Sample records for sea norwegian sea

  1. Permian of Norwegian-Greenland sea margins: future exploration target

    SciTech Connect

    Surlyk, F.; Hurst, J.M.; Piasecki, S.; Rolle, F.; Stemmerik, L.; Thomsen, E.; Wrang, P.

    1984-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the northern North Sea and the southern Norwegian shelf has mainy been concentrated on Jurassic and younger reservoirs with Late Jurassic black shale source rocks. New onshore investigations in Jameson Land, central East Greenland, suggest that the Permian of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins contains relatively thick sequences of potential oil source rocks interbedded with carbonate reefs. The East Greenland, Upper Permian marine basin is exposed over a length of 400 km (250 mi) from Jameson Land in the south to Wollaston Forland in the north, parallel with the continental margin. The Upper Permian black shale is relatively thick, widely distributed, has a high organic carbon content, and a favorable kerogen type. Consequently, the possibilities for a Permian play in the northern part of the Norwegian shelf and along parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins are worth evaluating.

  2. A numerical ocean circulation model of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas

    E-print Network

    Stevens, David

    A numerical ocean circulation model of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas DAVID P STEVENS School of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas are investigated using a three-dimensional primitive equation ocean circulation and seasonally varying wind and thermohalme forcing. The connections of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas

  3. Anthropogenic chlorofluoromethanes in the greenland and norwegian seas.

    PubMed

    Bullister, J L; Weiss, R F

    1983-07-15

    The concentrations of two industrially produced chlorofluoromethanes, CCl(3)F(F-11) and CCl(2)F(2)(F-12), have been measured in the water column and in the marine atmosphere of the Greenland and Norwegian seas. Measurable concentrations of these two chlorofluoromethanes have penetrated to the deep basins of both of these regions, and the general characteristics of their vertical distributions are similar to those of the bomb-produced radioisotopes injected into the atmosphere on a similar time scale. The data have been fitted to a time-dependent box model based on deep convective mixing in the Greenland Sea and lateral exchange between the deep basins. The model calculations for the two chlorofluoromethanes in the Greenland Sea give similar results, with a time scale for deep convection of about 40 years. The time scale for lateral mixing between the deep Greenland Sea and the deep Norwegian Sea is estimated to be 20 to 30 years, although the agreement between the calculations for the two chlorofluoromethanes is limited by analytical uncertainties at the low concentrations found in the deep Norwegian Sea and by uncertainties in the model assumptions. PMID:17815194

  4. Anthropogenic Chlorofluoromethanes in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullister, J. L.; Weiss, R. F.

    1983-07-01

    The concentrations of two industrially produced chlorofluoromethanes, CCl3F (F-11) and CCl2F2 (F-12), have been measured in the water column and in the marine atmosphere of the Greenland and Norwegian seas. Measurable concentrations of these two chlorofluoromethanes have penetrated to the deep basins of both of these regions, and the general characteristics of their vertical distributions are similar to those of the bomb-produced radioisotopes injected into the atmosphere on a similar time scale. The data have been fitted to a time-dependent box model based on deep convective mixing in the Greenland Sea and lateral exchange between the deep basins. The model calculations for the two chlorofluoromethanes in the Greenland Sea give similar results, with a time scale for deep convection of about 40 years. The time scale for lateral mixing between the deep Greenland Sea and the deep Norwegian Sea is estimated to be 20 to 30 years, although the agreement between the calculations for the two chlorofluoromethanes is limited by analytical uncertainties at the low concentrations found in the deep Norwegian Sea and by uncertainties in the model assumptions.

  5. Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K. [BJ Services (Norway); Sorgaard, E. [Norsk Hydro, Bergen (Norway)

    1999-04-01

    During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

  6. Seismic reflection imaging of water mass boundaries in the Norwegian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Papia Nandi; W. Steven Holbrook; Scott Pearse; Pedro Páramo; Raymond W. Schmitt

    2004-01-01

    Results from the first joint temperature and seismic reflection study of the ocean demonstrate that water mass boundaries can be acoustically mapped. Multichannel seismic profiles collected in the Norwegian Sea show reflections between the Norwegian Atlantic Current and Norwegian Sea Deep Water. The images were corroborated with a dense array of expendable bathythermographs and expendable conductivity-temperature depth profiles delineating sharp

  7. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs in pelagic food webs in the Norwegian and Barents Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilde Elise Heldal; Lars Føyn; Per Varskog

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to Norwegian fisheries is of major importance to Norwegian consumers and fish export industry. In the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 (137Cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The contents of 137Cs in the different organisms were generally low

  8. Evolution of Norwegian Sea: synthesis of ODP Leg 104 drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, E.; Eldholm, O.; Thiede, J.

    1987-05-01

    Three drill sites across the Voring Plateau region off Norway addressed questions of the origin and structure of seaward-dipping reflectors along this passive margin and of the paleo-oceanographic changes that took place throughout the development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Early Eocene volcanism produced a 760-m thick sequence of interbedded tholeiitic basalts and volcaniclastic sediments at Site 642. Velocity and density changes between the interbedded lithologies and between fine and medium basalt flows give rise to the divergent, seaward-dipping reflectors. This sequence overlies an andesitic series that they interpret was emplaced in the latest phase of continental rifting. Interpretation of sediment facies and microfossil records provide a history of the evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The lower Eocene volcanic pile was emplaced subaerially, and interbedded sediments reflect a nearshore environment at Site 642. Lower-middle Eocene sediments cored at the base of the Voring Plateau (Site 643) contain a fauna indicative of deep-water conditions. The contrasting faunas between Sites 642 and 643 suggest significant vertical offset existed along this margin since its early inception. Oligocene sediments reflect a constricted basin that gave way to intensified bottom-water circulation, lowered CCD, and upwelling conditions in the middle Miocene (13.5 Ma). A warm-water event is found in uppermost Miocene sediments but gives way to significant cooling through the Pliocene. Predominant terrigenous input to the area is documented at around 4.3 Ma, indicating the onset of glacial conditions. Interglacial and glacial events persist throughout the remaining sediment record.

  9. @Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

  10. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  11. Late Weichselian depositional processes, £uxes, and sediment volumes on the margins of the Norwegian Sea (62^75‡N)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Taylor; J. A. Dowdeswell; M. J. Siegert

    2002-01-01

    Quaternary continental margin sedimentation in the Norwegian^Greenland Sea has been a response to a combination of tectonic, oceanographic, and glacial activity. Using geophysical survey data (6.5kHz side-scan sonar and 3.5kHz penetration echo sounding), in association with bathymetric datasets, the magnitude and frequency of the main forms of margin sedimentation into the Lofoten and Norwegian Basins of the Norwegian Sea during

  12. Eemian cooling in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic ocean preceding continental ice-sheet growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Cortijo; J. C. Duplessy; L. Labeyrie; H. Leclaire; J. Duprat; T. C. E. van Wearing

    1994-01-01

    CHANGING conditions in the North Atlantic region may drive global climate changes1,2. According to previous reconstructions of the last interglacial (the Eemian), North Atlantic sea surface tempera-tures (SSTs) were similar to present-day values3. In the Norwegian Sea, even warmer conditions appeared as a single pulse of short duration4,5, whereas the Greenland ice record suggests that the warm interglacial air temperatures

  13. Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea

    E-print Network

    Svensen, Henrik

    Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea Martin the features as true submarine pingoes, formed by the local accumulation of hydrate (ice) below the sediment the pockmark. We suggest that these submarine hydrate-pingoes manifest the exact locations where fluid flow

  14. Structural evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea: Results from detailed analysis of SeaMARC II side-scan sonar data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hany S. Doss

    1997-01-01

    In 1989-1990, the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar (11-12 kHz) and swath bathymetric system imaged more than 80,000 kmsp2 of seafloor in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and southern Arctic Ocean. The SeaMARC II reveals that the Knipovich Ridge is segmented into predominantly distinct elongate basins; the bathymetric to most slow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Present day segment discontinuities coincide with some of the

  15. Late Weichselian depositional processes, fluxes, and sediment volumes on the margins of the Norwegian Sea (62–75°N)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Taylor; J. A Dowdeswell; M. J Siegert

    2002-01-01

    Quaternary continental margin sedimentation in the Norwegian–Greenland Sea has been a response to a combination of tectonic, oceanographic, and glacial activity. Using geophysical survey data (6.5 kHz side-scan sonar and 3.5 kHz penetration echo sounding), in association with bathymetric datasets, the magnitude and frequency of the main forms of margin sedimentation into the Lofoten and Norwegian Basins of the Norwegian

  16. Norwegian Sea overflow variability and NE Atlantic surface hydrography during the past 150,000 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kuijpers; S. R. Troelstra; M. Wisse; S. Heier Nielsen; T. C. E. van Weering

    1998-01-01

    The long-term variability of Norwegian Sea Overflow through the Faeroe Bank Channel and its relation to NE Atlantic surface hydrography is reconstructed based on sedimentological, micropalaeontological and stable isotope analysis, as well as AMS 14C dating, of a sediment core (ENAM-33) retrieved near the outlet of the channel. Additional palaeoceanographic information has been obtained from three nearby sediment cores (ENAM-30,

  17. A reassessment of the dispersion properties of 99Tc in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orre, Steinar; Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Nilsen, J. Even Ø.

    2007-11-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the beta-emitting, anthropogenic radionuclide Technetium-99 ( 99Tc) in the North and Norwegian Seas have been simulated with a regional isopycnic Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM), forced with realistic, daily averaged atmospheric forcing fields for the period 1975 to 2003. The main source of this soluble radionuclide is the reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the Irish Sea and La Hague on the French coast in the English Channel. The radioactive contaminants follow the general ocean circulation in the area, and are eventually transported northwards along the Norwegian coast heading towards the Arctic Ocean. Comparison with observational time series from two stations along the coast of Norway shows that the model fairly realistically captures both the amplitude and the temporal trend of 99Tc from Sellafield and La Hague. To isolate the effect of changes in the ocean circulation and mixing on the released tracers, idealized tracers with a clock attribution are included for both sources. These idealized tracers measure the age along the pathways of the tracers from the two sources. The age from the Sellafield-derived tracer at the island Hillesøy on the northern coast of Norway is found to be in the range 5-8 years, which is slightly older than previous estimates of the related concept of transit time. A complex pattern of variability is identified, with local and regional atmospheric forcing influencing both the northward tracer flux and the time elapsed since the tracer left the source.

  18. A numerical model for interdecadal variability of sea ice cover in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Maqueda, M. A.; Willmott, A. J.; Darby, M. S.

    A coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere model is used to study interdecadal variability ( 40 years) of sea ice depth and concentration in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea. This oceanic region is represented by a meridionally aligned channel on a ?-plane with open zonal boundaries at 60°N and 80°N. The model consists of a one and a half layer reduced gravity ocean model, a thermodynamic/dynamic sea ice model and an energy balance model of the atmosphere. The coupled model is driven by prescribed surface wind stress, fluxes of heat, salt and ice at inflow points on the northern and southern open zonal boundaries and annual distribution of solar radiation. It is shown that the coupled model supports unforced modes of interdecadal oscillation resulting from a form of hydraulic control which regulates the total fluid volume in the oceanic active layer. The mechanism for the oscillations relies on the presence of three key features: (1) a region of intense oceanic entrainment located in the eastern part of the domain, (2) a vigorous southward flowing western boundary current, representing the East Greenland Current (EGC), which supports most of the meridional transport across the domain, and (3) a marked buoyancy contrast between the relatively salty domain interior and the much fresher western boundary region. During an oscillation excess water is pumped into the domain via entrainment, thereby creating an active layer depth anomaly, which then propagates westward via long baroclinic Rossby waves until it reaches the EGC where it is subsequently drained out of the domain across the southern open zonal boundary. As the depth anomaly traverses the basin, an anomalous geostrophic circulation is established in which cold fresh Arctic water enters the domain interior, and this eventually promotes enhanced thermodynamic sea ice growth. Consequently, the interdecadal oscillations of the coupled model are characterised by pulse periods, typically spanning 20 years, during which there is an abnormally large winter sea ice cover, separated by interpulse periods, lasting another 20 years, during which the winter sea ice extent is nearly uniform and significantly smaller than in a pulse maximum. The duration of the interpulse periods is dictated by the time it takes for the Rossby waves to traverse the basin. In addition to the interdecadal oscillation solution, the coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere model is found to also have a stable cyclostationary state, with no interannual variability. Stochastic forcing, in the form of randomly specified interannual anomalies of salinity (of maximum amplitude 0.1 ppt) or ice inflow (of maximum amplitude 0.1 Sv) at the northern open zonal boundary, in both cases is capable of driving the model from the cyclostationary state solution to the interdecadal variability one.

  19. The Norwegian Danish Basin: A key to understanding the Cenozoic in the eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Thomas L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Goledowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The Danish part of Norwegian-Danish Basin, which constitutes the eastern part of the North Sea Basin, has been the key area for sequence stratigraphic subdivision and analysis of the Cenozoic succession since the mid 1990's. Widespread 3D seismic data, in the central parts of the North Sea Basin, as well as more scattered 3D seismic data in the Danish part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, have given a more detailed understanding of the sequences and indicate that climate is tenable for the origin of Cenozoic sequence boundaries. The previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations have been an integrated part of an ongoing debate concerning vertical movements of the Fennoscandian shield versus the impact of climate and erosion. A newly accessed coherent regional 2D and reprocessed 3D seismic data set, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, constitute the database for a new sequence stratigraphic analysis of the entire area. The objective of the new study is to test previous subdivisions and introduce a coherent 3D sequence stratigraphic analysis and depositional model for the entire Norwegian-Danish Basin. This analysis is necessary to get out of the stalemate with the uplift discussion. The study shows that the original subdivision by Michelsen et al. (1995, 1998) stands. However, revision of few a sequence boundaries may have to be adjusted due to new biostratigraphic information published. Furthermore, high-angle clinoforms and geomorphological transport complexes observed in the Danish North Sea Basin can be traced into the Norwegian sector. This together with the recognition of several other high-angle clinoform complexes, and their associated seismic facies distribution maps and thickness-maps, enhances the level of detail and constrains the previous published paleogeographic reconstructions of the Cenozoic. The geometry of the Cenozoic infill, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, is here interpreted to be controlled by relative sea-level changes and sourced from the Scandinavian hinterland. 3D-Wheeler diagrams have been used for recognizing spatial elements with periods of deposition and non-deposition. Overall, this study thus contributes significantly to a better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution, the position of potential reservoirs and the debate of climate versus tectonics. References: Michelsen, O., M. Danielsen, C. Heilmann-Clausen, H. Jordt, G. V. Laursen and E. Thomsen, Eds. (1995). Occurrence of major sequence stratigraphic boundaries in relation to basin development in Cenozoic deposits of the southeastern North Sea. Sequence Stratigraphy: Advances and Applications for Exploration and Producing in North West Europe vol 5. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Michelsen, O., E. Thomsen, M. Danielsen, C. Heilmann-Clausen, H. Jordt and G. V. Laursen (1998). Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy in the eastern North Sea. Mesozoic-Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of Western European Basins. P. C. de Graciansky, T. Jacquin and P. R. Vail, Society of Economic Palaeontolgists and Mineralogists Special Publication 60. 60: 91-118.

  20. New faunal and isotopic evidence on the late Weichselian—Holocene oceanographic changes in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejrup, Hans Petter; Jansen, Eystein; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Holtedahl, Hans

    1984-01-01

    Downcore studies of planktonic and benthonic foraminifera and ? 18O and ? 13C in the planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) in two piston cores from the southern part of the Norwegian Sea suggest large changes in the oceanic circulation pattern at the end of oxygenisotope stage 2 and in the early part of stage 1. Prior to oxygen-isotope Termination IA (16,000-13,000 yr B.P.), an isolated watermass with lower oxygen content and temperature warmer than today existed below a low salinity ice-covered surface layer in the Norwegian Sea. Close to Termination IA, well-oxygenated deep water, probably with positive temperatures, was introduced. This deep water, which must have had physical and/or chemical parameters different from those of present deep water in the Norwegian Sea, could have been introduced from the North Atlantic or been formed within the basin by another mechanism than that which forms the present deep water of the Norwegian Sea. A seasonal ice cover in the southern part of the Norwegian Sea is proposed for the period between Termination IA and the beginning of IB (close to 10,000 yr B.P.). The present situation, with strong influx of warm Atlantic surface-water and deep-water formation by surface cooling, was established at Termination IB.

  1. Neogene Contourite Drift Development in the Norwegian - Greenland Sea Area; Paleoceanographic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Rebesco, Michele; Lucchi, Renata G.; Stoker, Martyn S.

    2015-04-01

    For the evolution of the Cenozoic high northern latitude paleo-climate, the development of the North Atlantic - Arctic Ocean interactions including its southern (Faeroe - Shetland channel) and northern (Fram Strait) gateways were vital. In this paper we review the timing of inflow of paleo-Atlantic water into the Norwegian - Greenland Sea and the Arctic Ocean using the development of ocean current controlled contourite drift deposition as a proxy. In the early Miocene, drift growth accelerated in the Rockall Trough and in the Faroe-Shetland Channel interpreted to be related to the opening of the Faeroe - Shetland channel and establish a deep-water passage across the Greenland - Shetland Ridge. To the north, offshore Norway, growth of the Lofoten Drift has been estimated from mid-Miocene although age control is sparse in this area. No drift development has been reported from the SW Barents Sea continental slope while offshore the NW part of the Barents Sea slope, drift growth seems to have come in later, at ~1.3 Ma. North of the Fram Strait gateway, drift growth has been inferred from at least mid-Miocene (~11 Ma). Studies from the central Arctic Ocean shows ventilated surface water conditions from ~17.5 Ma ascribed to the opening of the Fram Strait which was a narrow oceanic corridor during early Miocene (20 - 15 Ma) and where the onset of sea floor spreading and the establishment of a deep-water corridor has been suggested to start from late Miocene (~10 Ma). Other, more recent studies have, however, reported evidence for the development of an initial deep-water gateway through the Fram Strait from around 17 Ma. To summarize: - A circulation system similar to the present was probably established in the southern Norwegian - Greenland Sea before the Fram Strait became a deep-water gateway and before the establishments of the major ice sheets in this area (the first occurred in SE Greenland from ~7 Ma). - Uncertainties still relates to the timing of the development of ocean circulation in the northern Norwegian - Greenland Sea including the Fram Strait gateway where drift onset has been estimated to at least 11 Ma. - The onset of drift growth at 1.3 Ma slightly south of the Fram Strait occurred after the onset of deep-water circulation through the Fram Strait and it is inferred to be related to the glacial expansion recorded in the area.

  2. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  3. Mid-1980s distribution of tritium, 3He, 14C and 39Ar in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Nansen basin of the Arctic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, P.; Bonisch, G.; Kromer, B.; Loosli, H.H.; Buehler, R.

    1995-12-31

    The distributions of tritium/3He, 14C and 39Ar observed in the period between 1985 and 1987 in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are presented. The data are used to outline aspects of the large-scale circulation and the exchange of deep water between the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin. Additionally, semi-quantitative estimates of mean ages of the main water masses found in these regions are obtained. Apparent tritium/3He ages of the upper waters (depth <500m) vary from close to zero in the Norwegian Current to about 15 years at the lower boundary of the Arctic halocline. The deep waters (>1,500m depth) of the Greenland/ Norwegian Seas show apparent tritium/3He ages between about 17 years in the Greenland Sea and 30 years in the Norwegian Sea.

