These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Field development projects advance in Norwegian Sea  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Norwegian Sea, lying between the Norwegian North Sea and the western flank of the Barents Sea, which is set to become Norway's second oil and gas producing province. Oil is scheduled to start to flow near the end of next year when AS Norske Shell places on production 428 million bbl Draugen field in Block 6407/9, about 60 miles off the coast of mid-Norway in the frontier sea area known as Haltenbanken. Two years later, in 1995, Norske Conoco AS will add to the 95,000 b/d from Draugen when it commissions the world's first concrete hull tension leg platform (TLP) in Heidrun field. The TLP is expected to produce 200,000 b/d of oil and move associated gas by pipeline to the Norwegian mainland to feed a worldscale methanol plant planned for construction at Tjeldbergodden. The Norwegian government also has been asked to approve a gas pipeline link between Haltenbanken and the gas export infrastructure in the North Sea.

Vielvoye, R.

1992-03-30

2

Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study  

SciTech Connect

During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K. [BJ Services (Norway); Sorgaard, E. [Norsk Hydro, Bergen (Norway)

1999-04-01

3

Norwegian petroleum resources with focus on challenges and opportunities in the Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Norwegian Continental Shelf can be subdivided into 3 different petroleum provinces: (1) the North Sea, (2) the Norwegian Sea including the Jan Mayen ridge, and (3) the Barents Sea including the islands of Svalbard. The majority of the fields and discoveries and most of the resources are located in the mature North Sea Basin. Significant resources are however also discovered in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. 39 fields are in production or decided to be developed while 3 fields are closed down. Approximately 70% of the discovered resources are located in these fields, of which some are gigantic in size (Statfjord, Ekofisk, Gullfaks, Oseberg, Troll and Snorre). Most of the remaining discoveries (134) are smaller in size and approximately 2/3 of the resources are gas. According to a recent study carried out by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate the expected undiscovered Norwegian Petroleum Resources are assessed to be on the order of 3,5 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. with a level of uncertainty ranging from 2 to 6 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. 40% of the undiscovered petroleum resources are expected to be found as oil. These are the perspectives of the Norwegian Petroleum Resources. The resources of the Barents Sea is included in this perspective. The significance of the Barents Sea resources is not particularly important in the short-medium term perspective, but will be important in the longer perspective.

Aamodt, F.R. [Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger (Norway). Exploration Branch

1995-12-31

4

Structural evolution and petroleum potential of the Norwegian Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The tectonic history of the Norwegian Barents Sea has provided potential hydrocarbon traps in clastic reservoirs associated with rotated fault blocks, compressional anticlines and salt domes. Significant stratigraphic potential also resides in Paleozoic carbonates. Drilling in the Hammerfest Basin has yielded large gas discoveries in rotated fault blocks, but other trapping concepts remain relatively untested. The undrilled arm north of 74{degrees} 30 minutes N, currently being mapped by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate using exclusive seismic and geological data from shallow boreholes, represents a significant area for future exploration. Prospectivity is critically dependent on the scaling of traps following Neogene uplift of large areas of the Barents platform. The area is dominated by structural trends inherited from the Caledonian and older orogens. Carboniferous rifting established a system of half grabens and intervening highs, followed by late Permian faulting in the west which initiated regional subsidence continuing into the early Jurassic. Fault reactivation in early Triassic times triggered salt diapirism and provided structural control for the formation of Triassic shelf margins. During the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous western basins underwent tectonic subsidence, while the northeastern platform arm was subject to gentle compression. In the late Cretaceous salt was reactivated in the Nordkapp Basin and compressional structures developed west of the Loppa High. Further subsidence of the western basins was promoted by late Mesozoic and early Tertiary transtensional movements along the North Atlantic rift system. Subsequent regional compression in these basins, and basin inversion east of the Loppa High, are of post-Eocene age.

Nilsen, K.T. [Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Harstad (Norway)

1995-08-01

5

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

6

A high-resolution hindcast of wind and waves for The North Sea, The Norwegian Sea and The Barents Sea  

E-print Network

A combined high-resolution atmospheric downscaling and wave hindcast based on the ERA-40 reanalysis covering the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the Barents Sea is presented. The period covered is from September 1957 to August 2002. The dynamic atmospheric downscaling is performed as a series of short prognostic runs initialized from a blend of ERA-40 and the previous prognostic run to preserve the fine-scale surface features from the high-resolution model while maintaining the large-scale synoptic field from ERA-40. The nested WAM wave model hindcast consists of a coarse 50 km model covering the North Atlantic forced with ERA-40 winds and a nested 10-11 km resolution model forced with downscaled winds. A comparison against in situ and satellite observations of wind and sea state reveals significant improvement in mean values and upper percentiles of wind vectors and the significant wave height over ERA-40. Improvement is also found in the mean wave period. ERA-40 is biased low in wind speed and significant ...

Reistad, Magnar; Haakenstad, Hilde; Aarnes, Ole Johan; Furevik, Birgitte R; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; 10.1029/2010JC006402

2011-01-01

7

THE NORWEGIAN–GREENLAND SEA CONTINENTAL MARGINS: MORPHOLOGY AND LATE QUATERNARY SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental margins surrounding the Norwegian–Greenland Sea are to a large degree shaped by processes during the late Quaternary. The paper gives an overview of the morphology and the processes responsible for the formation of three main groups of morphological features: slides, trough mouth fans and channels.Several large late Quaternary slides have been identified on the eastern Norwegian–Greenland Sea continental

TORE O. VORREN; JAN SVERRE LABERG; FRANK BLAUME; JULIAN A. DOWDESWELL; NEIL H. KENYON; JÜRGEN MIENERT; JAN RUMOHR; FRIEDRICH WERNER

1998-01-01

8

Late Pleistocene–Holocene radiolarian paleotemperatures in the Norwegian Sea based on artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were trained by using an extensive radiolarian census dataset from the Nordic (Greenland, Norwegian, and Iceland) Seas. The regressions between observed and predicted Summer Sea Temperature (SST) indicate that lower error margins and better correlation coefficients are obtained for 100 m (SST100) compared to 10 m (SST10) water depth, and by using a subset of species

Giuseppe Cortese; Jane K. Dolven; Kjell R. Bjørklund; Björn A. Malmgren

2005-01-01

9

Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

2009-10-01

10

Sea Surface Temperature Seesaw between the Subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea during the Late Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a 2800-year-long marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM from the Iceland Basin, in the northern subpolar North Atlantic. The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the highest-resolution diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North Atlantic for this period, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North Atlantic and cooling in the Norwegian Sea during the late Holocene. An apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites is also revealed for the shorter time scales implying an aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) periods in the subpolar North Atlantic corresponding to the colder (warmer) periods in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years, the records display a phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by ca. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North Atlantic. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect on two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North Atlantic, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA. Coupled changes in aSST between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea indicate common driving forces behind the observed variability. The emerging spatial pattern of changes resembles the one predicted by modelling studies and is associated with rapid changes in the regimes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The observed aSST seesaw between the subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea could be a surface expression of the variability of the eastern and western branches of the AMOC with a possible amplification through atmospheric feedback.; Location of the core sites Rapid 21-COM and CR 948/2011, and the relative aSST patterns during the LIA and the MWP. Red arrows indicate surface currents with higher heat flux, orange (blue) shading indicates warm (cool) surface waters.

Miettinen, A.; Divine, D.; Koc, N.; Godtliebsen, F.; Hall, I. R.

2012-12-01

11

Magnetostratigraphic calibration of Eocene–Oligocene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy from the Norwegian–Greenland Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of abundant age-diagnostic dinoflagellate cysts in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 913B (Leg 151), Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 338 (Leg 38) and ODP Hole 643A (Leg 104) has enabled the development of a new biostratigraphy for the Eocene–Oligocene interval in the Norwegian–Greenland Sea. This development is important because the calcareous microfossils usually used for biostratigraphy in this

James S. Eldrett; Ian C. Harding; John V. Firth; Andrew P. Roberts

2004-01-01

12

Eemian cooling in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic ocean preceding continental ice-sheet growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHANGING conditions in the North Atlantic region may drive global climate changes1,2. According to previous reconstructions of the last interglacial (the Eemian), North Atlantic sea surface tempera-tures (SSTs) were similar to present-day values3. In the Norwegian Sea, even warmer conditions appeared as a single pulse of short duration4,5, whereas the Greenland ice record suggests that the warm interglacial air temperatures

E. Cortijo; J. C. Duplessy; L. Labeyrie; H. Leclaire; J. Duprat; T. C. E. van Wearing

1994-01-01

13

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance. It is shown that the paleogeographic

G. S. Kharin; N. P. Lukashina

2010-01-01

14

Annual and interannual variability of Atlantic Water temperatures in the Norwegian and Barents Seas: 1980–1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the oceanographic climate of the Arctic Ocean during the 1990s have been linked to anomalous heat and volume transports of Atlantic Water (AW) from the Nordic Seas. This paper focuses on the variability in the AW temperature in the Norwegian Sea and in the Barents Sea Opening (BSO), using 16 years of data from five regular hydrographic sections

Tore Furevik

2001-01-01

15

Distribution patterns of dinoflagellate cysts and other organic-walled microfossils in recent Norwegian-Greenland Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinoflagellate cysts and other organic-walled microfossils have been studied in recent surface sediments from the entire Norwegian-Greenland Sea. More than 30 taxa have been recognized, of which only few show a distinct distribution pattern, and allow description of four assemblages. The occurrence of most taxa is related to the relatively warmer waters of the Norwegian Sea. Algidaspaeridium? minutum s.1., Brigantedinium

Jens Matthiessen

1995-01-01

16

Ventilation of the deep Greenland and Norwegian seas: evidence from krypton-85, tritium, carbon-14 and argon-39  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On leg 5 of the TTO expedition, the distributions of 85Kr, tritium, 14C, 39Ar, temperature, salinity, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients were measured in the Greenland and Norwegian seas. These observations support previous observations that Greenland Sea Deep Water is formed by a deep convective process within the Greenland gyre. They also support AAGAARDet al.'s (1985, Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 4833-4846) new hypothesis that Norwegian Sea Deep Water forms from a mixture of Greenland Sea Deep Water and Eurasian Basin Deep Water. Volume transports estimated from the distributions of 85Kr, tritium, 14C and 39Ar range from 0.53 to 0.74 Sv for exchange between the surface and deep Greenland Sea and from 0.9 to 1.47 Sv for exchange between the deep Greenland and deep Norwegian seas. The residence time of water in the deep Greenland Sea with respect to exchange with surface water ranges from 24 to 34 years compared to 26-31 years reported by PETERSON and ROOTH (1976, Deep-Sea Research, 23, 273-283) and 35-42 years reported by BULLISTER and WEISSS (1983, Science, 221, 265-268). The residence time of water in the deep Norwegian Sea with respect to exchange with the deep Greenland Sea ranges from 19 to 30 years compared to 97-107 years reported by PETERSON and ROOTH (1976) and 10-28 years reported by BULLISTER and WEISS (1983). The oxygen consumption rate was estimated to be at most 1.04 ?M kg -1 y -1 for the deep Greenland Sea and to be between 0.47 and 0.79 ?M kg -1 y -1 for the deep Norwegian Sea.

Smethie, W. M.; Ostlund, H. G.; Loosli, H. H.

1986-05-01

17

The nepheloid layer and horizontal sedimentary matter fluxes in the Norwegian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the results of long-term studies of the nepheloid layer in the Norwegian Sea in the Komsomolets test area are considered. Its principal characteristics such as its thickness, the particulate matter concentration in the\\u000a nepheloid layer, and its standing crop are presented. The nepheloid layer is formed by the near-bottom current, which, together\\u000a with the particulate standing crop,

V. N. Lukashin; A. D. Shcherbinin

2007-01-01

18

Geochemistry of suspended matter and sinking material in the eastern Norwegian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a geochemical study of suspended particulate matter and particle fluxes in the Norwegian\\u000a Sea above the Bear Island slope. The concentrations of suspended particles and the main components of suspended matter were\\u000a determined in the euphotic, intermediate (“clean water”), and bottom nepheloid layers. It was shown that biogenic components\\u000a are predominant in the water

V. N. Lukashin

2008-01-01

19

The Continental Margins of the Norwegian--Greenland Sea: Recent Results and Outstanding Problems: Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a framework of plate tectonics the passive continental margins of the Norwegian--Greenland Sea may be classified as composed of rifted and sheared segments. An exception is the margin north of the Greenland-Senja Fracture Zone which appears to be of a combined sheared-rifted type. The margins south of the Greenland-Senja Fracture Zone are in part underlain by basement highs on

G. Wissmann; O. Eldholm

1980-01-01

20

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern\\u000a European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections\\u000a with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance.\\u000a It is shown that the paleogeographic

G. S. Kharin; N. P. Lukashina

2010-01-01

21

Late Holocene sea surface temperature seesaw between the subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea inferred from two marine sediment cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2800-yr-long August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM recovered in the Iceland Basin (northern subpolar North Atlantic). The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the best resolved diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North Atlantic for this period, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution (4-20 years) aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The two aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North Atlantic and cooling in the Norwegian Sea throughout the late Holocene. The wavelet analysis reveals an apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites for the shorter time scales too, implying a possible aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) periods in the subpolar North Atlantic corresponding to the colder (warmer) periods in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years the records display a nearly phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by ca. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North Atlantic. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect, or be associated, with the two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North Atlantic, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA. Coupled changes in aSST between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea may indicate common driving forces behind the observed variability. The emerging spatial pattern of aSST resembles the one predicted by some modelling studies and is associated with changes in the regimes of the North Atlantic overturning circulation (AMOC). The observed aSST seesaw between the subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea could be a surface expression of the variability of the eastern and western branches of the AMOC with a possible amplification through atmospheric feedback.

Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Koç, Nalan; Godtliebsen, Fred; Hall, Ian R.

2013-04-01

22

Saline outflow from the Arctic Ocean: Its contribution to the deep waters of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Iceland Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1985 various investigators have proposed that Norwegian Sea deep water (NSDW) is formed by mixing of warm and saline deep water from the Arctic Ocean with the much colder and fresher deep water formed by convection in the Greenland Sea (GSDW). We here report on new observations which suggest significant modification and expansion of this conceptual model. We find

K. Aagaard; E. Fahrbach; J. Meincke; J. H. Swift

1991-01-01

23

The nepheloid layer and horizontal sedimentary matter fluxes in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the results of long-term studies of the nepheloid layer in the Norwegian Sea in the Komsomolets test area are considered. Its principal characteristics such as its thickness, the particulate matter concentration in the nepheloid layer, and its standing crop are presented. The nepheloid layer is formed by the near-bottom current, which, together with the particulate standing crop, determines the horizontal flux of the sedimentary matter over the continental slope. Also presented are data about the currents in different years of observations as well as estimates of the horizontal fluxes.

Lukashin, V. N.; Shcherbinin, A. D.

2007-12-01

24

Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Åystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Héîinn

2014-09-01

25

Mid-1980s distribution of tritium, 3He, 14C and 39Ar in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Nansen basin of the Arctic ocean  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of tritium/3He, 14C and 39Ar observed in the period between 1985 and 1987 in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are presented. The data are used to outline aspects of the large-scale circulation and the exchange of deep water between the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin. Additionally, semi-quantitative estimates of mean ages of the main water masses found in these regions are obtained. Apparent tritium/3He ages of the upper waters (depth <500m) vary from close to zero in the Norwegian Current to about 15 years at the lower boundary of the Arctic halocline. The deep waters (>1,500m depth) of the Greenland/ Norwegian Seas show apparent tritium/3He ages between about 17 years in the Greenland Sea and 30 years in the Norwegian Sea.

Schlosser, P.; Bonisch, G.; Kromer, B.; Loosli, H.H.; Buehler, R.

1995-12-31

26

CO2 Storage Atlas Norwegian Sea - a case study from the Froan Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2 storage atlas of the Norwegian Sea has been prepared by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate at the request of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. The main objectives have been to identify the safe and effective areas for long-term storage of CO2 and to avoid possible negative interference with ongoing and future petroleum activity. We have built on the knowledge we have from the petroleum industry and from the two ongoing CO2 storage projects, Sleipner and Snøhvit, on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Five aquifers and six prospects have been evaluated in terms of storage capacity and safe storage of CO2. One identified storage potential is the Froan Basin Garn and Ile Formations. The Froan Basin is a NE striking Jurassic syncline on the southwestern part of the Trøndelag Platform. The aquifers in the southeastern part of the Norwegian Sea typically have a consistent dip of 1-2 degrees from the Norwegian coast to the basinal areas. In the case of permeable beds occurring along the dip slope there is a risk that CO2 injected down dip can migrate up to where the aquifer is truncated by the Quaternary glacial sediments. A simulation study was performed in order to identify possible trapping mechanisms and to understand the timing and extent of long distance CO2 migration. The storage mechanisms considered were both structural and stratigraphic trapping. A simulation sector model of the Garn/Not/Ile Formations was build covering about 10% of the total expected communicating aquifer volume. The CO2 injection well was located down dip, but alternative locations and injection zones have been simulated, with different injection rates. The injection period is 50 years, and the migration of the CO2 plume was simulated and monitored for 10.000 years. CO2 will continue to migrate upwards as long as it is in free, movable state. Migration stops when CO2 is permanently bounded or trapped, by going into solution with the formation water or by being residually trapped, or becoming structurally trapped (mineralogical trapping not considered). Based on simulation results about 400 mill tons CO2 can be stored in the Garn and Ile aquifer (8 mill tons/year over 50 years). This will require 4 injection and give acceptable pressure increase (<20bar). Within 10000 years most of the gas will have gone into solution with the formation water or being residually trapped.

Sande Rød, Rita; Pham, Van T. H.

2014-05-01

27

On the origin and flow behavior of submarine slides on deep-sea fans along the Norwegian–Barents Sea continental margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debris lobes with characteristic lengths, widths, and thickness of 30–200?km, 2–10?km, and 10–50?m, respectively, represent\\u000a the main building blocks of deep-sea fans along the Norwegian–Barents Sea continental margin. Their formation is closely related\\u000a to the input of clay-rich sediments to the upper continental slope by glaciers during periods of maximum ice advance. It is\\u000a likely that slide release was a

A. Elverhøi; H. Norem; E. S. Andersen; J. A. Dowdeswell; I. Fossen; H. Haflidason; N. H. Kenyon; J. S. Laberg; E. L. King; H. P. Sejrup; A. Solheim; T. Vorren

1997-01-01

28

Evaluation of Nimbus 7 SMMR sensor with airborne radiometers and surface observations in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements made by the Nimbus 7 SMMR are compared with near simultaneous observations using the airborne SMMR simulator and with surface observations. The area of the test is in the Norwegian Sea between Bear Island and Northern Norway. It is noted that during the observation period two low-pressure systems were located in the test area, giving a spatial wind variation from 3-20 m/s. It is shown that the use of the currently available brightness temperatures and algorithms for SMMR does not give universally satisfactory results for SST and wind speed under extreme weather conditions. In addition, the SMMR simulator results are seen as indicating the need for more work on calibration.

Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D.; Crawford, J.; Campbell, W. J.; Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.

1981-01-01

29

CloudSat First Image of a Warm Front Storm Over the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

CloudSat's first image, of a warm front storm over the Norwegian Sea, was obtained on May 20, 2006. In this horizontal cross-section of clouds, warm air is seen rising over colder air as the satellite travels from right to left. The red colors are indicative of highly reflective particles such as water droplets (or rain) or larger ice crystals (or snow), while the blue indicates thinner clouds (such as cirrus). The flat green/blue lines across the bottom represent the ground signal. The vertical scale on the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar image is approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles). The blue line below the Cloud Profiling Radar image indicates that the data were taken over water. The inset image shows the CloudSat track relative to a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared image taken at nearly the same time.

2006-01-01

30

High diversity of microplankton surrounds deep-water coral reef in the Norwegian Sea.  

PubMed

Coral reefs that exist in the depths of the oceans are surrounded by Eukarya, Archaea and bacterial communities that may play an important role in the nutrition and health of the reef. The first interdomain community structure of planktonic organisms in seawater from a deep-water coral reef is described. Community profiling and analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences from a coral reef system at 350 m depth in the Norwegian Sea revealed a rich diversity of Eukarya and Bacteria and a moderate diversity of Archaea. Most sequences affiliated with marine microplankton from deep-sea to cold-surface regions, with many sequences being similar to those described in studies of mesopelagic and oxygen minimum zones. Dominant phylotypes belonged to the Alveolata (group I, II, dinoflagellates), Stramenopiles (silicoflagellates), Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter ubique), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteria) and mesophilic Crenarchaeota (Nitrosopumilus maritimus). Several rare and novel members of the community fell into distinct phylogenetic groups. The inferred function of dominant community members suggested autotrophs that utilise light, ammonium or sulphide, and lifestyles based on host associations. The high diversity reflected a microplankton community structure, which is significantly different from that of microplankton collected at the same depth at a pelagic station away from reefs. PMID:22571287

Jensen, Sigmund; Bourne, David G; Hovland, Martin; Murrell, J Colin

2012-10-01

31

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance. It is shown that the paleogeographic conditions of the studied sedimentation basins depend to a great extent on the tectonic movements of lithospheric plates. Iceland Plume volcanism exerted a considerable influence on the paleoenvironment and sedimentogenesis. The paleotectonic and climatic conditions of sedimentation are reconstructed. The occurrence of bauxite-bearing continental residual soil and other data point to a tropical, humid climate in the Early Paleogene, which changed into a moderate humid climate by the end of the Late Paleogene. Terrigenous sediments, including oil-and-gas bearing ones, were formed in the sea basins; they contain products of eroded residual soil, placers of accessory minerals, pyroclastics of volcanoes of the Iceland Plume, and zeolite-bearing, amber-bearing, phosphorite-bearing, and glauconitic horizons that have practical interest.

Kharin, G. S.; Lukashina, N. P.

2010-04-01

32

Water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea during the past 28,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) seas are important regulators of heat transport in the Northern Hemisphere and of ocean-atmosphere CO2exchange1-5. Rapid changes in the circulation of surface and deep waters in this region may induce nonlinear climatic effects and climate instabilities2,3. Here we present carbon and oxygen isotope data that provide a record of circulation changes in the GIN

Terje Veum; Eystein Jansen; Maurice Arnold; Ida Beyer; Jean-Claude Duplessy

1992-01-01

33

Gas migration and carbon capture in one of the World's largest pockmark fields, the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic imaging has revealed more than 7000 pockmarks above the Troll East gas field in the Norwegian Sea. The pockmarks range in size from 10 to 100 meters in diameter and are typically 6 meters deep. High-resolution bathymetric data shows that there is no evidence of structural control on the location of the pockmarks. This conclusion is in agreement with statistical analysis of the pockmark distribution which shows neighbor avoidance up to a scale of hundreds of meters and no indication of a fractal geometry. The pockmarks generally represent isolated structures and sometimes are identified in clusters with a central parent pockmark surrounded by smaller sized satellite pockmarks. Seafloor observations show that carbonate deposits are common within the pockmarks, providing shelter to the local fauna. Carbonate blocks collected from the pockmarks showed evidence for three distinct generations including micritic Mg-calcite/aragonite, micritic aragonite, and botryoidal aragonite. The carbon isotopic values of these phases are 13C depleted and 18O enriched, indicating a methanogenic origin and possibly a component sourced from dissociation of gas hydrates. Water geochemistry from shallow cores within and outside the pockmarks gave no indication of active seepage. This conclusion is further supported by no direct observations of fluid flow within the pockmarks, no bacterial mats nor obvious chemosymbiotic communities. In addition, oxidized carbonate surfaces indicate a gradual excavation and exposure at the sea floor. We conclude that one of the world's largest pockmark fields is currently inactive and that its formation is likely related to deglaciation processes about 11 ky ago.

Mazzini, A.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Hammer, O.; Linge, H. C.; Forsberg, C. F.; Tjelta, T.

2013-12-01

34

Water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Jan Mayen Ridge using in-situ current measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen Ridge, with bottom depths of 1000 m and less, runs southwards from Jan Mayen and separates the warmer and saltier Atlantic Water in the Norwegian Sea from the colder and fresher Arctic water in the Iceland Sea. During the International Polar Year (IPY, 2007-2008), three current meter moorings were deployed with the purpose to investigate water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Ridge and their forcing mechanisms. These are the first in-situ current measurements for this region. The results showed relatively weak currents on the Ridge that frequently shifted direction except near-bottom and at the western slope of the Ridge. All current measurements showed low eddy activity and tidal velocities (less than 0.05 ms- 1). Wind-forced near-inertial motion generated from transient atmospheric low pressure systems were observed in the mixed layer being strongest during autumn and winter when ocean velocities reached 0.7 ms- 1. Near surface currents on the Ridge are influenced by local winds on a time scale of 6 days and longer, but during the two-year deployment no pronounced seasonal variation was observed, mainly due to a lack of seasonality in the local winds. In a 2000 m deep channel that cuts the Ridge, there was pronounced seasonal variation in the currents at all depths below 40 m with stronger flow toward the Iceland Sea during winter compared to summer. The variability of the deep current was found to be influenced by the large-scale wind stress curl. There was a weak net flow with averaged velocities of ~ 0.01 ms- 1 over the Ridge that was directed westward in the upper layer, signifying a small net transport of modified Atlantic Water into the Iceland Sea.

