

  16. Transdermal Delivery of Scopolamine by Natural Submicron Injectors: In-Vivo Study in Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shaoul, Esther; Ayalon, Ari; Tal, Yossi; Lotan, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made a notable contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. While transdermal delivery systems would appear to provide an attractive solution for local and systemic drug delivery, only a limited number of drugs can be delivered through the outer layer of the skin. The most difficult to deliver in this way are hydrophilic drugs. The aquatic phylum Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish and hydra, is one of the most ancient multicellular phyla that possess stinging cells containing organelles (cnidocysts), comprising a sophisticated injection system. The apparatus is folded within collagenous microcapsules and upon activation injects a thin tubule that immediately penetrates the prey and delivers its contents. Here we show that this natural microscopic injection system can be adapted for systemic transdermal drug delivery once it is isolated from the cells and uploaded with the drug. Using a topically applied gel containing isolated natural sea anemone injectors and the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, we found that the formulated injectors could penetrate porcine skin and immediately deliver this hydrophilic drug. An in-vivo study in pigs demonstrated, for the first time, rapid systemic delivery of scopolamine, with Tmax of 30 minutes and Cmax 5 times higher than in controls treated topically with a scopolamine-containing gel without cnidocysts. The ability of the formulated natural injection system to penetrate a barrier as thick as the skin and systemically deliver an exogenous compound presents an intriguing and attractive alternative for hydrophilic transdermal drug delivery. PMID:22363770

  17. Bioprospecting / Deep Sea Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The first portion of the radio broadcast discusses the relatively new field of bioprospecting, the exploration of the sea floor for novel compounds and processes that may have industrial or medical applications. Bioprospectors are trying to collect samples of deep-sea organisms which may yield new pharmaceutical compounds, as in the case of Conus magnus, a sea snail whose venom has yielded a painkiller 1000 times more potent than morphine. There is also discussion of who owns these resources and what can be done to protect them. This segment is 12 minutes in length. The second segment of the broadcast traces the history of undersea exploration, including methods of measuring ocean depth, the bathysphere used by William Beebe and Otis Barton, the modern Alvin submersible, and remotely operated vehicles. There is also discussion of the motives and inspiration for ocean exploration; the deep sea knowledge of whalers; and comparisons of deep sea research with space exploration. This segment is 34 minutes and 40 seconds in length.

  18. Oxygen detoxification in micro-metazoans of the sulfide-system 

    E-print Network

    Morrill, Audrey Carr

    1986-01-01

    three distinct zones in the sulfide system: a surface zone, a chemocline. and a reduoed zone. The surface zone may be supersaturated with oxygen in the top few millimeters due to the presence of photosynthetic bacteria and algae (Revsbech et a1. 1980... oxygen in the tissues of sea anemones, corals~ and giant olams. Sea anemones containing symbiotic algae have been found to contain SOD activities nearly 100 times higher than anemones without zooxanthellae (Dykens and Shick, 1982). Zn symbiotic...

  19. Sea Slug Forum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Australian Museum and maintained by Dr. Bill Rudman, the recently redesigned Sea Slug Forum is an excellent resource for information on nudibranchs and related sea slugs such as bubble-shells, sea hares, and side-gilled slugs. One of the chief features of the site is a lengthy species list that links to lovely photos, brief descriptions, distribution information, and related messages from the site's Forum. The site also offers a sizable collection of short pieces and archived forum messages on a variety of general topics, arranged alphabetically. Users can send their own questions and review messages sent to the site along with Dr. Rudman's replies by date or via a keyword search engine. Additional resources include suggested reading, related annotated links, and information on forum participants.

  20. New York Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Sea Grant program was established in 1966, and a few years later, the state of New York sponsored the program's first outpost. Currently, the New York Sea Grant (NYSG) is a cooperative program of the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell University. On the homepage, visitors can look over sections that include "Extension", "Research", "Education", "Publications", and "Theme Areas". The "Theme Areas" is a good place to start, as it features topical material on coastal processes and hazards, fisheries, and aquatic invasive species. Their helpful publication "Currents" is also worth a look, and it contains materials on grant opportunities, research materials, fact sheets, and public awareness programs. Moving on, the "Related Sites" area contains links to "Hot Topics" (topical news items related to the sea and such) and affiliated organizations.

  1. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  2. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWeb is a nonprofit organization aimed at raising awareness of the ocean and marine life that play "a critical role in our everyday life and in the future of our planet." SeaWeb employs a team of professionals from biology, exploration, and various communication disciplines. The current campaigns include an effort to protect the declining Caspian Sea Sturgeon ("the source of most of the world's caviar"), an attempt to reduce overfishing of swordfish, and a report about the changes occurring in the world's oceans. This Web site is a robust source of information about many threats that are facing marine ecosystems, and an attempt to reduce the dangers by educating the public about the impacts of their behavior.

  3. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  4. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead and on sea ice in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  5. THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010

    E-print Network

    THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010 Biennial Report to Congress by the National Sea Grant Advisory Board, November 2010 Impacts, challenges and opportunities #12;B The State of Sea Grant 2010: Impacts, Challenges ................................................................................................................................. 5 The Sea Grant Model

  6. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

    E-print Network

    385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

  7. RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

    We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

  8. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2013-2014

    E-print Network

    Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety Officers (~ 40 safety Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety Inspections · Report and Feedback from/after Lab to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend annual lab inspection (SEAS + EHSEM

  9. Lighting Up the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic Xpeditions

    This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

  10. Deep Drilling at Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kate Ramsayer

    This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

  11. National Sea Grant Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the website for the only facility housing a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, where users may obtain citations, abstracts and access to over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

  12. Biodiversity of the Deep-Sea Benthic Fauna in the Sangihe-Talaud Region, Indonesia: Observations from the INDEX-SATAL 2010 Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, S.; Munro, C.; Nganro, N.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Wirasantosa, S.; Sibert, E.; Hammond, S. R.; Bors, E.; Butterfield, D.; Holden, J. F.; Baker, E. T.; Sherrin, J.; Makarim, S.; Troa, R.; Shank, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    The benthic ecosystems found in the deep-sea promontories of Sangihe Talaud region were explored, between June and August 2010, using the ROV Little Hercules aboard the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer. The Sangihe-Talaud region is part of the Coral Triangle (CT) an area known for harboring the most biodiverse shallow-water coral reefs in the world. Notwithstanding the significant research efforts that have been undertaken to catalog and protect the biodiversity of the CT prior this expedition, virtually nothing was known about the life inhabiting the deep sea. The high-resolution imagery obtained from the 27 ROV dives revealed remarkably high abundances and diversity of animal species, many of which appear to be novel. On hard bottom substrates, cold-water corals were the dominant sessile macrofauna, in terms of biomass, followed by glass sponges (Hexactinellida) and sea lilies (Crinoidea). The coral taxa observed in this area represent six large orders of cnidarians: antipatharians (black corals), scleractinians (stony corals), zoanthideans (gold corals), alcyonaceans (octocorals), pennatulaceans (sea pens), and anthoathecates (hydrocorals). Most sessile species, independently of their size class or taxonomic affiliation, harbor a wide variety of associated fauna. Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), squat lobsters (Galatheoidea), shrimp (Caridea), amphipods (Amphipoda), anemones (Actinaria), zanthideans, barnacles (Cirripedia), hydroids (Hydrozoa) and worms (Polychaeta) are the animal groups most commonly found forming these associations. In contrast, soft bottom habitats were dominated by stalked sponges, sea pens, sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) and brittle stars. Other conspicuous fauna include fish, hermit crabs (Paguridae), urchins (Echinoidea) and octopuses (Cephalopoda). The abundance of habitats generated by the high number of geological and biological features and depth ranges present in the deep coral triangle (e.g., ridges, seamounts, island margins, plains, and rock types), and the complex history of tectonic dynamics of this region are among the likely causes for the high biodiversity found during this mission. Tectonic history and diverse habitats may also be factors that have played a similar role shaping the diversity of shallow water assemblages of the region. Such parallels between the biodiversity of deep and shallow waters will be presented.