  4. Gas hydrate systems of the Norwegian and Barents Seas and their response to glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Shyam; Mienert, Juergen; Chen, Yifeng; Bellec, Valerie; Knies, Jochen; Thorsnes, Terje

    2009-04-01

    Gas hydrates have gained considerable attention in recent years due to their link to the global carbon budget and the possible impact of methane on global climate change. Worldwide escalations of natural methane release as for example documented from Siberian shelf regions may influence the climatic system. Our present study area, the Barents Sea and the northern part of the Norwegian Sea shelf is one of the key regions for such study. This area was covered by glaciers during glacial times, and during interglacial, when the ice sheet retreated, the shelf was under the influence of Atlantic water masses. The changes in pressure due to the waxing and waning of ice masses, and in temperature due to the warmer Atlantic water masses must have influenced the gas hydrate stability zone. The Barents Sea shelf region is not only affected by huge amounts of sediment erosion by glaciers but also by the potential release of methane due to changes in gas hydrate stability conditions through various glaciation cycles. Our study area in the Barents Sea is covered by vast amounts of 2D/3D seismic data acquired by the hydrocarbon industry. Parts of the area of the northern Norwegian Sea and the south-western Barents Sea close to the coast is also mapped by swath bathymetry as a part of the MAREANO programme giving a detailed picture of the seafloor. Here, we use these multi-parameter datasets as a tool to document sediment systems that influenced the gas hydrate stability field. The analysis shows the geologic controls on methane emissions, and allows us to assess the pathways of fluid flow through geologic formations and their seabed expressions. Critical analyses of acoustic anomalies in seismic sections including their geological controls give an overview of the fluid flow/gas hydrate system from the present stage to the past. We will show that the migration of fluid from the sub-seabed to the seabed is not only controlled by the stratigraphic and structural architecture of the formation, but also by the gas hydrate stability condition. Finally, seafloor features such as pockmarks are critically analysed for their character to establish the dynamics of the processes involved.

  5. Statistical analysis of temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2014-02-01

    The paper analyzes sea temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea. The data cover the period 1948-2010. The following questions are addressed: What type of stochastic process characterizes the temperature series? Are there any changes or patterns which indicate climate change? Are there any characteristics in the data which can be linked to the shrinking sea-ice in the Arctic area? Can the series be modeled consistently and applied in forecasting of the future sea temperature? The paper applies the following methods: Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests for testing of unit-root and stationarity, ARIMA-models in univariate modeling, cointegration and error-correcting models are applied in estimating short- and long-term dynamics of non-stationary series, Granger-causality tests in analyzing the interaction pattern between the deep and upper layer temperatures, and simultaneous equation systems are applied in forecasting future temperature. The paper shows that temperature at 2000 m Granger-causes temperature at 150 m, and that the 2000 m series can represent an important information carrier of the long-term development of the sea temperature in the geographical area. Descriptive statistics shows that the temperature level has been on a positive trend since the beginning of the 1980s which is also measured in most of the oceans in the North Atlantic. The analysis shows that the temperature series are cointegrated which means they share the same long-term stochastic trend and they do not diverge too far from each other. The measured long-term temperature increase is one of the factors that can explain the shrinking summer sea-ice in the Arctic region. The analysis shows that there is a significant negative correlation between the shrinking sea ice and the sea temperature at Station-M. The paper shows that the temperature forecasts are conditioned on the properties of the stochastic processes, causality pattern between the variables and specification of model, respectively. The estimated models forecast that temperature at 150 m is expected to increase by 0.018 °C per year, while deep water temperature at 2000 m is expected to increase between 0.0022 and 0.0024 °C per year.

  6. CO2 Storage Atlas Norwegian Sea - a case study from the Froan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sande Rød, Rita; Pham, Van T. H.

    2014-05-01

    The CO2 storage atlas of the Norwegian Sea has been prepared by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate at the request of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. The main objectives have been to identify the safe and effective areas for long-term storage of CO2 and to avoid possible negative interference with ongoing and future petroleum activity. We have built on the knowledge we have from the petroleum industry and from the two ongoing CO2 storage projects, Sleipner and Snøhvit, on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Five aquifers and six prospects have been evaluated in terms of storage capacity and safe storage of CO2. One identified storage potential is the Froan Basin Garn and Ile Formations. The Froan Basin is a NE striking Jurassic syncline on the southwestern part of the Trøndelag Platform. The aquifers in the southeastern part of the Norwegian Sea typically have a consistent dip of 1-2 degrees from the Norwegian coast to the basinal areas. In the case of permeable beds occurring along the dip slope there is a risk that CO2 injected down dip can migrate up to where the aquifer is truncated by the Quaternary glacial sediments. A simulation study was performed in order to identify possible trapping mechanisms and to understand the timing and extent of long distance CO2 migration. The storage mechanisms considered were both structural and stratigraphic trapping. A simulation sector model of the Garn/Not/Ile Formations was build covering about 10% of the total expected communicating aquifer volume. The CO2 injection well was located down dip, but alternative locations and injection zones have been simulated, with different injection rates. The injection period is 50 years, and the migration of the CO2 plume was simulated and monitored for 10.000 years. CO2 will continue to migrate upwards as long as it is in free, movable state. Migration stops when CO2 is permanently bounded or trapped, by going into solution with the formation water or by being residually trapped, or becoming structurally trapped (mineralogical trapping not considered). Based on simulation results about 400 mill tons CO2 can be stored in the Garn and Ile aquifer (8 mill tons/year over 50 years). This will require 4 injection and give acceptable pressure increase (<20bar). Within 10000 years most of the gas will have gone into solution with the formation water or being residually trapped.

  7. Pleistocene glaciation history of the Northern North Sea and Norwegian Channel documented by basin-scale 3D seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huuse, J.; Huuse, M.

    2012-04-01

    A regionally merged (c. 30,000 km2) 'megasurvey' 3D seismic dataset and an extensive set of 2D lines, tied to the Troll (89-03) core and wireline logs, was used to investigate the glacial and inter-glacial evolution of the northernmost North Sea through the Plio-Pleistocene. An extensive regional unconformity (URU) exists throughout the study area truncating the Naust Formation, a Plio-Pleistocene glacially-influenced progradational delta system, and older strata. This major erosion surface forms the base of the Norwegian Channel, a large (800 km long) cross-shelf trough located along the southern Norwegian coast. The evolution and exact erosion mechanism of this enigmatic feature is still debated. The stratigraphic succession above the URU consists of relatively flat-lying, alternating glacial and glacio-marine units of mid Pleistocene-Holocene age. This study is the first to present fully 3D seismic-constrained maps of the URU, the Naust clinoforms and all major glacial erosion surfaces within the Norwegian Channel infill. Furthermore it documents the geometries and sedimentary facies characteristics of the till and marine units preserved within the Norwegian Channel and the Norwegian sector of the Northern North Sea. Mapped erosional surfaces reveal a diverse assemblage of glacial morpologies interpreted as mega-scale glacial lineations, tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, terminal moraines and meltwater conduits demarcating the terminus of successive grounded palaeo-ice sheets. Ice berg ploughing was common along the margin between 2.6 and 1.1 Ma with ice streaming commencing prior to 1.1 Ma. Repeated occupation of the NC by fast flowing ice streams, during the Elsterian, Saalian, and Weichselian (MIS 12, 10, 8, 6, 2), led to a progressively westward erosion of the channel margin, migrating approximately 60 km between 1.1 Ma and the LGM. Although well imaged by seismic data, the prolific record of glaciations and interglacials in the Northern North Sea require better age constraints to further fine tune the record of Pleistocene environmental changes. Whilst a large number of wells exist in the North Sea, giving basic lithological information, only very few have sufficiently detailed stratigraphic data in the Pleistocene section. Further research should thus include coring tied to high-resolution seismic data that can be linked to the basin-scale 3D seismic observations presented herein. As this study provides a unique insight into the spatial and temporal dynamics of shelf-edge glaciation in the northern North Sea and its Atlantic margin throughout the late Cenozoic, the plethora of features documented within the Northern North Sea may serve as a template for interpreting other less well imaged glaciated margins.

  8. Pelagic origin and fate of sedimenting particles in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Peinert, Rolf; Noji, Thomas T.; Bodungen, Bodo V.

    A 17 month record of vertical particle flux of dry weight, carbonate and organic carbon were 25.8, 9.4 and 2.4g.m -2y -1, respectively. Parallel to trap deployments, pelagic system structure was recorded with high vertical and temporal resolution. Within a distinct seasonal cycle of vertical particle flux, zooplankton faecal pellets of various sizes, shapes and contents were collected by the traps in different proportions and quantities throughout the year (range: 0-4,500 10 3m -2d -1). The remains of different groups of organisms showed distinct seasonal variations in abundance. In early summer there was a small maximum in the diatom flux and this was followed by pulses of tinntinids, radiolarians, foraminiferans and pteropods between July and November. Food web interactions in the water column were important in controlling the quality and quantity of sinking materials. For example, changes in the population structure of dominant herbivores, the break-down of regenerating summer populations of microflagellates and protozooplankton and the collapse of a pteropod dominated community, each resulted in marked sedimentation pulses. These data from the Norwegian Sea indicate those mechanisms which either accelerate or counteract loss of material via sedimentation. These involve variations in the structure of the pelagic system and they operatè on long (e.g. annual plankton succession) and short (e.g. the end of new production, sporadic grazing of swarm feeders) time scales. Connecting investigation of the water column with a high resolution in time in parallel with drifting sediment trap deployments and shipboard experiments with the dominant zooplankters is a promising approach for giving a better understanding of both the origin and the fate of material sinking to the sea floor.

  9. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that also corresponds to the main depocenter of the first Triassic sequence. We suggest that both the salt thickness and the sedimentary differential loading, combined with the subsidence of the basin, have influenced the change of the salt pattern in domain 2. In domain 3, the reactivation of pre-salt faults might have triggered some of the salt structures. This area also received a large amount of sediments from the Skagerrak area during the Triassic subsidence, which may have influenced the distribution and evolution of salt diapirs and turtle structures. The combination of the different triggering processes and the different basin geometry of domain 3, which is bounded by highs to the South and North, in comparison to domain 2 which is open towards the Central Graben, are probably the key parameters that have controlled the salt pattern in this area. Finally, salt tectonics reactivations were likely controlled by the distribution of younger sediments and the successive tectonic regimes.

  10. A transect of iodine-129 in seawater from the North Pole to the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfimov, V.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Winsor, P.

    2003-04-01

    The concentration of 129I is measured in seawater along a transect from the North Pole to the Norwegian Sea. The goal is to elucidate transport paths of discharged radioactivity from Western Europe to the Arctic Ocean, which is closely related to ocean circulation in the region. This investigation continues the previously reported study of 129I concentration levels in this area [1] and will give additional information about the spatial and temporal distribution of the discharges from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Surface seawater and depth profiles down to 3900 m were collected by the Swedish Arctic Ocean 2001 ice-breaker expedition and analyzed at the Uppsala AMS facility. Most of the samples are prepared according to a standard preparation procedure for seawater [2] (about 2 mg carrier per 200 ml of seawater) and in addition a carrier-free approach is tested. [1] N. Buraglio, A. Aldahan, G. Possnert, Distribution and inventory of 129I in the central Arctic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, No. 8 (1999) 1011-1014 [2] N. Buraglio, A. Aldahan, G. Possnert, 129I measurements at the Uppsala tandem accelerator, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 161-163 (2000) 240-244

  11. Influence of lithofacies and diagensis on Norwegian North Sea chalk reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brasher, J.E.; Vagle, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The depositional mechanism of chalk is a key influence in the chalk`s ultimate reservoir quality. Classically, the depositional mechanism is interpreted from core descriptions. Where core data are lacking, dipmeter and borehole imagery logs have proven useful in making lithofacies assessments. Criteria for recognition of three chalk categories are established. Category III chalks correspond to those chalks that have been deposited by gravity flows or slumping and tend to have the best reservoir parameters. Category I chalks are most often affiliated with pelagic deposition and tend to have the poorest reservoir parameters. Category II chalks are intermediate between I and III. Anomalously high primary porosities have been maintained in Norwegian North Sea chalks where the effects of mechanical and chemical compaction have been limited. The diagenetic pathway of a chalk reflects changes brought about by mechanical and chemical compaction. Five factors most heavily influence the diagenetic pathway: (1) burial depth, (2) chalk type, (3) overpressuring, (4) presence of hydrocarbons, and (5) original grain size. Assessments of the sedimentological model, diagenetic pathway, and resultant reservoir quality are provided in case studies of Edda, Tor, and Eldfisk fields. Because the distribution of chalk is largely independent of existing structures, most fields have a component of stratigraphic/diagenetic trapping. Each case study shows unique examples of how petrophysical and reservoir engineering data can be incorporated in assessments of chalk type and the diagenetic pathway and how they may affect reservoir parameters and productivity.

  12. Structural evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea: Results from detailed analysis of SeaMARC II side-scan sonar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doss, Hany S.

    1997-12-01

    In 1989-1990, the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar (11-12 kHz) and swath bathymetric system imaged more than 80,000 kmsp2 of seafloor in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and southern Arctic Ocean. The SeaMARC II reveals that the Knipovich Ridge is segmented into predominantly distinct elongate basins; the bathymetric to most slow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Present day segment discontinuities coincide with some of the ancient fracture zone faults which are also the locus of large scale volcanism. It is possible that intermittent ponding and leaking of volcanic material occurred along these pre-existing faults creating anomalous belts of shallow bathymetry that cross obliquely onto both flanks of the rift valley. The influence of pre-existing faults on the evolution of the Knipovich Ridge is the primary reason that the segment discontinuities, rather than the centers of the basinal segments are predominantly volcanic. This contrasts both the punctiform basin and dome segmentation patterns found along most other spreading centers. Off-axial ridge orientations of {˜}030sp° appear uniform on our SeaMARC II track between the Greenland Fracture Zone and the transitional zone of the Mohns-Knipovich system. This suggests that the ridges were formed under the stress of the Mohns and not the Knipovich Ridge. That these off-axial ridges occur along the entire northwestern flank of the Mohns Ridge up to the transition zone (Mohns-Knipovich bend) suggests that oblique spreading may not only be occurring across the Mohns Ridge, but additionally, substantial oblique spreading may also be occurring along the Knipovich Ridge. Using data obtained from the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar system, a model that may help explain the numerous geophysical anomalies of the eastern Norwegian-Greenland Sea is presented. Numerous seamount chains which obliquely cross the Knipovich Ridge and lie nearly parallel to its spreading direction are interpreted to be the result of magma upwelling into an ancient splinter faults associated with the Paleo-Spitsbergen Shear Zone. This model suggests that the Knipovich Ridge evolved through time by propagating from the south into the ancient Spitsbergen Shear Zone and was trapped in one or more of the complex fault systems associated with the paleo-shear zone.

  13. Conjugate volcanic rifted margins, spreading and micro-continent: Lessons from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, L.; Blischke, A.; Nasuti, A.; Sand, M.

    2014-12-01

    We have acquired and processed new aeromagnetic data that covers the entire Norway Basin oceanic spreading system located between the Møre volcanic rifted margin and its (intermediate) conjugate system, the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC). The new compilation allows us to revisit its entire structure and spreading evolution from the Early Eocene breakup to the Late Oligocene abortion of the Aegir Ridge. We here discuss the dynamics of conjugate volcanic (rifted) margin formation and reconstruct the subsequent spreading evolution of the Norway Basin until its abortion. We have estimated a new set of Euler poles of rotation for the Norway Basin derived from more than 88,000 km of new magnetic profiles. The new compilation confirms that a fan-shaped spreading evolution of the Norway Basin was particularly active before the cessation of seafloor spreading and abortion of the Aegir Ridge. The Norway Basin shows a more complex system of micro-plates and asymmetric segments locally affected by episodic ridge jumps. The new observations have implications for the syn- and post-breakup stratigraphic and rifted-margin tectonic development of the JMMC and its conjugate margins. In particular, an important Mid-Eocene geodynamic event at around magnetic chron C21r is recognized in the Norway Basin. This event coincides with the onset of diking and rifting between the proto-JMMC and the East Greenland margin, leading to a second phase of breakup in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea ~26 My later in the Oligocene. Restored in its pre-breakup configuration, the new surveys also allow us to discuss further the tectonic and crustal evolution of the conjugate volcanic rifted margins and associated transform and oblique segments. The applicability of magma-poor concepts, off Norway, for example, remains questionable for us. The significant amount of breakup magmatism, the huge amount of pre-breakup sag sedimentation and the presence of thinned and preserved continental crust without the systematic occurrence of underlying and/or exhumed serpentinised terranes. The mid-Norwegian volcanic rifted margins appear quite different from the Iberian type, magma-poor margin, even if the processes leading to the early (and aborted) thinning events seems to be similar to some extent.

  14. Water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Jan Mayen Ridge using in-situ current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Jónsson, Steingrímur; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Ostrowski, Marek

    2014-11-01

    The Jan Mayen Ridge, with bottom depths of 1000 m and less, runs southwards from Jan Mayen and separates the warmer and saltier Atlantic Water in the Norwegian Sea from the colder and fresher Arctic water in the Iceland Sea. During the International Polar Year (IPY, 2007-2008), three current meter moorings were deployed with the purpose to investigate water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Ridge and their forcing mechanisms. These are the first in-situ current measurements for this region. The results showed relatively weak currents on the Ridge that frequently shifted direction except near-bottom and at the western slope of the Ridge. All current measurements showed low eddy activity and tidal velocities (less than 0.05 ms- 1). Wind-forced near-inertial motion generated from transient atmospheric low pressure systems were observed in the mixed layer being strongest during autumn and winter when ocean velocities reached 0.7 ms- 1. Near surface currents on the Ridge are influenced by local winds on a time scale of 6 days and longer, but during the two-year deployment no pronounced seasonal variation was observed, mainly due to a lack of seasonality in the local winds. In a 2000 m deep channel that cuts the Ridge, there was pronounced seasonal variation in the currents at all depths below 40 m with stronger flow toward the Iceland Sea during winter compared to summer. The variability of the deep current was found to be influenced by the large-scale wind stress curl. There was a weak net flow with averaged velocities of ~ 0.01 ms- 1 over the Ridge that was directed westward in the upper layer, signifying a small net transport of modified Atlantic Water into the Iceland Sea.

  15. Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea!

    E-print Network

    Pickart, Robert S.