Mork, Kjell Arne; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Jónsson, Steingrímur; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Ostrowski, Marek

2014-11-01

35

[Hydrolytic enzyme activities in the bottom sediment cores from Norwegian Sea and statistical analysis of their distribution].  

PubMed

Proteinase and amylase enzyme activities were evaluated in bottom sediment cores from the Norwegian Sea collected along a transect from the summit plane of the Voring Plateau on the east to fault uplifts of the Yan-Mayen transform zone perpendicular to the present-day Norwegian Current. Spotted vertical distribution of hydrolytic enzyme activities by the location and depth of the cores and specific distribution of proteinase and amylase activities have been revealed in four bottom sediment cores (up to 300 cm; 5 cm resolution). Specific activity distribution has been revealed for different types of enzyme-sorbing bottom sediments. Current methods of statistical analysis and mathematical modeling were applied to reveal the relationship between enzymatic degradation of protein and polysaccharide organic compounds and the content of carbonates and organic matter in bottom sediments. PMID:15049076

Korneeva, G A; Gordeeva, E L

2004-01-01

36

On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

2013-07-01

37

Sedimentary matter fluxes in the contour current sedimentation system over the continental slope of the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentation system of the bottom contour current over the continental slope of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea is considered. The nepheloid layer that provides the high horizontal flux of sedimentary material represents the main source of matter for the bottom sediments. The vertical particulate matter flux is largely formed in the nepheloid layer; the flux from higher layers of the water column is insignificant. Horizontal and vertical fluxes of sedimentary matter show a positive correlation. The flux of the matter from the bottom sediment into the nepheloid matter and the residence time of particles in the latter are estimated.

Lukashin, V. N.

2008-10-01

38

From conjugate volcanic rifted margins to micro-continent formation: Double breakup development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-evaluate the structure and spreading evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and surrounding volcanic (rifted) margins based on new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. The new dataset combined with long-offset seismic and gravity data allow us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the conjugate margin systems in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the rifting to the drifting stage. We particularly focus on the new JAS-12 aeromagnetic survey acquired between the Aegir Ridge and the Jan Mayen micro-continent, which was initially part of the Møre-Vøring-Greenland rift system. Combined with the previous NB-07 and JAS-05 surveys, our final compilation fully covers the continent-ocean transition and the whole oceanic spreading system from the Møre margin to the conjugate Jan Mayen micro-continent with high quality, high-resolution and reliable magnetic data. The new dataset allowed a new, consistent and precise interpretation of the magnetic polarity chrons and oceanic fractures, providing the basis for more accurate rotation poles estimation, and better basin and crustal reconstructions between Norway, Greenland and the Jan Mayen micro-continent. This dataset allowed us to clarify the pre- and post-breakup configurations of the rift system and discuss the mechanisms involved during the onset of the two phases of breakup leading to the micro-continent formation. Our observations and models suggest that the pre-breakup rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This episode led to a significant thinning of the continental crust and an exhumation of pre-existing lower crust. However, we have not been able to identify and/or validate any clear domains of exhumed and denudated serpentinised mantle. The first Eocene breakup is mostly characterised by severe magmatism (sill, SDRS). Lithospheric/asthenospheric processes leading to rift localisation do not necessarily represent a continuum of lithospheric deformation with the precedent thinning system. Diking and disconnected lithospheric plumbing are proposed to explain the Eocene breakup. After the first phase of continental breakup, two major phases of spreading influenced the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Phase I (from C24 to C21r, ~54 to 49 Ma) marks the earliest phase of spreading, probably initiated in the central and outer part of the Møre Basin. During this period, the formation of overlapping systems and pseudo-fault development, indirectly influenced by the proto-margin segmentation, suggests the presence of additional micro-plates in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. We also observed a significant change in the oceanic spreading system in the late Early Eocene. Based on observations from the surrounding areas, this supports a major and distinct tectonic and magmatic event in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around C21r (49-47.9 Ma), the beginning of a second phase. During Phase II, from C21r-C12 or possibly younger (48-<32 Ma) of the Norway Basin development, spreading rates decreased, spreading direction changed leading to the formation of unexpected N-S oriented oceanic fracture zones. Phase II probably coincides with the climax of extension and possibly local spreading that is suspected in the southern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent forming a complex area of oceanic, transitional and continental fragments before its complete dislocation from East Greenland in Latest Oligocene.

Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv; Sand, Morten; Sveinn Arnarson, Thorarinn

2014-05-01

39

SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

the loggerhead, Kemp's ridley, olive ridley, green, leatherback, and hawks- bill turtles. In the Pacific Ocean317 SEA TURTLES UNIT 24 Sea Turtles Unit 24 PROTECTED RESOURCES STAFF NMFS Office of Protected Center La Jolla, CA INTRODUCTION Sea turtles are highly migratory and widely distributed throughout

40

Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea!  

E-print Network

Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea! Herald Shoal Hanna Shoal Barrow Canyon Herald Canyon Bering Strait of the Alaska Coastal Current (a) Bering Strait! (b) Central Shelf! (c) BCH! (d) BCC/DBO! (e) BCM! BCC avg the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait is transported across the shallow and expansive Chukchi Sea through

Pickart, Robert S.

41

Biodiversity and exploitation of the main fish stocks in the Norwegian - Barents Sea ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile herring and capelin are the main stocks of plankton feeders in the Barents Sea, the cod is the dominant predator. Warm climate favours recruitment of herring and cod, but large stocks of juvenile herring hamper survival of the capelin fry. Since the early 1970s, the herring stock has been grossly overexploited, which could have led to an imbalance in

Johannes Hamre

1994-01-01

42

Assessment of seal quality for potential storage sites in the Norwegian North Sea from well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid migration through caprocks is a crucial process when it comes to evaluate their sealing capacity for underground CO2 storage. Migration mechanisms such as flow through fault systems or along wells are quite easily identified by their relatively large size and because these features can be monitored by the use of reflection seismic data or well logs. However, microcracks in rocks, which can allegedly cause fluid migration through tight rocks, are difficult to detect from large scale observations and can only be deduced from thorough investigation. The objective of this work is to evaluate the likelihood of microfracture networks in potential seals (shales) through the analysis of well log data. This study focuses on the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous shale succession in the Norwegian North Sea. The main target of the study is the Draupne Formation (upper Jurassic) found in the Horda Platform / Viking Graben area. It has been deposited syn-rift during the second episode of the Viking graben formation in the Upper Jurassic, and thus has a burial depth ranging from 914 to 4573 m. This formation is identified in well logs by its sharp decrease in ultrasonic velocity and density, and specifically high resistivity and gamma ray readings. Other studied shale formations include the rest of the Viking Group (Heather Formation), the Tyne Group in the Central Graben (Farsund, Haugesund and Mandal) and the Boknfjord Group in the Norwegian-Danish Basin (Egersund, Flekkefjord, Sauda and Tau). Public well log data from 104 boreholes in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea have been analyzed and among them, 87 had a complete set of logs that are necessary for our analysis: ultrasonic velocities, gamma ray, density and resistivity. This study illustrates that the first-order variation of the ultrasonic velocity for the Draupne Formation in the Norwegian North Sea is of course due to depth. Diagenesis, whether mechanical or chemical, stiffens the rock by strengthening the grain contacts and/or cementing them. This increases the ultrasonic velocity through the rock. The depth at which the transition between mechanical and chemical transition, together with the geothermal gradient study, help us to separate areas where these identified shales have a ductile rheology (softer rock, self healing low-conductivity cracks) from those where stiffening by secondary quartz cementation yields a brittle rheology (stronger rock, high-conductivity cracks). Two other parameters are likely to influence the velocity, namely TOC and the presence of gas in the porous network of the rock. When taking into account the influence of both depth and TOC, around 80 % of the studied wells follow a distinct pattern. When taking into account gas as a pore fluid, around half of the other studied wells follow the same trend.

Angeli, M.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Faleide, J. I.

2012-04-01

43

Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the attempt to consider the relationship between sea surface anomalies of temperature (SST anomalies °C) in spawning area of the Norwegian Arctic cod off the Lofoten islands in coastal zone of the Norwegian Sea and modern cod total stock biomass including forecasting assessment of future cod generation success. Continuous long-term database of the sea surface temperature (SST) was created on the NOAA satellites data. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps for the period of 1998-2012. These maps were plotted with the satellite SST data, as well as information of vessels, byoies and coastal stations. All data were classified by spawning seasons (March-April) and years. The results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod (2001, 2006, 2007) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal or some more normal significances provide conditions for appearance strong or very strong generations of cod (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009). Temperature conditions in concrete years influence on different indexes of cod directly. So, the mean temperature in spawning seasons in years 1999-2005 was ?5,0°C and SST anomaly - +0,35°C, by the way average year significances indexes of cod were: total stock biomass - 1425,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 460,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 535,0 mln. units and landings - 530,0 th.t. In spawning seasons 2006-2012 years the average data were following: mean SST ?6,0°C, SST anomaly - +1,29°C, total stock biomass - 2185,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 1211,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 821,0 mln. units and landings - 600,0 th.t. The SST and SST anomalies (the NOAA satellite data) characterize increase of decrease in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the flows of the main warm currents thus creating favorable conditions for development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally, direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, Northeast Arctic cod, spawning area, maps of SST, prognosis.

Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

2013-04-01

44

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

2012-07-26

45

Mesozooplankton distribution, feeding and reproduction of Calanus finmarchicus in the western Norwegian Sea in relation to hydrography and chlorophyll a in spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species composition, mesozooplankton distribution, and feeding and reproduction of Calanus finmarchicus were investigated in the western Norwegian Sea in May 2003. Copepods were the most numerous group (~85-96% of all the animals caught). Calanus finmarchicus (mainly stage CV and females) was the dominant species among the copepods (~42-92%). Among the copepods Oithona similis was the second most numerous species (~5-58%).

Irina Prokopchuk

2003-01-01

46

Air-sea flux of CO 2 — Can we short cut the annual cycle? A Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian sea case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-sea gas exchange of CO2 is a complex function of the sea surface temperature, biological production etc. which fluctuates greatly on a seasonal timescale. However, in a condensed fashion the flux can be written as F = ?(CWT ? CEq), where F is the mean CO2 flux for one year, ? is an exchange coefficient, CWT is the winter

G. Broström

1996-01-01

47

Iodine-129 Time Series in Danish, Norwegian and Northwest Greenland Coast and the Baltic Sea by Seaweed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined in archived time series seaweed samples from Klint in the Kattegat, Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, Roskilde Fjord in Zealand of Denmark, Utsira in the western Norwegian coast and NW Greenland by neutron activation analysis. The results indicate that the 129I levels in all locations investigated are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the fall-out background and strongly dominated by the discharges from reprocessing facilities at La Hague and Sellafield. The 129I/ 99Tc ratio is applied to estimate the origin of and transit times of 129I. Transit times of 129I are estimated to be 1-2 years from La Hague to Klint and Utsira and 9-14 years to NW Greenland. Transfer factors of 129I are calculated to be 54 yr m -3from La Hague to Klint, 60 yr m -3to Utsira and 1·2 yr m -3to NW Greenland. Based on the estimated transit times, transfer factors and annual discharge data of radionulides from the reprocessing facilities, the variations of 129I concentrations and 129I/ 99Tc and 129I/ 137Cs ratios are modelled. Except 129I/ 137Cs, others are in a good agreement between the modelled and measured values.

Hou, X. L.; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S. P.

2000-11-01

48

Summer distribution and ecological role of seabirds and marine mammals in the Norwegian and Greenland seas (June 1988)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the ARK V /2 expedition of RV Polarstern in the Norwegian and Greenland seas in June 1988, 380 half hour counts for marine vertebrates (seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans) were carried out. Results are presented as total numbers encountered and then converted into density and food intake. Mean food intake was 2.2 kg fresh weight per km 2 per day for seabirds, with a higher value in Atlantic water (2.5) lower values in polar water and the pack ice (1.7 and 1.9), and an intermediate value at the ice edge. The main species were the alcids (1.5, primarily Little Auk, Alle alle and Brünnich's Guillemot, Urea Iomvia) ,the Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (0.5), and the Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (0.2). The ecological role of cetaceans was clearly lower, with a mean value of 0.2 and a maximum of 0.7 in Atlantic water (rough evaluation, due to the low number of contacts). The food intake by pinnipeds was 0.55 kg/km 2 day at the ice edge and 0.4 in the pack ice; they were mainly harp, Phoca groenlandica and hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, in one main concentration each and ringed seals, Phoca hispida, scattered on the pack. Data for July 1988 show a great similarity with these results, except for a lower density of alcids, which probably reflects that Little Auk, Brünnich's Guillemot and Common Guillemot, Uria aalge already had started to leave the region.

Joiris, Claude R.

1992-03-01

49

Surface, geochemical studies in the Norwegian Barents Sea: Comparison with drilling results  

SciTech Connect

During the last four years a number of surface geochemical studies have been undertaken over virgin areas in the Barents Sea. All of these areas have subsequently been up for bidding and a number of wells have been drilled. Sampling for surface geochemistry has been undertaken using a gravity-corer, where samples were taken 2 m below the seafloor. The sampling grids were either regular or grids selected based on known geological features in the areas, or a combination of the two. The samples were subsequently analyzed for interstitial gas, adsorbed gas, grain size distribution, organic and inorganic carbon content, fluorescence of the hexane extract, and heavy hydrocarbons in the hexane extract. The different areas analyzed gave different conclusions ranging from barren, i.e. no indication of petrogenic hydrocarbons in the surface; anomalies of petrogenic hydrocarbons, i.e, indicating gas, condensate, or oil being generated to extremely strong anomalies of oil that were interpreted as indicating leaky or nonexistent caprock such that most of the generated hydrocarbons are being leaked to the surface. In the meantime a number of wells have been drilled over the surveyed areas, where the results vary from dry, oil/gas shows and residual oil. Detailed results from the surveys will be discussed and compared with the drilling results from the different areas.

Bjoroey, M.; Loeberg, R. (Geolab Nor A/S/, Trondheim (Norway))

1991-03-01

50

A baseline study of metals in cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Sea and coastal Norwegian waters, with focus on mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead.  

PubMed

This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and livers of 516 cod caught at 22 positions in the North Sea were analysed. An additional 687 cod were caught from 13 fjords and coastal areas along the coast of Norway. Three out of 1203 samples of muscle exceeded the maximum limit of 0.5 mg Hg kg(-1) wet weight set by the EU for foodstuffs. The mercury concentration in cod muscle was higher and the cadmium concentration in the liver was lower in the North Sea and coastal areas in the southern part of Norway than in the Barents Sea and coastal areas in the northern part of Norway. These differences are perhaps caused by differences in the cod diet. PMID:23706615

Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Nilsen, Bente M; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

2013-07-15

51

Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers  

PubMed Central

Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991–2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik,, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

2012-01-01

52

Ichnofabric mapping and interpretation of Jurassic reservoir rocks of the Norwegian North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Recurrent sediment fabric and trace fossil associations in the Norwegian offshore Jurassic sequences have been interpreted by the ichnofabric concept. In the Sognefjord Formation (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) of the Troll Field five basic ichnofabrics were recognized and named after the dominant ichnogenus present, respectively: Helminthoida, Anconichnus, Palaeophycus, Ophiomorpha and Skolithos. These ichnofabrics developed in sediments deposited in marine environments ranging from quiescent offshore to high energy, shallow water nearshore situations. When sequence patterns of ichnofabrics were mapped within five chronostratigraphic reservoir zones of the Troll Field it was possible to recognize both how the frequency of a given ichnofabric may change in time in a restricted area or may change in its areal distribution in a restricted time interval. Such maps have been integrated with lithofacies maps and dip-meter studies in cored sequence to produce quantitative base maps for computerized reservoir models. The maps can also be used as a powerful tool for facies predictions.

Bockelie, J.F. (Norsk Hydro Exploration, Stabekk (Norway))

1991-06-01

53

Velocity Modelling Results Of A Pockmark In The Nyegga Region, Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pockmarks are a common indicator of fluid flow through the seafloor at continental margins. They are thought to be of global significance as pathways for the escape of methane from the sediments to the water column beneath continental margins, and also as habitats for chemosynthetic communities of biota. Their mechanism of formation and internal dynamics remain poorly constrained, partly due to a lack of proper three dimensional imaging of their internal structure. Numerous fluid escape features provide evidence for an active fluid-flow system in the Nyegga region of the Norwegian continental margin. In June-July 2006 we conducted a high-resolution seismic experiment using ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) to investigate the detailed 3D structure of a 250-m-wide pockmark in this region, named G11 and hence to determine the distribution of gas and gas hydrate in and around the pockmark . An array of 14 OBS were deployed across the pockmark. Shots fired from two 35 cu. in. mini GI guns were recorded on these OBS and on a near surface hydrophone streamer. Shot and OBS locations were determined with c. 1 m uncertainty using water wave arrivals. The OBS and reflection data reveal many interesting features of the subsurface geology of the chimney. A group of bright reflectors underlies the pockmark at a travel time of c. 1.4 s and at deeper depths some of the reflectors show strong attenuation indicating the presence of gas in the sediments. A pipe ascends from this gas charged zone to where it terminates in the investigated G11 pockmark. We have analysed data from five OBS lying along a line running NE-SW across the pockmark, using both raytracing and reflection tomography. The raytraced forward model, which incorporates signals from six subsurface reflectors, shows, a gradual increase in velocity between the seafloor and the gas charged zone, lying c. 300 m depth below the seabed. The travel-time fit is improved significantly if velocities in the pipe beneath the pockmark are higher than those in the surrounding sediments. The maximum velocity anomaly is c. 6%. An initial tomographic inversion using signals from a single subsurface reflector at the top of the gas-charged zone also recovers a velocity anomaly of c. 6%. This velocity anomaly may be attributed to the presence of increased saturations of methane hydrate beneath the pockmark.

Jose, T.; Minshull, T.; Westbrook, G.; Nouzé, H.; Ker, S.; Exley, R.; Gailler, A.; Berndt, C.

2008-12-01

54

Sea urchin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

55

Geology of Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

1984-09-01

56

Sea Chest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

57

Sea Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, arenât doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathanâs investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-10-06

58

Norwegian remote sensing experiment: Evaluation of the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer of sea ice research  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm has been developed for estimating total and multiyear sea ice concentration from passive microwave and surface air temperature measurements. The algorithm was made for use with Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data. It is based on radiation physics and may thus easily be modified to suit other passive microwave instruments. A comparison between Nimbus 7 SMMR

E. Svendsen; K. Kloster; B. Farrelly; O. M. Johannessen; J. A. Johannessen; W. J. Campbell; P. Gloerse; D. Cavalieri; C. Mätzler

1983-01-01

59

A r c t i c Barents Sea  

E-print Network

extent of sea ice (as of 1975) Lena Yukon Lena River Yenisey Lake Onega Volga North Sea East Siberian N o t h A t l a n t i c O c e a n Labrador Sea Norwegian Sea Kama Dnieper Sea Amur Alaska Gulf of Peace er

Martin, Jeff

60

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-03-29

61

The genesis of sea level variability in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional variability of sea level is an integral indicator of changing oceanographic conditions due to different processes of oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin. The present study explores the nature of sea level variability in the Barents Sea-a marginal shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean. A characteristic feature that distinguishes this sea from other Arctic shelf seas is that it is largely ice free throughout the year. This allows continuous monitoring of sea level by space-borne altimeters. In this work we combine satellite altimetry, ocean gravity measurements by GRACE satellites, available hydrography data, and a high-resolution ocean data synthesis product to estimate the steric and mass-related components of sea level in the Barents Sea. We present one of the first observational evidence of the local importance of the mass-related sea level changes. The observed 1-3 month phase lag between the annual cycles of sea level in the Barents Sea and in the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Iceland, Greenland seas) is explained by the annual mass-related changes. The analysis of the barotropic vorticity budget shows that the mass-related sea level variability in the central part of the Barents Sea is determined by the combined effect of wind stress, flow over the varying bottom topography, and dissipation, while the impact of vorticity fluxes is negligible. Overall, the steric sea level has smaller amplitudes and mainly varies on the seasonal time scale. The thermosteric sea level is the main contributor to the steric sea level along the pathways of the Atlantic inflow into the Barents Sea. The relative contribution of the halosteric sea level is dominant in the southeastern, eastern, and northern parts of the Barents Sea, modulated by the seasonal sea ice formation/melt as well as by continental runoff. The variability of the thermosteric sea level in the Barents Sea is mostly driven by variations in the net surface heat flux, whereas the contribution of heat advection becomes as important as the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange at interannual time scales.

Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.; Kirillov, Sergey A.

2013-09-01

62

Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

2008-01-01

63

Student Experiments at Sea (SEAS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interdisciplinary curriculum introduces the scientific process, experimental design and data analysis. Units on plate tectonics, hydrothermal vents, ridge visualization, surveying deep sea organisms. Students become the scientists, developing proposals for at-sea investigations, teacher coordinates submission to researchers studying the East Pacific Rise. Students retrieve, organize, analyze and report data from their experiment. Past experimental journals are posted. Free registration required to access curriculum and submit proposal.

2010-12-23

64

Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

2014-10-01

65

Savage Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

66

Sea Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

67

Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

68

Sea ice in the China Sea  

SciTech Connect

In every winter, sea ice occurring in Bohai Sea and the North Yellow Sea is the first-year ice which is going through generating, developing and thawing processes. Therefore, it is necessary to spatially and temporally describe ice period, freezing range, thickness variations and general motion of sea ice. The purpose of this paper is to provide initial general situation and features of sea ice for forecasting and researching sea ice.

Deng Shuqi [National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts, Beijing (China)

1993-12-31

69

Celtic Sea  

... carbonate. The plates, or coccoliths, give the ocean a milky white or turquoise appearance during intense blooms. The long-term flux of ... Sea for several weeks in summer. The coccoliths backscatter light from the water column to create a bright optical effect. Other algal ...

2013-04-17

70

Sea World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

71

Sea World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

2012-09-07

72

Acoustic seabed classification using QTC IMPACT on single-beam echo sounder data from the Norwegian Channel, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment mapping is important for understanding the physical processes, the impact of human activity, and the conditions for marine life on the seabed. For this purpose, the seabed classification tool QTC IMPACT analyses statistical variations in single-beam echo sounder data. QTC was applied in a large and physically diverse area of the Norwegian Channel, between 59°30?N and 61°N, to produce a new sediment map and to verify the QTC algorithm. The results were interpreted using ground truth (grain size analyses of 40 gravity cores and five grab samples), multi-beam echo sounder bathymetry (MBES), and seismo-acoustic profiles. Surficial sediments were divided into five classes: (1) mud and silt, (2) a variety of clay, silt and sand, (3) sandy mud with gravel, (4) sand with gravel, and (5) clay and sandy clay. Along the Norwegian coast, where MBES imagery shows evidence of glacial erosion, the surficial sediment distribution is variable. The echo shape analysis of QTC did not produce a natural partition of the data, and statistical assumptions did not always hold. Sediment classification was therefore sensitive to the choice of cluster algorithm. However, QTC produced the most physically plausible results on a large scale compared to other cluster algorithms. Class boundaries were consistent with supporting data. One exception is a transition from muddy to sandy sediments not visible in seismo-acoustic data. A possible explanation is that seabed fluid seepage and water current erosion cause sand particle transport into the western part of the channel. The study confirms the capability of QTC in a complex environment, but there are some possible improvements.