  13. Sea Level Rise Media Release

    E-print Network

    Hu, Aixue

    Sea Level Rise Media Release Coverage Report 07/06/2009 Melting Ice Could Lead to Massive Waves 06/11/2009 Rising sea levels could see U.S. Atlantic coast cities make hard choices; Where to let Baltimore Chronicle & Sentinel, The 06/08/2009 Rapid rise in sea levels on East Coast predicted Pittsburgh

  14. The Sea Level Rise Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Abdalati; S. C. Moser; R. W. Schmitt

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on sea level rise suggests that sea level rise by the end of this century may well be significantly larger than those identified in the IPCC AR4 (2007). Whereas in the past, sea level rise was ascribed equally to thermal expansion of a warming ocean and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers, the recent acceleration in

  15. 3, 637669, 2006 Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 3, 637­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Mediterranean Sea forecast: effects of high-resolution atmospheric forcings S. Natale1 , R. Sorgente2 , S­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  16. National Sea Grant Educators Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

  17. Tides & Currents: Sea Level Trends

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years. This resource illustrates regional trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change including national and global stations. Impacts on changing sea levels in relation to atmospheric and oceanic processes as well as other Earth systems are explained and supported with educations resources.

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Climatology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Education Online

    This interactive animation shows global sea surface temperature averages for the same months over a number of years. Click on the map to see values for a particular month. This takes leads to a viewer that allows users to manipulate the figure, zooming in to a particular spot, altering the size, or changing the format.

  19. The Dirac Sea

    E-print Network

    J. Dimock

    2010-11-26

    We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

  20. SeaDiscovery.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaDiscovery.com is an online source for "underwater tech and ocean science news." The site presents not only news, but information about maritime technology employment which includes featured jobs and resumes. It also allows access to the Maritime Technology Reporter magazine and provides links to a number of important directories.

  1. Classroom of the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Denise Monte

    2000-03-01

    Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

  2. Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-09

    Explore the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and Earth's climate system, and consider the effects that changes in SST are having in the Arctic and beyond in this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain featuring data and visualization from NOAA.

  3. Dead Sea Scrolls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Bull

    1991-01-01

    In today's society, many people are critical about the validity of the Bible. Archaeological excavations have unearthed many artifacts of the biblical time period, such as pottery, archives, and settlement remains, but Palestine had not produced virtually anything of extremely significant biblical evidence until 1947. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has clearly been \\

  4. Sea Turtle Skeleton - Nostrils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  5. Sea Turtle Skeleton - Skull

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  6. Rising Sea Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  7. Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-15

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  8. Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-27

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  9. Space Invaders at Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hoops, Richard

    This radio broadcast discusses the recent issue of the increase and spread of tunicates (or 'sea squirts'), who have suddenly proliferated off the Atlantic Coast of the United States and Canada. The creatures, an invasive species likely from Asia or Europe, have carpeted the ocean floor and are smothering valuable shellfish.

  10. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

  11. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  12. The Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several large, irregularly shaped icebergs are floating in the Weddell Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, in this true-color MODIS image from February 17, 2002. The location of several of the bergs has changed little over the last three months. Compared to an image acquired on November 13, 2001, the berg at the upper right of the image has spun around, but is still hanging around in the same general location. Similar slow-movers can be seen just to the east of the Larsen Ice Shelf, which hugs the eastern coast of the Peninsula. The northernmost of those two bergs is designated A38b; the southernmost one is A38a. These bergs were once part of an iceberg greater than 2,700 square miles that broke off the Ronne Ice Shelf (to the south) back in 1998. While the waters of the Weddell Sea in the area ought to be deep enough to float those bergs, it is possible that they have run aground on a topographic high, or ridge, in the sea floor. However, little is known about the underwater topography of that region, and it is also possible that the bergs are simply so massive that they resist being moved by surface wind or ocean currents. While four years might seem like a long time for an iceberg to hang around, these are certainly no record holders. A berg that broke off the Ross Ice Shelf (on the other side of Antarctica) drifted north and went aground south of Australia. That berg calved in 1987, and hasn't really moved in ten years. While the big bergs have not moved much in the span of time between these images, there is a big difference in the amount of sea ice present in the two images. In general, the rounder chunks of ice are more likely to be seasonal sea ice that forms from the freezing of sea water, while the larger, jagged-edged pieces of ice are more likely to be bergs that broke off an ice shelf at the margin of the continent. It's the height of summer in Antarctica in the February image, and much of the sea ice has melted or drifted away, leaving a relatively large expanse of clear ocean. Credit:

  13. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on the sea floor in order to get experimental data in geomagnetic coordinates frames. The analysis executed showed that first error source can not be avoided at shallow water experiments but can be easily taken into account. The special methodology and the developed software allowed to solve the second problem. It was shown that it is possible to reduce the magnetometer data collected in randomly oriented coordinate system at arbitrary position on the sea floor to the data in the frame system connected with geomagnetic coordinates. The parameters of LEMI-302 sea bed magnetometer are discussed and the experimental results of its application are presented. The research work in Ukraine was partly supported by INTAS grant 99-1102.

  14. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Sea Ice 1987 - 2012

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features a video that illustrates both seasonal patterns and long-term changes in sea ice distribution across the Arctic Ocean. It draws data from two satellite instruments that measure emitted microwave radiation, which helps distinguish open ocean from ice. It shows that during the winter months, a layer of ice forms across vast expanses of the Arctic Ocean and each summer, more than half of that ice vanishes. Students discover that this natural cycle of freezing and thawing is influenced both by seasonal temperature variations and long-term climate change and that scientists are using satellite images to measure the distribution of Arctic sea ice in order to gain a better understanding of how it is linked to Earth's climate system.

  16. The Disappearing Aral Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  17. WINDandSEA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site was built in response to the many reference questions that are posed to the library and is meant to make internet searching more efficient for those concerned with oceanic and atmospheric issues, and the general public. Presently WINDandSEA has over 1,000 links to science and policy sites organized by topic and alphabetically within topic. All sites have been reviewed and annotated by NOAA staff.

  18. Dauphin Island Sea Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

  19. Short sea shipping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Mulligan; Gary A. Lombardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the potential environmental benefit of short sea shipping. Critical strategic issues relevant to formulating\\u000a public policy are developed. Coastal shipping has traditionally been a major sector of the maritime industry. This continues\\u000a to be the case in the European Union, but the sector has diminished in relative importance in North America as the transport\\u000a industry has become

  20. Connected-Sea Partons

    E-print Network

    Keh-Fei Liu; Wen-Chen Chang; Hai-Yang Cheng; Jen-Chieh Peng

    2012-11-13

    According to the path-integral formalism of the hadronic tensor, the nucleon sea contains two distinct components called connected sea (CS) and disconnected sea (DS). We discuss how the CS and DS are accessed in the lattice QCD calculation of the moments of the parton distributions. We show that the CS and DS components for $\\bar u(x) + \\bar d(x)$ can be extracted by using recent data on the strangeness parton distribution, the CT10 global fit, and the lattice result of the ratio of the strange to $u(d)$ moments in the disconnected insertion. The extracted CS and DS for $\\bar u(x) + \\bar d(x)$ have distinct Bjorken $x$ dependence in qualitative agreement with expectation. The analysis also shows that the momentum fraction of the $\\bar u(x) + \\bar d(x)$ is about equally divided between CS and DS at $Q^2 = 2.5 {\\rm GeV}^2$. Implications on future global analysis for parton distributions are presented.

  1. Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joycelyn Thomson

    2005-02-15

    The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

  2. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

    1999-09-30

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

  3. Aral Sea Partial Refill with Imported Caspian Sea Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Cathcart; Viorel Badescu

    \\u000a In 1960, the Aral Sea’s volume was slightly more than 1,000 km3 with a salinity of ~10 g\\/L. Its level stood at ~53 m above the world-ocean’s mean sea-level—almost what it was ca. 200 ad—but, by 2007, its level had dropped to ~30 m above the world’s prevailing ocean level (Glantz 2007; Micklin 2007) (Fig. 1.)