    Beaufort Sea! Chukchi Sea! Herald Shoal Hanna Shoal Barrow Canyon Herald Canyon Bering Strait of the Alaska Coastal Current (a) Bering Strait! (b) Central Shelf! (c) BCH! (d) BCC/DBO! (e) BCM! BCC avg the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait is transported across the shallow and expansive Chukchi Sea through

  16. From conjugate volcanic rifted margins to micro-continent formation: Double breakup development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv; Sand, Morten; Sveinn Arnarson, Thorarinn

    2014-05-01

    We re-evaluate the structure and spreading evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and surrounding volcanic (rifted) margins based on new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. The new dataset combined with long-offset seismic and gravity data allow us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the conjugate margin systems in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the rifting to the drifting stage. We particularly focus on the new JAS-12 aeromagnetic survey acquired between the Aegir Ridge and the Jan Mayen micro-continent, which was initially part of the Møre-Vøring-Greenland rift system. Combined with the previous NB-07 and JAS-05 surveys, our final compilation fully covers the continent-ocean transition and the whole oceanic spreading system from the Møre margin to the conjugate Jan Mayen micro-continent with high quality, high-resolution and reliable magnetic data. The new dataset allowed a new, consistent and precise interpretation of the magnetic polarity chrons and oceanic fractures, providing the basis for more accurate rotation poles estimation, and better basin and crustal reconstructions between Norway, Greenland and the Jan Mayen micro-continent. This dataset allowed us to clarify the pre- and post-breakup configurations of the rift system and discuss the mechanisms involved during the onset of the two phases of breakup leading to the micro-continent formation. Our observations and models suggest that the pre-breakup rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This episode led to a significant thinning of the continental crust and an exhumation of pre-existing lower crust. However, we have not been able to identify and/or validate any clear domains of exhumed and denudated serpentinised mantle. The first Eocene breakup is mostly characterised by severe magmatism (sill, SDRS). Lithospheric/asthenospheric processes leading to rift localisation do not necessarily represent a continuum of lithospheric deformation with the precedent thinning system. Diking and disconnected lithospheric plumbing are proposed to explain the Eocene breakup. After the first phase of continental breakup, two major phases of spreading influenced the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Phase I (from C24 to C21r, ~54 to 49 Ma) marks the earliest phase of spreading, probably initiated in the central and outer part of the Møre Basin. During this period, the formation of overlapping systems and pseudo-fault development, indirectly influenced by the proto-margin segmentation, suggests the presence of additional micro-plates in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. We also observed a significant change in the oceanic spreading system in the late Early Eocene. Based on observations from the surrounding areas, this supports a major and distinct tectonic and magmatic event in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around C21r (49-47.9 Ma), the beginning of a second phase. During Phase II, from C21r-C12 or possibly younger (48-<32 Ma) of the Norway Basin development, spreading rates decreased, spreading direction changed leading to the formation of unexpected N-S oriented oceanic fracture zones. Phase II probably coincides with the climax of extension and possibly local spreading that is suspected in the southern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent forming a complex area of oceanic, transitional and continental fragments before its complete dislocation from East Greenland in Latest Oligocene.

  17. On the influence of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas upon the bottom waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH L. REID; RONALD J. LYNN

    1971-01-01

    The bottom waters of the North Pacific and North Indian Oceans have temperature and salinity distributions that suggest origins from the extreme waters of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas. We attempt to trace these waters from their sources to the abyssal Pacific and Indian oceans by examining distributions of temperature and salinity along a stratum defined by density parameters. We

  18. Integrated interpretation to improve subsalt imaging: a case study from the Nordkapp Basin, Norwegian Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaf Müller, Christian; Brönner, Marco; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Seismic imaging of subsalt structures is still a difficult task and remaining uncertanties in the salt geometries makes exploration in the vicinity of such complex structures challenging. Gravity and magnetic data have proofed in the past their potential in combination with seismics to better delineate the shape of such salt structures. The current work deals with the improvement of subsalt imaging by combined interpretation of seismic and potential field data examined at a case study from the southern Nordkapp Basin. The Nordkapp Basin is a deep, narrow saliferous basin located in the southwestern Barents Sea. It comprises more than 30 salt diapirs, which are likely to create traps for hydrocarbons at their flanks and overhangs. Consequently exploration of the Nordkapp Basin with seismic methods started already in the 1980s, but until today solely seismics was not sufficient to reveal the nature and geometry for large parts of the basin. Therefore 2D and 3D seismic data were interpreted and used as stratigraphic constraints for the potential field modeling. For this purpose high resolution gravity and full tensor gravity gradient (FTG) data as well as a regional magnetic dataset were available. After processing the potential field data the 3D modeling was conducted by means of the interactive gravity and magnetic modeling software IGMAS+. Furthermore constraints for the rock properties, provided by well logs and susceptibility measurements of adjacent sedimentary well cores, were integrated. The favoured models indicate for both major salt structures a bulky base and a small root. The depth of the base of salt can vary in a range of about ± 300 m. Remaining mother salt is found in the northern part of the survey area and has no connection to the diapiric salt. Due to its higher sensibility to shallower sources the FTG data was used to model the flanks of the salt diapirs. In agreement with adjacent diapirs and encountered sequences a cap rock coverage was detected. Additionally, the gravity data and strong seismic reflections suggest a large impedance contrast and a high density body, consisting of dolomite-dominated carbonates and evaporites at the basin slope in the most southeastern corner of the Nordkapp Basin. In combination with the magnetic data the top of basement is located in 15 to 18 km depth. Furthermore a branch of an intrusion below Norsel High and intrusives in the centre of rift were detected. Our results proof the potential of integrated interpretation of seismic and potential field data. The modeling approach helps to overcome difficulties in seismic imaging of salt structures. Due to the sensibility to sources in different depths, especially FTG data and high resolution magnetic data increase the reliability of subsalt modelling. The resulting model provides additional information to improve seismic velocity models especially in the subsalt area. This study was carried out in the frame of a research project about joint inversion in cooperation with SINTEF, funded by the Norwegian research council, Det norske oljeselskap, Gaz de France and Eon Norge.

  19. Sea Education Association (SEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

  20. Norwegian Testing of Emulsion Properties at Sea––The Importance of Oil Type and Release Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per S Daling; Merete Øverli Moldestad; Øistein Johansen; Alun Lewis; Jon Rødal

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of the major findings from laboratory studies and field trials conducted in Norway in recent years on the emulsification of oils spilled at sea. Controlled bench-scale and meso-scale basin experiments using a wide spectrum of oils have revealed that both the physico-chemical properties of the oils and the release conditions are fundamental determinants of the

  1. Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, Ø; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

    2014-08-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

  2. Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik,, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991–2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

  3. Summer distribution and ecological role of seabirds and marine mammals in the Norwegian and Greenland seas (June 1988)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiris, Claude R.

    1992-03-01

    During the ARK V /2 expedition of RV Polarstern in the Norwegian and Greenland seas in June 1988, 380 half hour counts for marine vertebrates (seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans) were carried out. Results are presented as total numbers encountered and then converted into density and food intake. Mean food intake was 2.2 kg fresh weight per km 2 per day for seabirds, with a higher value in Atlantic water (2.5) lower values in polar water and the pack ice (1.7 and 1.9), and an intermediate value at the ice edge. The main species were the alcids (1.5, primarily Little Auk, Alle alle and Brünnich's Guillemot, Urea Iomvia) ,the Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (0.5), and the Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla (0.2). The ecological role of cetaceans was clearly lower, with a mean value of 0.2 and a maximum of 0.7 in Atlantic water (rough evaluation, due to the low number of contacts). The food intake by pinnipeds was 0.55 kg/km 2 day at the ice edge and 0.4 in the pack ice; they were mainly harp, Phoca groenlandica and hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, in one main concentration each and ringed seals, Phoca hispida, scattered on the pack. Data for July 1988 show a great similarity with these results, except for a lower density of alcids, which probably reflects that Little Auk, Brünnich's Guillemot and Common Guillemot, Uria aalge already had started to leave the region.

  4. Noise exposure of commercial divers in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Nedwell, J R; Mason, T I; Collett, A G; Gardiner, R W K

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that exposure to high noise levels can adversely affect human hearing. Legislation exists in Europe to control or restrict the level of noise to which employees may be exposed during the course of their work. While the noise levels to which a worker may be exposed is well defined in air, human sensitivity to noise is different in high-pressure and mixed-gas conditions. Relatively little research exists to define human hearing in these circumstances, and few measurements exist of the levels of noise to which divers working in these conditions are exposed. A study using specially designed equipment has been undertaken in Norwegian waters to sample the noise levels present during typical saturation dives undertaken by commercial divers working in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The divers were working in heliox at depths of 30 msw and 120 msw. It found noise levels were generally dominated by self-noise: flow noise while breathing and communications. The noise levels, both when corrected for the difference in hearing sensitivity under pressure in mixed gas and uncorrected, would exceed legislated limits for noise exposure in a working day without the use of noisy tools. PMID:26094290

  5. The Growth and Interaction of Faults in Multiphase Rifts: Horda Platform, Norwegian North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, O. B.; Bell, R. E.; Jackson, C. A. L.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Whipp, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Analogue models predict that multiphase rifts which have experienced a change in extension direction between stretching phases will typically develop non-colinear normal fault sets and hence will display a greater frequency and range of styles of fault interactions than single-phase rifts. We test these model-based predictions by studying a natural fault network in the northern Horda Platform, northern North Sea using an integrated 3D seismic reflection and borehole dataset. We focus on the >60 km long, N-S-striking Tusse fault that has over 500 m of throw and was active in the Permian-Triassic and again in the Late Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous. The Tusse Fault forms part of a non-colinear fault network that also comprises numerous smaller (2-10 km long), lower throw (<100 m) and predominantly NW-SE-striking faults that were only active during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. We examine how the second-stage NW-SE-striking faults have grown and interacted with the N-S-striking Tusse Fault, noting a range of end-member styles of interaction including: i) no interaction; ii) hanging-wall abutting; iii) footwall abutting; iv) cross-cutting; and v) hybrid. To constrain the nucleation and growth history of each of these interaction styles, we systematically apply throw-versus-length (T-x) plots, throw-versus-depth plots (T-z) and 3D throw contouring. This quantitative 3D analysis of the fault network demonstrates: i) pre-existing (first-stage) faults can act as sites of nucleation for second-stage faults; ii) abutting relationships are common and can develop by second-stage faults nucleating either at, or away from pre-existing faults; iii) the throw distribution on reactivated first-stage faults will be modified in a predictable manner if they are intersected or influenced by second-stage faults; and iv) fault segment boundaries, and fault kinks or corrugations along first-stage faults, can act as preferential nucleation sites for second-stage faults, and facilitate the development of complex cross-cutting relationships. In addition to furthering our fundamental understanding of the geometric and kinematic evolution of rift-related normal faults, our results also have broader implications for understanding the physiographic and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of multiphase rift basins.

  6. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  7. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  8. A Younger Dryas Ash Bed in western Norway, and its possible correlations with tephra in cores from the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangerud, Jan; Lie, Sven Erik; Furnes, Harald; Kristiansen, Inger Lise; Lømo, Leif

    1984-01-01

    A bed of volcanic ash up to 23 cm thick is found in lacustrine and marine sediments in western Norway. It is formally mamed the Vedde Ash Bed, and its age is approximately 10,600 yr B.P., i.e., mid-Younger Dryas. The bed consits of pure glass having a bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic somposition. The geochemistry of the glass shards suggests an Icelandic source. By means of stratigraphic position and geochemistry, the ash is correlated with ash zones found in cores from the continental shelf, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Atlatic.

  9. A Geophysical Study of a Pockmark in the Nyegga Region, Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, T.; Minshull, T.; Westbrook, G.; Berndt, C.

    2007-12-01

    Pockmarks are seabed expressions of gas/fluid escape chimneys which are thought to be of global significance as they are pathways for the escape of methane from beneath continental margins to the atmosphere and provide habitats for chemosynthetic communities of biota. Their formation and dynamics are poorly constrained due to the lack of proper three dimensional imaging of their internal structure. Numerous fluid escape features provide evidence for an active fluid-flow system on the Norwegian Margin in the Nyegga region. In June-July 2006 a high-resolution seismic experiment using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) was carried out to investigate the detailed 3D structure of two pockmarks (named CN03 and G11) in the region. The G11 pockmark is ~220 m wide and has a rugged topography with irregular ridges divided by a central sediment basin and carbonate piles. An array of eight 4-component and six 2-component OBS was deployed across the pockmark with a spacing of ~100 m and 1 m location accuracy. The source consisted of 13/35 and 24/24 cubic inch mini GI guns and the data were acquired on a grid of lines of minimum length 5000 m at 50 m and 100 m line- spacing corresponding to shot intervals of 4s and 6s. A pattern of circular lines was also shot to cover a full range of offsets and azimuths for the OBS array. The shots were also recorded on a short near-surface hydrophone streamer. Several reflectors of high amplitude and reverse polarity are observed on the profiles indicating the presence of gas. A pipe ascends from a gas charged zone at ~300 m below the seabed, to where it terminates in the investigated G11 pockmark at the seabed. An initial 2D raytraced forward model of some of the P wave data along a line running NE-SW across the G11 pockmark shows, a gradual increase in velocity between the seafloor and the gas charged zone. The traveltime fit is improved if the pockmark is underlain by velocities lower than in the surrounding layer. Gas hydrates were recovered with gravity cores from less than a meter below the seafloor during the cruise. Indications of gas at shallow depths in the hydrate stability field show that methane is able to escape through the water-saturated sediments in the chimney without being entirely converted into gas hydrate. Different possible geological processes will be examined to explain this phenomenon.

  10. Pockmarks with Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonate in the Norwegian Trench, Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, C.; Hovland, M.; Planke, S.; Rike, A.; Strout, J.; Svano, G.; Svensen, H.; Tjelta, T.

    2005-12-01

    Pockmarks are ubiquitous in large parts of the Norwegian Trench with some areas containing more than 25 pockmarks per km2. While the presence of these pockmarks has been known for a couple of decades, the timing and mechanism of their formation is not fully understood. A detailed ROV survey of a 0.25 km2 area containing one clustered and four normal pockmarks was conducted in March 2005. The main aim of this survey was to detect and sample any recent or on-going seep activity within the pockmarks and to provide high quality seafloor data for further investigations. Within our study area, carbonate rock and soft sediment samples were recovered. Furthermore, the area was mapped in high resolution by the use of ROV-mounted multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler (Innomar parametric "pinger"). The high-resolution bathymetry image reveals that the clustered pockmark consists of a more than 10 m deep central depression with a diameter of about 100 m, surrounded by seven small pockmarks (5 m deep, 30 m in diameter). The four normal pockmarks are circular, with a typical depth of 5 m and diameter of 50 m. In addition, a number of very small unit pockmarks have been detected. These have diameters of about 1 m, and occur in clusters within the clustered pockmark and in long strings intersecting two of the normal pockmarks. The Innomar records reveal a high amplitude reflection at about 4 m depth indicating the presence of gas or a change in lithology. A carbonate rock was sampled from the central part of the clustered pockmark. The rock has a typical seep carbonate structure, which is documented by petrographical and x-ray diffraction analyses showing that the sample consists of fibrous and micritic aragonite, clay, a minor component of calcite and pyrite. The carbonate sample has a seep carbonate isotope signature (? 13C=-56.4; ? 18O=4.0) and therefore a composition characteristic of methane derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC). Finally, genetic analyses give a signature suggesting anaerobic methane oxidation. The results therefore imply methane seep activity in the pockmark. However, no present activity (e.g., bubbles) could be observed on the video record. The current activity level will be investigated during a cruise in October this year, during which cone penetration testing, extensive geological, geochemical and geotechnical sampling, and installation of multi-level piezometers for long term measurements of pore pressure and temperature will be performed.

  11. Thermogenic degassing of methane during the PETM: Geochemical and palynological constrains from a borehole in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Frieling, Joost; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-04-01

    Emplacement of voluminous magmatic sills in sedimentary basins around the NE Atlantic led to widespread thermogenic gas generation in contact aureoles. Kilometer-sized degassing pipes and craters, termed hydrothermal vent complexes, are identified on seismic data and believed to have played a key role in releasing methane to the atmosphere and thus triggering of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). However, the link between pipe degassing and the PETM is questioned due to lack of accurate time constraints on degassing and crater formation. We present new geochemical and palynological data from a 3521 m deep petroleum exploration well, 6607/12-1, drilled through the center of a hydrothermal vent complex in the Vøring basin, the Norwegian Sea. We have undertaken a comprehensive sampling and analytical program of the cuttings from the well to study the age, formation and implications of the hydrothermal vent complex from this unique locality. Based on our results, we have divided the hydrothermal vent complex in four main zones: 1) a high temperature lower conduit (3521-2100 m), 2) an upper conduit (2100-1725 m), 3) crater deposits (1725-1590 m), and 4) seep carbonates (1510-1380 m). The crater is identified as a 2 km wide semi-circular eye-structure on the seismic data, characterized by low seismic velocities (Vp < 1.8 km/s) and high neutron porosities (>45%). The palynomorphs in the upper conduit have a high Thermal Alteration Index, suggesting heating from ascending fluids. At the base of the crater, the PETM dinocyst marker species Apectodinium augustum is present, thermally altered at the base but immature up-section. This can be explained by ejecta deposits at the base or by a final stage of hydrothermal activity. Carbon isotope analyses on palynomorph fractions shows that the PETM negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is present in the 1745-1665 m interval. The core of the PETM CIE is preserved at 1745-1720 m and the recovery stage from 1720-1665 m. The new data shows that the hydrothermal vent complex was formed during the early stage of the PETM and thus corroborates the hypothesis that continued thermogenic degassing was a key player in carbon cycle perturbations that characterize the PETM.

  12. Deltamethrin resistance in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxhall and Bravo) in Chile: bioassay results and usage data for antiparasitic agents with references to Norwegian conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, K O; Bravo, S; Sevatdal, S; Mendoza, J; Horsberg, T E

    2014-10-01

    The sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi is a major threat to Chilean salmonid farming. Pyrethroids have been used for anticaligus treatments since 2007, but have shown reduced effect, most likely due to resistance development. Pyrethroid resistance is also a known problem in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Northern Hemisphere. This study describes the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. rogercresseyi based on bioassays and usage data for pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture. These results were compared to bioassays from L. salmonis from Norway and to Norwegian usage data. Available deltamethrin bioassay results from 2007 and 2008, as well as bioassays from Norway, were collected and remodelled. Bioassays were performed on field-collected sea lice in region X in Chile in 2012 and 2013. Bioassays from 2007 were performed prior to the introduction of pyrethroids to the Chilean market. Both the results from 2008 and 2012 showed an increased resistance. Increased pyrethroid resistance was also indicated by the increased use of pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture compared with the production of salmonids. A similar trend was seen in the Norwegian usage data. The bioassay results from Chile from 2012 and 2013 also indicated a difference in the susceptibility to deltamethrin between male and female caligus. PMID:24697556

  13. Sea Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, aren’t doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathan’s investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  14. Sea Chest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

  15. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

    1997-08-25

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv. PMID:9241886

  16. Quantifying the Ocean, Freshwater and Human Effects on Year-to-Year Variability of One-Sea-Winter Atlantic Salmon Angled in Multiple Norwegian Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J.; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Storvik, Geir O.; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979–2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to conserve this species. PMID:21897867

  17. Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-26

    In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  18. Norwegian remote sensing experiment: Evaluation of the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer of sea ice research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Svendsen; K. Kloster; B. Farrelly; O. M. Johannessen; J. A. Johannessen; W. J. Campbell; P. Gloerse; D. Cavalieri; C. Mätzler

    1983-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for estimating total and multiyear sea ice concentration from passive microwave and surface air temperature measurements. The algorithm was made for use with Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data. It is based on radiation physics and may thus easily be modified to suit other passive microwave instruments. A comparison between Nimbus 7 SMMR

  19. A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data were used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere: SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted us to analyze simultaneous TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

  20. A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high-latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data have been used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems, since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere; SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted simultaneous analysis of TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

  1. Analysis of CO2 trapping capacities and long-term migration for geological formations in the Norwegian North Sea using MRST-co2lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møll Nilsen, Halvor; Lie, Knut-Andreas; Andersen, Odd

    2015-06-01

    MRST-co2lab is a collection of open-source computational tools for modeling large-scale and long-time migration of CO2 in conductive aquifers, combining ideas from basin modeling, computational geometry, hydrology, and reservoir simulation. Herein, we employ the methods of MRST-co2lab to study long-term CO2 storage on the scale of hundreds of megatonnes. We consider public data sets of two aquifers from the Norwegian North Sea and use geometrical methods for identifying structural traps, percolation-type methods for identifying potential spill paths, and vertical-equilibrium methods for efficient simulation of structural, residual, and solubility trapping in a thousand-year perspective. In particular, we investigate how data resolution affects estimates of storage capacity and discuss workflows for identifying good injection sites and optimizing injection strategies.