Eidem, Ellen Johanne; Landmark, Knut

2013-10-01

73

Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and

Claude R Joiris

2000-01-01

74

Sea Cucumbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What reef animal comes in a rainbow of crazy colors, can throw out its innards to immobilize predators, then creep away and regrow a brand-new stomach? Itâs the sea cucumber, prized as a gastronomic delight by some cultures and beginning to yield some of its secrets to scientists. Follow host Ari Daniel Shapiro from a Chinatown market to the reefs of Fiji to learn more about this amazing creature. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

75

Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2005-01-01

76

Extensional tectonics, halokinesis, eustacy in the Norwegian Central Graben, North Sea: A testing ground for sequence and seismic stratigraphic principles  

SciTech Connect

The Norwegian Central Graben is a mature hydrocarbon province with proven reserves within the Upper Jurassic succession. Several phases of extensional tectonics ranging from the Permo-Triassic to the Upper Jurassic, and a thick mobile salt section, serve to complicate a clear regional understanding of the area. A full integration of structural interpretation, seismic and sequence stratigraphic principles, biostratigraphy and core studies is required to achieve a realistic interpretation and predict Upper Jurassic facies distributions within this complex area. Utilizing some 30 wells, regional seismic data and biostratigraphy, candidate sequence boundaries and regionally correlatable flooding surfaces (e.g. Eudoxus), have been identified. Horizon flattening on these surfaces has allowed the recognition of thickening-away reflection geometries adjacent to salt features and divergent geometries into graben boundary faults. This facilitates the identification of the dominant local or regional controls on accommodation space creation. Detailed seismic facies analysis was then used to reveal the relative expansion or suppression of depositional systems tracts as a response to either regional or local structural controls. It was subsequently possible to place these systems within a biostratigraphically constrained regional framework. Mapping the base Zechstein, base Jurassic and base Cretaceous horizons has provided a map view of the active faults and slopes controlling sediment transport at any given time. This provided the third dimension essential in depicting the spatial distribution of depositional systems, and is a crucial component of any sequence stratigraphic interpretation. A regional picture of the progressive evolution of this complex area has been thus been derived, and the effect of both regional and local controls on sequence stratigraphic expressions has been determined.

Spencer, P.A. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom); Prosser, S.D. [Saga Petroleum a.s., Sandvika (Norway)

1996-12-31

77

Extensional tectonics, halokinesis, eustacy in the Norwegian Central Graben, North Sea: A testing ground for sequence and seismic stratigraphic principles  

SciTech Connect

The Norwegian Central Graben is a mature hydrocarbon province with proven reserves within the Upper Jurassic succession. Several phases of extensional tectonics ranging from the Permo-Triassic to the Upper Jurassic, and a thick mobile salt section, serve to complicate a clear regional understanding of the area. A full integration of structural interpretation, seismic and sequence stratigraphic principles, biostratigraphy and core studies is required to achieve a realistic interpretation and predict Upper Jurassic facies distributions within this complex area. Utilizing some 30 wells, regional seismic data and biostratigraphy, candidate sequence boundaries and regionally correlatable flooding surfaces (e.g. Eudoxus), have been identified. Horizon flattening on these surfaces has allowed the recognition of thickening-away reflection geometries adjacent to salt features and divergent geometries into graben boundary faults. This facilitates the identification of the dominant local or regional controls on accommodation space creation. Detailed seismic facies analysis was then used to reveal the relative expansion or suppression of depositional systems tracts as a response to either regional or local structural controls. It was subsequently possible to place these systems within a biostratigraphically constrained regional framework. Mapping the base Zechstein, base Jurassic and base Cretaceous horizons has provided a map view of the active faults and slopes controlling sediment transport at any given time. This provided the third dimension essential in depicting the spatial distribution of depositional systems, and is a crucial component of any sequence stratigraphic interpretation. A regional picture of the progressive evolution of this complex area has been thus been derived, and the effect of both regional and local controls on sequence stratigraphic expressions has been determined.

Spencer, P.A. (Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom)); Prosser, S.D. (Saga Petroleum a.s., Sandvika (Norway))

1996-01-01

78

Melting Ice, Rising Seas  

NASA Video Gallery

Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

79

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

80

NOAA Atlas NESDIS 58 CLIMATIC ATLAS OF THE ARCTIC SEAS 2004  

E-print Network

, Laptev, and White Seas - Oceanography and Marine Biology Silver Spring, MD July 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT: 219,077 Norwegian Sea: 160,512 White Sea: 20,348 Central Arctic: 13,870 Kara Sea: 13,591 Laptev Sea: 5

81

Distribution of recent dinocyst assemblages in the western Barents Sea  

E-print Network

109 Distribution of recent dinocyst assemblages in the western Barents Sea Sandrine Solignac*1 Giraudeau, Anne de Vernal. Distribution of modern dinocyst assemblages in the western Barents Sea. Norwegian) assemblages were analyzed in 43 surface sediment samples from the Barents Sea. They can be divided into five

Long, Bernard

82

Steric height variability in the Nordic Seas F. Siegismund,1  

E-print Network

rising trend starting at the end of the 1960s with particularly strong changes along the Barents Sea elevates the general rising trend along the Barents Sea opening and reduces it in the southern Norwegian at the Barents Sea opening. Citation: Siegismund, F., J. Johannessen, H. Drange, K. A. Mork, and A. Korablev

Drange, Helge

83

Beaufort Sea: information update  

SciTech Connect

The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

Becker, P.R.

1988-04-01

84

Atlantic Water flow through the Barents and Kara Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathway and transformation of water from the Norwegian Sea across the Barents Sea and through the St. Anna Trough are documented from hydrographic and current measurements of the 1990s. The transport through an array of moorings in the north-eastern Barents Sea was between 0.6Sv in summer and 2.6Sv in winter towards the Kara Sea and between zero and 0.3Sv

Ursula Schauer; Harald Loeng; Bert Rudels; Vladimir K. Ozhigin; Wolfgang Dieck

2002-01-01

85

Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

86

Clownfish in sea anemone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea anemone allows the clownfish to hide in its tentacles. Sea anemones normally sting organisms that get too close. This is a commensalistic relationship because the clownfish benefits while the anemone is neither harmed nor helped.

Mohammed Al Momany (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;)

2005-08-29

87

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2010-01-01

88

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2012-01-01

89

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2011-01-01

90

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2013-01-01

91

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2014-01-01

92

Investigations on the distribution of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr and the water mass transport times in the Northern North Atlantic and the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the years 1979 and 1982 to 1985, in the northern North Atlantic (Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea) water samples were taken for the investigation of their content of radio caesium and radio strontium.

Hans Kautsky; Greenland Sea

1987-01-01

93

All That Unplowed Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

94

Deep-Sea Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about special vehicles used in recent Black Sea research and the theory that the Black Sea during the Ice Age was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that was eventually flooded. Students will describe the purpose of the research vehicles by writing newspaper articles pretending they have just returned from the Black Sea expedition.

95

Deep sea waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include incineration at sea, the modelling and biological effects of industrial wastes, microbial studies of ocean dumping, deep-sea mining wastes, the chemical analysis of ferromanganese nodules, and economic aspects of deep-sea disposal.

Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Ketchum, B.W.; Duedall, I.W.

1985-01-01

96

Sea Education Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, SEA offers a variety of science programs at sea for high school and college students. Site features information on the vessels, the crew, current voyages, admissions information, and a wealth of photographs from past expeditions. Also includes a section where you can track the progress of the SEA boats and hear daily, and archived, audio reports.

97

Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise. They will create and explore topographic maps as a means of studying sea level rise and how it will affect Alaska's coastline.

Fairbanks, Geophysical I.

98

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sea otter researchers Michelle Staedler, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Tim Tinker, USGS, work together to locate sea otters in their study project. USGS scientists and their partners study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

99

Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)); Berggren, W.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (USA)); Kaminski, M.A. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)); D'Lorio, M.A. (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Nepean, Ontario (Canada)); Cloetingh, S. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Griffiths, C.M. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway))

1990-05-01

100

Dust Storm, Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

2002-01-01

101

the East Sea Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea Sea of Japan provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with 210 . the aid of Pb-derived sediment

Gi-Hoon Hong; Sang-Han Lee; Suk-Hyun Kim; Chang-Soo Chung; M. Baskaran

102

East Siberian Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

103

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) is the digital library and official archive for NOAA Sea Grant documents. It is the only comprehensive collection of Sea Grant Âfunded documents from over 30 programs and projects across the country. This collection encompasses a wide variety of subjects, including oceanography, marine education, aquaculture, fisheries, aquatic nuisance species, coastal hazards, seafood safety, limnology, coastal zone management, marine recreation, and law.

104

Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2014-08-01

105

Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.  

PubMed

Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

2014-05-01

106

The impact of winds and sea surface temperatures on the Barents Sea ice extent, a statistical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis was made of the processes controlling the incidence of sea ice in the Barents Sea for the period 1979-2010. The influence of atmospheric circulation and ocean temperature on the interannual variability of sea-ice extent (SIE) in the Barents Sea was investigated using sea-ice concentrations obtained from passive microwave satellite imagery, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and NCEP-NCAR sea level pressure (SLP) data. Data from April and September were analysed, the months when SIE in the Barents Sea is respectively at its maximum and minimum. The strongest negative correlations (- 0.65 to - 0.77) were found between the SIE in the Barents Sea and SST in the regions most influenced by Atlantic Water. The patterns of distribution of correlation coefficients between interannual variability of SIE in the Barents Sea and SLP over the Nordic Seas and Siberia showed two well-defined SLP zones: one with a high positive correlation (0.60 to 0.65) over the Norwegian and Greenland seas, and a zone with high negative correlation (- 0.60 to - 0.63) in the area of western Siberia. We conclude that winds induced by changes in SLP gradient between these zones affect both the redistribution of sea ice and the advection of heat into the Barents Sea.

Pavlova, Olga; Pavlov, Vladimir; Gerland, Sebastian

2014-02-01

107

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), such as the one hiding here under a boulder, and Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) are occasionally seen in Hurricane Hole. Hawksbills feed mostly on sponges while Greens eat mostly sea grasses....

2010-05-03

108

Migrations in the Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE terms ``anadromous'' and ``catadromous'' are employed to distinguish fish which leave the sea to spawn in fresh water and fish which migrate from fresh water to the sea when they reach maturity. Gilson, in his paper, ``L'Anguille'' (1908, Ann. d. I. Spc. toy, Zool. et Malacca, d Belgique, T. 43), proposed that the words should be used to define

A. Meek

1915-01-01

109

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video and animations of sea level from NASA's Climate website. Since 1992, NASA and CNES have studied sea surface topography as a proxy for ocean temperatures. NASA Missions TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1 and Jason 2 have been useful in predicting major climate, weather, and geologic events including El Nino, La Nina, Hurricane Katrina, and the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

Jackson, Randall; Nasa, For

110

Bering Sea Expedition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

Curriculum, Alaska S.; Grant, Alaska S.

111

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

112

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

1999-01-01

113

Sea Anemone: Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

Hunt, John D.

1982-01-01

114

Getting Your Sea Legs  

PubMed Central

Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.

2013-01-01

115

Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

116

Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

117

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage holds out a VHF receiver, hoping to hear the tell-tale beep that helps her locate sea otters that are part of study to monitor and learn more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from nea...

118

Black Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

119

Laptev sea system discussed at Russian-German Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laptev Sea covers the central part of the vast Arctic shelf seas off northern Eurasia. It receives large volumes of fresh water from the Lena River and other big rivers that drain the central part of Siberia; peak runoff occurs in the early summer. Being tucked away between two groups of islands—Severnaya Zemlya in the west and the New Siberian Islands in the east—and connected to the Kara Sea in the west and the East Siberian Sea in the east only through relatively narrow straits, the Laptev Sea is an important area for sea-ice formation in the Arctic Ocean [Rigor and Colony, 1997; Kassens et al., 1999].Through sea ice formation, the Laptev Sea influences the ice cover of the central Arctic Ocean and its Transpolar Drift, which exports sea ice into the western Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The Laptev Sea is also the central segment of the Northern Sea Route. For this reason, commercial interests wish to gain valuable knowledge about the extremes of its modern environment, past variability and predictability on time scales of months and years. Both in the Laptev Sea and on the adjacent land regions, large tracts of subterraneous and submarine permafrost have been observed as a consequence of the extreme paleoclimate of the latest geological past.

Thiede, J.; Kassens, H.; Timokhov, L.

120

The Bering Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past several years, dense clouds of phytoplankton (microscopic plants that live in water) have appeared in the Bering Sea each summer. One class of phytoplankton are particularly easy to spot from overhead. Called coccolithophores, these phytoplankton grow calcium-rich shells. These shells are bright white and turn the water where they grow a milky blue. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this image of coccolithophores off the coast of Alaska on September 13 and 14, 2000. (The Bering Sea straddles the International Dateline, so the left side of the image is the 14th while the right is the 13th.) The bloom covers approximately 400,000 square kilometers (154,000 square miles). Swirls of water with varying shades show ocean currents and eddies. In general, the brighter the water, the higher the concentration of coccolithophores. SeaWiFS has been taking pictures of this area since 1997. Follow these links to see more images: June 27, 2000 April 29, 2000 Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a new Shade of Blue (several images from 1998) Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE.

2002-01-01

121

STELLER SEA LIONS AND FISHERIES: COMPETITION AT SEA?  

E-print Network

STELLER SEA LIONS AND FISHERIES: COMPETITION AT SEA? by TABITHA CHENG YEE HUI B.Sc., The University the decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska is the reduction of prey abundance that attempted to assess competition between sea lions and fisheries by estimating the local amounts of prey

122

Arctic Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

Meier, Beverly L.

2012-06-26

123

Dead Sea Scrolls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

1994-01-01

124

Record Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

2007-01-01

125

Sea ice ecosystems.  

PubMed

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

Arrigo, Kevin R

2014-01-01

126

Purple sea urchin swarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

127

2011 Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

128

Smart Sea Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores whether animals and humans are more similar than we think. Meet Rio, a sea lion who demonstrates to researchers reasoning skills once thought limited to humans.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-08-31

129

Stellar Sea Lion Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

130

Sea Raiders of Acadia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the French allies, the Micmac, waged much of the war against the English on the sea. This article discusses the determined stand by the Micmac seamen of the eastern coasts for their lands and way of life. (NQ)

Dickason, Olive Patricia

1976-01-01

131

Sea Floor Spreading I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

Activity And Starting Point Page By R.m. Mackay. Clark College, Physics A.

132

Black Sea Becomes Turquoise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

2002-01-01

133

Sea bed mechanics  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and dunes, and the transportation of sediments.

Sleath, J.F.A.

1984-01-01

134

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents ocean topography as measured by sea surface heights taken from space by NASA and CNES. Ocean heat circulation impacts weather and causes events such as Large El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami and La Nina. These events and the latest view of sea surface height are depicted with this 3D interactive viewer. Objectives of NASA missions TOPEX/Poseiden, Jason 1, and Jason 2/OSTM are charted. Closed Captioning is available.

135

Sea Urchin Embryology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advanced high school level laboratory activities using sea urchins to observe fertilization and early developmental stages. This is a comprehensive site complete with multiple labs, support lessons, background information, animated graphics illustrating lab techniques, printable overheads (also available in Spanish and French), and a glossary of terms. A one-stop site for sea urchin information, experiments, suppliers, and research. Links to additional resources are available.

136

Global sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

Bruce C. Douglas

1991-01-01

137

Halocarbons associated with Arctic sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived halocarbons were measured in Arctic sea-ice brine, seawater and air above the Greenland and Norwegian seas (~81°N, 2-5°E) in mid-summer, from a melting ice floe at the edge of the ice pack. In the ice floe, concentrations of C2H5I, 2-C3H7I and CH2Br2 showed significant enhancement in the sea ice brine, of average factors of 1.7, 1.4 and 2.5 times respectively, compared to the water underneath and after normalising to brine volume. Concentrations of mono-iodocarbons in air are the highest ever reported, and our calculations suggest increased fluxes of halocarbons to the atmosphere may result from their sea-ice enhancement. Some halocarbons were also measured in ice of the sub-Arctic in Hudson Bay (~55°N, 77°W) in early spring, ice that was thicker, colder and less porous than the Arctic ice in summer, and in which the halocarbons were concentrated to values over 10 times larger than in the Arctic ice when normalised to brine volume. Concentrations in the Arctic ice were similar to those in Antarctic sea ice that was similarly warm and porous. As climate warms and Arctic sea ice becomes more like that of the Antarctic, our results lead us to expect the production of iodocarbons and so of reactive iodine gases to increase.

Atkinson, Helen M.; Hughes, Claire; Shaw, Marvin J.; Roscoe, Howard K.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Liss, Peter S.

2014-10-01

138

Influence of the White Sea on tides in adjacent marginal seas of the North European Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into the interaction of surface M 2 tides in the system of marginal seas of the North European Basin is carried out using the three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. Three numerical experiments are performed for this purpose. In the first (control), the model equations are solved in the system of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and White seas; thereby the interaction of the tides in these seas is explicitly taken into account. In the second experiment, the White Sea is excluded from consideration and the no-flux condition is posed at the entrance to the sea. The third experiment uses an approach in which the observed tidal elevations that determine the existence of a finite horizontal transport of barotropic energy to the White Sea are specified at the open boundary of the White Sea. It is shown that changes in tidal dynamics represented by changes in the amplitudes and phases of tidal elevations and in the barotropic tidal velocity ellipse parameters are within the model noise in experiments 2 and 3 when compared with the control experiment. On the contrary, changes in energy characteristics (the horizontal wave transport, density, and dissipation rate of barotropic tidal energy) are equal to or greater (in order of magnitude) than the energy characteristics themselves.

Kagan, B. A.; Sofina, E. V.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

2013-01-01

139

On large outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Winter outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea are estimated using a 10-year record of satellite ice motion and thickness. The mean winter volume export through the Svalbard/Franz Josef Land passage is 40 km3, and ranges from -280 km3 to 340 km3. A large outflow in 2003 is preconditioned by an unusually high concentration of thick perennial ice over the Nansen Basin at the end of the 2002 summer. With a deep atmospheric low situated over the eastern Barents Sea in winter, the result is an increased export of Arctic ice. The Oct-Mar ice area flux, at 110 x 10 to the third power km3, is not only unusual in magnitude but also remarkable in that >70% of the area is multiyear ice; the ice volume flux at340 km3 is almost one-fifth of the ice flux through the Fram Strait. Another large outflow of Arctic sea ice through this passage, comparable to that in 2003, is found in 1996. This southward flux of sea ice represents one of two major sources of freshwater in the Barents Sea; the other is the eastward flux of water via the Norwegian Coastal Current. The possible consequences of variable freshwater input on the Barents Sea hydrography and its impact on transformation of Atlantic Water en route to the Arctic Ocean are examined with a 25-year coupled ice-ocean model.

Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Laxon, Seymour W.

2005-01-01

140

The Dead Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

2006-01-01

141

Bioprospecting / Deep Sea Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first portion of the radio broadcast discusses the relatively new field of bioprospecting, the exploration of the sea floor for novel compounds and processes that may have industrial or medical applications. Bioprospectors are trying to collect samples of deep-sea organisms which may yield new pharmaceutical compounds, as in the case of Conus magnus, a sea snail whose venom has yielded a painkiller 1000 times more potent than morphine. There is also discussion of who owns these resources and what can be done to protect them. This segment is 12 minutes in length. The second segment of the broadcast traces the history of undersea exploration, including methods of measuring ocean depth, the bathysphere used by William Beebe and Otis Barton, the modern Alvin submersible, and remotely operated vehicles. There is also discussion of the motives and inspiration for ocean exploration; the deep sea knowledge of whalers; and comparisons of deep sea research with space exploration. This segment is 34 minutes and 40 seconds in length.

142

Eemian and early Weichselian (140-60 ka) paleoceanography and paleoclimate in the Nordic seas with comparisons to Holocene conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic time series were extracted from Norwegian, Iceland, and Greenland Sea (the Nordic seas) sediment sequences covering the time intervals 60-140 ka and 0-15 ka on the basis of stable isotope stratigraphy, planktonic foraminiferal faunas, and sedimentological methods. The proxy temperature records from the Norwegian-Iceland Sea display a number of high-frequency and high-amplitude variations within the last interglacial

Torben Fronval; Eystein Jansen

1997-01-01

143

Sea Slug Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Australian Museum and maintained by Dr. Bill Rudman, the recently redesigned Sea Slug Forum is an excellent resource for information on nudibranchs and related sea slugs such as bubble-shells, sea hares, and side-gilled slugs. One of the chief features of the site is a lengthy species list that links to lovely photos, brief descriptions, distribution information, and related messages from the site's Forum. The site also offers a sizable collection of short pieces and archived forum messages on a variety of general topics, arranged alphabetically. Users can send their own questions and review messages sent to the site along with Dr. Rudman's replies by date or via a keyword search engine. Additional resources include suggested reading, related annotated links, and information on forum participants.

144

Mountains in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-7 day investigation, learners begin with an introduction to seamounts that are present in the Gulf of Alaska. They learn how seamounts were formed and look at a bathymetric map of a seamount. In Activity 3A, learners explore sea floor mapping techniques as they participate in an activity to create a map of a sea feature they have molded out of clay. In Activity 3B, learners watch a short animated presentation, "Who cares about Sea Floor Mapping?" and create a model of a seamount found in Alaska. They use pre-sonar techniques to collect data and create a graph of their seamount using Excel. This detailed lesson plan includes learner hand-outs, evaluation questions, curricular connections, and tips.

Grant, Alaska S.

2011-01-01

145

Understanding Sea Level Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

Chao, Benjamin F.

2004-01-01

146

Deep Drilling at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

Ramsayer, Kate; Magazine, Science N.

147

Lighting Up the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

Xpeditions, National G.

148

Lighting Up the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

2009-07-09

149

RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

150

Long-term variability in Arctic sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we used 30 years of an operational sea surface temperature (SST) product, the NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST Version 2 dataset, to examine variations in Arctic SSTs during the period December 1981-October 2011. We computed annual SST anomalies and interannual trends in SST variations for the period 1982-2010; during this period, marginal (though statistically significant) increases in SSTs were observed in oceanic regions poleward of 60°N. A warming trend is evident over most of the Arctic region, the Beaufort Sea, the Chuckchi Sea, Hudson Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Iceland Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Bering Strait, etc.; Labrador Sea experienced higher temperature anomalies than those observed in other regions. However, cooling trends were observed in the central Arctic, some parts of Baffin Bay, the Kara Sea (south of Novaya Zemlya), the Laptev Sea, the Siberian Sea, and Fram Strait. The central Arctic region experienced a cooling trend only during 1992-2001; warming trends were observed during 1982-1991 and 2002-2010. We also examined a 30-yr (1982-2011) record of summer season (June-July-August) SST variations and a 29-yr (1982-2010) record of September SST variations, the results of which are discussed.

Singh, Rajkumar Kamaljit; Maheshwari, Megha; Oza, Sandip R.; Kumar, Raj

2013-09-01

151

Sea Grant Publications Index 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This index lists all publications, including newsletters, received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD) in 1977. It supplements the earlier publications covering the period 1968-1976. A separate Sea Grant Newsletters Index will not be published thi...

B. Edel, C. Roques

1978-01-01

152

A lithosphere-scale structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea and Kara Sea region as part of the European Arctic shelf, is geologically situated between the Proterozoic East-European Craton in the south and early Cenozoic passive margins in the north and the west. Proven and inferred hydrocarbon resources encouraged numerous industrial and academic studies in the last decades which brought along a wide spectrum of geological and geophysical data. By evaluating all available interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3-D-models, we were able to develop a new lithosphere-scale 3-D-structural model for the greater Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. The sedimentary part of the model resolves four major megasequence boundaries (earliest Eocene, mid-Cretaceous, mid-Jurassic and mid-Permian). Downwards, the 3-D-structural model is complemented by the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a newly calculated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The thickness distribution of the main megasequences delineates five major subdomains differentiating the region (the northern Kara Sea, the southern Kara Sea, the eastern Barents Sea, the western Barents Sea and the oceanic domain comprising the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Eurasia Basin). The vertical resolution of five sedimentary megasequences allows comparing for the first time the subsidence history of these domains directly. Relating the sedimentary structures with the deeper crustal/lithospheric configuration sheds some light on possible causative basin forming mechanisms that we discuss. The newly calculated LAB deepens from the typically shallow oceanic domain in three major steps beneath the Barents and Kara shelves towards the West-Siberian Basin in the east. Thereby, we relate the shallow continental LAB and slow/hot mantle beneath the southwestern Barents Sea with the formation of deep Paleozoic/Mesozoic rift basins. Thinnest continental lithosphere is observed beneath Svalbard and the NW Barents Sea where no Mesozoic/early Cenozoic rifting has occurred but strongest Cenozoic uplift and volcanism since Miocene times. The East Barents Sea Basin is underlain by a LAB at moderate depths and a high-density anomaly in the lithospheric mantle which follows the basin geometry and a domain where the least amount of late Cenozoic uplift/erosion is observed. Strikingly, this high-density anomaly is not present beneath the adjacent southern Kara Sea. Both basins share a strong Mesozoic subsidence phase whereby the main subsidence phase is younger in the South Kara Sea Basin.

Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J. I.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.