  4. Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle accounts for up to 76% of the monthly sea level variance. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges. In addition it illustrates areas where particularities in the seasonal cycle exist. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with significant variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle has a larger range than the range from the annual and semi-annual components, and peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

  5. Water Mass Properties and Distribution between South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil Akhir, Mohd; Arsad, Shukri

    2013-04-01

    A definition of water mass properties, characteristics and its origin along the coast of northern Borneo are presented based on 55 CTD casts cruises in July 2009 combined with five Argo profiling floats at surrounding seas. The T-S relation in the study area, which includes South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea, show existences of eight water masses. In reference of earlier studies, we define water masses in the surface mixed layer with strong mixed of Open Sea Water (OSW), Continental Shelf Water (CSW) and Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Below the layer of this active mixing is a zone of rapid transition called the Seasonal Thermocline Water (STW). Meanwhile, the Maximum Salinity Water (MSW), Permanent Thermocline Water (PTW), North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and Deep Water (DW) were found at the depth range from below the seasonal thermocline to about 1000 m. In addition, study of BRAN (BLUElink ReANalysis) global ocean model was conducted to demonstrate how current circulation influence the exchange of water mass between the 3 seas. Sulu Sea sits in the middle and has very limited connection between the other two seas. Connection with Celebes Sea occurs at the inlet of 200m depth. Water exchange happens in two ways; surface inflow and subsurface outflow. While in South China Sea, inlet is limited to 50m depth and surface flow is mostly dominant. The current circulation of the adjacent sea demonstrate some of the water mass were origiated as far as north South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. Water mass differences between the seas were further classified to distinguish dissimilarities and define the origin the difference. Given the unique geographical background and current circulation of the area, the characteristics of the interaction between water mass distribution and current circulation has provide important overview to the area which previously not well understood.

  6. Russian oil patch now covers three seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bakke

    1975-01-01

    Russia's offshore petroleum exploration has plunged vigorously westward into the Black Sea and Sea of Azov after being confined to the landlocked Caspian Sea for nearly 50 yr. During the past 24 mo., the Soviets obtained their first proof that both the northern shelf of the Black Sea and the western shelf of its Sea of Azov arm contain commercial

  7. Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

    1999-01-01

    Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

  8. Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

  9. Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long Brigham Young for mapping polar sea ice extent. In this study, a new al- gorithm for polar sea ice mapping is developed of Bayes detection to produce sea ice extent maps. Statistical models for sea ice and ocean are represented

  10. Building Sea Grant The Role of the National Sea Grant Office

    E-print Network

    Building Sea Grant The Role of the National Sea Grant Office Prepared by The National Sea Grant Office Review Committee of the National Sea Grant Review Panel June 2002 #12;2 Letter from the National Sea Grant Review Panel May 20,2002 The report of the National Sea Grant Review Panel's committee

  11. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens. It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

  12. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; R. Kwok; M. R. Drinkwater

    1992-01-01

    Polarimetric remote sensing data and physical interpretations are presented in this paper for sea ice in the Beaufort sea under cold winter conditions. The data were collected in March 1988 with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) polarimetric airborne SAR. The full covariance matrices were obtained from the scattering data with proper consideration of the polarimetric calibration. Images were then processed

  13. NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

  14. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

  15. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead at sunset in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  16. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea. ...

  17. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  18. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300...Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...special education and related services, the SEA, notwithstanding §§ 300.162...

  19. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300...Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...special education and related services, the SEA, notwithstanding §§ 300.162...

  20. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300...Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...special education and related services, the SEA, notwithstanding §§ 300.162...

  1. Mitogenome rearrangement in the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) involves a long-term evolving group I intron.

    PubMed

    Emblem, Åse; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Evertsen, Jussi; Johansen, Steinar D

    2011-11-01

    Group I introns are genetic insertion elements that invade host genomes in a wide range of organisms. In metazoans, however, group I introns are extremely rare, so far only identified within mitogenomes of hexacorals and some sponges. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of the cold-water scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa, the dominating deep sea reef-building coral species in the North Atlantic Ocean. The mitogenome (16,150 bp) has the same gene content but organized in a unique gene order compared to that of other known scleractinian corals. A complex group I intron (6460 bp) inserted in the ND5 gene (position 717) was found to host seven essential mitochondrial protein genes and one ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis supports a vertical inheritance pattern of the ND5-717 intron among hexacoral mitogenomes with no examples of intron loss. Structural assessments of the Lophelia intron revealed an unusual organization that lacks the universally conserved ?G at the 3' end, as well as a highly compact RNA core structure with overlapping ribozyme and protein coding capacities. Based on phylogenetic and structural analyses we reconstructed the evolutionary history of ND5-717, from its ancestral protist origin, through intron loss in some early metazoan lineages, and into a compulsory feature with functional implications in hexacorals. PMID:21820066

  2. Simulation and observations of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) growing under thermal stress associated with ocean warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worum, F.P.; Carricart-Ganivet, J. P.; Benson, L.; Golicher, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a model of annual density banding in skeletons of Montastraea coral species growing under thermal stress associated with an ocean-warming scenario. The model predicts that at sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) <29??C, high-density bands (HDBs) are formed during the warmest months of the year. As temperature rises and oscillates around the optimal calcification temperature, an annual doublet in the HDB (dHDB) occurs that consists of two narrow HDBs. The presence of such dHDBs in skeletons of Montastraea species is a clear indication of thermal stress. When all monthly SSTs exceed the optimal calcification temperature, HDBs form during the coldest, not the warmest, months of the year. In addition, a decline in mean-annual calcification rate also occurs during this period of elevated SST. A comparison of our model results with annual density patterns observed in skeletons of M. faveolata and M. franksi, collected from several localities in the Mexican Caribbean, indicates that elevated SSTs are already resulting in the presence of dHDBs as a first sign of thermal stress, which occurs even without coral bleaching. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  3. Sea ice terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  4. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  5. Circulation of the Caribbean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold L. Gordon

    1967-01-01

    The geostrophic method was applied to six north-south hydrographic profiles across the Caribbean Sea and one across the Yucatan Strait. An axis of flow exists in the southern third of the Caribbean Sea. It flows directly over the steep slope in the reference layer found by Defant's method. This condition is similar to that of the Gulf Stream. The baroclinic

  6. GLOBAL SEA RISE: A REDETERMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    It is well established that sea level trends obtained from tide gauge records shorter than about 50-60 years are corrupted by interdecadal sea level variation. However, only a fraction (<25%) of even the long records exhibit globally consistent trends, because of vertical crustal movements. The coherent trends are from tide gauges not at collisional plate boundaries, and not located in

  7. Probability of sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Titus; V. K. Narayanan

    1995-01-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  8. Salton: A Sea of Controversy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristin B. Vessey

    2000-09-01

    The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

  9. ROC Sampling Deep Sea Urchin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Images of the remotely operated vehicle Jason2 sampling a sea urchin in a deep sea mussel community found near a gas seep on the U.S. outer continental shelf. Images courtesy Deepwater Canyons 2013 - Pathways to the Abyss expedition, NOAA-OER/BOEM/USGS....

  10. SEAS LABORATORY SAFETY OFFICER ORIENTATION

    E-print Network

    /EH&S and lab · Communicate with lab members and PI · Get support from EH&S, ESCO and safety committees "The problems, and implement the safety program." SEAS Lab Safety Program Lab Safety Officer #12;· Attend monthly SEAS Safety Committee meetings · Assist in peer inspections and EH&S lab inspections · Inspect

  11. Sea Level Variation around Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Chen; C. T. Kuo

    If sea level is rising around Taiwan coast, it will cause many extremely disasters in nearshore area such as flooding, wave overtopping, beach erosion etc. The purpose of this paper is to discussing the sea water level fluctuation in Taiwan; the results were analyzed from the tidal data those survey from all the tidal sites around Taiwan coast. There show

  12. Gallery: Sound in the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sound in the Sea offers a selection of audio recordings captured beneath the ocean surface. This page contains a selection of audio files of whales, ships, seismic disturbances, and unknown noises. There are also related video and animation products, and several spectrograms and other images of ocean sound. Students can click any image to listen and learn more about sound in the sea.