  2. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  3. Sea ice in the China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Shuqi [National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts, Beijing (China)

    1993-12-31

    In every winter, sea ice occurring in Bohai Sea and the North Yellow Sea is the first-year ice which is going through generating, developing and thawing processes. Therefore, it is necessary to spatially and temporally describe ice period, freezing range, thickness variations and general motion of sea ice. The purpose of this paper is to provide initial general situation and features of sea ice for forecasting and researching sea ice.

  4. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  5. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  6. Aral Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The retreating shoreline leaves the surface encrusted with salt and with agrochemicals brought in by the rivers. As the Sea's moderating ... Large Aral, and may be associated with windblown snow and/or salt particles carried aloft. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  7. Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this resource, students will discover that there are notable differences between sea ice and fresh-water ice, such as density. In on segment, students learn that the first sign of freezing on the sea is an oily appearance of the water caused by the formation of needle-like crystals. The site explains the relationship between growth and the rate at which heat flows from the water and that the ice pack can alter its shape and dimension due to the movement of winds, currents, thermal expansion, and contraction of the ice. Types of ice described here include new ice, nilas, young ice, first-year ice, and old ice while the forms of ice covered include pancake ice, brash ice, ice cake, floe, and fast ice. The site also explains the meteorological and oceanographic factors that control the amount and movement of ice.

  8. Sea World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

  9. Latitudinal fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface seawater along a 62 degrees N-89 degrees N transect from the southern Norwegian Sea to the North Pole area.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2004-05-15

    Surface seawater concentrations of PCBs, relative congener abundance, and possible effects of cold condensation were studied along a transect from the southern Norwegian Sea to the central Arctic Ocean (62 degrees N-89 degrees N). Large volume samples were collected from an ice breaker using a stainless steel surface seawater intake connected online to an ultra-clean laboratory. Concentrations of all studied PCB congeners, except for trichlorinated PCB 18, decreased with latitude. For instance, PCB 52 decreased from 470 fg L(-1) at 62 degrees N to 110 fg L(-1) at 89 degrees N and PCB 180 from 110 to 12 fg L(-1). Concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean were on the order of 10-100 fg L(-1) for the most abundant congeners. The relative contribution oftrichlorinated PCBs to the total PCB concentration increased with latitude, the tetrachlorinated contribution to the total PCBs did not show any correlation to latitude, and the relative contribution of heavier congeners decreased with latitude. This study establishes the occurrence at very low abundances of PCBs in seawater in the central Arctic Ocean and demonstrates a northward concentration decrease. The latitudinal shift in congener pattern is reflecting the relative propensity of the PCB congeners to undergo long-range transport in the Arctic and is consistent with their relative vapor pressures. PMID:15212246

  10. Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude R Joiris

    2000-01-01

    The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and

  11. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 58 CLIMATIC ATLAS OF THE ARCTIC SEAS 2004

    E-print Network

    , Laptev, and White Seas - Oceanography and Marine Biology Silver Spring, MD July 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT: 219,077 Norwegian Sea: 160,512 White Sea: 20,348 Central Arctic: 13,870 Kara Sea: 13,591 Laptev Sea: 5

  12. Acoustic seabed classification using QTC IMPACT on single-beam echo sounder data from the Norwegian Channel, northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidem, Ellen Johanne; Landmark, Knut

    2013-10-01

    Sediment mapping is important for understanding the physical processes, the impact of human activity, and the conditions for marine life on the seabed. For this purpose, the seabed classification tool QTC IMPACT analyses statistical variations in single-beam echo sounder data. QTC was applied in a large and physically diverse area of the Norwegian Channel, between 59°30?N and 61°N, to produce a new sediment map and to verify the QTC algorithm. The results were interpreted using ground truth (grain size analyses of 40 gravity cores and five grab samples), multi-beam echo sounder bathymetry (MBES), and seismo-acoustic profiles. Surficial sediments were divided into five classes: (1) mud and silt, (2) a variety of clay, silt and sand, (3) sandy mud with gravel, (4) sand with gravel, and (5) clay and sandy clay. Along the Norwegian coast, where MBES imagery shows evidence of glacial erosion, the surficial sediment distribution is variable. The echo shape analysis of QTC did not produce a natural partition of the data, and statistical assumptions did not always hold. Sediment classification was therefore sensitive to the choice of cluster algorithm. However, QTC produced the most physically plausible results on a large scale compared to other cluster algorithms. Class boundaries were consistent with supporting data. One exception is a transition from muddy to sandy sediments not visible in seismo-acoustic data. A possible explanation is that seabed fluid seepage and water current erosion cause sand particle transport into the western part of the channel. The study confirms the capability of QTC in a complex environment, but there are some possible improvements.

  13. California Sea Grant 1 California Sea Grant

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    California Sea Grant 1 California Sea Grant Strategic Plan 2010­2013 #12;2 Strategic Plan 2010­2013 The National Sea Grant College Program, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, supported this publication under NOAA grant number NA08OAR4170669, project number C/P-1 through

  14. Estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and androgen receptor (AR) antagonists in effluents from Norwegian North Sea oil production platforms.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Harman, Christopher; Smith, Andy; Thomas, Kevin V

    2007-03-01

    The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) agonist and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist potencies of offshore produced water effluents collected from the Norwegian Sector were determined using recombinant yeast estrogen and androgen screens. Solid phase extraction (SPE) concentrates of the effluents showed E2 agonist activities similar to those previously reported for the United Kingdom (UK) Continental Shelf (<0.1-4 ng E2 L(-1)). No activity was detected in the filtered oil droplets suggesting that produced water ER activity is primarily associated with the dissolved phase. Targeted analysis for methyl- to nonyl-substituted alkylphenol isomers show the occurrence of known ER agonists in the analysed samples. For the first time, AR antagonists were detected in both the dissolved and oil associated phase at concentrations of between 20 and 8000 microg of flutamide equivalents L(-1). The identity of the AR antagonists is unknown, however this represents a significant input into the marine environment of unknown compounds that exert a known biological effect. It is recommended that further analysis using techniques such as bioassay-directed analysis is performed to identify the compounds/groups of compounds that are responsible in order to improve the assessment of the risk posed by produced water discharges to the marine environment. PMID:17258235

  15. Atlantic Water flow through the Barents and Kara Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Schauer; Harald Loeng; Bert Rudels; Vladimir K. Ozhigin; Wolfgang Dieck

    2002-01-01

    The pathway and transformation of water from the Norwegian Sea across the Barents Sea and through the St. Anna Trough are documented from hydrographic and current measurements of the 1990s. The transport through an array of moorings in the north-eastern Barents Sea was between 0.6Sv in summer and 2.6Sv in winter towards the Kara Sea and between zero and 0.3Sv

  16. Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.

    PubMed

    Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

    2013-09-01

    Dispersal of (137)Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the (137)Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, (137)Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. PMID:23771062

  17. Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-10-30

    Users can search for and view sea surface temperature imagery. They may choose from the latest image, or browse archived imagery that dates back approximately two weeks. Links to other sea surface temperature datasets are included.

  18. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  19. Sea ice transports in the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Sabine; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Strass, Volker H.

    2001-05-01

    Time series of sea ice draft in the Weddell Sea are evaluated together with hydrographic observations, satellite passive microwave data, and ice drift for estimation of the freshwater fluxes into and out of the Weddell Sea. Ice draft is measured with moored upward looking sonars since 1990 along two transects across the Weddell Gyre. One transect, extending from the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula to Kapp Norvegia, was sampled between 1990 and 1994 and covers the flow into and out of the southern Weddell Sea. The other transect, sampled since 1996 and extending from the Antarctic continent northward along the Greenwich meridian, covers the exchange of water masses between the eastern and the western Weddell Sea. In order to relate results obtained during the different time periods, empirical relationships are established between the length of the sea ice season, derived from the satellite passive microwave data and defined as the number of days per year with the sea ice concentration exceeding 15%, and (1) the annual mean ice draft and (2) the annual mean ice volume transport. By using these empirical relationships, estimates of annual mean ice drafts and ice volume transports are derived at all mooring sites for the period February 1979 through February 1999. Wind and current force a westward ice transport in the coastal areas of the eastern Weddell Sea and a northward ice transport in the west. During the 2-year period 1991/1992 the mean ice volume export from the Weddell Sea is (50 ± 19) × 103 m3 s-1. This freshwater export is representative for a longer-term (20-year) mean and exceeds the average amount of freshwater gained by precipitation and ice shelf melt by about 19×103 m3 s-1, yielding an upper bound for the formation rate of newly ventilated bottom water in the Weddell Sea of 2.6 Sv.

  20. Mapping Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Alaska Fairbanks

    2008-01-01

    In this activity related to climate change, learners create and explore topographical maps as a means of studying sea level rise. Learners use various everyday materials including ice and a potato to investigate the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise, create and use a topographical map to predict sea level rise, and discuss how sea level rise will affect Alaska's coastline. This lesson plan includes detailed activity procedure guidelines, critical thinking questions, an overhead, and handouts. NOTE: material cost does not include cost to purchase DVD since it is not essential to the activity.

  1. Nonperturbative Quark Sea Asymmetries

    E-print Network

    Harleen Dahiya; Neetika Sharma

    2010-08-27

    The effects of nonperturbatively generated ``quark sea'' have been investigated to determine the flavor structure of the octet baryons. The chiral constituent quark model ($\\chi$CQM), which is known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin and related issues in the nonperturbative regime, is able to explain the qualitative generation of the requisite amount of quark sea. The importance of quark sea has been studied at different values of the Bjorken scaling variable $x$ by including it phenomenologically in the sea quark distribution functions. The results for the quark sea asymmetries like $\\bar d(x)-\\bar u(x)$, $\\bar d(x)/\\bar u(x)$ and Gottfried integral for the octet baryons strengthen the significance of quark sea at lower values of $x$.

  2. SeaWIFS Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), a NASA project using satellites to collect ocean color data to quantify phytoplankton abundance. Provides background information on SeaWIFS project, technology and data. Teacher Resource section has: online presentation on how and why scientists study ocean color; Living Ocean Teacher's Guide with brief information on ocean color, carbon cycle and greenhouse gas effect; and, links to other websites with ocean color activities.

  3. Focus on Sea Otters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A Monterey Bay Aquarium website where you can learn about the biology and population recovery of sea otters. Features include the opportunity to "meet" the otters on exhibit at the aquarium and viewing them through the live otter cam. Many sea otter-related games, activities, and resources. Links to other fascinating exhibits at the Aquarium. Several downloadable videos available, each with their own enjoyable sea otter antics.

  4. Sea Turtle Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This packet includes background information, quick facts, links to additional sea turtle resources, and a classroom modeling activity that demonstrates population estimation, life history, and hatching success rates.

  5. The impact of winds and sea surface temperatures on the Barents Sea ice extent, a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Olga; Pavlov, Vladimir; Gerland, Sebastian

    2014-02-01

    An analysis was made of the processes controlling the incidence of sea ice in the Barents Sea for the period 1979-2010. The influence of atmospheric circulation and ocean temperature on the interannual variability of sea-ice extent (SIE) in the Barents Sea was investigated using sea-ice concentrations obtained from passive microwave satellite imagery, sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and NCEP-NCAR sea level pressure (SLP) data. Data from April and September were analysed, the months when SIE in the Barents Sea is respectively at its maximum and minimum. The strongest negative correlations (- 0.65 to - 0.77) were found between the SIE in the Barents Sea and SST in the regions most influenced by Atlantic Water. The patterns of distribution of correlation coefficients between interannual variability of SIE in the Barents Sea and SLP over the Nordic Seas and Siberia showed two well-defined SLP zones: one with a high positive correlation (0.60 to 0.65) over the Norwegian and Greenland seas, and a zone with high negative correlation (- 0.60 to - 0.63) in the area of western Siberia. We conclude that winds induced by changes in SLP gradient between these zones affect both the redistribution of sea ice and the advection of heat into the Barents Sea.

  6. Water column monitoring near oil installations in the North Sea 2001–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ketil Hylland; Knut-Erik Tollefsen; Anders Ruus; Grete Jonsson; Rolf C. Sundt; Steinar Sanni; Toril Inga Røe Utvik; Ståle Johnsen; Ingunn Nilssen; Laurence Pinturier; Lennart Balk; Janina Baršien?; Ionan Marigòmez; Stephen W. Feist; Jan Fredrik Børseth

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries have been vital to coastal communities around the North Sea for centuries, but this semi-enclosed sea also receives large amounts of waste. It is therefore important to monitor and control inputs of contaminants into the North Sea. Inputs of effluents from offshore oil and gas production platforms (produced water) in the Norwegian sector have been monitored through an integrated

  7. Impacts of sea level rise towards 2100 on buildings in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders-Johan Almås; Hans Olav Hygen

    2012-01-01

    Downscaled (local) estimations indicate that, when including isostatic uplift, the sea level in Norway could rise from 16 to 116 cm by the year 2100, relative to the year 2000, depending on location and a variety of uncertainties. This estimated sea level rise could cause major damage to existing buildings along the Norwegian coastline. The impact of this anticipated sea

  8. Bering Sea Expedition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alaska Seas and Rivers Curriculum

    In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

  9. Antarctica: Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, shows how sea ice forms in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and how its seasonal fluctuation dramatically changes the continent. The segment, two minutes thirty-five seconds in length, includes rare footage of the destruction of the British ship 'Endurance', trapped and crushed by sea ice in 1914.

  10. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  11. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

    1999-01-01

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

  12. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  13. Sea ice: Antarctic aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. SCHWERDTFEGER

    The relevance and limitations of theoretical and laboratory investiga- tions of sea ice to the Antarctic is discussed. Because of the complex thermal and mechanical perturbations suffered by sea ice under such oceanic conditions, analogue computations are suggested as being amongst the most promising methods of analysis. In the light of basic heat economy determinations, it is suggested that the

  14. Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  15. Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  16. Laptev sea system discussed at Russian-German Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, J.; Kassens, H.; Timokhov, L.

    The Laptev Sea covers the central part of the vast Arctic shelf seas off northern Eurasia. It receives large volumes of fresh water from the Lena River and other big rivers that drain the central part of Siberia; peak runoff occurs in the early summer. Being tucked away between two groups of islands—Severnaya Zemlya in the west and the New Siberian Islands in the east—and connected to the Kara Sea in the west and the East Siberian Sea in the east only through relatively narrow straits, the Laptev Sea is an important area for sea-ice formation in the Arctic Ocean [Rigor and Colony, 1997; Kassens et al., 1999].Through sea ice formation, the Laptev Sea influences the ice cover of the central Arctic Ocean and its Transpolar Drift, which exports sea ice into the western Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The Laptev Sea is also the central segment of the Northern Sea Route. For this reason, commercial interests wish to gain valuable knowledge about the extremes of its modern environment, past variability and predictability on time scales of months and years. Both in the Laptev Sea and on the adjacent land regions, large tracts of subterraneous and submarine permafrost have been observed as a consequence of the extreme paleoclimate of the latest geological past.

  17. Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Report's Topic in Depth explores the world of sea cucumbers, or Holothuroidea, a diverse group of intriguing marine animals. The first site (1), from the Tree of Life Web Project, provides nice clear images of sea cucumbers and brief concise sections on Characteristics, The Orders of Holothuroidea, Fossil History, and Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships. The second site (2), from the Charles Darwin Research Station, displays short answers to commonly asked questions about sea cucumbers like: What is their importance within the marine communities?; How do sea cucumbers reproduce?; and What is the potential environment impact of overexploiting sea cucumber populations? From Enchanted Learning, the third site (3) features a diagrammed print-out of a s ea cucumber along with short descriptions of Holothuroidea anatomy, diet, classification, and predators. Hosted by the Royal BC Museum, the fourth site (4) contains a brief research paper by curator Philip Lambert on taxonomy issues concerning sea cucumbers. The fifth site (5), developed by Richard Fox of Lander University, contains detailed instructions for a laboratory exercise with Sclerodactyla briareus, a species of sea cucumber. From MoonDragon's Health & Wellness website, the sixth site (6) contains a sea cucumber recipe and briefly discusses sea cucumber cuisine and health benefits. Hosted by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, the seventh site (7) provides information about an international conference titled: Conservation of s ea cucumbers in Malaysia, their Taxonomy, Ecology and Trade. The site contains concluding remarks, abstracts from papers presented at the conference, and a list of email contacts for conference participants. The final (8) site from the Environmental News Network'features a short article about an Ecuadorian court upholding sea cucumber fishing limits in the Galapagos islands.

  18. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2012-2103

    E-print Network

    Safety Administrative Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety #12;SEAS Safety ProgramSEAS Safety Program Services Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety · Relay relevant information back to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend

  19. SEA GRANT PROGRAM SITE VISITS Sea Grant Program Webinar

    E-print Network

    SEA GRANT PROGRAM SITE VISITS Sea Grant Program Webinar May 2014 Sami J. Grimes, NSGO #12;OVERVIEW Sea Grant Evaluation Process Why Site Visits? Results from Previous Site Visit Cycle Overview of How Site Visits are Conducted Site Visit Terms Changes from the Previous Site Visit Cycle Sea Grant

  20. Slump and debris-flow dominated upper slope facies in the Cretaceous of the Norwegian and northern North Seas (61-67{degrees}N): Implications for sand distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States); Lehtonen, L.R. [Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S.Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States); Straume, T.; Syvertsen, S.E.; Hodgkinson, R.J.; Skibeli, M. [Mobil Exploration Norway Inc., Stavanger (Norway)

    1994-06-01

    A regional sedimentological study of Cretaceous sequences in the Mid-Norway region (Norwegian Sea) and in the Agat region (Agat field area, northern North Sea) reveals that these sequences were predominantly deposited in an upper continental slope environment by slumps and debris flows. Examination of nearly 500 m of core from 14 wells shows eight distinct lithofacies: facies 1 (contorted conglomerate and pebbly sandstone) represents deposits of sandy slumps and debris flows, possibly in a channel setting; facies 2 (contorted sandstone) is the most widespread and is the product of sandy slumps and debris flows; facies 3 (contorted mudstone) indicates deposition from muddy slumps and debris flow; facies 4 (rippled sandstone) suggests bottom-current reworking; facies 5 (graded sandstone) represents turbidity-current deposits and is very rare; facies 6 (laminated mudstone) is a product of pelagic or hemipelagic deposition; facies 7 (cross-bedded sandstone) is indicative of tidal processes, and facies 8 (laminated sandstone) represents delta-front and shelf deposits. These facies and their association suggest a shelf-edge delta to upper slope environment of deposition. Existing core data document deltaic facies only in the Mid-Norway region. The proposed shelf-edge delta and upper slope model has important implications for sand distribution. (1) This model provides and alternative to the conventional submarine-fan model previously applied to these sequences. (2) Although slump and debris-flow emplaced sands are usually discontinuous and unpredictable, highly amalgamated slump and debris-flow sands may develop thick reservoirs. (3) By using the Eocene Frigg Formation as an analog, it is predicted that externally mounded seismic facies in the study area may be composed of sandy slumps and debris flows.