2014-07-01

153

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND  

E-print Network

385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

154

Liquefaction potential at Ekotisk Tank in North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of a 93-m diameter x 90-m tall oil storage tank and production platform for the Norwegian North Sea required an investigation of the stability of the dense sand foundation against liquefaction from the wave-induced cyclic loads on the structure. The results of special cyclic loading triaxial tests, interpreted in terms of the expected maximum storm conditions, demonstrated the adequacy

K. L. Lee; J. A. Jr. Focht

1975-01-01

155

Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea Andrey V. Dolgov, Edda Johannesen, Mikko Heino, and Erik Olsen  

E-print Network

Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea Andrey V. Dolgov, Edda Johannesen, Mikko Heino whiting in the Barents Sea. ­ ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 483­493. Blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) are distributed throughout the North Atlantic, including the Norwegian and Barents Seas

Heino, Mikko

156

Population structure of the deep-sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the north-east Atlantic based on allozyme variation  

E-print Network

variation. They were caught at various locations in the Barents Sea, in waters off Svalbard, Jan Mayen was by far the most polymorphic. Samples caught within the Barents Sea and in the Svalbard area showed. borealis in the Barents Sea. Genetic differentiation was found, however, between Norwegian fjords

Vincent, Warwick F.

157

Seafloor Control on Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

2011-01-01

158

THE OCTAS PROJECT, THE GEOID, THE MEAN SEA SURFACE AND AND THEMEAN DYNAMIC TOPOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OCTAS project, Ocean Circulation and Transport Between North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, funded by the Norwegian Research Council, is a multidisci- plinary project combining geodesy, satellite altimetry and oceanography. The main objective is to enhance the Norwegian capacity in Earth observation technolo- gies through determining the ocean circulation and trans- port by using satellite techniques in combination with

Dag Solheim; Ove C. D. Omang; Addisu Hunegnaw; Helge Drange; Johnny Johannessen; Frank Siegismund; Hossein Nahavandchi; Kourosh Ghazavi; Bjørn Ragnvald Pettersen; Dagny I. Lysaker; Arne Gidskehaug; Hans-Peter Plag

2007-01-01

159

Barents Sea crustal architecture and basin development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea continental shelf is characterized by a complex tectonic history and thus comprises a wide range of crustal and basin architectures that formed in response to different geological processes. Overlapping Paleozoic orogenies (Timanian, Caledonian, Uralian) preceded multiple rift episodes mainly affecting the western Barents Sea and eventual breakup with Greenland to the west and Lomonosov Ridge to the north. Recent work related to the PETROBAR and BarMod projects has provided new details on basin architecture, tectonic and thermal histories, stratigraphy, paleogeography, paleo-water depths and the role of the basement grain in the structuring of the Barents Sea basins. The eastern Barents Sea comprises a wide and deep sag basin that formed by rapid subsidence in Late Permian-Early Triassic times, most likely in response to basin-forming mechanisms other than rifting. The deep East Barents Sea Basin was filled by thick uppermost Permian and Triassic sediments prograding westwards from uplifted source areas mainly in the SE (Urals). In the western Barents Sea we find more typical rift basins formed in response to at least three major post-Caledonian rift phases: Carboniferous, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene. The rifting activity migrated westwards through successive tectonic phases. Carboniferous rifting affected the entire western Barents Sea and gave rise to NE-SW to N-S trending horst and graben structures following a Caledonian basement grain. These structures were covered by a regional carbonate platform before renewed faulting affected the SW Barents Sea in Late Permian time. The major prograding system reached the western Barents Sea in earliest Triassic time gradually filling in a regional basin of considerable waterdepths. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous oblique extension and formation of the deep SW Barents Sea basins was linked to the North Atlantic-Arctic plate tectonic evolution. Regional uplift associated with the Early Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province gave rise to a depositional system characterized by north to south progradation covering most of the Barents Sea. Volcanic extrusives are preserved in the northern Barents Sea, mainly on Franz Josef Land and eastern Svalbard, while intrusives are found widespread, particularly in the deep East Barents Sea Basin. A Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene mega-shear system along the western Barents Sea-Svalbard margin (De Geer Zone) linked rifting, breakup and initial opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Arctic Eurasia Basin. Narrow pull-apart basins formed within this dominantly shear system, in particular at a releasing bend in the margin SW of Bjørnøya. A restraining bend SW of Svalbard gave rise to the transpressional Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt. Compressional structures of different styles are found widespread in the Barents Sea region. The nature and timing of these are difficult to constrain in many areas due to later uplift and erosion, but we expect that there are different causes and timing involved. At the western margin we see evidence of compressional deformation as young as Miocene in age. The entire Barents Shelf was uplifted and eroded during Neogene time and thick fans of Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediments were formed in front of bathymetric troughs characteristic of both the western and northern Barents Sea. Most of the uplift is closely linked to the glacial erosion, but tectonic uplift occurred prior to the glaciations.

Faleide, J. I.

2012-04-01

160

Sailing the Cyber Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To successfully navigate stormy and uncertain seas requires operating by an internationally agreed-to set of standards and norms affectionately known as the Rules of the Road. There are 'rules' like these that apply to all the 'global commons' -- what we ...

I. E. Parker, J. G. Stavridis

2012-01-01

161

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive program focuses on the role of sea level in climate change. Sections include an overview and a list of relevant NASA satellite missions and their objectives. A third section, entitled Global View, covers the following 5 topics: Latest View, Large El Niño, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami, and La Niña.

162

Fire in the Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one

Walter L. Friedrich

2000-01-01

163

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

164

Flowers of the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

`Flowers of the sea' is an attempt to respond to the question of dream writing with a different type of gesture. It was written in 2004, coming out of work done in what you might call the field of creative-critical writing, and is part of a series of what I call `legends'. Three of these legends have been published elsewhere,

Jonathan Tiplady

2008-01-01

165

Ships to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

166

Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-27

167

Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-15

168

Farming the Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

Morgan, William

1971-01-01

169

Steller Sea Lion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive site featuring the threatened Steller Sea Lion. Site includes information on its critical habitat, protection measures, distribution information, and much more. Explore the Literature, Presentations, and Images section for an abundance of information from conferences, workshops, and research. Site features a wealth of photographs and video, as well as contact information for the program.

2011-01-10

170

DELIVERABLE Central North Sea  

E-print Network

.scottish-enterprise.com/~/media/SE/Resources/Documents/DEF/Economic%20Potential%20of%20CO2%20EOR%20in%20Scotland.pdf Central North Sea ­ CO2 Storage Hub : Enabling CCS into a guaranteed network for transportation and storage of captured CO2. Recent studies examining the levelised

Haszeldine, Stuart

171

Redlands Institute: Salton Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea Database Program (SSDP) at the University of Redlands, Redlands Institute (RI) was a project administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Special Programs. The purpose behind the SSDP was to bring a wide range of data management and analysis tools and professionals "to support multi-disciplinary and coordinated decision-making across all the professional and scientific teams and stakeholders involved in the restoration of California's largest inland body of water, the Salton Sea." Part of their outreach work includes this fine website, which includes sections titled "Ecological Issues", "Data & Research", and "Exploring the Area". First-time visitors may want to start by clicking on the "Ecological Issues" area. Here they can learn about the science of the area, the contemporary issues facing the survival of the Salton Sea, and some of the proposed solutions to restore the Sea. Journalists and scientists will appreciate the "Data & Research" area, as it features digital maps of the area, GIS data, public policy documents, and an image database. The casual traveler will enjoy the "Exploring the Area" section, and here they will find information about current weather conditions, fishing reports, and California State park materials.

172

Whither Arctic Sea Ice?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students work with real datasets to investigate a real situation regarding disappearing Arctic sea ice. The case study has students working side-by-side with a scientist from the National Snow and Ice Data Center and an Inuit community in Manitoba.

Youngman, Betsy; Chapter, Earth E.

173

The Cosmonaut Sea Wedge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.

Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.

2007-01-01

174

Biotechnology and the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of recent discoveries in genetic engineering to marine plants and animals offers enormous potential for harvesting more food, pharmaceuticals, and industrial compounds from the sea. Using biotechnology's ability to excise and replace genetic material selected for specific functions, such efforts would allow manifold increases in production of substances conventionally reliant on the capture of often rare marine species.

Rita R. Colwell; Jack R. Greer

1986-01-01

175

The Dirac Sea  

E-print Network

We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

J. Dimock

2010-11-26

176

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

177

Tides & Currents: Sea Level Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years. This resource illustrates regional trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change including national and global stations. Impacts on changing sea levels in relation to atmospheric and oceanic processes as well as other Earth systems are explained and supported with educations resources.

2010-01-01

178

Sea ice microbial communities (SIMCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice microbial communities (SIMCO) grow luxuriantly within several microhabitats of sea ice, indicating that the microorganisms comprising these communities are well adapted to the physicochemical gradients which characterize sea ice. We used SIMCO obtained from the bottom of congelation ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, to test the hypothesis that low temperature limits microbial productivity in polar oceans and also

Steven T. Kottmeier; Cornelius W. Sullivan

1988-01-01

179

National Sea Grant Educators Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

180

South China Sea Circulation and  

E-print Network

, P.C., N.L. Edmons, and C.W. Fan, "Dynamical mechanisms for the South China Sea seasonal circulation.C., S.H. Lu, and Y.C. Chen, 2001: Evaluation of the Princeton Ocean Model using the South China SeaSouth China Sea Circulation and Thermohaline Structure Peter C Chu Naval Postgraduate School pcchu

Chu, Peter C.

181

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

182

Northern Sand Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

183

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

184

The Influence of Temperature on Some Fish Population Parameters in the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of this century it was clear that in the Barents Sea, variations in the physical conditions have a great influence on the biological conditions of fish. The cold period during 1977-82 initiated new investigations on the influence of oceanographic conditions on recruitment, distribution and growth of commercial fish species in the Barents Sea, both by Norwegian and

Harald Loeng

185

Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr fluxes in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual balance of radionuclides inflow/outflow was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr isotopes in the Barents Sea, taking into account the atmospheric precipitation, inflow from the Norwegian and the White seas, as well as riverine discharge, liquid radioactive waste disposal (LRWD), and outflow to the adjacent seas. The original and published data for the period of 1950-2009 were analyzed. According to the multiyear dynamics (1960-2009), the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr into the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by the Norwegian Sea currents; and precipitation played a major role in the 1950s, 1960s, and in 1986. Currently, the trans-border redeposition of 90Sr prevails over 137Cs redeposition in the Barents Sea, and constitutes about 99% of inflow of each element.

Matishov, G. G.; Matishov, D. G.; Usyagina, I. S.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Pavel'Skaya, E. V.

2011-08-01

186

The Aral Sea Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aral Sea is a huge terminal lake located among the deserts of Central Asia. Over the past 10 millennia, it has repeatedly filled and dried, owing both to natural and human forces. The most recent desiccation started in the early 1960s and owes overwhelmingly to the expansion of irrigation that has drained its two tributary rivers. Lake level has fallen 23 m, area shrunk 74%, volume decreased 90%, and salinity grew from 10 to more than 100g/l, causing negative ecological changes, including decimation of native fish species, initiation of dust/salt storms, degradation of deltaic biotic communities, and climate change around the former shoreline. The population residing around the lake has also been negatively impacted. There is little hope in the foreseeable future to fully restore the Aral Sea, but measures to preserve/rehabilitate parts of the water body and the deltas are feasible.

Micklin, Philip

2007-05-01

187

The Disappearing Aral Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

188

Secrets@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ace on the Case: Secrets@sea invites students to solve a mystery by tracking down ecological clues in an interactive story format. As students click on bubbles, they move forward through the story. Topics woven into the mystery include food webs, bioaccumulations, killer whales, salmon, plankton, salinity, and others. There is a study room where students can click on objects to get more clues. Field Guides are divided by topic and offer additional information for students.

Science NetLinks (Engaging Science;)

2004-04-29

189

Salish Sea Expeditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At-sea education program combines classroom study with shipboard science studies in Puget Sound, Washington. Offers spring programs for schools and home schoolers, summer programs for families and youngsters; expeditions of 1 to 5 days involve oceanographic sampling activities, navigation and sailing responsibilities aboard a 61-foot sailing vessel. Teachers can join a preview sail to evaluate; site provides details on water quality, plankton and other studies and equipment used.

190

Sea Grants awarded  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has awarded sea grants to the following institutions:The University of Rhode Island will receive $1,125,000 for coastal zone and fisheries research.The University of North Carolina has been awarded $410,000 for research in marine law, ocean engineering, aquaculture, and a wide range of estuarine studies of particular interest to North Carolina and the southeast coast

Anonymous

1971-01-01

191

Sea & Ships: Explore online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in England notes that its goal is "working to illustrate for everyone the importance of the sea, ships, time and the stars and their relationship with people." There is so much to explore in the "Sea and Ships" portion of the NMM website, but a great way to see everything it has to offer is by using the "Sea and Ships Directory" at the bottom of the homepage. It divides the material up by "Subjects", "People", "Collections", "Online Galleries", and "Games and Interactives". Visitors interested in lessons about the ocean that come in the form of games, quizzes and stories, should definitely check out the "Your Ocean" link from the "Games and Interactives". The "Your Waste" lesson gives visitors the opportunity to test their skills at "managing an oil spill clean-up operation", in the game "Oil Crisis!" Keeping waste to a minimum is what the quiz "Pollution Solutions" addresses, and is also on the "Your Waste" page. Other lessons include "Your Energy", "Your Stuff" and "Your Climate".

192

Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.  

PubMed

The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (?2?M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms. PMID:23760932

Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Béjà, Oded

2012-12-01

193

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.  

PubMed

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

1999-09-30

194

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Thomson, Joycelyn; Mitchell, Horace; Williams, Darrel

2005-02-15

195

Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle contributes significantly at most areas to sea level variability and can explain the sea level variance up to 78%. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges and allow us to identify some dominant sea level forcing parameters in the annual and semi-annual frequencies such as the Panama-Colombia gyre driven by the wind stress curl and the Caribbean Low Level Jet modulating the sea level in the northern coast of South America and linked to the local upwelling. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with large variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2012-07-01

196

Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle accounts for up to 76% of the monthly sea level variance. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges. In addition it illustrates areas where particularities in the seasonal cycle exist. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with significant variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle has a larger range than the range from the annual and semi-annual components, and peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

2012-04-01

197

Water Mass Properties and Distribution between South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A definition of water mass properties, characteristics and its origin along the coast of northern Borneo are presented based on 55 CTD casts cruises in July 2009 combined with five Argo profiling floats at surrounding seas. The T-S relation in the study area, which includes South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea, show existences of eight water masses. In reference of earlier studies, we define water masses in the surface mixed layer with strong mixed of Open Sea Water (OSW), Continental Shelf Water (CSW) and Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Below the layer of this active mixing is a zone of rapid transition called the Seasonal Thermocline Water (STW). Meanwhile, the Maximum Salinity Water (MSW), Permanent Thermocline Water (PTW), North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and Deep Water (DW) were found at the depth range from below the seasonal thermocline to about 1000 m. In addition, study of BRAN (BLUElink ReANalysis) global ocean model was conducted to demonstrate how current circulation influence the exchange of water mass between the 3 seas. Sulu Sea sits in the middle and has very limited connection between the other two seas. Connection with Celebes Sea occurs at the inlet of 200m depth. Water exchange happens in two ways; surface inflow and subsurface outflow. While in South China Sea, inlet is limited to 50m depth and surface flow is mostly dominant. The current circulation of the adjacent sea demonstrate some of the water mass were origiated as far as north South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. Water mass differences between the seas were further classified to distinguish dissimilarities and define the origin the difference. Given the unique geographical background and current circulation of the area, the characteristics of the interaction between water mass distribution and current circulation has provide important overview to the area which previously not well understood.

Fadzil Akhir, Mohd; Arsad, Shukri

2013-04-01

198

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Handout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Shell Lab teacher's guide, students will examine sea scallop shells to figure out as much as possible about the scallops living on the sea floor in one three important fishery grounds, Hudson Canyon, off New Bedford, MA, and George's Bank. The activity emphasizes observation, measurements, and basic calculations. The teacher's guide is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

199

Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

2002-01-01

200

What Causes the North Sea Level to Rise Faster over the Last Decade ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined tide gauge records (PSMSL) and satellite altimetry data (TOPEX/POSEIDON-JASON 1-2) to reconstruct the mean level of the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea Shelf (NS-NSS) over 1950-2012. The reconstructed NS-NSS mean sea level fluctuations reveal a pronounced interannual variability and a strong sea level acceleration since the mid-1990's. In order to understand the causes of this acceleration, the NS-NSS mean sea level was cross-correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation indices. While the interannual variability of the mean sea level correlates well with the NAO/AO indices, the observed acceleration in the NS-NSS mean level is not linked linearly to the NAO/AO fluctuations. On the other hand, the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis of steric sea level variations in the eastern North Atlantic gives a dominant EOF pattern (55% of variance explained) that varies on a decadal scale very closely to the NS-NSS mean level flcutuations. Also, the amplification in the temporal amplitude of the dominant steric sea level EOF corresponds to the acceleration observed in the NS-NSS mean sea level signal. This suggests that decadal variations in the mean level of the North Sea - the Norwegian Sea Shelf reflect changes in the Subpolar Front currents (Rossby, 1996).

Karpytchev, Mikhail; Letetrel, Camille

2013-04-01

201

Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although their experience at SEA may be their only hands-on exposure to scientific research, they take away an understanding of the process and an ability to think critically about scientific problems.

Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

2003-12-01

202

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

203

Volume III, Chapter 17 Steller Sea Lions  

E-print Network

Volume III, Chapter 17 Steller Sea Lions #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.0 STELLER SEA LION (EUMETOPIAS................................................................................................................. 17-8 #12;STELLER SEA LION III, 17-1 May 2004 17.0 Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) 17.1 Introduction The Steller sea lion (Eumetopia jubatus) is the largest of the eared or otariid seals in northwest

204

The USGS Salton Sea Science Office  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

Case, Harvey Lee, III; Barnum, Douglas A.

2007-01-01

205

Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

206

Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

1999-01-01

207

Aliens among us SEA-MONKEYS  

E-print Network

Aliens among us SEA-MONKEYS� FUN FACTS Did you know? Sea-Monkeys� � breathe through their legs, so adults have three. W hat is the connection between Sea-Monkeys� and aliens? Be- lieve it or not NASA scientists think it is possible that some alien life might resemble Sea-Monkeys�. Sea

Maxwell, Bruce D.

208

Clues from the Black Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students apply scientific theory and hypothesis to studies being conducted in the Black Sea. They will discuss the purpose of and theory behind the Black Sea study and use maps to explain the flood theory. Students will also write hypotheses suggesting what certain pieces of evidence might reveal about the Black Sea and the flood. Next, they will read about the researchers' discoveries and list the items they found. Students will conclude by writing plans, pretending they are going to lead the next Black Sea expedition, and hypothesizing what they might find and what those findings might signify.

209

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

210

The Sea Around Us  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our natural environment, will want to read this classic work.

Carson, Rachel L.

1991-12-01

211

NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

2003-01-01

212

Sea and Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site contains information about both astronomy and the oceans. The Sky section contains astronomical resources, news links, an image gallery, games and general links for more information. The Cosmos contains details about stars, planets, moons, pulsars, galaxies, black holes, quasars, star clusters, nebulas, dark matter and constellations. There is also a section about astronomers and a timeline of space exploration. The Sea section contains news links, aquarium resources, an image gallery, games and links for more information about the oceans. The Ocean Realm highlights the many creatures that live in the oceans. There are also details about ocean exploration and an exploration timeline.

Knight, J.

213

SeaWiFS: Bloom in the Barents Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The clouds opened up enough on July 24, 2001, over the Barents Sea to reveal part of a suspected coccolithophore bloom to SeaWiFS. The personnel attempting to raise the sunken Russian submarine, the Kursk, probably have a good view of the milky water.

2002-01-01

214

Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and

S. E. Harris; P. Joyce; G. Jaroslow; L. Graziano; C. Lea; J. Witting; A. Bower

2003-01-01

215

Two Sea-Level Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens. It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

Galvin, C.

2008-12-01

216

Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long  

E-print Network

Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long Brigham Young for mapping polar sea ice extent. In this study, a new al- gorithm for polar sea ice mapping is developed of Bayes detection to produce sea ice extent maps. Statistical models for sea ice and ocean are represented

Long, David G.

217

Sea ice terminology  

SciTech Connect

A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

Not Available

1980-09-01

218

Sea modeling and rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

2010-10-01

219

THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010  

E-print Network

Lakeshore, Lake Michigan (Michigan Sea Grant); A Taku Fisheries processing plant worker shows off a nice by the National Sea Grant Advisory Board, November 2010 National Sea Grant College Program Biennial Report

220

Deep-Sea Research I 50 (2003) 73102 GreenlandScotland overflow studied by hydro-chemical  

E-print Network

­August 1994 in the Norwegian Sea, the Faroe Bank Channel (FBC), the Iceland and Irminger Basins that the deeper portion of the ISOW in the FBC was a mixture of about equal parts of Norwegian Sea Deep Water of the ridge ðy ¼ 2:371C; S ¼ 34:97�: The most intensive mixing occurred immediately west of the FBC, probably

221

Sea Grant Newsletter Index, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The index contains all issues of newsletters that were produced in 1973 with Sea Grant support and received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD). Most of the articles in the newsletters are indexed. Some exceptions are those that merely list new pu...

P. K. Weedman

1974-01-01

222

Evidence of Ice Free Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make a model sea floor sediment core using two types of buttons to represent fossil diatoms. They then compare the numbers of diatom fossils in the sediment at different depths to determine whether the seas were free of ice while the diatoms were alive.

Dahlman, Luann; Andrill

223

Glass Munchers Under the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute article documents recent findings of bacterial life beneath the sea floor. These newly discovered bacteria are thought to live as far down as 500 meters beneath the sea floor and eat through volcanic rock, leaving behind burrows. The article contains hyperlinks to websites explaining some key vocabulary, related websites, and color photos and maps.

Mullen, Leslie; Institute, Nasa A.

224

Salton: A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

Vessey, Kristin B.

2000-09-01

225

Gallery: Sound in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sound in the Sea offers a selection of audio recordings captured beneath the ocean surface. This page contains a selection of audio files of whales, ships, seismic disturbances, and unknown noises. There are also related video and animation products, and several spectrograms and other images of ocean sound. Students can click any image to listen and learn more about sound in the sea.

226

Occurrence of rogue sea states and consequences for marine structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of occurrence of combined wave systems like wind sea and swell may increase in some ocean areas due to the observed change of storm tracks. These combined sea states, when crossing at a particular angle, may lead to more frequent occurrence of rogue events. The present study addresses these rogue-wave-prone sea states and their probabilities of occurrence. The analysis is based on hindcast data from the North Atlantic, the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Nigeria and Australia and supported by numerical simulations performed by the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM, West et al. J Geophys Res 92:11803-11824, 1987). The hindcast data have been generated by the wave model WAM. Long-term probabilistic description of significant wave height and spectral peak period is established for the selected locations and probability of occurrence of crossing rogue-wave-prone sea states is indicated. Further, the occurrence of individual rogue waves in low, intermediate and high sea states is also evaluated. The results are discussed from the perspective of design and operations of ships and offshore structures.

Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta M.; Toffoli, Alessandro

2014-10-01

227

Occurrence of rogue sea states and consequences for marine structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of occurrence of combined wave systems like wind sea and swell may increase in some ocean areas due to the observed change of storm tracks. These combined sea states, when crossing at a particular angle, may lead to more frequent occurrence of rogue events. The present study addresses these rogue-wave-prone sea states and their probabilities of occurrence. The analysis is based on hindcast data from the North Atlantic, the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Nigeria and Australia and supported by numerical simulations performed by the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM, West et al. J Geophys Res 92:11803-11824, 1987). The hindcast data have been generated by the wave model WAM. Long-term probabilistic description of significant wave height and spectral peak period is established for the selected locations and probability of occurrence of crossing rogue-wave-prone sea states is indicated. Further, the occurrence of individual rogue waves in low, intermediate and high sea states is also evaluated. The results are discussed from the perspective of design and operations of ships and offshore structures.

Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta M.; Toffoli, Alessandro

2014-08-01

228

Holocene Deep-Sea Ecosystem Variability of the Aegean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We accomplished high-resolution analyses on late glacial and Holocene benthic foraminiferal faunas and stable isotopes of two sediment cores from the deep northern and southern Aegean Sea to reconstruct the variability of paleoceanography and paleoclimate of this region. During the last glacial maximum and the transition to the Holocene diverse faunas and elevated benthic foraminiferal numbers indicate enhanced organic matter availability and well-ventilated deep-water masses. Highest organic matter availability is observed in the southern Aegean Sea. The organic matter is likely derived from a combination of elevated marine productivity as response to wind-induced mixing and the transfer of degraded organic matter from continental sources and with bottom currents. During the formation of sapropel S1, drops in benthic foraminiferal numbers and diversity are more significant at the shallower site in the southern Aegean Sea when compared to the deeper site in the northern Aegean Sea. This suggests the persistence of local deep-water formation in the northern Aegean Sea during sapropel formation. In addition, faunal fluctuations at both sites suggest the repeated influence of short-term climate changes on re-ventilation and re-colonization of deep-sea ecosystems in the whole Aegean Sea. During the middle and late Holocene the faunas indicate a clear spatial differentiation of Aegean deep-sea environments. While the southern Aegean Sea is characterized by oligotrophic and well-ventilated conditions, the faunas at the northern site reflect repeated drops in oxygenation of deep-waters. These fluctuations are likely caused by perturbations of local deep-water sources during periods of enhanced fresh-water runoff of local rivers. Particularly humid intervals are centered around 4 and 2 kyr as indicated by the presence of deep infaunal species that are adapted to low oxygen contents. Comparison with records from different climate archives suggests that these events are part of periodic millennial-scale changes in humidity of the borderlands.