  13. Radar Polarimetry of Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M.

    2003-04-01

    Dating back to 1988, polarimetric SAR imaging has been demonstrated from a variety of airborne platforms but in only a relatively limited variety of polar sea ice locations. Data were first acquired by NASA-JPL in the context of the SSMI calibration and validation campaign using the C-, L-, and P-band AIRSAR system. These flights were performed in the Beaufort, Chukchi and Bering Seas. Subsequently, data were acquired by the Danish EMISAR airborne system in the Greenland and Baltic Seas. To-date, however, the only spaceborne polarimetric sea-ice data have been acquired from the Space Shuttle, in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica during the SIR-C mission. These limited cases are currently being supplemented by ASAR alternating polarisation acquisitions from Envisat, thus helping to broaden our knowledge on the discriminatory capability of C-band. This presentation will review the historical background to polarimetric remote sensing of sea ice, together with the regional characteristics of the sea-ice data from these different experiments. Examples of lessons learned will be provided from previous attempts to classify sea ice, and illustrated with examples from microwave polarimetric and multi-frequency data from the above cases.

  14. SEA WATER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Duckworth; F. W. Chambers; W. H. Jr. Chapman; R. E. Severance

    1958-01-01

    The dispersal in time and sea of radioactive contamination produced by a ; deep underwater atomic blast was studied instrumentation methods obtained ; radiation intensity vs. depth information for several surface locations, and ; continuously monitored a sea-water intake line aboard ship. Surface ; contamination measuremerts were also made. (auth)

  15. Probability of sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  16. Radar altimetry over sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J.

    1984-01-01

    To study the sea-ice interactive region in the Bering and Greenland Seas a series of experimental compaigns, the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) has been planned. A major objective of MIZEX is the development of a capability to relate the morphology and distribution of the sea ice to atmospheric and oceanographic parameters in an overall model. During the first part of the MIZEX, a 13.7 GHz microwave radar altimeter/scatterometer having a pulse length of 16 nanoseconds was flown over the Bering Sea Marginal ice zone. On the same aircraft were the NASA GSFC 19 GHz Electronically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR), scanning radiometers and an infrared, nadir pointing, temperature sounder. The altimeter/scatterometer was operated in nadir pointing and conically scanning modes to collect measurements of reflectivity and pulse shapes. These will be related to sea-ice classifications, ocean wave spectra and coincident microwave and infrared radiometric measurements and laser profilometer surface roughness estimates.

  17. The mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein in marine invertebrates: biochemical purification and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    Choresh, Omer; Loya, Yossi; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Azem, Abdussalam

    2004-01-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates undergo constant direct exposure to the surrounding environmental conditions, including local and global environmental fluctuations that may lead to fatal protein damage. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitutes an important defense mechanism that protects these organisms from deleterious stress conditions. In a previous study, we reported the immunological detection of a 60-kDa Hsp (Hsp60) in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (formerly called Anemonia sulcata) and studied its expression under a variety of stress conditions. In the present study, we show that the sponge Tetilla sp. from tidal habitats with a highly variable temperature regime is characterized by an increased level of Hsp60. Moreover, we show the expression of Hsp60 in various species among Porifera and Cnidaria, suggesting a general importance of this protein among marine invertebrates. We further cloned the hsp60 gene from A viridis, using a combination of conventional protein isolation methods and screening of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid library by polymerase chain reaction. The cloned sequence (1764 bp) encodes for a protein of 62.8 kDa (588 amino acids). The 62.8-kDa protein, which contains an amino terminal extension that may serve as a mitochondrial targeting signal, shares a significant identity with mitochondrial Hsp60s from several animals but less identity with Hsp60s from either bacteria or plants. PMID:15270076

  18. Spatiotemporal transcriptomics reveals the evolutionary history of the endoderm germ layer.

    PubMed

    Hashimshony, Tamar; Feder, Martin; Levin, Michal; Hall, Brian K; Yanai, Itai

    2015-03-12

    The concept of germ layers has been one of the foremost organizing principles in developmental biology, classification, systematics and evolution for 150 years (refs 1 - 3). Of the three germ layers, the mesoderm is found in bilaterian animals but is absent in species in the phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, which has been taken as evidence that the mesoderm was the final germ layer to evolve. The origin of the ectoderm and endoderm germ layers, however, remains unclear, with models supporting the antecedence of each as well as a simultaneous origin. Here we determine the temporal and spatial components of gene expression spanning embryonic development for all Caenorhabditis elegans genes and use it to determine the evolutionary ages of the germ layers. The gene expression program of the mesoderm is induced after those of the ectoderm and endoderm, thus making it the last germ layer both to evolve and to develop. Strikingly, the C. elegans endoderm and ectoderm expression programs do not co-induce; rather the endoderm activates earlier, and this is also observed in the expression of endoderm orthologues during the embryology of the frog Xenopus tropicalis, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis and the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Querying the phylogenetic ages of specifically expressed genes reveals that the endoderm comprises older genes. Taken together, we propose that the endoderm program dates back to the origin of multicellularity, whereas the ectoderm originated as a secondary germ layer freed from ancestral feeding functions. PMID:25487147

  19. An ancient role for nuclear beta-catenin in the evolution of axial polarity and germ layer segregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikramanayake, Athula H.; Hong, Melanie; Lee, Patricia N.; Pang, Kevin; Byrum, Christine A.; Bince, Joanna M.; Xu, Ronghui; Martindale, Mark Q.

    2003-01-01

    The human oncogene beta-catenin is a bifunctional protein with critical roles in both cell adhesion and transcriptional regulation in the Wnt pathway. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling has been implicated in developmental processes as diverse as elaboration of embryonic polarity, formation of germ layers, neural patterning, spindle orientation and gap junction communication, but the ancestral function of beta-catenin remains unclear. In many animal embryos, activation of beta-catenin signalling occurs in blastomeres that mark the site of gastrulation and endomesoderm formation, raising the possibility that asymmetric activation of beta-catenin signalling specified embryonic polarity and segregated germ layers in the common ancestor of bilaterally symmetrical animals. To test whether nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is involved in axial identity and/or germ layer formation in 'pre-bilaterians', we examined the in vivo distribution, stability and function of beta-catenin protein in embryos of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Here we show that N. vectensis beta-catenin is differentially stabilized along the oral-aboral axis, translocated into nuclei in cells at the site of gastrulation and used to specify entoderm, indicating an evolutionarily ancient role for this protein in early pattern formation.

  20. Timoides agassizii Bigelow, 1904, little-known hydromedusa (Cnidaria), appears briefly in large numbers off Oman, March 2011, with additional notes about species of the genus Timoides.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Jasmine; Kharusi, Lubna Al; Mills, Claudia E; Ghielani, Hamed; Marzouki, Mohammad Al

    2013-01-01

    A bloom of the hydromedusan jellyfish, Timoides agassizii, occurred in February 2011 off the coast of Sohar, Al Batinah, Sultanate of Oman, in the Gulf of Oman. This species was first observed in 1902 in great numbers off Haddummati Atoll in the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean and has rarely been seen since. The species appeared briefly in large numbers off Oman in 2011 and subsequent observation of our 2009 samples of zooplankton from Sohar revealed that it was also present in low numbers (two collected) in one sample in 2009; these are the first records in the Indian Ocean north of the Maldives. Medusae collected off Oman were almost identical to those recorded previously from the Maldive Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Marshall Islands, Guam, the South China Sea, and Okinawa. T. agassizii is a species that likely lives for several months. It was present in our plankton samples together with large numbers of the oceanic siphonophore Physalia physalis only during a single month's samples, suggesting that the temporary bloom off Oman was likely due to the arrival of mature, open ocean medusae into nearshore waters. We see no evidence that T. agassizii has established a new population along Oman, since if so, it would likely have been present in more than one sample period. We are unable to deduce further details of the life cycle of this species from blooms of many mature individuals nearshore, about a century apart. Examination of a single damaged T. agassizii medusa from Guam, calls into question the existence of its congener, T. latistyla, known only from a single specimen. PMID:25113482

  1. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  2. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  3. The Aral Sea: Then and Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to consider what happens when a sea shrinks and to compare pictures of the Aral Sea at different times. They will conclude by pretending to be residents of the Aral Sea region, drawing before and after pictures of how changes to the sea have affected their lives. Students will conduct an experiment to see whether salt evaporates with water; hypothesize what might happen to people, animals, and plants living near a shrinking sea; compare satellite images of the Aral Sea from 1973 and 1999; match problems in the Aral Sea region with statements about these problems in the Aral Sea family activity; discuss changes that are occurring in the Aral Sea region; and create drawings depicting the lives of people in the Aral Sea region before and after the sea began to shrink.