  1. Is The Sea Level?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    In this activity students will observe that the sea level changes and will hypothesize what causes this change. They will then check their hypothesis with a data set. Many students are surprised to learn that sea level is not the same everywhere on earth and that it changes with the seasons. The main cause of this change is the temperature change in the ocean - warmer waters are higher than colder waters. Students will discover this information as they complete the activity and then see if the temperature effect holds true on another data set showing temperature and sea height changes caused by the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  2. Is the Sea Level?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this video-based activity, students learn that sea level is an average measurement of the height of the ocean, and sea level changes with the seasons and over time. El Niño and La Ninña events are compared, demonstrating that sea height is a function of temperature.Summary background information, data and images supporting the activity are available on the Earth Update data site. To complete the activity, students will need to access the Space Update multimedia collection, which is available for download and purchase for use in the classroom.

  3. Sea Perch Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    David Lalejini, an employee of the Naval Research Laboratory at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, helps a pair of teachers deploy a remotely-operated underwater Sea Perch robot during workshop activities Dec. 11. The Stennis Education Office teamed with Naval Research Laboratory counterparts to conduct a two-day workshop Dec. 10-11 for Louisiana and Mississippi teachers. During the no-cost workshop, teachers learned to build and operate Sea Perch robots. The teachers now can take the Sea Perch Program back to students.

  4. Arctic Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

  5. 3. The Sea Urchin Introduction

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jeff

    3. The Sea Urchin leffHardin Introduction The sea urchin embryo has been used for more than of echinoderms and, in particular, of sea urchins, that was carried out at these marine stations was influential; Morgan, 1927). Later, in the early part of the twentieth century, the experiments performed on sea urchin

  6. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    E-print Network

    Eisenman, Ian

    Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean 17 September 2014 Available online 28 September 2014 Keywords: Sea ice Ice growth/melt Sea ice motion Heat flux Climate dynamics Bering Sea a b s t r a c t The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability

  7. Smart Sea Lions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2009-08-31

    This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores whether animals and humans are more similar than we think. Meet Rio, a sea lion who demonstrates to researchers reasoning skills once thought limited to humans.

  8. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  9. Purple sea urchin swarm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-04

    Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

  10. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  11. All About Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Launched by the National Snow and Ice Data Center, the "All About Sea Ice" website is designed as an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expeditions in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains over 80 pages of information on sea ice, including a glossary of sea ice terms and links to more information. The primary focus of the site is as a resource for the general public, educators and students in middle school and above. It may also be useful to researchers as a source of imagery, sample data, references, and basic information.

  12. Stellar Sea Lion Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

  13. Sea Floor Spreading I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Activity and Starting Point page by R.M. MacKay. Clark College, Physics and Meteorology.

    In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

  14. Halocarbons associated with Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Helen M.; Hughes, Claire; Shaw, Marvin J.; Roscoe, Howard K.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Liss, Peter S.

    2014-10-01

    Short-lived halocarbons were measured in Arctic sea-ice brine, seawater and air above the Greenland and Norwegian seas (~81°N, 2-5°E) in mid-summer, from a melting ice floe at the edge of the ice pack. In the ice floe, concentrations of C2H5I, 2-C3H7I and CH2Br2 showed significant enhancement in the sea ice brine, of average factors of 1.7, 1.4 and 2.5 times respectively, compared to the water underneath and after normalising to brine volume. Concentrations of mono-iodocarbons in air are the highest ever reported, and our calculations suggest increased fluxes of halocarbons to the atmosphere may result from their sea-ice enhancement. Some halocarbons were also measured in ice of the sub-Arctic in Hudson Bay (~55°N, 77°W) in early spring, ice that was thicker, colder and less porous than the Arctic ice in summer, and in which the halocarbons were concentrated to values over 10 times larger than in the Arctic ice when normalised to brine volume. Concentrations in the Arctic ice were similar to those in Antarctic sea ice that was similarly warm and porous. As climate warms and Arctic sea ice becomes more like that of the Antarctic, our results lead us to expect the production of iodocarbons and so of reactive iodine gases to increase.

  15. Global sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

  16. Sea Urchin Embryology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Advanced high school level laboratory activities using sea urchins to observe fertilization and early developmental stages. This is a comprehensive site complete with multiple labs, support lessons, background information, animated graphics illustrating lab techniques, printable overheads (also available in Spanish and French), and a glossary of terms. A one-stop site for sea urchin information, experiments, suppliers, and research. Links to additional resources are available.

  17. National Sea Grant Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Only facility housing complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, obtain citations, abstracts and over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

  18. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  19. Bioprospecting / Deep Sea Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The first portion of the radio broadcast discusses the relatively new field of bioprospecting, the exploration of the sea floor for novel compounds and processes that may have industrial or medical applications. Bioprospectors are trying to collect samples of deep-sea organisms which may yield new pharmaceutical compounds, as in the case of Conus magnus, a sea snail whose venom has yielded a painkiller 1000 times more potent than morphine. There is also discussion of who owns these resources and what can be done to protect them. This segment is 12 minutes in length. The second segment of the broadcast traces the history of undersea exploration, including methods of measuring ocean depth, the bathysphere used by William Beebe and Otis Barton, the modern Alvin submersible, and remotely operated vehicles. There is also discussion of the motives and inspiration for ocean exploration; the deep sea knowledge of whalers; and comparisons of deep sea research with space exploration. This segment is 34 minutes and 40 seconds in length.

  20. Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas: current structure and volume fluxes from moored current meters, VM-ADCP and SeaSoar-CTD observations, 1995–1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjell Arild Orvik; Øystein Skagseth; Martin Mork

    2001-01-01

    This study deals with the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas, an important factor for climate, ecology and biological production in Northern Europe. The investigations are carried out along the Svinøy standard hydrographic section, which cuts through the Atlantic inflow to the Norwegian Sea just to the north of the Faroe–Shetland Channel. In the Svinøy

  1. Mechanisms of long-term mean sea level variability in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Calafat, Francisco; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even; Richter, Kristin; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    We examine mean sea level (MSL) variations in the North Sea on timescales ranging from months to decades under the consideration of different forcing factors since the late 19th century. We use multiple linear regression models, which are validated for the second half of the 20th century against the output of a state-of-the-art tide+surge model (HAMSOM), to determine the barotropic response of the ocean to fluctuations in atmospheric forcing. We demonstrate that local atmospheric forcing mainly triggers MSL variability on timescales up to a few years, with the inverted barometric effect dominating the variability along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind (piling up the water along the coast) controlling the MSL variability in the south from Belgium up to Denmark. However, in addition to the large inter-annual sea level variability there is also a considerable fraction of decadal scale variability. We show that on decadal timescales MSL variability in the North Sea mainly reflects steric changes, which are mostly remotely forced. A spatial correlation analysis of altimetry observations and baroclinic ocean model outputs suggests evidence for a coherent signal extending from the Norwegian shelf down to the Canary Islands. This supports the theory of longshore wind forcing along the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic causing coastally trapped waves to propagate along the continental slope. With a combination of oceanographic and meteorological measurements we demonstrate that ~80% of the decadal sea level variability in the North Sea can be explained as response of the ocean to longshore wind forcing, including boundary wave propagation in the Northeast Atlantic. These findings have important implications for (i) detecting significant accelerations in North Sea MSL, (ii) the conceptual set up of regional ocean models in terms of resolution and boundary conditions, and (iii) the development of adequate and realistic regional climate change projections.

  2. The Lofoten Vortex of the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Roshin P.; Chafik, Léon; Nilsen, J. Even Ø.; Eldevik, Tor; Halo, Issufo

    2015-02-01

    The Lofoten Basin is the largest reservoir of ocean heat in the Nordic Seas. A particular feature of the basin is 'the Lofoten Vortex', a most anomalous mesoscale structure in the Nordic Seas. The vortex resides in one of the major winter convection sites in the Norwegian Sea, and is likely to influence the dense water formation of the region. Here, we document this quasi-permanent anticyclonic vortex using hydrographic and satellite observations. The vortex' uniqueness in the Nordic Seas, its surface characteristics on seasonal, inter-annual, and climatological time-scales, are examined together with the main forcing mechanisms acting on it. The influence of the vortex on the hydrography of the Lofoten Basin is also shown. We show that the Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas penetrate the deepest inside the Lofoten Vortex, and confirm the persistent existence of the vortex in the deepest part of the Lofoten Basin, its dominant cyclonic drift and reveal seasonality in its eddy intensity with maximum during late winter and minimum during late autumn. Eddy merging processes are studied in detail, and mergers by eddies from the slope current are found to provide anticyclonic vorticity to the Lofoten Vortex.

  3. Sea Slug Forum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Produced by the Australian Museum and maintained by Dr. Bill Rudman, the recently redesigned Sea Slug Forum is an excellent resource for information on nudibranchs and related sea slugs such as bubble-shells, sea hares, and side-gilled slugs. One of the chief features of the site is a lengthy species list that links to lovely photos, brief descriptions, distribution information, and related messages from the site's Forum. The site also offers a sizable collection of short pieces and archived forum messages on a variety of general topics, arranged alphabetically. Users can send their own questions and review messages sent to the site along with Dr. Rudman's replies by date or via a keyword search engine. Additional resources include suggested reading, related annotated links, and information on forum participants.

  4. New York Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Sea Grant program was established in 1966, and a few years later, the state of New York sponsored the program's first outpost. Currently, the New York Sea Grant (NYSG) is a cooperative program of the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell University. On the homepage, visitors can look over sections that include "Extension", "Research", "Education", "Publications", and "Theme Areas". The "Theme Areas" is a good place to start, as it features topical material on coastal processes and hazards, fisheries, and aquatic invasive species. Their helpful publication "Currents" is also worth a look, and it contains materials on grant opportunities, research materials, fact sheets, and public awareness programs. Moving on, the "Related Sites" area contains links to "Hot Topics" (topical news items related to the sea and such) and affiliated organizations.

  5. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  6. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWeb is a nonprofit organization aimed at raising awareness of the ocean and marine life that play "a critical role in our everyday life and in the future of our planet." SeaWeb employs a team of professionals from biology, exploration, and various communication disciplines. The current campaigns include an effort to protect the declining Caspian Sea Sturgeon ("the source of most of the world's caviar"), an attempt to reduce overfishing of swordfish, and a report about the changes occurring in the world's oceans. This Web site is a robust source of information about many threats that are facing marine ecosystems, and an attempt to reduce the dangers by educating the public about the impacts of their behavior.

  7. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead and on sea ice in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  8. THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010

    E-print Network

    THE STATE OF SEA GRANT 2010 Biennial Report to Congress by the National Sea Grant Advisory Board, November 2010 Impacts, challenges and opportunities #12;B The State of Sea Grant 2010: Impacts, Challenges ................................................................................................................................. 5 The Sea Grant Model

  9. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND

    E-print Network

    385: SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN 1947 SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE MONTHLY AVERAGE AND ANOMALY CHARTS NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, 1947 Part I- -Sea surface temperature monthly average charts, northeastern Pacific Ocean 5 Part II- -Sea

  10. RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

    We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

  11. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2013-2014

    E-print Network

    Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety Officers (~ 40 safety Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety Inspections · Report and Feedback from/after Lab to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend annual lab inspection (SEAS + EHSEM

  12. Long-term variability in Arctic sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajkumar Kamaljit; Maheshwari, Megha; Oza, Sandip R.; Kumar, Raj

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used 30 years of an operational sea surface temperature (SST) product, the NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST Version 2 dataset, to examine variations in Arctic SSTs during the period December 1981-October 2011. We computed annual SST anomalies and interannual trends in SST variations for the period 1982-2010; during this period, marginal (though statistically significant) increases in SSTs were observed in oceanic regions poleward of 60°N. A warming trend is evident over most of the Arctic region, the Beaufort Sea, the Chuckchi Sea, Hudson Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Iceland Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Bering Strait, etc.; Labrador Sea experienced higher temperature anomalies than those observed in other regions. However, cooling trends were observed in the central Arctic, some parts of Baffin Bay, the Kara Sea (south of Novaya Zemlya), the Laptev Sea, the Siberian Sea, and Fram Strait. The central Arctic region experienced a cooling trend only during 1992-2001; warming trends were observed during 1982-1991 and 2002-2010. We also examined a 30-yr (1982-2011) record of summer season (June-July-August) SST variations and a 29-yr (1982-2010) record of September SST variations, the results of which are discussed.

  13. Lighting Up the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic Xpeditions

    This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

  14. Deep Drilling at Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kate Ramsayer

    This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

  15. National Sea Grant Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the website for the only facility housing a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, where users may obtain citations, abstracts and access to over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

  16. Introduction Deep-sea deposits from submarine landslides, debris

    E-print Network

    Introduction Deep-sea deposits from submarine landslides, debris flows, and turbidity currents have with submarine mass-wasting. An example is the Storegga landslide on the Norwegian margin, which occurred about 9 detached from the front of slowing-down submarine landslides. With a runout ratio of the order 0

  17. Sea Level Rise Media Release

    E-print Network

    Hu, Aixue

    Sea Level Rise Media Release Coverage Report 07/06/2009 Melting Ice Could Lead to Massive Waves 06/11/2009 Rising sea levels could see U.S. Atlantic coast cities make hard choices; Where to let Baltimore Chronicle & Sentinel, The 06/08/2009 Rapid rise in sea levels on East Coast predicted Pittsburgh

  18. The Sea Level Rise Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Abdalati; S. C. Moser; R. W. Schmitt

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on sea level rise suggests that sea level rise by the end of this century may well be significantly larger than those identified in the IPCC AR4 (2007). Whereas in the past, sea level rise was ascribed equally to thermal expansion of a warming ocean and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers, the recent acceleration in

  19. 3, 637669, 2006 Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 3, 637­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Mediterranean Sea forecast: effects of high-resolution atmospheric forcings S. Natale1 , R. Sorgente2 , S­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  20. National Sea Grant Educators Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

  1. Tides & Currents: Sea Level Trends

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years. This resource illustrates regional trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change including national and global stations. Impacts on changing sea levels in relation to atmospheric and oceanic processes as well as other Earth systems are explained and supported with educations resources.

  2. Sea Surface Temperature Climatology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Education Online

    This interactive animation shows global sea surface temperature averages for the same months over a number of years. Click on the map to see values for a particular month. This takes leads to a viewer that allows users to manipulate the figure, zooming in to a particular spot, altering the size, or changing the format.

  3. The Dirac Sea

    E-print Network

    J. Dimock

    2010-11-26

    We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.

  4. SeaDiscovery.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaDiscovery.com is an online source for "underwater tech and ocean science news." The site presents not only news, but information about maritime technology employment which includes featured jobs and resumes. It also allows access to the Maritime Technology Reporter magazine and provides links to a number of important directories.

  5. Classroom of the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Denise Monte

    2000-03-01

    Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

  6. Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-07-09

    Explore the relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and Earth's climate system, and consider the effects that changes in SST are having in the Arctic and beyond in this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain featuring data and visualization from NOAA.

  7. Dead Sea Scrolls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Bull

    1991-01-01

    In today's society, many people are critical about the validity of the Bible. Archaeological excavations have unearthed many artifacts of the biblical time period, such as pottery, archives, and settlement remains, but Palestine had not produced virtually anything of extremely significant biblical evidence until 1947. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has clearly been \\

  8. Sea Turtle Skeleton - Nostrils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  9. Sea Turtle Skeleton - Skull

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  10. Rising Sea Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  11. Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-15

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  12. Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-27

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  13. Space Invaders at Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hoops, Richard

    This radio broadcast discusses the recent issue of the increase and spread of tunicates (or 'sea squirts'), who have suddenly proliferated off the Atlantic Coast of the United States and Canada. The creatures, an invasive species likely from Asia or Europe, have carpeted the ocean floor and are smothering valuable shellfish.

  14. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

  15. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  16. The Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several large, irregularly shaped icebergs are floating in the Weddell Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, in this true-color MODIS image from February 17, 2002. The location of several of the bergs has changed little over the last three months. Compared to an image acquired on November 13, 2001, the berg at the upper right of the image has spun around, but is still hanging around in the same general location. Similar slow-movers can be seen just to the east of the Larsen Ice Shelf, which hugs the eastern coast of the Peninsula. The northernmost of those two bergs is designated A38b; the southernmost one is A38a. These bergs were once part of an iceberg greater than 2,700 square miles that broke off the Ronne Ice Shelf (to the south) back in 1998. While the waters of the Weddell Sea in the area ought to be deep enough to float those bergs, it is possible that they have run aground on a topographic high, or ridge, in the sea floor. However, little is known about the underwater topography of that region, and it is also possible that the bergs are simply so massive that they resist being moved by surface wind or ocean currents. While four years might seem like a long time for an iceberg to hang around, these are certainly no record holders. A berg that broke off the Ross Ice Shelf (on the other side of Antarctica) drifted north and went aground south of Australia. That berg calved in 1987, and hasn't really moved in ten years. While the big bergs have not moved much in the span of time between these images, there is a big difference in the amount of sea ice present in the two images. In general, the rounder chunks of ice are more likely to be seasonal sea ice that forms from the freezing of sea water, while the larger, jagged-edged pieces of ice are more likely to be bergs that broke off an ice shelf at the margin of the continent. It's the height of summer in Antarctica in the February image, and much of the sea ice has melted or drifted away, leaving a relatively large expanse of clear ocean. Credit:

  17. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on the sea floor in order to get experimental data in geomagnetic coordinates frames. The analysis executed showed that first error source can not be avoided at shallow water experiments but can be easily taken into account. The special methodology and the developed software allowed to solve the second problem. It was shown that it is possible to reduce the magnetometer data collected in randomly oriented coordinate system at arbitrary position on the sea floor to the data in the frame system connected with geomagnetic coordinates. The parameters of LEMI-302 sea bed magnetometer are discussed and the experimental results of its application are presented. The research work in Ukraine was partly supported by INTAS grant 99-1102.

  18. Influence of horizontal model grid resolution on the simulated primary production in an embedded primary production model in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C.; Samuelsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of horizontal grid resolution in a physical model on an embedded primary production model. The area for the experiment was along the west coast of Norway, from 60° N to 70° N, an area of high mesoscale activity. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model was coupled with the NORWegian ECOlogical Model system, and run in a nested system, consisting of three model grids with horizontal resolution of 50 km, 16 km and 4.5 km (hereafter: COARSE, MEDIUM and FINE) in the focus area. Two main results were obtained, first, the composition of the phytoplankton functional groups changed with increasing model grid resolution. In FINE, the diatoms produced a larger part (60%) of the total annual primary production than the flagellates, whereas in COARSE and MEDIUM, the primary production from the two phytoplankton groups was the same. This was explained by a higher transport of silicate into the euphotic layer in FINE compared to the other two. Second, the differences in the primary production first became large when the resolution of the model grid reached the Rossby radius of deformation. Whereas the total net primary production in MEDIUM only was 5% larger than in COARSE, the total net primary production in FINE was 20% higher than in COARSE. This was explained by the models ability to resolve mesoscale activity.