Kuhnt, T.

2005-12-01

229

226Ra in the Black Sea and Sea of Marmara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water column distributions of 226Ra were determined at stations in the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea as part of the 1988 Joint U.S.—Turkish Black Sea Expedition. Black Sea surface water 226Ra concentrations were a factor of three to four lower than measurements made 20 years earlier. The most likely cause is increased removal of 226Ra and Ba [35] due to increased surface biological activity; a secondary effect is decreased fluvial discharge and related dimunition of inputs by desorption from fluvial suspended sediments. The amount of 226Ra missing from the surface waters of the Black Sea over this period is accounted for in the high-porosity surficial "fluff" sediment layer. Throughout the Black Sea, depth profiles of 226Ra exhibited pronounced maxima of approximately 25 dpm/100 L at about ? ? = 16.2-16.3 , in the vicinity of a bacterial maximum, but slightly shallower than the total dissolved Mn and Fe maxima ( ? ? = 16.4-16.5 ) reported by Lewis and Landing [38]. While the 226Ra maximum may, in part, be linked to the cycling of Mn and Fe oxyhydroxides near the O 2H 2S interface, its distribution appears to be more plausibly explained as a result of the microbial breakdown of particulate organic matter and the subsequent release and partial dissolution of associated barite in this region. A simple steady-state two-? model has been used to obtain a semiquantitative understanding of the behavior of 226Ra in the Black Sea. By incorporating reasonable estimates for the input and removal of 226Ra in the Black Sea, an excellent agreement between predicted and observed (1988) 226Ra concentrations was achieved. The model suggests that the dominant variables controlling the distribution of 226Ra in the Black Sea are riverine input and cycling with Ba.

O'Neill, Dennis J.; Todd, James F.; Moore, Willard S.

1992-05-01

230

TOC and satellite-sensed chlorophyll and primary production at the Arctic Front in the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Arctic Front region south of Jan Mayen, vertical profiles of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and hydrographic variables were measured during 3 weeks in June 2007. From time series of satellite-sensed chlorophyll, it was determined that the field studies took place in the aftermath of the culmination of the spring bloom, both on the Arctic (Icelandic Sea) and Atlantic (Norwegian Sea) sides of the Arctic Front. TOC in the upper 50 m was on average 60.9 ± 7.6 ?M C on the Arctic side and 62.3 ± 6.8 ?M C on the Atlantic side. Average in situ fluorescence was higher on the Atlantic side. Annual primary production calculated from satellite imagery showed no enhancement at the Front. To place the Frontal measurements in a larger perspective, satellite imagery over the entire Nordic (Greenland-Icelandic-Norwegian) Seas between 1998 and 2012 were studied. They showed that north of Jan Mayen the spring blooms normally last longer and culminate later with a higher concentration of chlorophyll at the peak in the colder water on the west side of the Front than in the Norwegian Sea. In the year of our expedition, the maximal concentration of satellite-sensed chlorophyll at spring bloom was three times higher in the central Greenland Sea than in the Norwegian Sea. Along the Arctic Front the maximal concentration of satellite sensed chlorophyll was always lower than in the central basins both west and east of the Front. The ordinal date of maximal spring bloom concentration of chlorophyll was negatively correlated with the maximal spring bloom chlorophyll concentration in the Norwegian and Icelandic Seas, but uncorrelated in the Greenland Sea. Interannual variation of primary production and maximal chlorophyll concentration was larger in the Greenland Sea then in the Icelandic and Norwegian Seas and we hypothesize that some of this variation is influenced by difference in energy efficiency between phototrophs and heterotrophs at low temperatures.

Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Milutinovi?, Svetlana; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.

2014-11-01

231

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-02

232

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Android app for the Illuminations online game Deep Sea Duel card game helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-29

233

The Abyss of the Nordic Seas Is Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, the multiyear oceanographic time series from ocean weather station Mike at 66°N, 2°E indicate a warming by about 0.01°C yr1 in the deep water of the Norwegian Sea. The time of onset of this warming is depth dependent, starting at 2000-m depth in 1987 but not at the 1200-m level until 1990. The warming abruptly halts

Svein Østerhus; Tor Gammelsrød

1999-01-01

234

Fire in the Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one of the largest and most devastating natural disasters of classical history that may also hold vital clues to the possible existence and fate of the lost city. In vivid prose, author Walter L. Friedrich describes the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, or Thera, sometime in the 17th or 16th century BC. This eruption, perhaps one of the largest explosions ever witnessed by humankind, sent a giant cloud of volcanic ash into the air that eventually covered settlements on the island. Friedrich relates how this event forever altered the course of civilization in the region, and inspired a mystery that has fired humanity's imagination ever since. More than 160 elegant, full-color photographs and vivid prose capture the beauty, the geology, archaeology, history, peoples and environmental setting of Santorini. Fire in the Sea will readily appeal to the general reader interested in natural catastrophies as well as the beauty of the region. It will also enchant anyone who has ever dreamt about uncovering the mystery of the legend of Atlantis. Walter Friedrich is currently an associate professor at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He has visited Santorini at least 35 times since 1975 and has published numerous scientific articles in such international journals as Nature, Lethaia, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, and other publications.

Friedrich, Walter L.

2000-05-01

235

The Aral Sea: Then and Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan asks students to consider what happens when a sea shrinks and to compare pictures of the Aral Sea at different times. They will conclude by pretending to be residents of the Aral Sea region, drawing before and after pictures of how changes to the sea have affected their lives. Students will conduct an experiment to see whether salt evaporates with water; hypothesize what might happen to people, animals, and plants living near a shrinking sea; compare satellite images of the Aral Sea from 1973 and 1999; match problems in the Aral Sea region with statements about these problems in the Aral Sea family activity; discuss changes that are occurring in the Aral Sea region; and create drawings depicting the lives of people in the Aral Sea region before and after the sea began to shrink.

236

Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

1994-01-01

237

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Vessey, Kristin B.

1999-01-01

238

Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

1993-08-01

239

Salton sea project, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

240

2013 Arctic Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Video Gallery

After an unusually cold summer in the northernmost latitudes, Arctic sea ice appears to have reached its annual minimum summer extent for 2013 on Sept. 13, the NASA-supported National Snow and Ice ...

241

A Can of Sea Worms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

Zinn, Donald J.

1977-01-01

242

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

243

Deep Sea Vents Web List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student-friendly list has eight web sites that relate to deep sea vents. A short description follows each site, listing the reference materials, interactive tools, videos, sound recordings, photo archives, or other resources that can be found there.

244

Find the Deep Sea Vent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tool helps students grasp the difficult task of locating deep sea vents. By allowing them to virtually survey a portion of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean, they get to experience the process firsthand.

245

Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2008-01-17

246

Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea ice  

E-print Network

Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea of Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness made by a modern dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and forced comprehensive data sets of observations made between 1979 and 2001 of sea ice thickness, draft, extent

Feltham, Daniel

247

Title: Improving sea level reconstructions from 1900 to 2011 using non-sea level measurements  

E-print Network

surface temperature can be leveraged to create an improved reconstructed sea level dataset spanning functions. The resulting sea level and sea surface temperature basis functions are fit to tide gauge data and historical sea surface temperature data, respectively, to produce a reconstructed sea level dataset spanning

Kim, Guebuem

248

Sea ice, atmosphere and upper ocean variability in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency domain singular value decomposition is performed on 20 years (1979-1998) of monthly sea ice concentration, sea ice drift and sea level pressure data in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Interannual oscillations with periods of around 3-4 years are found to dominate the variability in this region. Anomalous atmospheric patterns periodically reach the Weddell Sea from the west and perturb

Silvia A. Venegas; Mark R. Drinkwater

2001-01-01

249

Deep-Sea Research I 49 (2002) 895913 Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons in the Black Sea  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 49 (2002) 895­913 Anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons in the Black Sea in the Black Sea indicate that CFC-11 is non-conservative relative to CFC-12 in the strongly reducing anoxic; Mathematical models; Residence time; Tracers; Black Sea 1. Introduction The Black Sea (Fig. 1) is the world

Murray, James W.

250

Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs  

E-print Network

Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs. 2011. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs in sea surface temperature (SST) were observed, including cold fronts (colder inshore) during winter

Pineda, Jesús

251

Sea Level Variaton in the Java Sea Derived from Topex\\/Poseidon and Tide Gauge Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding and coastal erosion in the big cities like Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya are easily affected by the sea level changes of the Java Sea. Past sea level changes in the Java Sea are investigated using satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from TOPEX\\/Poseidon (T\\/P) and tide gauges between January 1993 and December 1999 are used.

Ibnu Sofian; Kozai Kozai

2004-01-01

252

SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE February 2014 National Sea Grant Office's  

E-print Network

:40pm � 11:10am Lake Champlain Sea Grant (Garber) #12;SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE � February 2014 3 11:10am at a glance USC Sea Grant at a glance TEXAS Sea Grant at a glance LAKE CHAMPLAIN Sea Grant at a glance

253

Springtime coupling between chlorophyll a, sea ice and sea surface temperature in Disko Bay, West Greenland  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Springtime coupling between chlorophyll a, sea ice and sea surface, 53°W) (using chlorophyll a concentrations as a proxy) under contrasting sea ice conditions in 2001 and 2003 (heavy sea ice) and 2002 and 2004 (light sea ice). Satellite-based observations of chlorophyll a

Laidre, Kristin L.

254

Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of terrigenous matter settles in natural sediment traps of fjords. The Barents Sea bottom has rather dissected relief. A number of isometric or, rarer, elongated underwater elevations (Perseus, Central, the Admiralty Bar, the Goose shoal) and separation trenches and troughs (South and North Barents Sea troughs, Perseus, Aldanov, Medvezhinsky, Franz Victoria, West and South Novozemelsky trenches) can be distinguished. The major processes that control a structure of the friable sedimentary cover of Arctic shelves appear on the seismic acoustic records as chaotic effect of cryolithogenesis (permafrost, themokarst, thawed patches, paleoriverbeds, etc.) and hydrocarbons migration (gas hydrates, gas saturated sediments, gas seeping, porkmarks, etc). Such phenomena are the main components of geo-risks for oil and gas fields development in Arctic Seas and are, together with the gas hydrates deposits, the top priority objects of seismic acoustic measurements. The shelf of the Barents Sea is one of the most extensively studied with high resolution acoustic methods because of large-scale engineering and geological problems solved in process of its industrial development. Mainly, it is related to exploring and development of oil and gas fields, oil terminals and submarine pipelines construction, and building up the whole infrastructure for their exploitation.

Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.

2009-04-01

255

Offshore northern sea case histories of the environmentally friendly testing vessel, the ``Crystal Sea``  

SciTech Connect

One of the problems that surfaces during offshore well test operations, stimulations, and routine workovers has been the discharges that are made into the air and sea, and in particular, the possible formation of dioxins during the combustion process. Since these operations and tests have normally been performed by mobile drilling rigs that do not have storage capacity, oil and gas sequestered during performance of the procedures are burned off from the rig flarebooms. Another major problem during well testing has been the incapability of the flare to operate at high flow rates. Since the burning process slows down the pace of a test and does not allow the well to be tested under full flow, valuable information about the well cannot be determined. In light of the economic and regulatory changes occurring in today`s oil and gas industry, the justification for development of a cost-effective, environmentally-safe alternative to flaring hydrocarbons was certainly indicated. This paper will discuss the well test vessel, ``Crystal Sea,`` and the initial two jobs on the Statfjord North Satellite Field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The success of these jobs confirms that the Crystal Sea can provide an alternative to flaring that reduces the degree of pollutants discharged from oil rigs, and at the same time, can salvage the usable oil. The sale of the salvaged oil, which would normally be lost during the flaring process, often can generate sufficient economic return to pay for the vessel. ``Crystal Sea`` is capable of receiving products at approximately twice the flow rate as is possible with conventional surface test equipment from a rig. This increased flow rate not only improves the accuracy of the technical information obtained from the well test but also provides valuable tools for improved reservoir management.

Tjelta, O.; Ashwell, C.; Hilmarsen, G.; Taylor, R.W.

1995-12-01

256

Sea Turtle Protection and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site describes the population status of each U.S. sea turtle species and how they are protected by law. Each species' scientific name, biology, threatened or endangered status, description, human impacts, population trends, distribution, and photos are documented. Read the downloadable Recovery Plans for each species, as well as learn about turtle legislation. Site also features reports and proceedings from various sea turtle symposia and conferences.

257

Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

Kalinowski, Laura

2012-09-17

258

Sea Turtle First Aid Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 4 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into testing a repair material. Groups of learners perform âfirst aidâ on a cut orange, which represents propeller damage on the back of a leatherback sea turtle. Learners use a variety of repair materials and predict how well various treatments will work, then observe treated, untreated, and uncut control oranges for 4 days. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

259

SeaWIFS: Teacher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SeaWIFS project uses space technology to study phytoplankton. Site contains: The Living Ocean Teacher's Guide, a guide for grades 9-10 that discusses satellites, ocean color, phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and greenhouse effect; Classic CZCS Scenes, a tutorial about ocean color using some of the more interesting CZCS images; and Monitoring the Earth from Space with SeaWiFS, an presentation about ocean color; and several other remote sensing resources.

260

Mapping Deep-sea Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate bathymetric mapping of deep-sea habitats to see how deep-sea areas of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands can be mapped to facilitate their exploration with a manned submersible. Students will create a two-dimensional topographic map from bathymetric survey data, a three-dimensional model of landforms from a two-dimensional topographic map, and will interpret two- and three-dimensional topographic data.

Goodwin, Mel

261

Total and organic mercury in Barents sea pelagic fish  

SciTech Connect

One of the main questions, when studying mercury levels in natural samples, is to define how far the measured concentrations correspond to natural- or background-levels or to actual contamination due to human activities. To establish background pristine levels of Hg in the marine environment, areas of very low human activities are often proposed. Arctic and Antarctic waters, together with deep oceans waters, are best suited and provide themselves for such studies. Barents Sea areas were used in this study, even if the existence of an important atmospheric transport of Hg probably caused an increase of Hg levels at a global scale. Instead of analyzing mercury from the very low concentrations in sea water, it is much easier to identify it from the higher concentrations which organisms, used as bioindicators, have built up in their tissues. By using these bioindicators to study the bioavailable fraction of the stable residues, one also integrates small scale temporal and spatial variations. Pelagic fish were used in this work to study the ecotoxicology of Hg in the Barents Sea. This study has been made possible due to recent access of the Barents Sea to western scientists and it is to serve as a complement to existing studies by the same team in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, and the southwestern part of the Barents Sea. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Joiris, C.R.; Ali, I.B.; Hoisbeek, L. Bossicart, M.; Tapia, G. [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)

1995-11-01

262

From Shore to Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

263

Applied Sea Ice Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s oil and gas development became an issue in the northern coastal areas of Alaska and Canada. More lately this has also become an issue in the Euroasian Arctic with the Barents and Kara Seas as example on where offshore hydrocarbon production now is being planned. In such waters the key questions prior to a development are related to water depths at the site and in case of ice, how frequent and what type of ice features will be met. Especially the ice conditions and knowledge about them are very decisive for the field development solutions to be chosen. The paper will highlight examples on development solutions where the ice conditions have played a paramount role in the field development plans. An example is the consequences of iceberg threaten in an area and the effect sudden changes in ice drift directions may have on the exploration and drilling solutions chosen. The paper will also discuss how to derive design ice actions values for such waters including scaling from nature to model ice basins.

Løset, S.

2009-04-01

264

DESERVE - Dead Sea Research Venue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DESERVE 'Dead Sea Research Venue' focuses on the Dead Sea region as it is a unique environment and may be considered as one of the most inspiring natural laboratories on Earth. The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. DESERVE addresses three grand challenges: Environmental Risks, Water Availability, Climate Change and comprises long term monitoring of geophysical parameters, studies of coupled processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as modeling of prediction and remediation strategies of geogenic risks. The Dead Sea has been selected for this integrated approach because it constitutes an outstanding 'natural laboratory' to study these phenomena, as - all 3 challenges are critical in this region. - the region is especially sensitive to climate change and human influences such as ground and surface water over-exploitation for agriculture and industrial purposes. - environmental processes are subject to boundary conditions that cannot be found elsewhere on Earth - understanding their interactions and the future evolution of the whole Dead Sea region are of key importance for economic development in peaceful cooperation. Results obtained in the Dead Sea region are also of prototype relevance for other (semi)-arid terminal basins of the world.

Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.

2013-12-01

265

Intermittent sea-level acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

2013-10-01

266

State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model  

E-print Network

Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...

Fenty, Ian Gouverneur

2010-01-01

267

Brief: Offshore North Sea case histories of the environmentally friendly testing vessel, the Crystal Sea  

SciTech Connect

One problem during offshore well-test operations, stimulations, and routine workovers are discharges into the air and sea while flaring. These procedures are usually performed by mobile drilling rigs with no storage capacity, and thus, hydrocarbons sequestered must be burned off from the rig flare booms. Another major problem has been the inability of the flare to operate at high flow rates. Because the burning process slows the pace of a test, restricting full flow testing, valuable well information is lost. Flaring of hydrocarbons also represents an economic loss. In the case of oil rigs, for example, flaring not only emits CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere but also burns off usable oil. The Crystal Sea well-test vessel was designed to address the problems inherent to flaring and, at the same time, provide cost efficiency by salvaging usable oil during well testing. The success of her initial two jobs on the Statfjord North satellite field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea confirms that sale of the salvaged oil normally lost during the flaring process could generate sufficient economic return to pay for the vessel. In addition, with its capability to receive products at twice the flow rate of conventional methods, the increased accuracy of the technical information obtained from the well test further enhances its value for improved reservoir management.

Tjelta, O.; Ashwell, C.; Hilmarsen, G.; Taylor, R.W.

1996-04-01

268

SeaWinds - Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

1999-01-01

269

Deep-Sea Research II 54 (2007) 25432559 Comparison of atmospheric forcing in four sub-arctic seas  

E-print Network

: the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea shelf, the Labrador Sea, and the Barents Sea. Based on data from the Labrador and the Barents Sea in the Atlantic sector is observed during the past 50 years before 2000 in the Sea of Okhotsk since 1980, in the Barents Sea since 2000, and in early spring/late winter

270

Sea Ice, an Antarctic Habitat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 'click-and-learn' sub site hosted by the Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), this is a succinct, educational tour of sea-ice and its associated ecological communities. Short synopses introduce the dynamics of sea-ice formation, the microstructure of sea-ice (including crystal structure, brine channels, and ice algae), the effects of ice melt on resident organisms, the logistics of sea-ice research, and _land fast-ice_ and platelet ice habitats. Introductions also exist for the following organisms: krill; whales (i.e., Orcas, southern bottlenosesd dolphins, minke whales); sea birds (i.e., skuas and snow petrals), penguins (i.e., emperor, adelie, and chinstraps), and seals (i.e., weddell, crabeater, leopard, and ross.) Enlargeable thumbnail images accompany the habitat and inhabitant descriptions. Further investigations (at an accelerated level) are prompted with the inclusion of bibliographic references and scientific research presentations (in PDF format) on fast-ice and platelet ice, as well as links to the main site for the AWI.

271

Thermally-forced Circulation I: Sea Breezes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the phenomena of the sea breeze. It examines factors that lead to the formation of a sea breeze, modifying effects on sea breeze development, how mesoscale NWP models handle sea breezes, and sea breeze forecast parameters. The module places instruction in the context of a sea breeze case from Florida and compares surface and satellite observations to a model simulation using the AFWA MM5. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

Spangler, Tim

2001-09-01

272

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

273

Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean Sea  

E-print Network

a low-lying low salinity `Black Sea Lake' at V7.15 ka (popularly known as the `Noah's Flood Hypothesis and persistent stratification of the water column in the Marmara Sea throughout the Holocene is entirely

Kaminski, Michael A.

274

Radiological status of the marine environment in the Barents Sea.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of Norwegian radiological monitoring of the Barents Sea in 2007, 2008 and 2009. Activity concentrations of the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am in seawater were low and up to an order of magnitude lower than in previous decades. Activity concentrations of (99)Tc in seawater were low but remain elevated compared to levels prior to the increased discharge of this radionuclide from Sellafield in the 1990s. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclide (226)Ra in seawater were comparable to expected background values. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in surface sediments were low, with higher values observed in sediments from coastal areas along the Norwegian mainland than from locations in the open sea. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (99)Tc in marine biota were low and up to an order of magnitude lower than in previous decades. Committed effective dose rates to man from anthropogenic radionuclides via the consumption of seafood from the Barents Sea were low and are not a cause for concern. Weighted absorbed dose rates to biota from anthropogenic radionuclides were low and orders of magnitude below a predicted no effect screening level of 10 ?Gy/h. Dose rates to man from consumption of seafood and dose rates to biota in the marine environment are dominated by the contribution from naturally occurring radionuclides. PMID:22776690

Gwynn, Justin P; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Gäfvert, Torbjörn; Blinova, Oxana; Eriksson, Mats; Sværen, Ingrid; Brungot, Anne Lene; Strålberg, Elisabeth; Møller, Bredo; Rudjord, Anne Liv

2012-11-01

275

Gas-related sea floor craters in the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster of craterlike depressions in the central Barents Sea are several hundred meters across, have steep walls, and are cut into underlying Triassic rocks. Their formation is explained in relation to the glacial history of the region, and a possible model suggests that gas from a deeper, thermogenic source allowed a hydrate layer of considerable thickness to form during

A. Solheim; A. Elverhøi

1993-01-01

276

Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub-eustatic values (i.e. they do not exceed the global average) and show little (but still significant) variations across the basin associated with the subsidence driven by the meltwater load. For year 2050, TIM calculations predict a sea-level rise of ~10 and ~30 cm for the mid range and the high end scenarios, respectively. Mainly because of the distinct mantle viscosity profiles adopted in ICE-5G(VM2) and KL05, the GIA patterns differ significantly and, in contrast with the TIM fingerprint, are both characterized by strong variations across the Mediterranean Sea, showing maximum values in the bulk of the basin. For the OR component, a significant geographical variation is observed across the Mediterranean sub-basins, corresponding to different Atlantic boundary conditionsAccording to this study, the total future sea-level rise for year 2050 will reach maximum values for the extreme scenario (hig-hend prediction for TIM, KL05 for GIA and EA1B2 for OR) of ˜ 27 cm in average with peak of ˜ 30 cm in the central sub-basins. Our results show that when these three components of future sea-level rise are simultaneously considered, the spatial variability is enhanced because of the neatly distinct geometry of the three fingerprints. References: Carillo, A., Sannino, G., Artale, V., Ruti, P., Calmanti, S., DellAquila, A., 2012, Clim. Dyn. 39 (9-10), 2167-2184; Fleming, K. and Lambeck, K., 2004, Quat. Sci. Rev. 23 (9-10), 1053-1077; Meehl, G.A., and 11 others, 2007, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press; Peltier W.R., 2004, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 111-149; Spada, G. and Stocchi, P., 2007, Comput. and Geosci., 33(4), 538-562; Spada G., Bamber J. L., Hurkmans R. T. W. L., 2013, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1-5, 40.

Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

2014-05-01

277

Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

1978-01-01

278

Current Research 1. Suboxic Environments Black Sea  

E-print Network

Current Research 1. Suboxic Environments ­ Black Sea The web sites for three recent cruises and sediments in the oxic/suboxic/anoxic zones of the Black Sea with ancient sediments thought to be deposited

Carrington, Emily

279

Antarctic sea ice mapping using the AVHRR  

SciTech Connect

A sea ice mapping scheme based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites has been developed and applied to daylight images taken between November 1989 to January 1990 and November 1990 to January 1991 over the Weddell and the Ross Seas. After masking the continent and ice shelves, sea ice is discriminated from clouds and open sea using thresholds applied to the multidimensional space formed by AVHRR Channel 2, 3, and 4 radiances. Sea ice concentrations in cloud-free regions are then computed using the tie-point method. Results based on the analysis of more than 70 images show that the proposed scheme is capable of properly discriminating between sea ice, open sea, and clouds, under most conditions, thus allowing high resolution sea ice maps to be produced during the austral summer season.