  4. Carybdea marsupialis (Cubozoa) in the Mediterranean Sea: the first case of a sting causing cutaneous and systemic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Bordehore, Cesar; Nogué, Santiago; Gili, Josep-Maria; Acevedo, Melissa J; Fuentes, Verónica L

    2015-01-01

    A woman stung by the box jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis (Cnidaria, Cubozoa) at a Spanish Mediterranean beach showed systemic manifestations over several months [pain far from the inoculation point, arthralgia, paresthesia, hyperesthesia, increase in eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE)] in addition to the skin condition. PMID:25163356

  5. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data assimilation) have a far narrower spread in their prediction, indicating that the results of these more sophisticated methods are converging. Here we summarize and synthesize the 2014 contributions to the SIO, highlight the important questions and challenges that remain to be addressed, and present data on stakeholder uses of the SIO and related SIPN products.

  6. Climate Projections of Sea state for the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Jens; Groll, Nikolaus; Heinrich, Hartmut; Rosenhagen, Gudrun

    2013-04-01

    KLIWAS is a research program of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development to study the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation and to provide options for adaptations. One aspect of the Research task is to analyse climate scenarios for the sea state, eg. Sea wave height (SWH), wave direction and wave periods for the North Sea. In addition, the prospective development of periods with wave heights below a certain threshold (periods of beneficial weather conditions) is discussed. Such periods of low sea state are important for offshore industry. The scenarios together with the wave climate of the recent years will give an approximation of projected changes of the sea state in coastal and open sea areas. Here we show the results for projected changes of sea state in the North Sea for the period 2000-2100 in comparison to 1961-2000, based on the wave model WAM4.5. The wave model is driven with wind data from two different regional atmosphere-ocean-models (DMI-HIRHAM and MPI-REMO) in the scenario A1B. The wind data are delivered in a horizontal resolution of about 20 km and a time resolution of one hour, while the wave model provides data of the calculated sea state with a horizontal grid of 5 km and the time resolution of one hour. It is seen, that in the eastern part of the North Sea and especially in the German Bight there is a trend to a increasing of the 99th percentile of SWH, in particular for the DMI wind data. In accordance with this increasing, there is a rotation of strongwind events from mainly north-west to mainly south-west directions for both regional models (DMI and REMO). As a consequence of this rotation, a decreasing of the 99th percentile of SWH is found in the western part of the North Sea. While there is a clear trend of SWH (positive in the eastern part, negative in the western part of the North Sea), there is not found any significant change of beneficial weather conditions.

  7. Medicines for sea lice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew N

    2002-06-01

    Sea louse (Family Caligidae: genera Caligus and Lepeophtheirus) infection of farmed salmonids represents a significant threat to animal welfare and undermines profitability. Lice may also act as vectors for the transmission of viral and bacterial pathogens. Pest-control programmes parallel those deployed in terrestrial livestock farming and include the use of parasiticides. The authorisation process for fish medicines varies widely between salmon farming countries and undue regulatory constraint may place farmers in one country at a competitive disadvantage. In many jurisdictions, fish are a 'minor' species and mounting demands for environmental assessment increase registration costs. A successful integrated louse-management strategy requires free access to a range of effective, chemically unrelated active ingredients deployed according to current best practice. Over-reliance on a limited number of products will lead, inevitably, to resistance, which is difficult to counter. PMID:12138618

  8. Deep Sea Duel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-02

    This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

  9. Beneath the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains videos from the "Beneath the Sea" television episode, related website articles and student activities, and an interactive ocean game that tests knowledge of what creatures live at what depth. The videos feature technologies that have opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and a remote submarine as it dives to the unexplored middle depths of the ocean off Monterey, California, revealing a spectacular variety of new life forms. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The articles explore how life survives in dark hot ocean vents and how this may shed light on the origin of life on Earth; evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; and what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth.

  10. Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

    1994-01-01

    The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

  11. Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Kaminski, Michael A.

    Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean by the Mediterranean at V12 ka, allowing saline waters to penetrate the Marmara Sea. These saline waters reached Sea connections following the last deglaciation Michael A. Kaminski a;b;Ã , Ali Aksu c , Matthew Box a

  12. Sea Star Succumbing to Sea Star Wasting Disease

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Unlike their smiling cartoon brethren on television, since 2013, real-life sea stars have been suffering from a wasting disease epidemic in which they lose limbs and literally disintegrate in a matter of days. ...

  13. Iridium in sea-water.

    PubMed

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments. PMID:18964014

  14. Sea-salt aerosol forecasting over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishcha, P.; Nickovic, S.; Luvchik, A.; Janjic, Z.; Perez, N.; Viana, M.; Mamane, Y.; Yossef, O.; Alpert, P.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on numerical simulations and forecasting of the sea-salt aerosol (SSA) cycle over the Mediterranean Sea, and on their comparison with ground-based measurements. A sea-salt prediction system was developed on the basis of the DREAM dust aerosol model. The system has been in operational use in Tel-Aviv University since February 2007, producing a daily forecast of 3-D distribution of SSA concentration. To evaluate the sea-salt parameterization, ground-based measurements in the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean were compared with routine 24-hour model-based forecasts of sea-salt fields, in Tel-Aviv, Israel, March 12 - April 9, 2006, and in Barcelona, Spain, February 2006 - April 2007. Quantitative comparisons show that the sea-salt prediction system produces reasonable forecasts. The increment analysis indicates a dependence of sea-salt concentration increments on relative humidity, which is due to the hygroscopicity of sea-salt particles. We have detected an interference of Saharan dust intrusions into the Barcelona region with SSA forecasts: the presence of dust manifested itself as the model's overestimations of SSA concentrations. Model simulations indicate that under summer light breeze conditions in Tel-Aviv with surface wind speeds less than 4 m/s, the majority of SSA is transported up to 30 km inland from the coastline. With respect to vertical distributions SSA could rise to 300 m. During the transit of cyclones across the Mediterranean, when surface wind speeds exceed 10 m/s, SSA could be present above 1000 m altitude and be transported up to 100 km inland from the coast.

  15. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, H. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Chance, R.; Roscoe, H. K.; Hughes, C.; Davison, B.; Schönhardt, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liss, P. S.

    2012-05-01

    Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to elucidate the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf - large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv, respectively) were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  16. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, H. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Chance, R.; Roscoe, H. K.; Hughes, C.; Davison, B.; Schönhardt, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liss, P. S.