  19. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. The role of Fram Strait winter cyclones on sea ice flux and on Spitsbergen air temperatures

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    . Lett., 32, L06709, doi:10.1029/2004GL022262. 1. Introduction [2] The area around Spitsbergen and Fram°C [Rogers, 1985] and local sea ice diminished. Fram Strait, west of Spitsbergen, is characterized with north- eastward displacement of the mean low-pressure area toward the Norwegian Sea in many winters

  1. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Matishov, D. G.; Usyagina, I. S.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Pavel'Skaya, E. V.

    2011-08-01

    The annual balance of radionuclides inflow/outflow was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr isotopes in the Barents Sea, taking into account the atmospheric precipitation, inflow from the Norwegian and the White seas, as well as riverine discharge, liquid radioactive waste disposal (LRWD), and outflow to the adjacent seas. The original and published data for the period of 1950-2009 were analyzed. According to the multiyear dynamics (1960-2009), the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr into the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by the Norwegian Sea currents; and precipitation played a major role in the 1950s, 1960s, and in 1986. Currently, the trans-border redeposition of 90Sr prevails over 137Cs redeposition in the Barents Sea, and constitutes about 99% of inflow of each element.

  2. Sea Ice 1987 - 2012

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features a video that illustrates both seasonal patterns and long-term changes in sea ice distribution across the Arctic Ocean. It draws data from two satellite instruments that measure emitted microwave radiation, which helps distinguish open ocean from ice. It shows that during the winter months, a layer of ice forms across vast expanses of the Arctic Ocean and each summer, more than half of that ice vanishes. Students discover that this natural cycle of freezing and thawing is influenced both by seasonal temperature variations and long-term climate change and that scientists are using satellite images to measure the distribution of Arctic sea ice in order to gain a better understanding of how it is linked to Earth's climate system.

  3. The Disappearing Aral Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  4. WINDandSEA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site was built in response to the many reference questions that are posed to the library and is meant to make internet searching more efficient for those concerned with oceanic and atmospheric issues, and the general public. Presently WINDandSEA has over 1,000 links to science and policy sites organized by topic and alphabetically within topic. All sites have been reviewed and annotated by NOAA staff.

  5. Dauphin Island Sea Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

  6. Short sea shipping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Mulligan; Gary A. Lombardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the potential environmental benefit of short sea shipping. Critical strategic issues relevant to formulating\\u000a public policy are developed. Coastal shipping has traditionally been a major sector of the maritime industry. This continues\\u000a to be the case in the European Union, but the sector has diminished in relative importance in North America as the transport\\u000a industry has become

  7. Connected-Sea Partons

    E-print Network

    Keh-Fei Liu; Wen-Chen Chang; Hai-Yang Cheng; Jen-Chieh Peng

    2012-11-13

    According to the path-integral formalism of the hadronic tensor, the nucleon sea contains two distinct components called connected sea (CS) and disconnected sea (DS). We discuss how the CS and DS are accessed in the lattice QCD calculation of the moments of the parton distributions. We show that the CS and DS components for $\\bar u(x) + \\bar d(x)$ can be extracted by using recent data on the strangeness parton distribution, the CT10 global fit, and the lattice result of the ratio of the strange to $u(d)$ moments in the disconnected insertion. The extracted CS and DS for $\\bar u(x) + \\bar d(x)$ have distinct Bjorken $x$ dependence in qualitative agreement with expectation. The analysis also shows that the momentum fraction of the $\\bar u(x) + \\bar d(x)$ is about equally divided between CS and DS at $Q^2 = 2.5 {\\rm GeV}^2$. Implications on future global analysis for parton distributions are presented.

  8. Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joycelyn Thomson

    2005-02-15

    The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

  9. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

    1999-09-30

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

  10. Aral Sea Partial Refill with Imported Caspian Sea Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Cathcart; Viorel Badescu

    \\u000a In 1960, the Aral Sea’s volume was slightly more than 1,000 km3 with a salinity of ~10 g\\/L. Its level stood at ~53 m above the world-ocean’s mean sea-level—almost what it was ca. 200 ad—but, by 2007, its level had dropped to ~30 m above the world’s prevailing ocean level (Glantz 2007; Micklin 2007) (Fig. 1.)

  11. Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle accounts for up to 76% of the monthly sea level variance. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges. In addition it illustrates areas where particularities in the seasonal cycle exist. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with significant variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle has a larger range than the range from the annual and semi-annual components, and peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

  12. Water Mass Properties and Distribution between South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil Akhir, Mohd; Arsad, Shukri

    2013-04-01

    A definition of water mass properties, characteristics and its origin along the coast of northern Borneo are presented based on 55 CTD casts cruises in July 2009 combined with five Argo profiling floats at surrounding seas. The T-S relation in the study area, which includes South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea, show existences of eight water masses. In reference of earlier studies, we define water masses in the surface mixed layer with strong mixed of Open Sea Water (OSW), Continental Shelf Water (CSW) and Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Below the layer of this active mixing is a zone of rapid transition called the Seasonal Thermocline Water (STW). Meanwhile, the Maximum Salinity Water (MSW), Permanent Thermocline Water (PTW), North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and Deep Water (DW) were found at the depth range from below the seasonal thermocline to about 1000 m. In addition, study of BRAN (BLUElink ReANalysis) global ocean model was conducted to demonstrate how current circulation influence the exchange of water mass between the 3 seas. Sulu Sea sits in the middle and has very limited connection between the other two seas. Connection with Celebes Sea occurs at the inlet of 200m depth. Water exchange happens in two ways; surface inflow and subsurface outflow. While in South China Sea, inlet is limited to 50m depth and surface flow is mostly dominant. The current circulation of the adjacent sea demonstrate some of the water mass were origiated as far as north South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. Water mass differences between the seas were further classified to distinguish dissimilarities and define the origin the difference. Given the unique geographical background and current circulation of the area, the characteristics of the interaction between water mass distribution and current circulation has provide important overview to the area which previously not well understood.

  13. Russian oil patch now covers three seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bakke

    1975-01-01

    Russia's offshore petroleum exploration has plunged vigorously westward into the Black Sea and Sea of Azov after being confined to the landlocked Caspian Sea for nearly 50 yr. During the past 24 mo., the Soviets obtained their first proof that both the northern shelf of the Black Sea and the western shelf of its Sea of Azov arm contain commercial

  14. Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

    1999-01-01

    Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

  15. Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

  16. Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long Brigham Young for mapping polar sea ice extent. In this study, a new al- gorithm for polar sea ice mapping is developed of Bayes detection to produce sea ice extent maps. Statistical models for sea ice and ocean are represented

  17. Building Sea Grant The Role of the National Sea Grant Office

    E-print Network

    Building Sea Grant The Role of the National Sea Grant Office Prepared by The National Sea Grant Office Review Committee of the National Sea Grant Review Panel June 2002 #12;2 Letter from the National Sea Grant Review Panel May 20,2002 The report of the National Sea Grant Review Panel's committee

  18. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens. It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

  19. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; R. Kwok; M. R. Drinkwater

    1992-01-01

    Polarimetric remote sensing data and physical interpretations are presented in this paper for sea ice in the Beaufort sea under cold winter conditions. The data were collected in March 1988 with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) polarimetric airborne SAR. The full covariance matrices were obtained from the scattering data with proper consideration of the polarimetric calibration. Images were then processed

  20. NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

  1. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

  2. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead at sunset in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  3. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea. ...

  4. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  5. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300...Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...special education and related services, the SEA, notwithstanding §§ 300.162...

  6. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300...Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...special education and related services, the SEA, notwithstanding §§ 300.162...

  7. 34 CFR 300.230 - SEA flexibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA flexibility. 300.230 Section 300...Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.230 SEA flexibility. (a) Adjustment to State...special education and related services, the SEA, notwithstanding §§ 300.162...

  8. Sea ice terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

  9. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  10. Circulation of the Caribbean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold L. Gordon

    1967-01-01

    The geostrophic method was applied to six north-south hydrographic profiles across the Caribbean Sea and one across the Yucatan Strait. An axis of flow exists in the southern third of the Caribbean Sea. It flows directly over the steep slope in the reference layer found by Defant's method. This condition is similar to that of the Gulf Stream. The baroclinic

  11. GLOBAL SEA RISE: A REDETERMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    It is well established that sea level trends obtained from tide gauge records shorter than about 50-60 years are corrupted by interdecadal sea level variation. However, only a fraction (<25%) of even the long records exhibit globally consistent trends, because of vertical crustal movements. The coherent trends are from tide gauges not at collisional plate boundaries, and not located in

  12. Probability of sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Titus; V. K. Narayanan

    1995-01-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  13. Salton: A Sea of Controversy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristin B. Vessey

    2000-09-01

    The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

  14. ROC Sampling Deep Sea Urchin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Images of the remotely operated vehicle Jason2 sampling a sea urchin in a deep sea mussel community found near a gas seep on the U.S. outer continental shelf. Images courtesy Deepwater Canyons 2013 - Pathways to the Abyss expedition, NOAA-OER/BOEM/USGS....

  15. SEAS LABORATORY SAFETY OFFICER ORIENTATION

    E-print Network

    /EH&S and lab · Communicate with lab members and PI · Get support from EH&S, ESCO and safety committees "The problems, and implement the safety program." SEAS Lab Safety Program Lab Safety Officer #12;· Attend monthly SEAS Safety Committee meetings · Assist in peer inspections and EH&S lab inspections · Inspect

  16. Sea Level Variation around Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Chen; C. T. Kuo

    If sea level is rising around Taiwan coast, it will cause many extremely disasters in nearshore area such as flooding, wave overtopping, beach erosion etc. The purpose of this paper is to discussing the sea water level fluctuation in Taiwan; the results were analyzed from the tidal data those survey from all the tidal sites around Taiwan coast. There show

  17. Gallery: Sound in the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sound in the Sea offers a selection of audio recordings captured beneath the ocean surface. This page contains a selection of audio files of whales, ships, seismic disturbances, and unknown noises. There are also related video and animation products, and several spectrograms and other images of ocean sound. Students can click any image to listen and learn more about sound in the sea.

  18. Radar Polarimetry of Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M.

    2003-04-01

    Dating back to 1988, polarimetric SAR imaging has been demonstrated from a variety of airborne platforms but in only a relatively limited variety of polar sea ice locations. Data were first acquired by NASA-JPL in the context of the SSMI calibration and validation campaign using the C-, L-, and P-band AIRSAR system. These flights were performed in the Beaufort, Chukchi and Bering Seas. Subsequently, data were acquired by the Danish EMISAR airborne system in the Greenland and Baltic Seas. To-date, however, the only spaceborne polarimetric sea-ice data have been acquired from the Space Shuttle, in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica during the SIR-C mission. These limited cases are currently being supplemented by ASAR alternating polarisation acquisitions from Envisat, thus helping to broaden our knowledge on the discriminatory capability of C-band. This presentation will review the historical background to polarimetric remote sensing of sea ice, together with the regional characteristics of the sea-ice data from these different experiments. Examples of lessons learned will be provided from previous attempts to classify sea ice, and illustrated with examples from microwave polarimetric and multi-frequency data from the above cases.

  19. SEA WATER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Duckworth; F. W. Chambers; W. H. Jr. Chapman; R. E. Severance

    1958-01-01

    The dispersal in time and sea of radioactive contamination produced by a ; deep underwater atomic blast was studied instrumentation methods obtained ; radiation intensity vs. depth information for several surface locations, and ; continuously monitored a sea-water intake line aboard ship. Surface ; contamination measuremerts were also made. (auth)

  20. Probability of sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  1. Radar altimetry over sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J.

    1984-01-01

    To study the sea-ice interactive region in the Bering and Greenland Seas a series of experimental compaigns, the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX) has been planned. A major objective of MIZEX is the development of a capability to relate the morphology and distribution of the sea ice to atmospheric and oceanographic parameters in an overall model. During the first part of the MIZEX, a 13.7 GHz microwave radar altimeter/scatterometer having a pulse length of 16 nanoseconds was flown over the Bering Sea Marginal ice zone. On the same aircraft were the NASA GSFC 19 GHz Electronically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR), scanning radiometers and an infrared, nadir pointing, temperature sounder. The altimeter/scatterometer was operated in nadir pointing and conically scanning modes to collect measurements of reflectivity and pulse shapes. These will be related to sea-ice classifications, ocean wave spectra and coincident microwave and infrared radiometric measurements and laser profilometer surface roughness estimates.

  2. The Aral Sea: Then and Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to consider what happens when a sea shrinks and to compare pictures of the Aral Sea at different times. They will conclude by pretending to be residents of the Aral Sea region, drawing before and after pictures of how changes to the sea have affected their lives. Students will conduct an experiment to see whether salt evaporates with water; hypothesize what might happen to people, animals, and plants living near a shrinking sea; compare satellite images of the Aral Sea from 1973 and 1999; match problems in the Aral Sea region with statements about these problems in the Aral Sea family activity; discuss changes that are occurring in the Aral Sea region; and create drawings depicting the lives of people in the Aral Sea region before and after the sea began to shrink.

  3. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data assimilation) have a far narrower spread in their prediction, indicating that the results of these more sophisticated methods are converging. Here we summarize and synthesize the 2014 contributions to the SIO, highlight the important questions and challenges that remain to be addressed, and present data on stakeholder uses of the SIO and related SIPN products.

  4. Climate Projections of Sea state for the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Jens; Groll, Nikolaus; Heinrich, Hartmut; Rosenhagen, Gudrun

    2013-04-01

    KLIWAS is a research program of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development to study the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation and to provide options for adaptations. One aspect of the Research task is to analyse climate scenarios for the sea state, eg. Sea wave height (SWH), wave direction and wave periods for the North Sea. In addition, the prospective development of periods with wave heights below a certain threshold (periods of beneficial weather conditions) is discussed. Such periods of low sea state are important for offshore industry. The scenarios together with the wave climate of the recent years will give an approximation of projected changes of the sea state in coastal and open sea areas. Here we show the results for projected changes of sea state in the North Sea for the period 2000-2100 in comparison to 1961-2000, based on the wave model WAM4.5. The wave model is driven with wind data from two different regional atmosphere-ocean-models (DMI-HIRHAM and MPI-REMO) in the scenario A1B. The wind data are delivered in a horizontal resolution of about 20 km and a time resolution of one hour, while the wave model provides data of the calculated sea state with a horizontal grid of 5 km and the time resolution of one hour. It is seen, that in the eastern part of the North Sea and especially in the German Bight there is a trend to a increasing of the 99th percentile of SWH, in particular for the DMI wind data. In accordance with this increasing, there is a rotation of strongwind events from mainly north-west to mainly south-west directions for both regional models (DMI and REMO). As a consequence of this rotation, a decreasing of the 99th percentile of SWH is found in the western part of the North Sea. While there is a clear trend of SWH (positive in the eastern part, negative in the western part of the North Sea), there is not found any significant change of beneficial weather conditions.

  5. Medicines for sea lice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew N

    2002-06-01

    Sea louse (Family Caligidae: genera Caligus and Lepeophtheirus) infection of farmed salmonids represents a significant threat to animal welfare and undermines profitability. Lice may also act as vectors for the transmission of viral and bacterial pathogens. Pest-control programmes parallel those deployed in terrestrial livestock farming and include the use of parasiticides. The authorisation process for fish medicines varies widely between salmon farming countries and undue regulatory constraint may place farmers in one country at a competitive disadvantage. In many jurisdictions, fish are a 'minor' species and mounting demands for environmental assessment increase registration costs. A successful integrated louse-management strategy requires free access to a range of effective, chemically unrelated active ingredients deployed according to current best practice. Over-reliance on a limited number of products will lead, inevitably, to resistance, which is difficult to counter. PMID:12138618

  6. Deep Sea Duel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-02

    This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

  7. Beneath the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains videos from the "Beneath the Sea" television episode, related website articles and student activities, and an interactive ocean game that tests knowledge of what creatures live at what depth. The videos feature technologies that have opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and a remote submarine as it dives to the unexplored middle depths of the ocean off Monterey, California, revealing a spectacular variety of new life forms. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The articles explore how life survives in dark hot ocean vents and how this may shed light on the origin of life on Earth; evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; and what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth.

  8. Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

    1994-01-01

    The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

  9. Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Kaminski, Michael A.

    Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean by the Mediterranean at V12 ka, allowing saline waters to penetrate the Marmara Sea. These saline waters reached Sea connections following the last deglaciation Michael A. Kaminski a;b;Ã , Ali Aksu c , Matthew Box a

  10. Sea Star Succumbing to Sea Star Wasting Disease

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Unlike their smiling cartoon brethren on television, since 2013, real-life sea stars have been suffering from a wasting disease epidemic in which they lose limbs and literally disintegrate in a matter of days. ...

  11. Iridium in sea-water.

    PubMed

    Fresco, J; Weiss, H V; Phillips, R B; Askeland, R A

    1985-08-01

    Iridium in sea-water has been measured (after isolation from the saline matrix by reduction with magnesium) by neutron bombardment, radiochemical purification and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The concentration obtained in a Pacific coastal water was 1.02 +/- 0.26 x 10(-14) g per g of sea-water. At such extremely low concentrations, seawater is an extremely unlikely source for anomalously high iridium concentrations measured in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer of deep-sea sediments. PMID:18964014

  12. Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1993-08-01

    Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

  13. Sea-salt aerosol forecasting over the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishcha, P.; Nickovic, S.; Luvchik, A.; Janjic, Z.; Perez, N.; Viana, M.; Mamane, Y.; Yossef, O.; Alpert, P.

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on numerical simulations and forecasting of the sea-salt aerosol (SSA) cycle over the Mediterranean Sea, and on their comparison with ground-based measurements. A sea-salt prediction system was developed on the basis of the DREAM dust aerosol model. The system has been in operational use in Tel-Aviv University since February 2007, producing a daily forecast of 3-D distribution of SSA concentration. To evaluate the sea-salt parameterization, ground-based measurements in the eastern and western parts of the Mediterranean were compared with routine 24-hour model-based forecasts of sea-salt fields, in Tel-Aviv, Israel, March 12 - April 9, 2006, and in Barcelona, Spain, February 2006 - April 2007. Quantitative comparisons show that the sea-salt prediction system produces reasonable forecasts. The increment analysis indicates a dependence of sea-salt concentration increments on relative humidity, which is due to the hygroscopicity of sea-salt particles. We have detected an interference of Saharan dust intrusions into the Barcelona region with SSA forecasts: the presence of dust manifested itself as the model's overestimations of SSA concentrations. Model simulations indicate that under summer light breeze conditions in Tel-Aviv with surface wind speeds less than 4 m/s, the majority of SSA is transported up to 30 km inland from the coastline. With respect to vertical distributions SSA could rise to 300 m. During the transit of cyclones across the Mediterranean, when surface wind speeds exceed 10 m/s, SSA could be present above 1000 m altitude and be transported up to 100 km inland from the coast.

  14. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, H. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Chance, R.; Roscoe, H. K.; Hughes, C.; Davison, B.; Schönhardt, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liss, P. S.