Zibordi, G. (Inst. for the Study of Geophysical and Environmental Methodologies, Modena (Italy)); Van Woert, M.L. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). SeaSpace, Inc.)

1993-08-01

280

AMSR2 Daily Arctic Sea Ice - 2014  

NASA Video Gallery

In this animation, the daily Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...

281

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2011-07-01

282

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

...Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2014-07-01

283

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2012-07-01

284

34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300.230 Education Regulations... Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State fiscal effort in certain...

2013-07-01

285

Sea Otter Pup Wants the Worm  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sea otter pup watches eagerly as its mother eats a fat innkeeper worm in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

286

Clues to Variability in Arctic Minimum Sea Ice Extent  

E-print Network

of the variation in winter ice extent in the Bering Sea, Barents Sea, and Sea of Okhotsk, but oceanographic forcing of these three points directly southward to the coast was recorded as a time series, except in the Barents Sea

Francis, Jennifer

287

ConcepTest: Effect of Rain on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A majority of Earth's water is in the oceans. Predict what would happen to sea level if rain fell continuously all over the world's oceans. a. Sea level would rise b. Sea level would fall c. Sea level ...

288

Diversity and Distribution of Marine Microbial Eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August

C. Lovejoy; R. Massana; C. Pedros-Alio

2006-01-01

289

The lack of relationship between overpressure and porosity in North Sea and Haltenbanken shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disequilibrium compaction (undercompaction) is probably the most accepted mechanism for explaining overpressured formations. This mechanism relies on the hypothesis that overpressured shales have higher porosity than normally pressured shales for a given depth. Converted to porosity units, log response data from two Jurassic shales at Haltenbanken and nine Cretaceous and Tertiary shales in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea

G. M. G. Teige; C. Hermanrud; L. Wensaas; H. M. Nordgård Bolas

1999-01-01

290

Sensitivity study of a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of the seasonal sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian seas is presented. The sea ice model is extracted from Oberhuber's (1990) coupled sea ice-mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model and is written in spherical coordinates. The advantage of such a model over previous sea ice models is that it can be easily coupled to either global atmospheric or ocean general circulation models written in spherical coordinates. In this model, the thermodynamics are a modification of that of Parkinson and Washington, while the dynamics use the full Hibler viscous-plastic rheology. Monthly thermodynamic and dynamic forcing fields for the atmosphere and ocean are specified. The simulations of the seasonal cycle of ice thickness, compactness, and velocity, for a control set of parameters, compare favorably with the known seasonal characteristics of these fields. A sensitivity study of the control simulation of the seasonal sea ice cover is presented. The sensitivity runs are carried out under three different themes, namely, numerical conditions, parameter values, and physical processes. This last theme refers to experiments in which physical processes are either newly added or completely removed from the model. Approximately 80 sensitivity runs have been performed in which a change from the control run environment has been implemented. Comparisons have been made between the control run and a particular sensitivity run based on time series of the seasonal cycle of the domain-averaged ice thickness, compactness, areal coverage, and kinetic energy. In addition, spatially varying fields of ice thickness, compactness, velocity, and surface temperature for each season are presented for selected experiments. A brief description and discussion of the more interesting experiments are presented. The simulation of the seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice cover is shown to be robust. 31 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

Holland, D.M.; Mysak, L.A.; Manak, D.K. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1993-02-15

291

European Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish-water seas of Europe, i.e. the Black (including the Sea of Azov), Caspian and Baltic Seas, can be regarded as\\u000a “brackish-water islands”, locked in by land masses and isolated from other major brackish-water bodies by physical (ocean\\u000a and land) barriers. During the last two centuries, more than 300 alien species have been recorded in the four seas. Introduced\\u000a species

Erkki Leppäkoski; Tamara Shiganova; Boris Alexandrov

292

State authority in an expanded territorial sea  

E-print Network

development and current status of state authority in the territorial sea. The possi- bility of the United States expanding its territorial sea to twelve miles is then examined. This paper then proceeds with an examination of what types of authoritl... territorial sea is an area in which both the state and federal governments exercise extensive rights and responsibilities. The United States currently has a three-mile territorial sea, but it appears likely that this will be expanded to twelve miles...

Fulbright, Michael Gene

2012-06-07

293

The German Sea Rescue Service (SAR).  

PubMed

The German Sea Rescue Service (GSRS) history, organisation and operations are presented. The institution was founded in 1865 to provide sea rescue services for the German coasts in the North Sea and in the Baltic Sea. Its fleet counts 61 vessels based in 54 stations of the service. In 2001, the rescue crafts were called for assistance 2428 times and 207 lives were saved. The service is supported by voluntary donations. PMID:12608596

2002-01-01

294

Development and properties of sea ice in the coastal regime of the southeastern Weddell Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

From October to December 1986 a program consisting of sea ice core analysis in combination with sea ice observations was carried out from the icebreaker R\\/V Polarstern as part of the Winter Weddel Sea Project. The ship operated in the central and southeastern Weddell Sea with interests focusing on the ice shelf front between 70°S and 77°S where a system

Hajo Eicken; Manfred A. Lange

1989-01-01

295

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 21372169 Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline. Parameterization of  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 2137­2169 Ventilation of the Black Sea pycnocline. Parameterization to understand and quantify the pathways by which passive tracers penetrate into the Black Sea intermediate strong decrease with increasing density in the Black Sea and illustrate the very slow rate of ventilation

Murray, James W.

296

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along

Roger G. Barry

2008-01-01

297

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands of the environmental, social, and economic effects of alternatives to the Steller sea lion protection measures and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is listed

298

Short Term Variability of Sea Ice Thickness in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between variability of sea ice thickness and ice dynamics, helicopter borne electromagnetic sea ice thickness sounding was performed at the APLIS ice camp in the Beaufort sea in April 2007. The field campaign includes sea ice thickness observations close to the camp with repeated flight tracks of different length scales and a transect ranging from 75°N

S. Hendricks; J. Hutchings

2007-01-01

299

Isotopic Composition and Origin of the Red Sea and Salton Sea Geothermal Brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls

H. Craig

1966-01-01

300

Salton Sea geothermal reservoir simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF) is a high salinity, high-temperature resource. Intermittent brine production\\/injection has been performed since May 1976, but no associated fluid flow data have been published. However, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has correlated the data available from surface measurements and logs from various wells in the SSGF. The limited data base and the MUSHRM simulator have

T. D. Riney; J. W. Pritchett; S. K. Garg

1978-01-01

301

Doppler Characteristics of Sea Clutter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different ...

A. M. Raynal, A. W. Doerry

2010-01-01

302

Doppler characteristics of sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can

Ann Marie Raynal; Armin Walter Doerry

2010-01-01

303

Why is the Sea Salty?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines science and art to provide an understanding about why the sea is salty. Students will obseve how salt concentration increases in water and how the salt remains after the water evaporates. They will do a salt painting using water, salt, and food coloring to observe the evaporation process.

1998-01-01

304

DDT in California Sea Lions  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE wish to report extraordinary concentrations of DDT residues* in California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, which inhabit year round the coastal waters of California and Baja California, Mexico1. These waters receive agricultural runoff from California valleys where DDT has been used extensively2-4, and where residues have been increasing in the primary stages of some coastal pelagic food chains5.

Burney J. Le Boeuf

1971-01-01

305

Past and present Aral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

2013-04-01

306

Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, B)

2007-07-14

307

Good news for sea turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the overexploitation of sea turtle populations, conservation measures are now in place in many areas. However, the overall impact of these measures is often unknown because there are few long time-series showing trends in population sizes. In a recent paper, George Balazs and Milani Chaloupka chart the number of green turtles Chelonia mydas nesting in Hawaii over the past

Graeme C. Hays

2004-01-01

308

Ploughing the deep sea floor.  

PubMed

Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

2012-09-13

309

Sea Surface Height 1993 - 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation depicts year-to-year variability in sea surface height, and chronicles two decades of El Niño and La Niña events. It was created using NASA ocean altimetry data from 1993 to 2011, ...

310

Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

311

[Medical emergencies and sea rescue].  

PubMed

Military nurses and doctors are on permanent standby to respond to any medical emergency which may arise at sea. This atypical form of practice is part of a specific organisation, in order to provide optimal, high-quality care in the most remote places of the oceans. PMID:23951619

Lefebvre, Fabien; Albert, Christophe; Gunepin, David; Pondaven, Eric; Querellou, Emgan

2013-01-01

312

Ice2sea initial progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice2sea is an EU Framework 7 funded project with 24 partners across Europe with the goal of constraining predictions of contributions of continental ice to sea-level rise over the next 200 years. We will do this through an integrated programme that includes targeted studies of key processes in mountain glacier systems and ice caps (e.g. Svalbard, Patagonia), and in ice sheets in both polar regions (Greenland and Antarctica); improved satellite determinations of changes in continental ice mass; development and implementation of ice-sheet/glacier models to generate detailed projections of the contribution of continental ice to sea-level rise over the next 200 years. We will deliver these results in forms accessible to scientists, policy-makers and the general public, which will include clear presentations of the sources of uncertainty. We are now a year into the project and in addition to some initial model output, recent field campaigns have provided data to be analysed. We summarise progress made to date, the targets for the coming year, and explain how you can stand informed and perhaps get involved in ice2sea.

Ford, Elaina; Vaughan, David

2010-05-01

313

Sea Level Rise in Tampa Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding relative sea level (RSL) rise during periods of rapid climatic change is critical for evaluating modern sea level rise given the vulnerability of Antarctic ice shelves to collapse, the retreat of the world's glaciers, and mass balance trends of the Greenland ice sheet. The first-order pattern of global sea level rise following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21,000 years

Thomas Cronin; N. Terence Edgar; Gregg Brooks; David Hastings; Rebekka Larson; Albert Hine; Stanley Locker; Beau Suthard; Benjamin Flower; David Hollander; John Wehmiller; Debra Willard; Shannon Smith

2007-01-01

314

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea

Julienne Stroeve; Mark Serreze; Sheldon Drobot; Shari Gearheard; Marika Holland; James Maslanik; Walt Meier; Ted Scambos

2008-01-01

315

3, 9991020, 2007 Summer sea ice  

E-print Network

CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page Abstract on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century H. Goosse, E #12;CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

316

Surface Impedance Tomography for Antarctic Sea Ice  

E-print Network

Surface Impedance Tomography for Antarctic Sea Ice C. Sampsona , K. M. Goldena , A. Gullya , A. P measured the electrical conductivity of sea ice via surface impedance tomography. Resistance data from, this approach assumes that the conductivity profile of sea ice does not change very much with depth. In order

Golden, Kenneth M.

317

Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham  

E-print Network

Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, Department of Earth-4189/08/0115-0091$20.00 Key Words Arctic, Antarctic, climate model Abstract The polar oceans of Earth are covered by sea ice. On timescales much greater than a day, the motion and deformation of the sea ice cover (i.e., its dynamics

Feltham, Daniel

318

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management  

E-print Network

Bering Sea Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Volume II Final Regulatory Impact Review North Pacific Administration National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region December 2009 #12;Bering Sea Chinook Salmon effects of alternative measures to minimize Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea pollock fishery

319

Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same

S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; P. Clemente-Colón; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; Y. Chao; G. Neumann; M. Ortmeyer

2008-01-01

320

South China Sea Circulation and Thermohaline Structure  

E-print Network

.H. Wang, 2003: Seasonal variability of thermohaline front in the central South China Sea. Journal, 2001: Seasonal and intrasesonal thermocline variability in the central South China Sea. Geophysical, and C.W. Fan, "Dynamical mechanisms for the South China Sea seasonal circulation and thermohaline

Chu, Peter C.

321

DNA barcoding of Brazilian sea turtles (Testudines)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five out of the seven recognized species of sea turtles (Testudines) occur on the Brazilian coast. The Barcode Initia- tive is an effort to undertake a molecular inventory of Earth biodiversity. Cytochrome Oxidase c subunit I (COI) mo- lecular tags for sea turtle species have not yet been described. In this study, COI sequences for the five species of sea

Sarah M. Vargas; Flávia C. F. Araújo; Fabrício R. Santos

2009-01-01

322

Yellow Sea Thermohaline and Acoustic Variability  

E-print Network

Yellow Sea Thermohaline and Acoustic Variability Peter C Chu, Carlos J. Cintron Naval Postgraduate School, USA Steve Haeger Naval Oceanographic Office, USA #12;Yellow Sea Bottom Sediment Chart · Four Bottom Sediment types 1. MudMud 2. Sand2. Sand 3.3. GravelGravel 4.4. RockRock #12;Yellow Sea Bottom

Chu, Peter C.

323

Projected sea level rise in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future sea level rise will lead to salt water intrusion, beach\\/dune recession, and many other coastal problems. This paper addresses a data based forecasting approach to provide relative sea level rise estimates at locations in Florida where historical water level data exist. Many past estimates of sea level rise have treated the rise as a linear straight line trend over

Todd L. Walton

2007-01-01

324

8, 27712793, 2008 Sea surface wind  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 2771­2793, 2008 Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar Y. Hu et al. Title;ACPD 8, 2771­2793, 2008 Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar Y. Hu et al. Title 8, 2771­2793, 2008 Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar Y. Hu et al. Title Page

325

[Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas. PMID:19425351

Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

2009-01-01

326

Sea water in coastal aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

Cooper, Hilton Hammond

1964-01-01

327

Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.  

PubMed

Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

2012-08-01

328

Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

2006-10-01

329

On the cloudiness and cloud types around the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years (2000-2010) of cloud ground observations from 332 synoptic stations (with 3h time resolution) for the regions around the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea were analyzed. The considered variables were: total cloud cover (TCLD), cloud cover from low or middle clouds (LMCLD), low cloud type (LCLD), middle cloud type (MCLD) and high cloud type (HCLD). Data analyses were carried out for the whole dataset and several subsets: cloudless observations, 1-layer observations, and multi-layer observations. For the whole dataset, the analyses included frequency of cloudy observations, frequency of multilayer observations, and mean TCLD. We studied also frequency of 1-layer of clouds only, and frequency of each type of clouds (low, middle, high). Results show a large spatial and seasonal variability with respect to TCLD, cloud types and the frequency of multilayer cloud observations. Moreover, over the ten-year period, the evolution of the annual mean TCLD is investigated, showing a positive trend in the northern region of the Black Sea. Acknowledgements: This work has been undertaken within the frame and support of the CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512).

Badosa, J.; Dmitrieva, L. R.; Shatunova, M.; Chumako, M.; Khan, V.; Calbó, J.; González, J.-A.

2012-04-01

330

Modeling the Structure of the Sea Anemone, Stomphia Coccinea and the Sea Star, Dermasterias Imbricata Using Implicit Surfaces  

E-print Network

Modeling the Structure of the Sea Anemone, Stomphia Coccinea and the Sea Star, Dermasterias invertebrates, the sea anemone, Stomphia Coccinea, and the sea star, Dermas- terias Imbricata. The sea star arrangement of the sea anemone's tentacles. Using a hierarchical construction of the model, we can re- fine

Wyvill, Brian

331

Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.  

PubMed

A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694

Haltrin, V I

1999-02-20

332

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

333

Intermediate water ventilation in the Nordic seas during MIS 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution marine record from the northern Norwegian continental margin off Lofoten is used to reconstruct changes in the oceanography of the Nordic seas during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2 including the Last Glacial Maximum and early deglaciation circa 25 to 16 ka. The period was characterized by generally warm subsurface water temperatures >2°C and inflow of Atlantic surface water. Several events were characterized by decrease in ventilation of the intermediate water and low subsurface temperature and salinity. They correlate with colder atmospheric temperatures as seen in ice cores. The events terminated with gradual strengthening of the intermediate water ventilation and increase in subsurface temperature. The generation of intermediate water was unstable and experienced climate and ventilation changes on millennial and centennial timescales. The changes appear consistent with modeling experiments that predict short-lasting circulation stops during MIS 2 due to release of meltwater in the Nordic seas.

RøRvik, Kari-Lise; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Hald, Morten; Husum, Katrine

2013-05-01

334

Sea ice in the Baltic Sea A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the seasonal ice cover of the Baltic Sea has many similarities to its oceanic counterpart in Polar Seas and Oceans, there are many unique characteristics that mainly result from the brackish waters from which the ice is formed, resulting in low bulk salinities and porosities. In addition, due to the milder climate than Polar regions, the annual maximum ice extent is highly variable, and rain and freeze-melt cycles can occur throughout winter. Up to 35% of the sea ice mass can be composed from metamorphic snow, rather than frozen seawater, and in places snow and superimposed ice can make up to 50% of the total ice thickness. There is pronounced atmospheric deposition of inorganic nutrients and heavy metals onto the ice, and in the Bothnian Bay it is estimated that 5% of the total annual flux of nitrogen and phosphorus and 20-40% of lead and cadmium may be deposited onto the ice fields from the atmosphere. It is yet unclear whether or not the ice is simply a passive store for atmospherically deposited compounds, or if they are transformed through photochemical processes or biological accumulation before released at ice and snow melt. As in Polar sea ice, the Baltic ice can harbour rich biological assemblages, both within the ice itself, and on the peripheries of the ice at the ice/water interface. Much progress has been made in recent years to study the composition of these assemblages as well as measuring biogeochemical processes within the ice related to those in underlying waters. The high dissolved organic matter loading of Baltic waters and ice result in the ice having quite different chemical characteristics than those known from Polar Oceans. The high dissolved organic material load is also responsible in large degree to shape the optical properties of Baltic Sea ice, with high absorption of solar radiation at shorter wavelengths, a prerequisite for active photochemistry of dissolved organic matter. Land-fast ice in the Baltic also greatly alters the mixing characteristics of river waters flowing into coastal waters. River plumes extend under the ice to a much greater distance, and with greater stability than in ice-free conditions. Under-ice plumes not only alter the mixing properties of the waters, but also result in changed ice growth dynamics, and ice biological assemblages, with the underside of the ice being encased, in the extreme case, with a frozen freshwater layer. There is a pronounced gradient in ice types from more saline ice in the south to freshwater ice in the north. The former is characteristically more porous and supports more ice-associated biology than the latter. Ice conditions also vary considerably in different parts of the Baltic Sea, with ice persisting for over half a year in the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea, the Bothnian Bay. In the southern Baltic Sea, ice appears only during severe winters.

Granskog, Mats; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Kuosa, Harri; Thomas, David N.; Vainio, Jouni

2006-10-01

335

Sea level trends and interannual variability in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level trends and interannual variability has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 19 stations. Relative sea level trends range between -2.0 and 10.7 mm/y depending on the length of the available record. Records from stations longer than 40 years converge toward values between 1.2 - 5.2 mm/yr, still a significant range which in some stations is less and in some other significantly larger than the global average. The longest station, Cristobal (102 years) shows a trend of 1.9 mm/yr and, in addition a significant acceleration of 1.6±0.3 mm/y/cy. The observed sea level trends are not affected by the atmospheric pressure effect, within the levels of significance. They are also the same (within the levels of significance) at all seasons. Altimetry shows trends (over 18 years of data) with values up to 5.2 mm/y. In some areas the values are statistically insignificant, but at no areas statistically significant negative values are found. Steric trends from the top 800 m (over the period of altimetric observations) have a basin average trend of 1 mm/y, but it shows large spatial variability with negative trends of -7 mm/y in the Yucatan Basin and positive trends up to 4.9 mm/y in the Venezuela Basin. Decadal trends were found to vary significantly at tide-gauge records as well as altimetric and steric measurements. We further explore the residual interannual variability by comparison with surface wind and climatic indices. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

2012-04-01

336

The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

2013-11-01

337

Lithosphere-scale 3D gravity modelling of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents - Kara Sea region covers the major part of the European Arctic shelf. Its northern and western boundaries are young passive margins which originate from early Paleocene-Eocene opening of the Eurasia Basin and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. In contrast, the basement of the Barents and Kara shelves has been consolidated much earlier, during three major late Precambrian to Permian orogenies. Additionally, the shelf experienced multiple episodes of localised subsidence which resulted in the formation of ultra-deep sedimentary basins varying strongly in their geometry between different subregions. Consequently, the preserved sedimentary record is interrupted by major megasequence boundaries that are well-described in the western Barents Sea. Using this subdivision for the sedimentary record, we traced four major megasequence boundaries across the Barents and Kara shelves by analysing interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3D-models. We integrate this shallow information into a 3D geological model and complement the latter downward with the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a new lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The sedimentary units have been assigned physical properties considering the respective lithology to calculate a depth-dependent density distribution. Thereby, the obtained bulk densities also account for late Cenozoic uplift/erosion and the maximum Pleistocene ice sheet thickness. For the lithospheric mantle, the density distribution is constrained by an earlier published velocity model (Levshin et al., 2007). On the base of isostatic calculations and 3D gravity modelling the density configuration of the crystalline crust and the geometry of potential high-density bodies is investigated. Finally, we correlate preserved sediment maxima and reconstructed erosion maps with subsedimentary velocity and density variations to gain new insights into the development of Barents and Kara Sea basins. Levshin, A. L., Schweitzer, J., Weidle, C., Shapiro, N. M., & Ritzwoller, M. H. (2007). Surface wave tomography of the Barents Sea and surrounding regions. Geophysical Journal International, 170(1), 441-459. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03285.x

Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.

2013-12-01

338

Contemporary Sea Level Variations, Observations and Causes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level change is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. For example, as the ocean warms in response to global warming, seawaters expand, and thus sea level rises. When mountain glaciers melt in response to increasing air temperature, sea level rises because of freshwater mass input to the oceans. Similarly, ice mass loss from the ice sheets causes sea level rise. Corresponding increase of freshwater into the oceans changes water salinity, hence seawater density as well as ocean circulation that in turn affects sea level and its spatial variability. Modification of the land hydrological cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing leads to increased or decreased runoff, hence ultimately to sea level change. Hence local and regional climate changes may affect the sea level.

Cazenave, Anny

339

Episodic sea-floor spreading in the Southern Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea represents the most spectacular example of a juvenile ocean basin on the modern Earth. Synthesis of regional aeromagnetic data, gravity data, seismic refraction data coupled with structural mapping from the Farasan Islands suggest that the opening of the Red Sea is complex and episodic. Modeling of magnetic and gravity data constrained by seismic refraction data reveals the Arabian Shelf is underlain by oceanic and transitional crust and that mafic diking and intrusions are focused at the continental-transitional crust boundary. This relationship is interpreted to indicate that early Miocene diking along the Arabian Escarpment heralded termination of oceanic basin formation and a shift in the locus of extension focused from a central mid-ocean ridge spreading center to the continental-transitional crust zone. Uplift along the Arabian Escarpment caused erosion and Middle to Late Miocene sedimentation of the Farasan Bank onto existing oceanic crust, suggesting that the extensive sedimentary banks of the southern Red Sea are not passive margins. Re-initiation of spreading occurred at ca 5 Ma. Pliocene to Pleistocene Shelf reef systems (Farasan Islands), developed on the flanks of the spreading ridge, are extensively overprinted by normal faults, suggesting that not all crustal extension is accommodated by active spreading.

Almalki, Khalid A.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent

2014-03-01

340

Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

2012-07-01

341

Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

2014-02-01

342

Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

2011-01-01

343

Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines  

PubMed Central

The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine’s unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine’s architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material. PMID:22984468

Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

2012-01-01

344

Journey to Deep Sea Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about deep sea vents. Kids are introduced to these underwater geysers and to the Alvin submersible by Ro Kinzler, an Earth scientist at the Museum. They then have the opportunity to travel to the bottom of the ocean aboard a virtual submersible, learning about the zones they pass through and their inhabitants. A game allows kids to explore and collect specimens from one of the mineral chimneys found at a deep sea vent. When they have collected all nine living things at the vent, they are rewarded with a desktop image.

345

Salton Sea Geothermal Reservoir Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) is a high-salinity, high-temperature resource. The San Diego Gas & Electric Company has constructed a nominal 10 MWe Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF) which will use brine produced from Magma Power Companyâs Woolsey No. 1 (W1) and Magmamax No. 1 (M1) wells; the Magmamax No. 2 (M2) and No. 3 (M3) wells will be

T. D. Riney; J. W. Pritchett; S. K. Garg

1977-01-01

346

Swimming with Sea Cows: Manatees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When manatees were first seen by Columbus, he thought they were mermaids..but he had been at sea for a long time! Today these gentle marine mammals are threatened by loss of habitat and collisions with boats. This video segment explores the endangered manatees of Florida and their struggle to survive, as well as some of the people who are working to save them. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

347

Tides of the Caribbean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, and

Björn Kjerfve

1981-01-01

348

NOAA Teacher At Sea Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

349

Salton Sea solar pond project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

1980-01-01

350

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

2002-01-01

351

Respiration in neonate sea turtles.  