    2012-11-01

    Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to make progress in elucidating the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf - large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv respectively) were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  17. Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wadhams; Walter Munk

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of 20th Century sea level rise are typically 1.5 to 2 mm\\/y, with a steric contribution of (0.5 ± 0.2) mm\\/y. Estimates of the eustatic contribution vary widely between ?1.1 and +1.3 mm\\/y. We attempt an independent estimate of eustatic sea level rise based on the measured freshening of the global ocean, and with attention to the contribution from

  18. Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wadhams; Walter Munk

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of 20th Century sea level rise are typically 1.5 to 2 mm\\/y, with a steric contribution of (0.5 +\\/- 0.2) mm\\/y. Estimates of the eustatic contribution vary widely between -1.1 and +1.3 mm\\/y. We attempt an independent estimate of eustatic sea level rise based on the measured freshening of the global ocean, and with attention to the contribution from

  19. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-In Lee; Hyeon-Seo Cho; Sun-Beom Jeong

    2006-01-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996–2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8kg km?2, and low in

  20. Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs: Testing Ecological Hypotheses Using-Central Adriatic and South Catalan Sea) and two time periods (mid-late 1970s and 1990s) in the Mediterranean Sea to species removal; Niche model; Ecopath model; Mediterranean Sea. INTRODUCTION Degradation of marine

  1. Carbon Dynamics in Northern Marginal Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Hjalmarsson

    Abstract The marginal seas have, despite their relatively small area, an important role in the global carbon cycle. They are largely influenced by carbon and nutrient fluxes from land and a large part of the biological production occurs in the marginal seas. The carbon dynamic in two shelf areas – The Baltic Sea System (the Baltic Sea, the Kattegat and

  2. Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea ice

    E-print Network

    Feltham, Daniel

    Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea of Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness made by a modern dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and forced comprehensive data sets of observations made between 1979 and 2001 of sea ice thickness, draft, extent

  3. Understanding the Red Sea response to sea level Mark Siddalla,*, David A. Smeeda

    E-print Network

    Siddall, Mark

    Understanding the Red Sea response to sea level Mark Siddalla,*, David A. Smeeda , Christoph-level estimates from central Red Sea oxygen isotope records based on a previously published model. In this paper for the recorded variability in Red Sea d18 O (PDB) for sea level changes greater than 12 m. Variables

  4. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs

    E-print Network

    Pineda, Jesús

    Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs. 2011. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs in sea surface temperature (SST) were observed, including cold fronts (colder inshore) during winter

  5. Tortuosity of the Antarctic Sea Ice over the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, J.; Heinrichs, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the research was to mathematically characterize the edge of the Antarctic sea ice in the Weddell Sea. Because the sea ice may reflect processes involved in the atmosphere and ocean near the ice edge, it may suggest broader changes on the ice. The chosen method was to compare the tortuosity of the edge over time and across seasons. Because the sea ice may reflect processes involved in the atmosphere and ocean near the ice edge, it may suggest broader changes on the ice. Throughout the research, the shapefiles for the Antarctic sea ice were collected from the National Snow and Ice Data Center website and the coordinates were extracted using an add-in for the MapWindow GIS. These points were then put into Excel separated by year and then the distance factor (an approximation to the tortuosity) was calculated and compared by month over time. Preliminary data has shown that the closer to the winter months, the higher the tortuosity. Statistical analysis has shown that there is no clear relationship between tortuosity and the area of the sea ice, and the tortuosity exhibits a weak negative trend over the past 32 years.

  6. Deep Sea Vents Web List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This student-friendly list has eight web sites that relate to deep sea vents. A short description follows each site, listing the reference materials, interactive tools, videos, sound recordings, photo archives, or other resources that can be found there.

  7. Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2008-01-17

    In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

  8. Polarized sea measurements at JPARC

    E-print Network

    Marco Contalbrigo; Alessandro Drago; Paolo Lenisa

    2006-07-12

    Large double spin-asymmetries can be foreseen for Drell-Yan production in $p p$ scattering at JPARC energies. The sign of the asymmetries can be used to discriminate between different model calculations of sea quark distributions.

  9. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  10. Competition by anemone fishes for host actinians

    E-print Network

    Fautin, Daphne G.

    1985-01-01

    fish of all species normally inhabiting them support the hypothesis that competition is important in governing which species of symbionts occur together. The competitive hierarchy for *Entacmaea quadricolor* is ordered as is numerical abundance of fish...

  11. Mapping Deep-sea Habitats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mel Goodwin

    In this lesson students investigate bathymetric mapping of deep-sea habitats to see how deep-sea areas of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands can be mapped to facilitate their exploration with a manned submersible. Students will create a two-dimensional topographic map from bathymetric survey data, a three-dimensional model of landforms from a two-dimensional topographic map, and will interpret two- and three-dimensional topographic data.

  12. Bioactive molecules from sea hares.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Sakai, R; Jimbo, M

    2006-01-01

    Sea hares, belonging to the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Gastropoda, are mollusks that have attracted many researchers who are interested in the chemical defense mechanisms of these soft and "shell-less" snails. Numbers of small molecules of dietary origin have been isolated from sea hares and some have ecologically relevant activities, such as fish deterrent activity or toxicity. Recently, however, greater attention has been paid to biomedically interesting sea hare isolates such as dolastatins, a series of antitumor peptide/macrolides isolated from Dolabella auricularia. Another series of bioactive peptide/macrolides, as represented by aplyronines, have been isolated from sea hares in Japanese waters. Although earlier studies indicated the potent antitumor activity of aplyronines, their clinical development has never been conducted because of the minute amount of compound available from the natural source. Recent synthetic studies, however, have made it possible to prepare these compounds and analogs for a structure-activity relationship study, and started to uncover their unique action mechanism towards their putative targets, microfilaments. Here, recent findings of small antitumor molecules isolated from Japanese sea hares are reviewed. Sea hares are also known to produce cytotoxic and antimicrobial proteins. In contrast to the small molecules of dietary origin, proteins are the genetic products of sea hares and they are likely to have some primary physiological functions in addition to ecological roles in the sea hare. Based on the biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins, we propose that they belong to one family of molecule, the "Aplysianin A family," although their molecular weights are apparently divided into two groups. Interestingly, the active principles in Aplysia species and Dolabella auricularia were shown to be L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a flavin enzyme that oxidizes an alpha-amino group of the substrate with molecular oxygen and liberates hydrogen peroxide, with a sequence similar to other known LAAOs, including snake venom. Possible antibacterial activity and cytotoxic activity mechanisms of these proteins are also discussed. PMID:17153345

  13. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  14. Sea Turtle Protection and Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This extensive site describes the population status of each U.S. sea turtle species and how they are protected by law. Each species' scientific name, biology, threatened or endangered status, description, human impacts, population trends, distribution, and photos are documented. Read the downloadable Recovery Plans for each species, as well as learn about turtle legislation. Site also features reports and proceedings from various sea turtle symposia and conferences.

  15. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  16. Correlation at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Richard L.; Farr, Keith B.; McColgan, Michele W.; Smith, Ralph G.

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses an optical correlator interfaces to a FLIR and laser rangefinder to aid aircraft landing aboard an aircraft carrier. The purpose was to recognize aircraft and provide precision track in spite of the engine plume which is visible in IR images. Toward the end of the program, an opportunity arose to piggyback on tests of a Navy FLIR system, on board the USS Enterprise. The Navy's developmental FLIR and laser rangefinder were mounted on the carrier and provided excellent imagery with concurrent range data. The correlator performed a limited set of experiments at sea, tracking an aircraft from 8000 feet until almost touchdown. The challenges to the correlator we operation in a harsh environment and real time interfacing with other hardware. Real time range information controlled a series of filters in the correlator. The system fit into a standard panel rack and utilized remote alignment. The system operated during the chock of aircraft launch and landing, with no need to open up the optical box.

  17. From Shore to Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

  18. 9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) 80 9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA)

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) 80 _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) 9.1 Introduction In this chapter an introduction to a framework that SEA is a framework of study rather than a particular technique." Hence, the "statistical philosophy

  19. Air-sea interactions in sea surface temperature frontal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Representation of air-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of air-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface temperatures (SST) on air-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the air-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.