    2012-05-01

    Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to elucidate the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf - large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv, respectively) were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  15. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, H. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Chance, R.; Roscoe, H. K.; Hughes, C.; Davison, B.; Schönhardt, A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liss, P. S.

    2012-11-01

    Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to make progress in elucidating the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf - large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv respectively) were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  16. Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wadhams; Walter Munk

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of 20th Century sea level rise are typically 1.5 to 2 mm\\/y, with a steric contribution of (0.5 ± 0.2) mm\\/y. Estimates of the eustatic contribution vary widely between ?1.1 and +1.3 mm\\/y. We attempt an independent estimate of eustatic sea level rise based on the measured freshening of the global ocean, and with attention to the contribution from

  17. Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wadhams; Walter Munk

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of 20th Century sea level rise are typically 1.5 to 2 mm\\/y, with a steric contribution of (0.5 +\\/- 0.2) mm\\/y. Estimates of the eustatic contribution vary widely between -1.1 and +1.3 mm\\/y. We attempt an independent estimate of eustatic sea level rise based on the measured freshening of the global ocean, and with attention to the contribution from

  18. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-In Lee; Hyeon-Seo Cho; Sun-Beom Jeong

    2006-01-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996–2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8kg km?2, and low in

  19. Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs: Testing Ecological Hypotheses Using-Central Adriatic and South Catalan Sea) and two time periods (mid-late 1970s and 1990s) in the Mediterranean Sea to species removal; Niche model; Ecopath model; Mediterranean Sea. INTRODUCTION Degradation of marine

  20. Carbon Dynamics in Northern Marginal Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Hjalmarsson

    Abstract The marginal seas have, despite their relatively small area, an important role in the global carbon cycle. They are largely influenced by carbon and nutrient fluxes from land and a large part of the biological production occurs in the marginal seas. The carbon dynamic in two shelf areas – The Baltic Sea System (the Baltic Sea, the Kattegat and

  1. Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea ice

    E-print Network

    Feltham, Daniel

    Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea of Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness made by a modern dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and forced comprehensive data sets of observations made between 1979 and 2001 of sea ice thickness, draft, extent

  2. Understanding the Red Sea response to sea level Mark Siddalla,*, David A. Smeeda

    E-print Network

    Siddall, Mark

    Understanding the Red Sea response to sea level Mark Siddalla,*, David A. Smeeda , Christoph-level estimates from central Red Sea oxygen isotope records based on a previously published model. In this paper for the recorded variability in Red Sea d18 O (PDB) for sea level changes greater than 12 m. Variables

  3. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs

    E-print Network

    Pineda, Jesús

    Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs. 2011. Nearshore, seasonally persistent fronts in sea surface temperature on Red Sea tropical reefs in sea surface temperature (SST) were observed, including cold fronts (colder inshore) during winter

  4. Tortuosity of the Antarctic Sea Ice over the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, J.; Heinrichs, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the research was to mathematically characterize the edge of the Antarctic sea ice in the Weddell Sea. Because the sea ice may reflect processes involved in the atmosphere and ocean near the ice edge, it may suggest broader changes on the ice. The chosen method was to compare the tortuosity of the edge over time and across seasons. Because the sea ice may reflect processes involved in the atmosphere and ocean near the ice edge, it may suggest broader changes on the ice. Throughout the research, the shapefiles for the Antarctic sea ice were collected from the National Snow and Ice Data Center website and the coordinates were extracted using an add-in for the MapWindow GIS. These points were then put into Excel separated by year and then the distance factor (an approximation to the tortuosity) was calculated and compared by month over time. Preliminary data has shown that the closer to the winter months, the higher the tortuosity. Statistical analysis has shown that there is no clear relationship between tortuosity and the area of the sea ice, and the tortuosity exhibits a weak negative trend over the past 32 years.

  5. Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of terrigenous matter settles in natural sediment traps of fjords. The Barents Sea bottom has rather dissected relief. A number of isometric or, rarer, elongated underwater elevations (Perseus, Central, the Admiralty Bar, the Goose shoal) and separation trenches and troughs (South and North Barents Sea troughs, Perseus, Aldanov, Medvezhinsky, Franz Victoria, West and South Novozemelsky trenches) can be distinguished. The major processes that control a structure of the friable sedimentary cover of Arctic shelves appear on the seismic acoustic records as chaotic effect of cryolithogenesis (permafrost, themokarst, thawed patches, paleoriverbeds, etc.) and hydrocarbons migration (gas hydrates, gas saturated sediments, gas seeping, porkmarks, etc). Such phenomena are the main components of geo-risks for oil and gas fields development in Arctic Seas and are, together with the gas hydrates deposits, the top priority objects of seismic acoustic measurements. The shelf of the Barents Sea is one of the most extensively studied with high resolution acoustic methods because of large-scale engineering and geological problems solved in process of its industrial development. Mainly, it is related to exploring and development of oil and gas fields, oil terminals and submarine pipelines construction, and building up the whole infrastructure for their exploitation.

  6. Deep Sea Vents Web List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This student-friendly list has eight web sites that relate to deep sea vents. A short description follows each site, listing the reference materials, interactive tools, videos, sound recordings, photo archives, or other resources that can be found there.

  7. Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2008-01-17

    In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

  8. Polarized sea measurements at JPARC

    E-print Network

    Marco Contalbrigo; Alessandro Drago; Paolo Lenisa

    2006-07-12

    Large double spin-asymmetries can be foreseen for Drell-Yan production in $p p$ scattering at JPARC energies. The sign of the asymmetries can be used to discriminate between different model calculations of sea quark distributions.

  9. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  10. Variability patterns of the general circulation and sea water temperature in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, M.; Elizalde, A.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Pohlmann, T.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates patterns of spatio-temporal variability in the North Sea and their major driving mechanisms. Leading variability modes of the general circulation and sea water temperature are extracted from model results by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The model results originate from an uncoupled simulation with the global ocean model MPIOM, forced with ERA40 reanalysis data at the air-sea interface. For this regional model study, MPIOM has been run with a stretched grid configuration enabling higher horizontal resolution in the Northwest European Shelf and North Atlantic ocean. The analysis is applied to interannual variabilities of winter and summer separately. The results indicate that on seasonal scales the leading variability mode of the general circulation affects the entire North Sea, accompanied by significant inflow anomalies through the Fair-Isle Passage. Correlations of the corresponding Principal Component (PC) with wind density functions reveal the circulation anomalies to coincide with westerly and south-westerly wind anomalies. The second mode describes circulation anomalies along the Norwegian Trench and English Channel, which correlate with north-westerly wind anomalies caused by variations in large-scale atmospheric pressure areas centered over the British Isles. For sea water temperature, distinct variability patterns are induced by variable surface heat fluxes, vertical mixing, and variable advective heat fluxes. The first mode of both the general circulation and water temperature in winter mainly represents the response to atmospheric variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, the higher modes account for such variabilities that cannot be explained by the NAO. As a consequence of the integrated effects of the different variability modes on the circulation system and heat content, local correlations of the NAO with volume transports and water temperature are weakened in the regions of Atlantic inflow.

  11. Mapping Deep-sea Habitats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mel Goodwin

    In this lesson students investigate bathymetric mapping of deep-sea habitats to see how deep-sea areas of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands can be mapped to facilitate their exploration with a manned submersible. Students will create a two-dimensional topographic map from bathymetric survey data, a three-dimensional model of landforms from a two-dimensional topographic map, and will interpret two- and three-dimensional topographic data.

  12. Bioactive molecules from sea hares.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Sakai, R; Jimbo, M

    2006-01-01

    Sea hares, belonging to the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Gastropoda, are mollusks that have attracted many researchers who are interested in the chemical defense mechanisms of these soft and "shell-less" snails. Numbers of small molecules of dietary origin have been isolated from sea hares and some have ecologically relevant activities, such as fish deterrent activity or toxicity. Recently, however, greater attention has been paid to biomedically interesting sea hare isolates such as dolastatins, a series of antitumor peptide/macrolides isolated from Dolabella auricularia. Another series of bioactive peptide/macrolides, as represented by aplyronines, have been isolated from sea hares in Japanese waters. Although earlier studies indicated the potent antitumor activity of aplyronines, their clinical development has never been conducted because of the minute amount of compound available from the natural source. Recent synthetic studies, however, have made it possible to prepare these compounds and analogs for a structure-activity relationship study, and started to uncover their unique action mechanism towards their putative targets, microfilaments. Here, recent findings of small antitumor molecules isolated from Japanese sea hares are reviewed. Sea hares are also known to produce cytotoxic and antimicrobial proteins. In contrast to the small molecules of dietary origin, proteins are the genetic products of sea hares and they are likely to have some primary physiological functions in addition to ecological roles in the sea hare. Based on the biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins, we propose that they belong to one family of molecule, the "Aplysianin A family," although their molecular weights are apparently divided into two groups. Interestingly, the active principles in Aplysia species and Dolabella auricularia were shown to be L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a flavin enzyme that oxidizes an alpha-amino group of the substrate with molecular oxygen and liberates hydrogen peroxide, with a sequence similar to other known LAAOs, including snake venom. Possible antibacterial activity and cytotoxic activity mechanisms of these proteins are also discussed. PMID:17153345

  13. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  14. Sea Turtle Protection and Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This extensive site describes the population status of each U.S. sea turtle species and how they are protected by law. Each species' scientific name, biology, threatened or endangered status, description, human impacts, population trends, distribution, and photos are documented. Read the downloadable Recovery Plans for each species, as well as learn about turtle legislation. Site also features reports and proceedings from various sea turtle symposia and conferences.

  15. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  16. Correlation at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Richard L.; Farr, Keith B.; McColgan, Michele W.; Smith, Ralph G.

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses an optical correlator interfaces to a FLIR and laser rangefinder to aid aircraft landing aboard an aircraft carrier. The purpose was to recognize aircraft and provide precision track in spite of the engine plume which is visible in IR images. Toward the end of the program, an opportunity arose to piggyback on tests of a Navy FLIR system, on board the USS Enterprise. The Navy's developmental FLIR and laser rangefinder were mounted on the carrier and provided excellent imagery with concurrent range data. The correlator performed a limited set of experiments at sea, tracking an aircraft from 8000 feet until almost touchdown. The challenges to the correlator we operation in a harsh environment and real time interfacing with other hardware. Real time range information controlled a series of filters in the correlator. The system fit into a standard panel rack and utilized remote alignment. The system operated during the chock of aircraft launch and landing, with no need to open up the optical box.

  17. From Shore to Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

  18. 9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) 80 9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA)

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) 80 _____________________________________________________________________________ 9. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) 9.1 Introduction In this chapter an introduction to a framework that SEA is a framework of study rather than a particular technique." Hence, the "statistical philosophy

  19. Brief: Offshore North Sea case histories of the environmentally friendly testing vessel, the Crystal Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Tjelta, O.; Ashwell, C.; Hilmarsen, G.; Taylor, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    One problem during offshore well-test operations, stimulations, and routine workovers are discharges into the air and sea while flaring. These procedures are usually performed by mobile drilling rigs with no storage capacity, and thus, hydrocarbons sequestered must be burned off from the rig flare booms. Another major problem has been the inability of the flare to operate at high flow rates. Because the burning process slows the pace of a test, restricting full flow testing, valuable well information is lost. Flaring of hydrocarbons also represents an economic loss. In the case of oil rigs, for example, flaring not only emits CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere but also burns off usable oil. The Crystal Sea well-test vessel was designed to address the problems inherent to flaring and, at the same time, provide cost efficiency by salvaging usable oil during well testing. The success of her initial two jobs on the Statfjord North satellite field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea confirms that sale of the salvaged oil normally lost during the flaring process could generate sufficient economic return to pay for the vessel. In addition, with its capability to receive products at twice the flow rate of conventional methods, the increased accuracy of the technical information obtained from the well test further enhances its value for improved reservoir management.

  20. Air-sea interactions in sea surface temperature frontal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianezze, Joris; Redelsperger, Jean-Luc; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Reynaud, Thierry; Marié, Louis; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Garnier, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Representation of air-sea exchanges in coastal, regional and global models represent a challenge firstly due to the small scale of acting turbulent processes comparatively to the resolved scales of these models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of air-sea interactions at the turbulent process scales is still lacking. Many successful efforts are dedicated to measure the energy and mass exchanges between atmosphere and ocean, including the effect of surface waves. In comparison less efforts are brought to understand the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the oceanic mixing layer. In this regard, we are developing research mainly based on ideal and realistic numerical simulations which resolve very small scales (horizontal resolutions from 1 to 100 meters) in using grid nesting technics and coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere models. As a first step, the impact of marked gradients in sea surface temperatures (SST) on air-sea exchanges has been explored through realistic numerical simulations at 100m horizontal resolution. Results from simulations of a case observed during the FROMVAR experiment will be shown. The talk will mainly focus on the marked impact of SST front on the atmospheric boundary layer (stability and winds), the air-sea exchanges and surface parameters (rugosity, drag coefficient) Results will be also shown on the strong impact on the simulated atmosphere of small scale variability of SST field.

  1. Caribbean Conservation Corporation & Sea Turtle Survival League

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

  2. SeaWinds - Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

    Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

    The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

    Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

    The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

    With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

  3. Sea Ice, an Antarctic Habitat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A 'click-and-learn' sub site hosted by the Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), this is a succinct, educational tour of sea-ice and its associated ecological communities. Short synopses introduce the dynamics of sea-ice formation, the microstructure of sea-ice (including crystal structure, brine channels, and ice algae), the effects of ice melt on resident organisms, the logistics of sea-ice research, and _land fast-ice_ and platelet ice habitats. Introductions also exist for the following organisms: krill; whales (i.e., Orcas, southern bottlenosesd dolphins, minke whales); sea birds (i.e., skuas and snow petrals), penguins (i.e., emperor, adelie, and chinstraps), and seals (i.e., weddell, crabeater, leopard, and ross.) Enlargeable thumbnail images accompany the habitat and inhabitant descriptions. Further investigations (at an accelerated level) are prompted with the inclusion of bibliographic references and scientific research presentations (in PDF format) on fast-ice and platelet ice, as well as links to the main site for the AWI.

  4. Impact of Sea Spray on Air-Sea Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, Fabrice; Mueller, James

    2013-11-01

    The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air-sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution: the number of drops formed at the ocean surface and the per-drop contribution to the fluxes. To estimate these per-droplet fluxes, we present results from a large number of drop trajectories, which are simulated with a recently developed Lagrangian Stochastic model adapted for the heavy drop transport and evaporation within the marine boundary layer. Then, using commonly accepted spray generation functions we present estimates of spray fluxes which account for the mediating feedback effects from the droplets on the atmosphere. The results suggest that common simplifications in previous sea spray models, such as the residence time in the marine boundary layer, may not be appropriate. We further show that the spray fluxes may be especially sensitive to the size distribution of the drops. The total effective air-sea fluxes lead to drag and enthalpy coefficients that increase modestly with wind speed. The rate of increase for the drag coefficient is greatest at moderate wind speeds, while the rate of increase for the enthalpy coefficient is greatest at higher wind speeds. The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air-sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution: the number of drops formed at the ocean surface and the per-drop contribution to the fluxes. To estimate these per-droplet fluxes, we present results from a large number of drop trajectories, which are simulated with a recently developed Lagrangian Stochastic model adapted for the heavy drop transport and evaporation within the marine boundary layer. Then, using commonly accepted spray generation functions we present estimates of spray fluxes which account for the mediating feedback effects from the droplets on the atmosphere. The results suggest that common simplifications in previous sea spray models, such as the residence time in the marine boundary layer, may not be appropriate. We further show that the spray fluxes may be especially sensitive to the size distribution of the drops. The total effective air-sea fluxes lead to drag and enthalpy coefficients that increase modestly with wind speed. The rate of increase for the drag coefficient is greatest at moderate wind speeds, while the rate of increase for the enthalpy coefficient is greatest at higher wind speeds. Funded by grants OCE-0850663 and OCE-0748767 from the National Science Foundation.

  5. Eutacticity in sea urchin evolution.

    PubMed

    López-Sauceda, J; Aragón, J L

    2008-02-01

    An eutactic star, in a n-dimensional space, is a set of N vectors which can be viewed as the projection of N orthogonal vectors in a N-dimensional space. By adequately associating a star of vectors to a particular sea urchin, we propose that a measure of the eutacticity of the star constitutes a measure of the regularity of the sea urchin. Then, we study changes of regularity (eutacticity) in a macroevolutive and taxonomic level of sea urchins belonging to the Echinoidea class. An analysis considering changes through geological time suggests a high degree of regularity in the shape of these organisms through their evolution. Rare deviations from regularity measured in Holasteroida order are discussed. PMID:18030536

  6. 2014 Chevron North Sea Limited Chevron University

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    Partnership Program Introduction Undergraduate scholarships in Chemical and Mechanical Engineering are awarded© 2014 Chevron North Sea Limited Chevron University Partnership Program Undergraduate Scholarships for 2014 Chemical & Mechanical Engineering #12;© 2014 Chevron North Sea Limited 2 Chevron University

  7. Heat balance in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, N.; Ueno, H.; Itoh, M.; Kikuchi, T.; Mizobata, K.; Watanabe, E.; Nishino, S.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variation of heat balance in the Chukchi Sea in summer was investigated through analysis of satellite-derived sea-ice concentrations and reanalysis products during 1999-2010. The solar heat input varied from 4.3 to 8.0 × 1020 J over the Chukchi Sea defined in this study (5.9 × 105 km2). These values were larger than the heat transport from the Bering Strait ranging from 2.9 to 5.1 × 1020 J, suggesting that the Chukchi Sea was the area where the Pacific Water from the Bering Sea was strongly modified, affecting the interannual variation of the heat transport to the interior Arctic basin. Interannual variation in the latent, sensible, longwave radiation fluxes and the heat of fusion of sea ice in the Chukchi Sea are small compared with the heat transport from the Bering Strait as well as the solar heat input in the Chukchi Sea.

  8. SeaWorld Snack Shop - SeaWorld Classroom Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea World - Just for Teachers

    2012-05-06

    In this problem-solving activity, challenges students to take on the role of a Food Services Manager placing orders for a snack shop at Sea World. To solve the problem they will use data and proportional reasoning to make predictions and communicate findings.