PubMed

The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings' response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ventilation characteristics that are similar to those of adults: a single breath followed by a long respiratory pause, slow frequency, and high metabolic rate. With hypercapnic challenge, both species responded primarily by elevating respiratory frequency via a decrease in the non-ventilatory period. Leatherback resting tidal volume increased with age but otherwise, neither species' resting respiratory pattern nor response to gas challenge changed significantly over the first few days after hatching. At the time of nest emergence, sea turtles have achieved a respiratory pattern that is similar to that of actively diving adults. PMID:17258487

Price, Edwin R; Paladino, Frank V; Strohl, Kingman P; Santidrián T, Pilar; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R

2007-03-01

352

Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea, isolated from the neighboring ocean below 570 m, is nearly isothermal below 1250 m but with a marked salinity increase with depth. The source of the deep Sulu Sea water has been attributed to South China Sea water overflowing the 570 m topographic sill of Panay Strait. However, the Panay overflow (estimated as 0.32 × 106 m3/sec) is an unlikely source for the saltier water Sulu Sea deep water. We propose that deep Sulu Sea ventilation is derived from the south, from the Sulawesi Sea through Sibutu Passage. Sulawesi Sea water between 245 to 527 m, is mixed and heaved over the Sibutu Passage 234 m sill by the energetic tidal environment. Oxygen concentrations within the deep Sulu Sea suggest that the Sulawesi overflow is 0.15 × 106 m3/sec, with a residence time of Sulu Sea deep water of 60 years. The deep tropical Sulu Sea has the unique distinction of being ventilated from two separate sources, whose ratio may fluctuate across a range of temporal scales, associated with regional thermocline depth changes.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Tessler, Zachary D.; Villanoy, Cesar

2011-09-01

353

Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

2008-12-01

354

A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.  

PubMed

Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series. PMID:22430308

Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

2012-11-01

355

Sea level reconstructions: Validation and value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to see how sea level has changed from past states or to accurately project how it will change in the future is limited by historical sea level data. Tide gauge measurements have a long temporal record but limited spatial coverage and satellite altimetry provides global measurements but has only been available for 20 years. Reconstructions extend spatially dense datasets, such as those from satellite altimetry, by decomposing the dataset into basis functions and fitting those functions to in-situ tide gauge measurements with a longer temporal record. A longer temporal record allows one to separate signals that cannot be found in the relatively short altimeter record. However, the fidelity and utility of sea level reconstructions is still a topic of discussion. I compare and evaluate two methods for reconstructing sea level and show how reconstructions can be beneficial where other sea level datasets are limited. The compared sea level reconstruction methods differ in the technique for calculating basis functions, i.e. empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) versus cyclostationary EOFs (CSEOFs). Additionally, I use published sea level reconstruction datasets to analyze changes in the North Equatorial Current bifurcation point, in regional trends in the Southeast Asian Seas, and in the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to global sea level over the last 60 years. These results give direction for making high quality sea level reconstructions and identify significant scientific findings made possible through reconstructing sea level. Sea level reconstructions provide the ability to separate natural recurring signals from those that are historically unprecedented, such as the rise in global mean sea level, which is an unparalleled virtue given the current state of the climate.

Strassburg, Mathew David West

356

Weyl's Theory of Glaciation Supported by Isotopic Study of Norwegian Core K 11.  

PubMed

Oxygen-18 analyses of pelagic and benthic foraminifera from core K 11 indicate that during the last glaciation Norwegian Sea bottom waters were warmer than in modern times and had the same physical parameters (temperature, oxygen isotope ratio, and salinity) as the North Atlantic deep water. This result indicates that the glacial Norwegian Sea was not a sink for dense surface water, as it is now, and that during glacial times North Atlantic deep water invaded the deep Norwegian basin. PMID:17818162

Duplessy, J C; Chenouard, L; Vila, F

1975-06-20

357

Nd isotopes in deep-sea corals in the Northeastern Atantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd, Mn and Ca concentrations and ?Nd have been investigated on living and fossil L. pertusa, D. dianthus and M. oculata deep-sea corals located between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Norwegian Sea. ?Nd has been also analysed on seawater collected at similar location and water depth than living deep-sea corals in the Bay of Biscay. A rigorous cleaning technique has been developed to remove Nd contamination of the deep-sea corals from manganese-oxide and iron hydroxide coatings. Nd isotopic compositions have been analysed using mass spectrometric Nd-oxide measurements. Mn and Nd concentrations have been systematically analysed to control the efficiency of the applied cleaning protocol. Nd concentration of living deep-sea corals incorporated in the aragonite skeleton varies between 6 and 90 ppb. A slight increasing trend of Nd/Ca ratios is observed along with water depth, qualitatively in agreement with Nd behaviour in seawater. Nd isotopic compositions of living deep-sea corals located from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Norwegian Sea vary from -9.8 to -14.1 and match Nd of seawater bathing the corals. These observed Nd isotopic gradients demonstrate the capability of various corals species to record the Atlantic mid depth Nd isotopic gradients influenced by ocean circulation pattern and Nd fluxes. Consequently, solitary and constructional deep-water corals species can serve as archive of past seawater Nd isotopic compositions. In addition, we demonstrate that ?Nd of fossils deep-sea corals, dated by 230Th/U method, indicate strong hydrological changes at ~700m in the NE Atlantic during the last 2000 yrs that may be linked to changes of the inflow into the Nordic Seas.

Copard, K.; Colin, C.; Freiwald, A.; Douville, E.; Gudmundsson, G.; de Mol, B.; Frank, N.

2009-12-01

358

The expected impact of the “Peace Conduit” project (the Red Sea - Dead Sea pipeline) on the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea is a severely disturbed ecosystem, greatly damaged by anthropogenic intervention in its water balance. During\\u000a the 20th century, the Dead Sea level dropped by more than 25 meters, and presently (2003) it is at about 416 meters below\\u000a mean sea level. This negative water balance is mainly due to the diversion of water from the catchment area

Ittai Gavrieli; Amos Bein; Aharon Oren

2005-01-01

359

The Expected Impact of the Peace Conduit Project (The Red Sea – Dead Sea Pipeline) on the Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dead Sea of Israel, Jordan and Syria is a severely disturbed ecosystem, greatly damaged by anthropogenic intervention\\u000a in its water balance. During the 20 th century, the Dead Sea level dropped by more than 25 meters, and presently (2003) it\\u000a is at about 416 meters below mean sea level. This negative water balance is mainly due to the diversion

Ittai Gavrieli; Amos Bein; Aharon Oren

2005-01-01

360

Holocene sea level change along the coasts of China and South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reconstructed the Holocene sea-level history in China and South China Sea (between the equator and 40°N) by reviewing published relative sea-level and sediment records. The collected 14C dates of sea-level indicators were calibrated to calendar years before present. Details of the lithostratigraphy, micro-fossil evidence and sedimentary characteristics of the sediment records were used for quantifying the vertical relationship to local reference tidal level for each of the sea-level indicators. The corrected data were plotted to produce sea-level curves. The reconstructed sea-level curves uniformly confirm a phase of rapid sea-level rise before 8000 cal. yr BP and show marked spatial differences between latitudes. In the southern sector (southern South China Sea), relative sea level reached a highstand of c. 2 m around 5800 cal. yr BP. In the northern sector (Bohai Bay and the Yellow Sea), however, relative sea level continued to rise over the past 6000 years at a slow rate. This series of sea-level curves provide an opportunity to evaluate the effects of hydro-isostatic processes along this coast. In addition, localized tectonic movements can also be identified.

Sun, Yiying; Zong, Yongqiang

2014-05-01

361

Coupled Sea Ice–Ocean-State Estimation in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay  

E-print Network

Sea ice variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection, mode-water formation, and the North Atlantic atmospheric circulation. Historically, quantifying the relationship ...

Fenty, Ian

362

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.  

PubMed

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

2013-01-01

363

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea  

PubMed Central

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ‘deep-sea’ and ‘cold-water’ corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

Roder, C.; Berumen, M. L.; Bouwmeester, J.; Papathanassiou, E.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Voolstra, C. R.

2013-01-01

364

A study of mobile trough genesis over the Yellow Sea - East China Sea region  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation of mobile troughs over a prolific source region in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Two mobile troughs which intensified significantly after formation were...

Komar, Keith Nickolas

2012-06-07

365

Activities of the balkan, black sea and caspian sea regional network on space weather studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is given about activities, including the Annual Meeting of the Balkan, Black Sea and Caspian Sea Regional Network on Space Weather Studies held in 2006, Antalya, Turkey, and publication of papers presented in this Meeting.

A. Ozguc

2007-01-01

366

50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipment and personnel upon request to determine the vessel's position. (4) Notify the sea sampler/observer in a timely fashion of when fishing operations are to begin and end. (5) Allow for the embarking and debarking of the sea...

2010-10-01

367

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

J. L. Schramm; J. A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1995-01-01

368

4, 107128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift  

E-print Network

OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel et al. Title Page Abstract aspects of the sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel 1 , V. N. Smirnov 2 , and L. V. Panov 2 1 to: A. Chmel (chmel@mail.ioffe.ru) 107 #12;OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

CATASTROPHIC FLOODING OF THE BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Decades of seabed mapping, reflection profiling, and seabed sampling reveal that throughout,the past two million years the Black Sea was predominantly,a freshwater lake interrupted only briefly by saltwater invasions coincident with global sea level highstand. When,the exterior ocean lay below,the relatively shallow sill of the Bosporus outlet, the Black Sea operated in two modes. As in the neighboring

William B. F. Ryan; Candace O. Major; Gilles Lericolais; Steven L. Goldstein

2003-01-01

370

Oscillating Quaternary water levels of the Marmara Sea and vigorous outflow into the Aegean Sea from the Marmara Sea–Black Sea drainage corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed interpretation of single-channel air-gun and deep-tow boomer profiles demonstrates that the Marmara Sea, Turkey, experienced small-amplitude (?70 m) fluctuations in sea level during the later Quaternary, limited in magnitude by the sill depth of the Strait of Dardanelles. Moderate subsidence along the southern shelf and Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level variations created several stacked deltaic successions, separated by major shelf-crossing unconformities,

A. E Aksu; R. N Hiscott; D Ya?ar

1999-01-01

371

The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project  

SciTech Connect

The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs.

Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

1994-07-01

372

Climate Change and Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module looks at how increasing temperatures due to climate change have affected sea level rise and what effects scientist expect in the future, given rising greenhouse gas emissions. The various mechanisms of sea level rise are discussed, as well as the tools and research used to study this topic. The module also discusses how countries and communities are preparing for future increases in sea levels.

Comet

2012-08-14

373

Anomalous sea surface reverberation scale model experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low frequency sea surface sound backscattering from ?100Hz to a few kHz observed from the 1960s broadband measurements using explosive charges to the Critical Sea Test measurements conducted in the 1990s is substantially higher than explained by rough sea surface scattering theory. Alternative theories for explaining this difference range from scattering by bubble plumes\\/clouds formed by breaking waves to stochastic

T. H. Neighbors; L. Bjørnø

2006-01-01

374

Focus Issue: Spiky Signalers from the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week’s issue of Science’s STKE complements the special issue of Science featuring the Sea Urchin Genome. With new insights gleaned from the 814-Mb genome of the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and its estimated 23,000 genes, this organism holds many secrets to help us understand cell signaling and the evolution of regulatory systems in biology. Two STKE Perspectives discuss signal transduction during early development in the sea urchin.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science's STKE and Science REV)

2006-11-14

375

South China Sea WWW Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South China Sea WWW Virtual Library is a new subsection of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library edited by David Rosenberg, professor of political science at Middlebury College (Vermont). This site will serve as a centralized resource for students, researchers, and policymakers interested in South China Sea regional development, environment, and security issues. The South China Sea WWW VL links to online publications, databases, maps, images, related institutions, and a print bibliography.

Rosenburg, David

376

Oil industry and government strategy in the North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Comparative analysis of British and Norwegian policies focuses on the interdependence and bargaining relationship between governments and oil companies, as well as the relevant policy choices, concerns, and constraints for the two governments. The history of North Sea development is also a history of the learning processes that took place on both sides. As a result of the dynamics of the international context as well as a result of government learning, the bargaining relationship between governments and oil companies has been gradually changed to the benefit of the government; however, the governments are often slow to catch up with the development of market forces and to fully use their own bargaining positions, thus leaving room for substantial private profits. Consequently, aspects such as depletion policy, field development organization, taxation, related industrial and economic policies, and the concessionary system itself need to be reviewed more often and more critically than has so far been the case. In dealing with the oil industry, the British and Norwegian governments have to some extent exposed their own strengths and weaknesses. The strength of the British administration is seen to be a fairly thorough implementation of policies, whereas the strength of the Norwegian administration seems to be a clear definition of goals and preferences. 388 references, 4 figures, 34 tables.

Noreng, O.

1980-01-01

377

Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the

S. Stanichny; A. Davidov; S. Djenidi; U. Horstmann; R. Stanichnaya; D. Soloviev

2004-01-01

378

Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey  

E-print Network

Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey · Sea Lion Species · California Sea Lions (not listed) - increasing · Steller Sea Lions eDPS (threatened) ­ increasing (delisting review under way, June 2010) · Steller Sea Lions wDPS (endangered) - decreasing · Predators ­ varied diet

379

Case Study 1 Monitoring Green Tides in Chinese Marginal Seas  

E-print Network

are delivered to the ocean. In Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and Bohai Sea as Enteromorpha prolifera, see Hayden et al., 2003) occurred in coastal and offshore waters in the Yellow Sea (YS of macroalgae Ulva prolifera in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea near Qingdao, China. (a) and (b) Macroalgae

Meyers, Steven D.

380

Relative sea level rise in China and its socioeconomic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global sea level rise over the past 100 years is 1 to 2 mm\\/yr, and the best estimate of sea level rise is 18 cm in 2030. In Chinese major deltas, owing to large land subsidence, relative sea level rise reaches 10 to 20 mm\\/yr. Therefore, potential coastal risks from further sea level rise is great. Impact of sea level

1994-01-01

381

Coastal Consequences of Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the evidence for sea level rise related to global climate change and the consequences for humanity, especially for coastal-dwelling populations. Learners explore how a warming climate contributes to sea level rise, examine how satellites collect sea level data, and analyze interactive data to understand the potential consequences of climate change on sea level in different parts of the world. Multimedia educational resources including video clips and glossary links to vocabulary are included. This is the seventh of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

382

Bottom Pressure Variability in the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We deployed an array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments at Jeddah, Thuwal and Rabigh along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea for a period of 3 years. This PTC array accurately measured the regional tidal variability of the bottom pressure field and characterized the low frequency along-shore pressure, temperature and salinity gradients and their variability. Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. On time scales of order 1 day the most energetic component of sea level variability was the semidiurnal and diurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. On time scales of order 10 days the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. On yearly time scales the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10 mb and was highest in January thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. Higher sea level in winter months may be due to a convergence in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress. The amplitude of the principal tidal and subtidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Limeburner, R.; Abualnaja, Y.; Beardsley, R.

2012-04-01

383

Population status of California sea otters  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

Not Available

1988-11-30

384

Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, designed for K-12 teachers and students, offers materials and activities based on the "Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure" mission to explore deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Students can step into the shoes of deep-sea scientists as they follow the expedition and listen to recordings of student communications with the researchers via e-mail and telephone calls placed directly to Alvin, a research submersible, as it made its way deep into the Pacific. Topics include sea creatures, geology, plate tectonics, and chemistry of the deep ocean. Video clips are also provided to help students visualize the underwater experience.

2004-08-08

385

Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

2013-09-01

386

Changes in Sea Ice: Antarctic vs. Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice in summer 2007, the summer extent of the Arctic sea ice cover has been at the lowest levels on record, with a new record minimum seen in 2012. The steep decline occurred after years of shrinking and thinning of the ice cover not only in summer but also in other seasons. Meanwhile, satellite passive microwave images show that there has been a modest net increase in the Antarctic sea ice extent since 1979. This upward trend is caused by a significant increase in ice concentration in most of the Indian sector and parts of the Atlantic and Pacific sectors including areas in the Weddell and Ross seas, as shown by satellite ice concentration data. However, satellite data also show that ice concentration has decreased considerably in some areas in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors, particularly around the Antarctic Peninsula. This highlights the complex variability and trend patterns of the Antarctic sea ice cover. In an effort to shed light on the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover, a comparative model study is conducted to examine its variability and trends relative to the behavior of the Arctic sea ice cover over 1979-2012, using the Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (GIOMAS). We compare changes in sea ice extent, volume, motion, deformation, internal interaction, ridging, growth, and melt in both polar regions. We also explore the differences in sea ice response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing in the polar regions.

Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

387

Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), is the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. The PSMSL data set is the main source of information on long term changes in global sea level during the last two centuries. This site contains data sets, and information on other services such as vertical land movements and air pressure. There are answers to frequently asked questions about sea level changes, packets on data use available, annual reports, and other contacts for more information.

388

La Niña caused global sea level drop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 La Niña was so strong that it caused global mean sea level to drop by 5 millimeters, a new study shows. Since the early 1990s, sea level has been rising by about 3 millimeters per year, satellite data show. But between the beginning of 2010 and the middle of 2011, sea level fell by 5 millimeters. This occurred concurrently with the La Niña phase of the El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO involves a shift in ocean surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific and changes in precipitation patterns around the world. Previous studies have shown that strong El Niño events can increase sea level temporarily.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-12-01

389

Sea level rise and its coastal impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming in response to accumulation of human-induced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere has already caused several visible consequences, among them increase of the Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content, melting of glaciers, and loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Ocean warming and land ice melt in turn are causing sea level to rise. Sea level rise and its impacts on coastal zones have become a question of growing interest in the scientific community, as well as in the media and public. In this review paper, we summarize the most up-to-date knowledge about sea level rise and its causes, highlighting the regional variability that superimposes the global mean rise. We also present sea level projections for the 21st century under different warming scenarios. We next address the issue of the sea level rise impacts. We question whether there is already observational evidence of coastal impacts of sea level rise and highlight the fact that results differ from one location to another. This suggests that the response of coastal systems to sea level rise is highly dependent on local natural and human settings. We finally show that in spite of remaining uncertainties about future sea levels and related impacts, it becomes possible to provide preliminary assessment of regional impacts of sea level rise.

Cazenave, Anny; Cozannet, Gonéri Le

2014-02-01

390

Correlating the shallow and the deep 3D-structure of the Barents Sea/ Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea and Kara Sea continental shelf region is located in the northern European Arctic. The crustal configuration of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region exhibits a complex architecture of the sedimentary cover which implies the influence of diverse causative geological processes. The narrow and deep basins of the southwestern Barents Sea characterise rift basins which have been filled with thick sediments predominantly Mesozoic in age. In contrast, the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea are marked by a wide and deep basin architecture which indicates basin formation mechanisms apart from rifting. There, the sedimentary succession yields Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Cenozoic deposits are restricted to the southwesternmost parts of the Barents Sea and the oceanic domain. The lack of sediments on the shelf is attributed to strong Pleistocene uplift, subsequent erosion and recurring ice sheet coverage of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. The modelled area covers about 5 million km² with a maximum longitudinal and latitudinal extent of 2180 and 2400 km, respectively, and comprises regions beyond the Barents Sea and Kara Sea such as parts of Greenland, Fennoscandia and western Siberia. This study presents the lithospheric density configuration below the greater Barents Sea/ Kara Sea region. Thereby, five sedimentary megasequences are differentiated across the entire study area. Each unit is modelled with matrix densities and depth dependent porosities to calculate the bulk densities. The respective compaction curves reflect that strong late Cenozoic erosion and ice sheet coverage removed particularly less dense sediments on Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya, while in the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea erosion was less effective. Thus, the obtained sedimentary bulk densities vary laterally distinctively. The density setup of the subsedimentary lithosphere beneath the Barents shelf is defined by a high-resolution, velocity-converted density grid. This dataset is tested the first time against gravity to further constrain the 3D density model. Interestingly, region that experienced weaker Cenozoic erosion are underlain by a heavier mantle density composition.

Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

2013-04-01

391

Sea Level Trend in the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea : A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level change is an index of global change especially the global warming. Global sea level is rising at 1.8 mm\\/yr (IPCC,2007), but few studies have been conducted regarding local sea level change and there is virtually no systematic study in the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea. The objective of this research is to determine the rate of

Sommart Niemnil; Marc Naeije; Itthi Trisirisatayawong

2010-01-01

392

Unlocking a Sea Ice Secret  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Rachel Obbard and her research group from Dartmouth College traveled to the Antarctic to collect samples of sea ice. Next stop: the GeoSoilEnviroCARS x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. This U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron x-ray research facility gave the Obbard team the frontier scientific tools they needed to study the path bromide takes as it travels from the ocean to the atmosphere.

Dr. Rachel Obbard

2013-04-22

393

Sea Level: Ice Volume Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students observe simulations of melting sea ice and a melting continental ice sheet in order to investigate the relationship between the melting of the ice and the water level in the tank. The water tanks simulate the world oceans. In the first example, the ice is floating in water. This would be an example of icebergs or Arctic ice floating on the ocean. In the second example the ice lies on a wood structure. The structure simulates a continent. The block of ice on top of the structure simulates ice grounded on top of a continent. This would be an example of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.

394

Rulers of the Jurassic Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available free from Scientific American's Website, this article takes a thorough and fascinating look at the marine reptiles known as Ichthyosaurs that lived during the Mesozoic Era. The text covers recent discoveries about the evolution of Ichthyosaurs from land dwelling reptiles, including limb adaptations. Highlights of the article are special sections about ichthyosaur eyes and diet, and color illustrations and diagrams. The text contains hyperlinks to related pages (Britannica.com, Tree of Life, American Cetacean Society, etc.). "Rulers of the Jurassic Seas" is a good read for students of paleontology or marine science.

Motani, Ryosuke.

2000-01-01

395

Long term sea level change and water mass balance in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level anomalies observed by altimeter during the 1993-2006 period, thermosteric sea level anomalies estimated by using subsurface temperature data produced by Ishii and SODA reanalysis data, tide gauge records and HOAPS freshwater flux data were analyzed to investigate the long term sea level change and the water mass balance in the South China Sea. The altimeter-observed sea level showed a rising rate of (3.5±0.9) mm yr-1 during the period 1993-2006, but this figure was considered to have been highly distorted by the relatively short time interval and the large inter-decadal variability, which apparently exists in both the thermosteric sea level and the observed sea level. Long term thermosteric sea level from 1945 to 2004 gave a rising rate of 0.15±0.06 mm yr-1. Tide gauge data revealed this discrepancy and the regional distributions of the sea-level trends. Both the ‘real’ and the thermosteric sea level showed a good correspondence to ENSO: decreasing during El Niño years and increasing during La Niña years. Amplitude and phase differences between the ‘real’ sea level and the thermosteic sea level were substantially revealed on both seasonal and interannual time scales. As one of the possible factors, the freshwater flux might play an important role in balancing the water mass.

Rong, Zengrui; Liu, Yuguang; Zong, Haibo; Xiu, Peng

2009-12-01

396

Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: Ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events  

E-print Network

Deep sea records from the southeast Labrador Sea: Ocean circulation changes and ice-rafting events, respectively, indicate that during the time period from 160,000 to 10,000 years BP, ice rafting events in the Labrador Sea were accompanied by rapid variations in deep and surface water circulation. Twelve ice-rafting

Born, Andreas

397

SEAS STUDENT GROUP HANDBOOK Administrative and Funding support for SEAS related Student Organizations  

E-print Network

SEAS STUDENT GROUP HANDBOOK Included: Administrative and Funding support for SEAS related Student with the office. Administrative and Funding Support for SEAS related Student Organizations The Student Affairs and programming must be potentially open to the entire school to receive school funding. In addition, we recommend

398

National Sea Grant College What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation?  

E-print Network

of Southern California Sea Grant worked with the former Public Works Commissioner and the Bureau of Sanitation bolster "buy-local" food production and created a market throughout much of the country. A Wisconsin Sea, salt- tolerant crop with biofuel potential Safe and Sustainable Seafood Supply: Sea Grant scientist

399

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather

Ingo Harms

2004-01-01

400

Fall Persistence Barrier of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea Associated with ENSO*  

E-print Network

Fall Persistence Barrier of Sea Surface Temperature in the South China Sea Associated with ENSO temperature (SST) in the South China Sea (SCS) in association with El Niño­Southern Oscillation (ENSO types of coupled ocean­atmosphere model simulations (e.g., Zebiak and Cane 1987; Goswami and Shukla 1991

Li, Tim

401

NOAA's Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems  

E-print Network

. Architects of the Deep Some deep-sea coral species form reefs that, over mil- lennia, can grow more than 300 conservation in National Marine Sanctuaries. · Guided by the NOAA Strategic Plan for Deep-Sea Coral and Sponge studies to inform conservation actions. The mission of the Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program

402

Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) 41274153 Nitrogen uptake kinetics in the Ross Sea, Antarctica  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 48 (2001) 4127­4153 Nitrogen uptake kinetics in the Ross Sea, Antarctica , and urea in the Ross Sea, Antarctica were measured on three cruises during austral late winter­early spring bacterial abundance and biomass were highest. Finally, dramatic changes in NH4 + uptake capacity were

Cochlan, William P.