  20. Caribbean Conservation Corporation & Sea Turtle Survival League

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

  1. SeaWinds - Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

    Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

    The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

    Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

    The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

    With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

  2. Sea Ice, an Antarctic Habitat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A 'click-and-learn' sub site hosted by the Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), this is a succinct, educational tour of sea-ice and its associated ecological communities. Short synopses introduce the dynamics of sea-ice formation, the microstructure of sea-ice (including crystal structure, brine channels, and ice algae), the effects of ice melt on resident organisms, the logistics of sea-ice research, and _land fast-ice_ and platelet ice habitats. Introductions also exist for the following organisms: krill; whales (i.e., Orcas, southern bottlenosesd dolphins, minke whales); sea birds (i.e., skuas and snow petrals), penguins (i.e., emperor, adelie, and chinstraps), and seals (i.e., weddell, crabeater, leopard, and ross.) Enlargeable thumbnail images accompany the habitat and inhabitant descriptions. Further investigations (at an accelerated level) are prompted with the inclusion of bibliographic references and scientific research presentations (in PDF format) on fast-ice and platelet ice, as well as links to the main site for the AWI.

  3. Impact of Sea Spray on Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Mueller, James

    2013-11-01

    The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air-sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution: the number of drops formed at the ocean surface and the per-drop contribution to the fluxes. To estimate these per-droplet fluxes, we present results from a large number of drop trajectories, which are simulated with a recently developed Lagrangian Stochastic model adapted for the heavy drop transport and evaporation within the marine boundary layer. Then, using commonly accepted spray generation functions we present estimates of spray fluxes which account for the mediating feedback effects from the droplets on the atmosphere. The results suggest that common simplifications in previous sea spray models, such as the residence time in the marine boundary layer, may not be appropriate. We further show that the spray fluxes may be especially sensitive to the size distribution of the drops. The total effective air-sea fluxes lead to drag and enthalpy coefficients that increase modestly with wind speed. The rate of increase for the drag coefficient is greatest at moderate wind speeds, while the rate of increase for the enthalpy coefficient is greatest at higher wind speeds. The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air-sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution: the number of drops formed at the ocean surface and the per-drop contribution to the fluxes. To estimate these per-droplet fluxes, we present results from a large number of drop trajectories, which are simulated with a recently developed Lagrangian Stochastic model adapted for the heavy drop transport and evaporation within the marine boundary layer. Then, using commonly accepted spray generation functions we present estimates of spray fluxes which account for the mediating feedback effects from the droplets on the atmosphere. The results suggest that common simplifications in previous sea spray models, such as the residence time in the marine boundary layer, may not be appropriate. We further show that the spray fluxes may be especially sensitive to the size distribution of the drops. The total effective air-sea fluxes lead to drag and enthalpy coefficients that increase modestly with wind speed. The rate of increase for the drag coefficient is greatest at moderate wind speeds, while the rate of increase for the enthalpy coefficient is greatest at higher wind speeds. Funded by grants OCE-0850663 and OCE-0748767 from the National Science Foundation.

  4. Eutacticity in sea urchin evolution.

    PubMed

    López-Sauceda, J; Aragón, J L

    2008-02-01

    An eutactic star, in a n-dimensional space, is a set of N vectors which can be viewed as the projection of N orthogonal vectors in a N-dimensional space. By adequately associating a star of vectors to a particular sea urchin, we propose that a measure of the eutacticity of the star constitutes a measure of the regularity of the sea urchin. Then, we study changes of regularity (eutacticity) in a macroevolutive and taxonomic level of sea urchins belonging to the Echinoidea class. An analysis considering changes through geological time suggests a high degree of regularity in the shape of these organisms through their evolution. Rare deviations from regularity measured in Holasteroida order are discussed. PMID:18030536

  5. 2014 Chevron North Sea Limited Chevron University

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    Partnership Program Introduction Undergraduate scholarships in Chemical and Mechanical Engineering are awarded© 2014 Chevron North Sea Limited Chevron University Partnership Program Undergraduate Scholarships for 2014 Chemical & Mechanical Engineering #12;© 2014 Chevron North Sea Limited 2 Chevron University

  6. Heat balance in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, N.; Ueno, H.; Itoh, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Mizobata, K.; Watanabe, E.; Nishino, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variation of heat balance in the Chukchi Sea in summer was investigated through analysis of satellite-derived sea-ice concentrations and reanalysis products during 1999-2010. The solar heat input varied from 4.3 to 8.0 × 1020 J over the Chukchi Sea defined in this study (5.9 × 105 km2). These values were larger than the heat transport from the Bering Strait ranging from 2.9 to 5.1 × 1020 J, suggesting that the Chukchi Sea was the area where the Pacific Water from the Bering Sea was strongly modified, affecting the interannual variation of the heat transport to the interior Arctic basin. Interannual variation in the latent, sensible, longwave radiation fluxes and the heat of fusion of sea ice in the Chukchi Sea are small compared with the heat transport from the Bering Strait as well as the solar heat input in the Chukchi Sea.

  7. SeaWorld Snack Shop - SeaWorld Classroom Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea World - Just for Teachers

    2012-05-06

    In this problem-solving activity, challenges students to take on the role of a Food Services Manager placing orders for a snack shop at Sea World. To solve the problem they will use data and proportional reasoning to make predictions and communicate findings.

  8. SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee.

    E-print Network

    SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee. We appreciate your Officer list · SEAS/EHS Safety Tools ­ How often do I update ... ? · Lab Inspection Schedule, and Peer Review Lab Inspection Form · SEAS Laboratory Safety Orientation Checklist · PPE Assessment Report sample

  9. OREGON SEA GRANT | SUMMER 2014 | VOLUME 3 NO. 1 ChangeHow Oregon Sea Grant

    E-print Network

    OREGON SEA GRANT | SUMMER 2014 | VOLUME 3 NO. 1 Climate ChangeHow Oregon Sea Grant Is Helping;2 CONFLUENCE | Oregon Sea Grant | Summer 2014 CONFLUENCE: The junction of two or more rivers; an act or process the merging, or flowing together, of Oregon Sea Grant's three "rivers": research, education, and engagement

  10. National Sea Grant College What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation?

    E-print Network

    National Sea Grant College Program What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation? NOAA's National Sea Grant College Program enhances the practical use and conservation of coastal, marine, and Great Lakes resources to create a sustainable economy and environment. Sea Grant

  11. Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger G. Barry

    2008-01-01

    Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along

  12. Observations of sea ice physical properties during the sea ice electromagnetics initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Gow; D. K. Perovich

    1996-01-01

    An Office of Naval Research sponsored sea ice electromagnetics research initiative has been directed towards relating the observed variability in sea ice electromagnetic signatures to changes in sea ice physical properties, and then using this information to develop forward and inverse models. In this paper the authors present an overview of laboratory and field observations made of sea ice physical

  13. Development and properties of sea ice in the coastal regime of the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajo Eicken; Manfred A. Lange

    1989-01-01

    From October to December 1986 a program consisting of sea ice core analysis in combination with sea ice observations was carried out from the icebreaker R\\/V Polarstern as part of the Winter Weddel Sea Project. The ship operated in the central and southeastern Weddell Sea with interests focusing on the ice shelf front between 70°S and 77°S where a system

  14. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

  15. European Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Leppäkoski; Tamara Shiganova; Boris Alexandrov

    The brackish-water seas of Europe, i.e. the Black (including the Sea of Azov), Caspian and Baltic Seas, can be regarded as\\u000a “brackish-water islands”, locked in by land masses and isolated from other major brackish-water bodies by physical (ocean\\u000a and land) barriers. During the last two centuries, more than 300 alien species have been recorded in the four seas. Introduced\\u000a species

  16. Annual sea level variability of the coastal ocean: The Baltic Sea-North Sea transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, M.; Cipollini, P.; Benveniste, J.

    2015-04-01

    The annual cycle is a major contribution to the nontidal variability in sea level. Its characteristics can vary substantially even at a regional scale, particularly in an area of high variability such as the coastal ocean. This study uses previously validated coastal altimetry solutions (from ALES data set) and the reference ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative data set to improve the understanding of the annual cycle during the Envisat years (2002-2010) in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition area. This area of study is chosen because of the complex coastal morphology and the availability of in situ measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the improvements brought by coastal satellite altimetry to the description of the annual variability of the sea level have been evaluated and discussed. The findings are interpreted with the help of a local climatology and wind stress from a reanalysis model. The coastal amplitude of the annual cycle estimated from ALES altimetry data is in better agreement with estimations derived from in situ data than the one from the reference data set. Wind stress is found to be the main driver of annual cycle variability throughout the domain, while different steric contributions are responsible for the differences within and among the subbasins. We conclude that the ALES coastal altimetry product is a reliable data set to study the annual cycle of the sea level at a regional scale, and the strategy described in this research can be applied to other areas of the coastal ocean where the coverage from the tide gauges is not sufficient.