403

A numerical experiment on the sedimentation processes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation processes of suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang are investigated with the use of a three-dimensional numerical model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea which includes the tidal current, residual flow and wind waves. Suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe mainly deposits in the Bohai Sea and that from the old

Tetsuo Yanagi; Koh-ichi Inoue

1995-01-01

404

Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA\\/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold

Chente Tseng; Chiyuan Lin; Shihchin Chen; Chungzen Shyu

2000-01-01

405

Sea ice drift tracking in the Bohai Sea using geostationary ocean color imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bohai Sea is located in the middle latitude region, which is an important economic development zone in China. However, sea ice drift causes significant economic losses in the winter. Sea ice drifting is difficult to track due to the long satellite repeat cycles in the polar region and the rapid changes in the Bohai Sea ice. The unique characteristics of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) allow tracking of sea ice drift on a daily basis with the use of 1-h time interval images (eight images per day). This study employed the GOCI data for daily 1-h sea ice drift tracking in the Bohai Sea using a maximum cross-correlation method. Sea ice drift monitoring is accomplished by tracking the distinct characteristics of sea ice samples. The sea ice drift tracking derived from the GOCI images are validated by the in-situ data and historical data in Liaodong Bay. In addition, sea ice drift in the Bohai Sea is controlled by the surface current and wind, and the current-ice drag coefficient and wind-ice drag coefficient are 0.91 and 0.03, respectively, roughly corresponding to 2.55% of the surface wind speed.

Lang, Wenhui; Wu, Qing; Zhang, Xi; Meng, Junmin; Wang, Ning; Cao, Yajing

2014-01-01

406

Sea surface height variations in the South China Sea from satellite altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface elevation in the South China Sea is examined in the Topex\\/Poseidon altimeter data from 1992 to 1995. Sea level anomalies are smoothed along satellite tracks and in time with tidal errors reduced by harmonic analysis. The smoothed data are sampled every ten days with an along-track separation of about 40 km. The data reveal significant annual variations in

Ping-Tung Shaw; Shenn-Yu Chao; Lee-Lueng Fu

1999-01-01

407

Variability and trends in sea ice extent and ice production in the Ross Sea  

E-print Network

Variability and trends in sea ice extent and ice production in the Ross Sea Josefino C. Comiso,1 Ronald Kwok,2 Seelye Martin,3 and Arnold L. Gordon4 Received 7 May 2010; revised 6 December 2010; accepted 24 January 2011; published 21 April 2011. [1] Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross

Gordon, Arnold L.

408

The flow system in the Japan Sea caused by a sea level difference through shallow straits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how the current system through the Japan Sea is driven and what determines the volume transport. We suppose that a part of the difference in geopotential anomaly between the subtropical and subpolar gyre is converted into a barotropic sea level difference across the three shallow straits which connect the Japan Sea with the Pacific and that this difference

Kay I. Ohshima

1994-01-01

409

Artificial Radionuclides in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) Proper and Peter the Great Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade there has been growing concern over dumping of radioactive waste in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) proper and adjacent coastal waters. Here we show that the evolution of activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the East Sea, and existing levels of radioactive contamination in waters, sediments and biota from Peter the Great Bay (Russia)

Gi-Hoon Hong; Suk-Hyun Kim; Sang-Han Lee; Chang-Soo Chung; Alexander V. Tkalin; Emilia L. Chaykovskay; Terry F. Hamilton

1999-01-01

410

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century  

E-print Network

Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces the global sea ice and sea surface temperature (GISST) data sets

411

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 120 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea  

E-print Network

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 1­20 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS

Chu, Peter C.

412

Trends in high sea levels of German North Sea gauges compared to regional mean sea level changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of rising mean sea levels will be felt most acutely during periods of extreme high sea levels which are caused by the combination of mean sea level, tides and storm surges. In this paper, we examine sea level records from six tide gauges along the German North Sea coastline to determine if changes in high sea levels observed throughout the 20th century and early 21st century were primarily driven by increases in mean sea level (i.e. like what has been observed by other authors in most parts of the world) or whether other factors, such as changes in ocean tides or storm surges also contributed significantly to observed changes in high water in this region. Time-series of annual 80th, 85th, 90th, 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles are derived from the sea level records and trends are assessed using linear regression for the entire time periods for which datasets are available at each site and for the common period from 1953 to 2008. The percentile time-series are subsequently reduced relative to mean sea level and a second set of trends are estimated. At all sites and percentile levels, significant positive trends are evident for the observed sea level data. Once the percentile time-series are reduced relative to mean sea level the remaining trends are still significant at the 1?-confidence level, with the exception of the 99.9th percentiles since the standard errors are large. Using a non-linear trend analysis, on the long Cuxhaven record, we find that prior to the mid-1950s and from about 1990 onwards, changes in high sea levels were not different from mean sea level changes. However, from the mid-1950s to 1990 changes were significantly different from those observed in mean sea level. Possible reasons for this appear to be due to changes in the amplitudes of several main tidal constituents, which are apparent since the mid-1950s and decadal variability in the storm activity (with strong westerly winds in the North Atlantic region from 1960 to the 1990s).

Mudersbach, Christoph; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

2013-08-01

413

Temperature inversion in China seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature inversion was reported as a common phenomenon in the areas near the southeastern Chinese coast (region A), west and south of the Korean Peninsula (region B), and north and east of the Shandong Peninsula (region C) during October-May in the present study, based on hydrographic data archived from 1930 through 2001 (319,029 profiles). The inversion was found to be remarkable with obvious temporal and spatial variabilities in both magnitude and coverage, with higher probabilities in region A (up to about 60%) and region C (40%-50%) than in region B (15%-20%). The analysis shows that seasonal variation of the net air-sea heat flux is closely related to the occurrence time of the inversion in the three areas, while the Yangtze and Yellow river freshwater plumes in the surface layer and ocean origin saline water in the subsurface layer maintain stable stratification. It seems that the evaporation/excessive precipitation flux makes little contribution to maintaining the stable inversion. Advection of surface fresh water by the wind-driven coastal currents results in the expansion of inversion in regions A and C. The inversion lasts for the longest period in region A (October-May) sustained by the Taiwan Warm Current carrying the subsurface saline water, while evolution of the inversion in region B is mainly controlled by the Yellow Sea Warm Current.

Hao, Jiajia; Chen, Yongli; Wang, Fan

2010-12-01

414

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

415

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

Sass, J.H.

1988-01-01

416

Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast) estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV \\

V. R. Shevchenko; Y. S. Dolotov; N. N. Filatov; T. N. Alexeeva; A. S. Filippov; E.-M. Nöthig; A. N. Novigatsky; L. A. Pautova; A. V. Platonov; N. V. Politova; T. N. Rat'kova; R. Stein

2005-01-01

417

50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures. 648.143 ...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a)...

2013-10-01

418

50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142 Section 648...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial...

2013-10-01

419

50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142 Section 648...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial...

2012-10-01

420

50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass Accountability Measures. 648.143 ...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.143 Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a)...

2012-10-01

421

ARKTOS: An intelligent system for SAR sea ice image classification  

E-print Network

We present an intelligent system for satellite sea ice image analysis named Advanced Reasoning using Knowledge for T ping Of Sea ice (ARKTOS). ARKTOS performs fully automated analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ...

Soh, L. K.; Tsatsoulis, Costas; Gineris, D.; Bertoia, C.

2004-01-01

422

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2011-10-01

423

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2013-10-01

424

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2010-10-01

425

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2012-10-01

426

BEPERS-88: Sea Ice Remote Sensing With Synthetic Aperture Radar in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed brackish water basin located in North Europe. Sea ice occurs there every winter, with the annual cover varying from 12 to 100%. There is a strong need for operational sea ice mapping due to intensive ship traffic assisted by 20-30 powerful icebreakers. Sea ice reports and charts are provided daily by ice services in all countries in the Baltic Sea area. In Finland and in Sweden, much effort is put into ice research in support of winter navigation [e.g., Leppdranta, 1986; Thompson, 1986].

Leppäranta, M.; Thompson, T.

427

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along the sea route peaked in the 1980s, but there is renewed interest associated with a lengthening ice-free season and mineral exploitation. Since July 1991, the NSR has been open to all merchant vessels.

Barry, Roger G.

2008-07-01

428

Sea Level Variaton in the Java Sea Derived from Topex/Poseidon and Tide Gauge Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding and coastal erosion in the big cities like Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya are easily affected by the sea level changes of the Java Sea. Past sea level changes in the Java Sea are investigated using satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and tide gauges between January 1993 and December 1999 are used. Trend analysis is applied to define the changing rate of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level of the Java Sea. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges show sea level rise rate 0.19 mm/month, 0.86 mm/month, and 1.58 mm/month at Jakarta and Jepara (near Semarang), and Surabaya respectively, whereas T/P indicate 0.91 mm/month to 1.08 mm/month at three locations. Trend analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Java Sea during the same period indicates that SST has high correlated trend with the T/P and tide gauge trends. The high correlation between SST trends and T/P or tide gauge trends suggest that sea level changes of the Java Sea from 1993 to 1999 are due to heating of the Java Sea which has average depth from 40 m to 50 m. In addition the wavelet analysis was also used to SST and monthly mean sea level anomalies for evaluating ENSO impact on SST and monthly mean sea level anomalies. The results of wavelet analysis of SST show SST near Jakarta was highly affected by the 1994 to 1995 ENSO years than the 1997 to 1998 ENSO years. The period of the maximum power spectrum of SST anomalies at Jakarta was shorter than Jepara and Surabaya. Power spectrum of tide gauge sea level anomalies show the impacts of ENSO were different based on the geographical locations. Tide gauge mean sea level anomalies at Surabaya had the highest power spectrum during the 1997 to 1998 ENSO years and had the smallest power at Jakarta during the same period. Comparison of the maximum power spectrum at each location shows the period of maximum power spectrum at Jakarta was shorter than the others. But the results from T/P show power spectrum from 1997 to 1998 ENSO years was the highest at Jakarta, and was the smallest at Jepara. The differences of period and the magnitude of the maximum power spectrum of tide gauge sea level anomalies at Surabaya may be explained by the closeness to the Makasar Strait where the Indonesian Trough Flow is dominant.

Sofian, Ibnu; Kozai, Kozai

429

6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title than potential frost flower contact W. R. Simpson 1 , D. Carlson 1 , G. Hoenninger 1,2, , T. A. Douglas. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present Cenozoic era is an icehouse episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year

R. Leinfelder; H. Seyfried

1993-01-01

431

Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

2011-12-01

432

Climate Kids: Planet Health Report: Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The consequences of both sea ice melting and increases in ocean water temperature are presented in this examination of sea level- another of Earth's vital signs. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

433

Climate Kids: Planet Health Report: Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of Earth's vital signs, the extent of sea ice cover in the Arctic, is examined. An image and accompanying text describe the extent and consequences of the reduction in that sea ice. This article is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

434

Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid profile from crude extracts of local sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus was determined using gas chromatography (GC) technique. The extracts were prepared separately in methanol, ethanol, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and distilled water as part of our study to look at the affinity of these solvents in extracting the lipid from sea cucumber. The PBS and distilled water extractions

B. D. Fredalina; B. H. Ridzwan; A. A. Zainal Abidin; M. A. Kaswandi; H. Zaiton; I. Zali; P. Kittakoop; A. M. Mat Jais

1999-01-01

435

Antarctic Sea Ice in the IPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antarctic Sea Ice covers an area of 20 million km2 at maximum extent and therefore represents an areal coverage larger than either the Arctic ice cover or the Antarctic continent. Studies of Antarctic sea ice in the modern era were only initiated well after the IGY, with the advent of passive microwave satellite coverage in 1973, followed by the use

S. F. Ackley; D. K. Perovich; C. A. Geiger

2003-01-01

436

Recreational water quality in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-based monitoring of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan and Iran suggests that bathers are intermittently subject to increased levels of faecal pollution which may lead to gastrointestinal illness. This is the first co-ordinated monitoring programme of recreational waters in the Caspian region and highlights the need to extend such a programme to all countries bordering the Caspian Sea. The novel

Katherine R. Pond; Aidan A. Cronin; Steve Pedley

437

The strength anisotropia of sea ice  

SciTech Connect

The hydraulic-engineering structure calculations of sea ice formation force require the sea ice strength data. The strength characteristics values and the types of sea ice formations in view of water depth define the type and the design of future structures in each particular region of supposed construction. The most objective information on the sea ice physical and technical properties can be obtained by field investigations ad the existing methods of their calculations refer to a great number of errors. The accumulated bank of data on studying the sea ice formation strength properties show one that ice as a natural material is of great crystalline structure variety. The level ice fields have a number of particularities. The crystal sizes increase in ice thickness. The crystals consist of fresh-water thin plates 0.5--0.6 mm in thickness oriented by pickle-water interlayers. Difference in thickness of the sea ice cover structure is one of the main causes of the changes strength characteristics layer. Besides that the sea ice strength depends upon the destroying force direction in reference to crystal orientation which characterizes the sea ice anisotropia as a material.

Evdokimov, G.N.; Rogachko, S.I. [Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engineering (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

438

More on Sea Turtles and Seaweed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sea turtle" and "seaweed"--otherwise known as "returnee from abroad" and "unemployed from abroad," respectively-- are a pair of popular new terms that are innately connected. In this article, the author discusses the common plight faced by "sea turtles" and "seaweeds" who returned from abroad to work in China. The author describes the experiences…

Xin, Tian

2005-01-01

439

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Teacher's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Lab handout, students will examine sea scallop shells to determine their size, approximate age, and meat yield. This lab activity is complete with objectives, math and science standards, materials list, procedure, and extensions. The handout is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

440

The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this

Carol M Turley

1999-01-01

441

Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

442

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the

A. G. Robinson; J. H. Rudat; C. J. Banks; R. L. F. Wiles

1996-01-01

443

Forward electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in forward modeling of the electromagnetic scattering properties of sea ice are presented. In particular, the principal results include the following: (1) approximate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from multilayer random media with rough interfaces, based on the distorted Born approximation and radiative transfer (RT) theory; (2) comprehensive theory of the effective complex permittivity of sea ice based on

K. M. Golden; M. Cheney; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; Thomas C. Grenfell; D. Isaacson; Jin Au Kong; S. V. Nghiem; J. Sylvester; P. Winebrenner

1998-01-01

444

Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data analysis activity, learners use data collected by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to study Chilean sea bass populations. Learners formulate catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Dissostichus eleginoides and analyze the trends in these values. Learners also assess the Chilean sea bass population and determine if the population is being overfished.

Lawrence, Lisa A.

2012-08-01

445

Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot and compare data, draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature, and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

Carter, Joan; Collection, Nasa -.

446

Optical properties of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was motivated by the need to understand dispersion processes which affect the redistribution of nuclear wastes in the Arctic from dump sites in the Kara Sea and in the rivers which flow into the Kara Sea. We focus on vertical profiles of light beam transmission and fluorometry made over the delta region fronting the Ob and Yenisey Rivers

Donald R. Johnson; Vernon Asper; Thomas McClimans; Alan Weidemann

2000-01-01

447

Estimating Diet Composition in Sea Lions  

E-print Network

Estimating Diet Composition in Sea Lions: Which Technique to Choose? Dominic Tollit and Susan Columbia, Canada Abstract Reliable estimates of diets are vital to monitor impacts of sea lion popu lion scats have shown significant variability in diges- tion between and within prey species, which

448

Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

Aumann, H.

2003-01-01

449

Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

1997-01-01

450

Monsters of the Deep: Deep Sea Bioluminescence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This award-winning Sea and Sky website uses creative graphics to explore deep sea bioluminescence. It defines the phenomenon of bioluminescence, explains the chemical reactions involved, describes organisms with this adaptation, and investigates possible reasons for this dazzling light show. Links direct users to similar pages about hydrothermal vents, ocean layers, and more.

Knight, J. D.; Sky, Sea A.

451

NASA's sea ice program: present and future  

E-print Network

, and the rising trend, 200508, is associated with a cyclonic advance of salty Atlanticderived water. Declining, and L. Stock (2008), Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover, Geophy. Res. Lett. 35, L01703, doi 2003 2005 2007 2009 Year Area(103km2) Kwok (2008) Jan -1 fields MY fraction Decline in multiyear sea

Kuligowski, Bob

452

Biological Impacts of Translocated Sea Otters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sea otters are one of the wildlife species most sensitive to oil spills. If an oil spill occurred in the southern part of the sea otter range in California, otters would probably be captured and released in an uncontaminated area to the north. However, if...

K. Ralls, D. B. Siniff, A. Doroff, A. Mercure

1990-01-01

453

Human Performance Sea Trial QUEST Q-303  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-national sea trial on the effects of ship motions on human performance was performed on Canadian Forces Auxiliary Vessel QUEST, off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, in February and March of 2007. The primary goal of this experiment was to obtain both subjective and objective measures of task performance in calm water and in higher sea states, to

J. L. Colwell; N. Allen; J. Bos; R. Bridger; C. Duncan; P. Elischer; M. Grech; A. Green; M. A. Hogervorst; S. N. MacKinnon; K. Munnoch; D. Perrault; W. Roger; R. Schwartz; P. Valk; D. Wright

454

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

455

Latitudinal Diversity of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)  

E-print Network

Latitudinal Diversity of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) DAPHNE GAIL FAUTIN*, LACEY MALARKY anemones (cnidarian order Actiniaria) conforms to the classic pattern of biogeography--taxon richness of that inventory. We found the greatest spe- cies richness of sea anemones at 30­40° N and S, with lower numbers

Fautin, Daphne

456

Sea Level: On the Rise Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Sea Level: On the Rise" is designed to teach middle-school students about the relationship between climate change and sea-level rise. It is a lesson plan created for the Environmental Protection Agency's Student's Guide to Global Climate Change.

Agency, Environmental P.

457

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El NiÃo and La NiÃa are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

458

Modelling The Adriatic Sea Ecosystem Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coastal Modular Ecosystem Model (MEM-CO) has been implemented in the Adriatic Sea in the framework of the EU funded project MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System - Toward Environmental Predictions). The hydrodynamical component of MEM-CO is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), While the description of the biogeochemical and biological processes is based on the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model

M. Zavatarelli; M. Vichi; N. Pinardi

2003-01-01

459

Sea Surface Height 1993-2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation of the Pacific Ocean sea surface height from 1993-2011. Data gathered by multiple NASA satellite missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason 2). Animation shows view of Pacific Ocean and simultaneously graphs global average sea surface height data.

460

Patchiness in satellite derived sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patchiness, indicated by ship measurements from the International Indian Ocean Expedition, was checked against the most advanced sea surface temperature program based on satellite observations. The statistical analysis of structures observed with sea surface temperature measurements showed that they are highly correlated with the time span of observations; i. e., structures or patches in the temperature field can be artificially

Karl-Heinz Szekielda; Amnon Ptashek

1991-01-01

461

Searching the Ocean for Deep Sea Vents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web-based slide show walks students through the painstaking and difficult search for deep sea vents. In pictures and text, it provides an overview of the subject explaining the process whereby the location of deep sea vents can be discovered from the surface using indirect methods.

462

The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

Barnes, J. C. (principal investigator); Bowley, C. J.

1974-01-01

463

Structural elements of the Sulu Sea, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and tectonic history of the Sulu Sea are described on the basis of seismic reflection data combined with the findings of onshore and offshore geological studies, and the results of ODP Leg 124 drilling. Closing of a hypothetical Mesozoic proto-South China Sea associated with the formation of oceanic crustal splinters in the late Eocene followed by southward subduction

K. Hinz; M. Block; H. R. Kudrass; H. Meyer

1994-01-01

464

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

465

Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

1999-01-01

466

Sea Change Part III: Interpreting the Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the third in a three-part series by the Sea Change project, about scientists' search for Pleiocene beaches in Australia and elsewhere to establish sea level height during Earth's most recent previous warm period. This segment features the research of Jerry Mitrovica, Harvard geophysicist.

Grossman, Daniel

467

Sea Change Part 1: In the Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the first of a three-video series from the Sea Change project. It features the field work of scientists from the US and Australia looking for evidence of sea level rise during the Pliocene era when Earth was (on average) about 2 to 3 degrees Celsius hotter than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Pliomax, Sea C.

468

Sea Change Part 2: In the Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the second of a three-video series in the Sea Change project, which follows the work of Dr. Maureen Raymo, paleogeologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, who travels with fellow researchers to Australia in search of evidence of sea level that was once higher than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Change, Sea

469

Sediments in the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes measurements of sediments during the 2000-2001 Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment in the East China Sea. A number of techniques were used to infer properties of these sediments, including gravity and piston cores, subbottom profiling using a water gun, long-range sediment tomography, and in situ measurement of conductivity. Historical data from echosounder records and cores showed two

James H. Miller; Louis R. Bartek; Gopu R. Potty; Dajun Tang; Jungyul Na; Yiquan Qi

2004-01-01

470

Managing Sea Level Rise and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

That the sea level is currently slowly rising is now beyond doubt. However, it is not sea level rise alone that is likely to impact the future management of coastal regions. The possibility of increased intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones and\\/or other severe low pressure systems could additionally add to the marine based threats from anthropogenic climate change through

Bruce Harper

471

Phage-associated differences in staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene (sea) expression correlate with sea allele class.  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus strains which produced either high or low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a minimal eightfold difference between the two groups were identified. For FRI100 and FRI281A (prototypes for each group), strain differences in the expression of the SEA-encoding gene (sea) were found to occur at the level of sea mRNA concentration, and part of the difference in expression was associated with the sea-containing phages. Southern blot analysis revealed that this phage-associated difference was not due to differences in the copy number of sea. Nucleotide sequence analysis of sea from FRI281A revealed a new allele of sea, with the majority of the sequence differences occurring in the upstream promoter region. Although a strict correlation was observed between the level of SEA production and sea allele class for several strains, the sequence differences observed in the upstream region were not sufficient in themselves to alter the expression level of sea. Images PMID:8262616

Borst, D W; Betley, M J

1994-01-01

472

Sea Level Rise in Tampa Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding relative sea level (RSL) rise during periods of rapid climatic change is critical for evaluating modern sea level rise given the vulnerability of Antarctic ice shelves to collapse, the retreat of the world's glaciers, and mass balance trends of the Greenland ice sheet. The first-order pattern of global sea level rise following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21,000 years ago) is well established from coral, continental shelf, and other records and has been integrated into a global ICE-5G model of glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA). However, uncertainty introduced by paleo water depth of sea level indicators, radiocarbon chronology (i.e., reservoir corrections for marine shell dates), postglacial isostatic adjustment, and other processes affecting vertical position of former shorelines produces scatter in RSL curves, limiting our knowledge of sea level rise during periods of rapid glacial decay.

Cronin, Thomas; Edgar, N. Terence; Brooks, Gregg; Hastings, David; Larson, Rebekka; Hine, Albert; Locker, Stanley; Suthard, Beau; Flower, Benjamin; Hollander, David; Wehmiller, John; Willard, Debra; Smith, Shannon

2007-03-01

473

Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

2005-01-01

474

Volga River Delta and Caspian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color MODIS image from May 10, 2002, captures Russia's Volga River (running south through the center) emptying into the northern portion of the Caspian Sea. The waters of the Caspian Sea are quite murky in this image, highlighting the water quality problems plaguing the sea. The sea is inundated with sewage and industrial and agricultural waste, which is having measurable impact on human health and wildlife. According reports from the Department of Energy, in less than a decade the sturgeon catch dropped from 30,000 tons to just over 2,000 tons. National and international groups are currently joining together to find strategies of dealing with the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

475

Flavor Structure of the Nucleon Sea  

E-print Network

We review the current status and future prospects on the subject of flavor structure of the nucleon sea. The flavor structure of the nucleon sea provides unique information on the non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions allowing stringent tests of various models on the partonic structures of the nucleons as well as lattice QCD calculations. The scope of this review covers the unpolarized, polarized, and the transverse-momentum dependent sea-quark distributions of the nucleons. While the main focus of this review is on the physics motivation and recent progress on the subject of the nucleon sea, we also discuss future prospects of addressing some outstanding issues on the flavor structure of the nucleon sea.

Wen-Chen Chang; Jen-Chieh Peng

2014-06-05