  17. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2.22 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical...

  18. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special maritime...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of the...

  19. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special maritime...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of the...

  20. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2.22 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical...

  1. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special maritime...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of the...

  2. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2.22 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical...

  3. SEAS International Programs Mission and Services

    E-print Network

    Robins, Gabriel

    and Applied Science (SEAS) International Programs include: · Cultivating a sense of expectation among studentsSEAS International Programs Mission and Services The aims of U.Va. School of Engineering programs tailored to the needs of SEAS students · Creating and maintaining mutually valued and beneficial

  4. Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

  5. 3, 9991020, 2007 Summer sea ice

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page Abstract on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century H. Goosse, E #12;CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page

  6. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julienne Stroeve; Mark Serreze; Sheldon Drobot; Shari Gearheard; Marika Holland; James Maslanik; Walt Meier; Ted Scambos

    2008-01-01

    Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea

  7. Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham

    E-print Network

    Feltham, Daniel

    Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, Department of Earth-4189/08/0115-0091$20.00 Key Words Arctic, Antarctic, climate model Abstract The polar oceans of Earth are covered by sea ice. On timescales much greater than a day, the motion and deformation of the sea ice cover (i.e., its dynamics

  8. The Optical Properties of Sea Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald K. Perovich

    Abstract Sea ice is a ,translucent material with an intricate structure and complex optical properties. Understanding the reflection, absorption, and transmis- sion of shortwave ,radiation by sea ,ice is important ,to a ,diverse array of scientific problems, including those in ice thermodynamics and polar clima- tology. Radiative transfer in sea ,ice is a ,combination ,of absorption ,and scattering. Differences in

  9. The sea urchin kinome: A first look

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Bradham; Kathy R. Foltz; Wendy S. Beane; Maria I. Arnone; Francesca Rizzo; James A. Coffman; Arcady Mushegian; Manisha Goel; Julia Morales; Anne-Marie Geneviere; François Lapraz; Anthony J. Robertson; Hemant Kelkar; Mariano Loza-Coll; Ian K. Townley; Michael Raisch; Michelle M. Roux; Thierry Lepage; Christian Gache; David R. McClay; Gerard Manning

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary in silico analysis of the sea urchin kinome. The predicted protein kinases in the sea urchin genome were identified, annotated and classified, according to both function and kinase domain taxonomy. The results show that the sea urchin kinome, consisting of 353 protein kinases, is closer to the Drosophila kinome (239) than the human kinome (518)

  10. California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    2014­2017 California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan 1 #12;The National Sea Grant College this publication under NOAA grant number NA10OAR4170060, project number C/P-1, through the CASG College Program. Sea Grant is a unique partnership of public and private sectors, combining research, extension

  11. Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; P. Clemente-Colón; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; Y. Chao; G. Neumann; M. Ortmeyer

    2008-01-01

    We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same

  12. Electromagnetic remote sensing of sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Jordan; M. E. Veysoglu

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic remote sensing of sea ice is viewed to introduce relevant practical problems to the inverse scattering community. A brief introduction to the importance of sea ice and sea ice physics is followed by a summary of direct scattering models where extensive references are given. Typical inverse problems and models that use these direct scattering models are discussed to provide

  13. Divide and Conquer (Fertilization of Sea Urchins)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Mary Elizabeth Kelley (Bethel High School)

    1998-07-01

    This activity engages students in direct observation and inquiry-based experiments using sea urchins. First, they observe normal fertilization and division/cleavage in the sea urchin zygote. Next, they develop hypotheses and design and carry out experiments to test factors that can affect the fertilization of sea urchin eggs.

  14. 6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First-year sea-ice contact predicts bromine monoxide (BrO) levels better. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

  15. Space as mediator between SEA and Ports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Vanoutrive

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is increasingly seen as a critical issue in the port sector. The SEA and other European environmental directives are mainly perceived as a burden for port development and port professionals often have little knowledge about the reasons why an SEA is necessary. According to a European directive (2001\\/42\\/EC) a Strategic Environmental Assessment has to be made

  16. SEA Staff Survey-1974: General Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitsch, Don; Hooker, Sherrill

    The instructional staff at the Southeast Alternatives (SEA) program operated by the Minneapolis Public Schools were surveyed to determine their reaction to the SEA program. The two major objectives of the survey were to obtain staff opinion on issues concerning the program as well as progress toward achieving SEA major goals. The major findings of…

  17. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    PubMed

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas. PMID:19425351

  18. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

  19. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

  20. Great Lakes Region Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

  1. Great Lakes Region Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

  2. Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients: 8 ounces pasta shells 12 ounces tuna in water, canned 1 onion 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one

  3. Organic Resources of the Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Grant

    1982-01-01

    Despite the vast number of phyla and species in the sea, the major marine resource will continue to be fish for human consumption. At the same time, research on methods of preparing an animal protein concentrate, of high nutritional value and acceptable as human food, has pointed the way for the eventual development of a new technology. Other bulk products

  4. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  5. Global Sea SurfaceTemperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

  6. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  7. Sea Buckthorn: New Crop Opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. C. Li

    1999-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) is a winter hardy, deciduous shrub with yel-low or orange berries (Bailey and Bailey 1978). It develops an extensive root system rapidly and is therefore an ideal plant for preventing soil erosion and land reclamation. It can withstand temperatures from-43? to 40?C (Lu 1992). It is considered to be drought resistant (Heinze and Fiedler

  8. Gelidium cultivation in the sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Melo; B. W. W. Harger; M. Neushul

    1991-01-01

    Gelidium fronds were grown in the sea under a variety of experimental conditions: on rigid, damped and tensioned test farms of various designs, in calmer and more turbulent habitats, at various depths, with and without commercial fertilizer supply. Initially, the effectiveness of a given cultivation strategy was based on the survival and growth of the fronds, here termed ‘bio-assay’ mariculture.

  9. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  10. Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, B)

    2007-07-14

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  11. Past and present Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

  12. Alaska SeaLife Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

  13. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  14. University of Hawai`i Sea Grant ranked among the best Sea Grant programs in the nation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    University of Hawai`i Sea Grant ranked among the best Sea Grant programs in the nation According to an independent review panel of experts, the University of Hawai`i Sea Grant College Program (UH Sea Grant) ranks among the top Sea Grant programs in the nation. A total of 33 university-based Sea Grant programs

  15. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic ?ows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere ?owing over, and ocean ?owing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice ?ows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We ?nd that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  16. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  17. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    PubMed

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

  18. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  19. On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of maritime Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Royce; Page, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The United States Coast Guard Academy Physics Section is proud to present our initial conceptions of ``On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of Maritime Governance,'' a program funded by an APS Outreach Grant in 2013. In our classes, the Physics Section has focused on active student engagement for the past ten years. Recently, we have refined our program to make heavy use of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) and our own highly interactive adaptation which we call Interactive Lecture Labs (ILLs). ``On the Sea'' is a unique opportunity to investigate their use in a different learning modality from our standard college level military academic use. Multigenerational science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects are a prolific source of academic discourse, while learning through play has been touted as an effective learning tool. We plan to investigate group and individual participation, intragroup communication, demographics, and prior skill (or education) in comparison to outcomes in learning objectives through projects designed to educate the Coast Guard Academy and surrounding community on the physics of the Coast Guard's missions. Progress on the lab and demonstration designs, community participation, and our emerging ILL and ILD pedagogical methods, will be reported.

  20. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: anomalies from the mean

    E-print Network

    Eisenman, Ian

    Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A fine-resolution (1/10°) ocean/sea ice model to determine the basin-scale and local balances controlling the variability of sea ice anomalies from the mean