  9. SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee.

    E-print Network

    SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee. We appreciate your Officer list · SEAS/EHS Safety Tools ­ How often do I update ... ? · Lab Inspection Schedule, and Peer Review Lab Inspection Form · SEAS Laboratory Safety Orientation Checklist · PPE Assessment Report sample

  10. OREGON SEA GRANT | SUMMER 2014 | VOLUME 3 NO. 1 ChangeHow Oregon Sea Grant

    E-print Network

    OREGON SEA GRANT | SUMMER 2014 | VOLUME 3 NO. 1 Climate ChangeHow Oregon Sea Grant Is Helping;2 CONFLUENCE | Oregon Sea Grant | Summer 2014 CONFLUENCE: The junction of two or more rivers; an act or process the merging, or flowing together, of Oregon Sea Grant's three "rivers": research, education, and engagement

  11. National Sea Grant College What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation?

    E-print Network

    National Sea Grant College Program What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation? NOAA's National Sea Grant College Program enhances the practical use and conservation of coastal, marine, and Great Lakes resources to create a sustainable economy and environment. Sea Grant

  12. Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger G. Barry

    2008-01-01

    Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along

  13. Observations of sea ice physical properties during the sea ice electromagnetics initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Gow; D. K. Perovich

    1996-01-01

    An Office of Naval Research sponsored sea ice electromagnetics research initiative has been directed towards relating the observed variability in sea ice electromagnetic signatures to changes in sea ice physical properties, and then using this information to develop forward and inverse models. In this paper the authors present an overview of laboratory and field observations made of sea ice physical

  14. Development and properties of sea ice in the coastal regime of the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajo Eicken; Manfred A. Lange

    1989-01-01

    From October to December 1986 a program consisting of sea ice core analysis in combination with sea ice observations was carried out from the icebreaker R\\/V Polarstern as part of the Winter Weddel Sea Project. The ship operated in the central and southeastern Weddell Sea with interests focusing on the ice shelf front between 70°S and 77°S where a system

  15. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

  16. European Enclosed and Semi-enclosed Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Leppäkoski; Tamara Shiganova; Boris Alexandrov

    The brackish-water seas of Europe, i.e. the Black (including the Sea of Azov), Caspian and Baltic Seas, can be regarded as\\u000a “brackish-water islands”, locked in by land masses and isolated from other major brackish-water bodies by physical (ocean\\u000a and land) barriers. During the last two centuries, more than 300 alien species have been recorded in the four seas. Introduced\\u000a species

  17. Diversity and Distribution of Marine Microbial Eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lovejoy; R. Massana; C. Pedros-Alio

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August

  18. Statistics of Ice Extent in the Barents Sea, 1850-1949

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Colony; I. Shapiro

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1850s, Norway began an intensive program of sealing and hunting (typically March through September) in the Nordic seas. Comprehensive ice edge data were organized and charted by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI). In addition to the ice edge position, there is limited information about ice type near the ice edge. Our working hypothesis is that direct observations

  19. Paleogeographic settings and tectonic deformations of the Barents Sea continental margin in the Cenozoic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Shipilov; V. A. Tyuremnov; V. N. Glaznev; V. A. Golubev

    2006-01-01

    The Barents Sea continental margin (hereafter, Barents margin) differs from other passive margins by the most extensive shelf, the giant thickness of sedimentary rocks in basins and troughs, and its unique tectonic position. The outer, almost rectangular promontory of the Barents margin juts out into its deepwater western and northern framing (Fig. 1), identified as the Norwegian?Greenland and Eurasia basins,

  20. Annual sea level variability of the coastal ocean: The Baltic Sea-North Sea transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, M.; Cipollini, P.; Benveniste, J.

    2015-04-01

    The annual cycle is a major contribution to the nontidal variability in sea level. Its characteristics can vary substantially even at a regional scale, particularly in an area of high variability such as the coastal ocean. This study uses previously validated coastal altimetry solutions (from ALES data set) and the reference ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative data set to improve the understanding of the annual cycle during the Envisat years (2002-2010) in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition area. This area of study is chosen because of the complex coastal morphology and the availability of in situ measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the improvements brought by coastal satellite altimetry to the description of the annual variability of the sea level have been evaluated and discussed. The findings are interpreted with the help of a local climatology and wind stress from a reanalysis model. The coastal amplitude of the annual cycle estimated from ALES altimetry data is in better agreement with estimations derived from in situ data than the one from the reference data set. Wind stress is found to be the main driver of annual cycle variability throughout the domain, while different steric contributions are responsible for the differences within and among the subbasins. We conclude that the ALES coastal altimetry product is a reliable data set to study the annual cycle of the sea level at a regional scale, and the strategy described in this research can be applied to other areas of the coastal ocean where the coverage from the tide gauges is not sufficient.

  1. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2.22 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical...

  2. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special maritime...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of the...

  3. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special maritime...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of the...

  4. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2.22 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical...

  5. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation... Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special maritime...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of the...

  6. 33 CFR 2.22 - Territorial sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Territorial sea. 2.22 Section 2.22 Navigation...Jurisdictional Terms § 2.22 Territorial sea. (a) With respect to the United States, the following apply— (1) Territorial sea means the waters, 12 nautical...

  7. SEAS International Programs Mission and Services

    E-print Network

    Robins, Gabriel

    and Applied Science (SEAS) International Programs include: · Cultivating a sense of expectation among studentsSEAS International Programs Mission and Services The aims of U.Va. School of Engineering programs tailored to the needs of SEAS students · Creating and maintaining mutually valued and beneficial

  8. Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

  9. 3, 9991020, 2007 Summer sea ice

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page Abstract on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century H. Goosse, E #12;CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page

  10. Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julienne Stroeve; Mark Serreze; Sheldon Drobot; Shari Gearheard; Marika Holland; James Maslanik; Walt Meier; Ted Scambos

    2008-01-01

    Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea

  11. Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham

    E-print Network

    Feltham, Daniel

    Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, Department of Earth-4189/08/0115-0091$20.00 Key Words Arctic, Antarctic, climate model Abstract The polar oceans of Earth are covered by sea ice. On timescales much greater than a day, the motion and deformation of the sea ice cover (i.e., its dynamics

  12. The Optical Properties of Sea Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald K. Perovich

    Abstract Sea ice is a ,translucent material with an intricate structure and complex optical properties. Understanding the reflection, absorption, and transmis- sion of shortwave ,radiation by sea ,ice is important ,to a ,diverse array of scientific problems, including those in ice thermodynamics and polar clima- tology. Radiative transfer in sea ,ice is a ,combination ,of absorption ,and scattering. Differences in

  13. The sea urchin kinome: A first look

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Bradham; Kathy R. Foltz; Wendy S. Beane; Maria I. Arnone; Francesca Rizzo; James A. Coffman; Arcady Mushegian; Manisha Goel; Julia Morales; Anne-Marie Geneviere; François Lapraz; Anthony J. Robertson; Hemant Kelkar; Mariano Loza-Coll; Ian K. Townley; Michael Raisch; Michelle M. Roux; Thierry Lepage; Christian Gache; David R. McClay; Gerard Manning

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary in silico analysis of the sea urchin kinome. The predicted protein kinases in the sea urchin genome were identified, annotated and classified, according to both function and kinase domain taxonomy. The results show that the sea urchin kinome, consisting of 353 protein kinases, is closer to the Drosophila kinome (239) than the human kinome (518)

  14. California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    2014­2017 California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan 1 #12;The National Sea Grant College this publication under NOAA grant number NA10OAR4170060, project number C/P-1, through the CASG College Program. Sea Grant is a unique partnership of public and private sectors, combining research, extension

  15. Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; P. Clemente-Colón; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; Y. Chao; G. Neumann; M. Ortmeyer

    2008-01-01

    We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same

  16. Electromagnetic remote sensing of sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Jordan; M. E. Veysoglu

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic remote sensing of sea ice is viewed to introduce relevant practical problems to the inverse scattering community. A brief introduction to the importance of sea ice and sea ice physics is followed by a summary of direct scattering models where extensive references are given. Typical inverse problems and models that use these direct scattering models are discussed to provide

  17. Divide and Conquer (Fertilization of Sea Urchins)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Mary Elizabeth Kelley (Bethel High School)

    1998-07-01

    This activity engages students in direct observation and inquiry-based experiments using sea urchins. First, they observe normal fertilization and division/cleavage in the sea urchin zygote. Next, they develop hypotheses and design and carry out experiments to test factors that can affect the fertilization of sea urchin eggs.

  18. 6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First-year sea-ice contact predicts bromine monoxide (BrO) levels better. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

  19. Space as mediator between SEA and Ports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Vanoutrive

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is increasingly seen as a critical issue in the port sector. The SEA and other European environmental directives are mainly perceived as a burden for port development and port professionals often have little knowledge about the reasons why an SEA is necessary. According to a European directive (2001\\/42\\/EC) a Strategic Environmental Assessment has to be made

  20. SEA Staff Survey-1974: General Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawitsch, Don; Hooker, Sherrill

    The instructional staff at the Southeast Alternatives (SEA) program operated by the Minneapolis Public Schools were surveyed to determine their reaction to the SEA program. The two major objectives of the survey were to obtain staff opinion on issues concerning the program as well as progress toward achieving SEA major goals. The major findings of…

  1. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    PubMed

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas. PMID:19425351

  2. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

  3. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

  4. Great Lakes Region Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

  5. Great Lakes Region Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

  6. Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients: 8 ounces pasta shells 12 ounces tuna in water, canned 1 onion 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one

  7. Organic Resources of the Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Grant

    1982-01-01

    Despite the vast number of phyla and species in the sea, the major marine resource will continue to be fish for human consumption. At the same time, research on methods of preparing an animal protein concentrate, of high nutritional value and acceptable as human food, has pointed the way for the eventual development of a new technology. Other bulk products

  8. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  9. Global Sea SurfaceTemperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

  10. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  11. Sea Buckthorn: New Crop Opportunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. C. Li

    1999-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) is a winter hardy, deciduous shrub with yel-low or orange berries (Bailey and Bailey 1978). It develops an extensive root system rapidly and is therefore an ideal plant for preventing soil erosion and land reclamation. It can withstand temperatures from-43? to 40?C (Lu 1992). It is considered to be drought resistant (Heinze and Fiedler

  12. Gelidium cultivation in the sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Melo; B. W. W. Harger; M. Neushul

    1991-01-01

    Gelidium fronds were grown in the sea under a variety of experimental conditions: on rigid, damped and tensioned test farms of various designs, in calmer and more turbulent habitats, at various depths, with and without commercial fertilizer supply. Initially, the effectiveness of a given cultivation strategy was based on the survival and growth of the fronds, here termed ‘bio-assay’ mariculture.

  13. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  14. Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, B)

    2007-07-14

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  15. Past and present Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

  16. Alaska SeaLife Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

  17. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  18. University of Hawai`i Sea Grant ranked among the best Sea Grant programs in the nation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    University of Hawai`i Sea Grant ranked among the best Sea Grant programs in the nation According to an independent review panel of experts, the University of Hawai`i Sea Grant College Program (UH Sea Grant) ranks among the top Sea Grant programs in the nation. A total of 33 university-based Sea Grant programs

  19. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic ?ows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere ?owing over, and ocean ?owing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice ?ows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We ?nd that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  20. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  1. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    PubMed

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

  2. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  3. On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of maritime Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Royce; Page, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The United States Coast Guard Academy Physics Section is proud to present our initial conceptions of ``On the Sea, From the Sea, Of the Sea: The Physics of Maritime Governance,'' a program funded by an APS Outreach Grant in 2013. In our classes, the Physics Section has focused on active student engagement for the past ten years. Recently, we have refined our program to make heavy use of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) and our own highly interactive adaptation which we call Interactive Lecture Labs (ILLs). ``On the Sea'' is a unique opportunity to investigate their use in a different learning modality from our standard college level military academic use. Multigenerational science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) projects are a prolific source of academic discourse, while learning through play has been touted as an effective learning tool. We plan to investigate group and individual participation, intragroup communication, demographics, and prior skill (or education) in comparison to outcomes in learning objectives through projects designed to educate the Coast Guard Academy and surrounding community on the physics of the Coast Guard's missions. Progress on the lab and demonstration designs, community participation, and our emerging ILL and ILD pedagogical methods, will be reported.

  4. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: anomalies from the mean

    E-print Network

    Eisenman, Ian

    Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A fine-resolution (1/10°) ocean/sea ice model to determine the basin-scale and local balances controlling the variability of sea ice anomalies from the mean

  5. Sea ice density estimation in the Bohai Sea using the hyperspectral remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengyu; Shao, Honglan; Xie, Feng; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-11-01

    Sea ice density is one of the significant physical properties of sea ice and the input parameters in the estimation of the engineering mechanical strength and aerodynamic drag coefficients; also it is an important indicator of the ice age. The sea ice in the Bohai Sea is a solid, liquid and gas-phase mixture composed of pure ice, brine pockets and bubbles, the density of which is mainly affected by the amount of brine pockets and bubbles. The more the contained brine pockets, the greater the sea ice density; the more the contained bubbles, the smaller the sea ice density. The reflectance spectrum in 350~2500 nm and density of sea ice of different thickness and ages were measured in the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Sea during the glacial maximum in the winter of 2012-2013. According to the measured sea ice density and reflectance spectrum, the characteristic bands that can reflect the sea ice density variation were found, and the sea ice density spectrum index (SIDSI) of the sea ice in the Bohai Sea was constructed. The inversion model of sea ice density in the Bohai Sea which refers to the layer from surface to the depth of penetration by the light was proposed at last. The sea ice density in the Bohai Sea was estimated using the proposed model from Hyperion image which is a hyperspectral image. The results show that the error of the sea ice density inversion model is about 0.0004 g•cm-3. The sea ice density can be estimated through hyperspectral remote sensing images, which provide the data support to the related marine science research and application.

  6. Compaction of North-sea chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszthelyi, Dániel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Ekofisk field is the largest petroleum field in the Norwegian North Sea territory where oil is produced from chalk formations. Early stage of oil production caused considerable changes in pore fluid pressure which led to a reservoir compaction. Pore collapse mechanism caused by the dramatic increase of effective stress, which in turn was caused by the pressure reduction by hydrocarbon depletion, was early identified as a principal reason for the reservoir compaction (Sulak et al. 1991). There have been several attempts to model this compaction. They performed with variable success on predicting the Ekofisk subsidence. However, the most of these models are based on empirical relations and do not investigate in detail the phenomena involved in the compaction. In sake of predicting the Ekofisk subsidence while using only independently measurable variables we used a chalk compaction model valid on geological time-scales (Japsen et al. 2011) assuming plastic pore-collapse mechanism at a threshold effective stress level. We identified the phenomena involved in the pore collapse. By putting them in a sequential order we created a simple statistical analytical model. We also investigated the time-dependence of the phenomena involved and by assuming that one of the phenomena is rate-limiting we could make estimations of the compaction rate at smaller length-scales. By carefully investigating the nature of pressure propagation we could upscale our model to reservoir scale. We found that the predicted compaction rates are close enough to the measured rates. We believe that we could further increase accuracy by refining our model. Sulak, R. M., Thomas, L. K., Boade R. R. (1991) 3D reservoir simulation of Ekofisk compaction drive. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 43(10):1272-1278, 1991. Japsen, P., Dysthe, D. K., Hartz, E. H., Stipp, S. L. S., Yarushina, V. M., Jamtveit. (2011) A compaction front in North Sea chalk. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 116(B11)

  7. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  8. ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters I50 (1997) ISI-160 Distribution of 230Thin the Labrador Sea and its relation ito

    E-print Network

    1997-01-01

    ionization mass spectrometry were made on samples collected from the Labrador Sea and the Denmark Strait of 230Th in the western North Atlantic at the Nares and Hatte as 1 Abyssal Plains. A key feature. In fact, low 230Th has recently been reported in the deep Norwegian Sea and Den- mark Strait overflow

  9. Lithosphere-scale 3D gravity modelling of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Barents - Kara Sea region covers the major part of the European Arctic shelf. Its northern and western boundaries are young passive margins which originate from early Paleocene-Eocene opening of the Eurasia Basin and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. In contrast, the basement of the Barents and Kara shelves has been consolidated much earlier, during three major late Precambrian to Permian orogenies. Additionally, the shelf experienced multiple episodes of localised subsidence which resulted in the formation of ultra-deep sedimentary basins varying strongly in their geometry between different subregions. Consequently, the preserved sedimentary record is interrupted by major megasequence boundaries that are well-described in the western Barents Sea. Using this subdivision for the sedimentary record, we traced four major megasequence boundaries across the Barents and Kara shelves by analysing interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3D-models. We integrate this shallow information into a 3D geological model and complement the latter downward with the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a new lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The sedimentary units have been assigned physical properties considering the respective lithology to calculate a depth-dependent density distribution. Thereby, the obtained bulk densities also account for late Cenozoic uplift/erosion and the maximum Pleistocene ice sheet thickness. For the lithospheric mantle, the density distribution is constrained by an earlier published velocity model (Levshin et al., 2007). On the base of isostatic calculations and 3D gravity modelling the density configuration of the crystalline crust and the geometry of potential high-density bodies is investigated. Finally, we correlate preserved sediment maxima and reconstructed erosion maps with subsedimentary velocity and density variations to gain new insights into the development of Barents and Kara Sea basins. Levshin, A. L., Schweitzer, J., Weidle, C., Shapiro, N. M., & Ritzwoller, M. H. (2007). Surface wave tomography of the Barents Sea and surrounding regions. Geophysical Journal International, 170(1), 441-459. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03285.x

  10. Saving the Dead Sea: The Mediterranean—Dead Sea Option

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avraham Israeli; Clive Lipchin; Randolph Gonce

    The Dead Sea Peace Project (DSPP) is a tunnel and hydroelectric power project that can produce between 1,500 to 2,500 MW of\\u000a clean and renewable electric energy. The value of such electric energy will be maximized by power generation during peak demand\\u000a times. In addition it can produce around 700 million cubic meters of desalinated water. Over a period of

  11. Alkenone production in the East Sea/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Sunghye; Park, Yonggi; Lee, Ho Jin; Harada, Naomi

    2014-02-01

    To test the applicability of alkenones as a proxy for past sea surface temperature (SST) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), this study investigated the season and depth of alkenone production in the area. Surface and subsurface seawater samples were collected from the East Sea during cruises carried out by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute of Korea in 2008-2010. Surface samples were filtered for suspended material at two-month intervals. Subsurface samples were collected at water depths of 20, 50, 70 and 100 m by CTD bottle casts at two stations, one a coastal station and the other an offshore station. The results of alkenone analysis show that the concentration of total C37 alkenones was generally high in the surface mixed layer and decreased with depth, indicating that alkenones were most likely produced in or close to the surface mixed layer. Alkenone concentration varied seasonally: high in spring to fall and significantly reduced in winter. Comparisons of alkenone-based temperatures with in situ seawater temperatures show that alkenone temperatures measured from suspended particles in the surface waters were close to in situ SST in summer but were lower in winter. During winter, when alkenone production is significantly reduced, alkenones may be suspended for relatively long times and are likely to be advected from the north by eddies from Subpolar Front meanders. In summer when new production of alkenones increases, the settling velocity of alkenones appears to increase and residence time becomes shorter than in winter, suggesting that particles are less likely to be significantly advected at that time. Importantly, at the offshore station, coretop alkenone temperature corresponds to annual-averaged SST, while at the coastal station it corresponds to summer-to-fall averaged SST.

  12. A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Mikac, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The checklist of polychaetes of the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) based on bibliographic sources published from 1840 to 2014, as well as on novel data, with 49 new records for the area, is herein presented. The Adriatic Sea polychaete fauna comprises at present of 764 species in 360 genera and 62 families. The richest family is the Syllidae, with 112 species (c.a. 15% of the all taxa). Eight families account for as much as 50% of the diversity (Syllidae, Serpulidae, Sabellidae, Phyllodocidae, Spionidae, Polynoidae, Terebellidae and Nereididae). Among the three Adriatic sectors (Northern, Central and Southern Adriatic), the Northern Adriatic is the richest one, whereas the composition of the most diverse families is very similar in all sectors. Data on endemisms (6), aliens (29) and valid species with the type locality in the Adriatic Sea (90) are also discussed. The list of all relevant papers citing each species in the Adriatic is included, allowing future detailed information retrievals for distinct purposes. Results suggest that the number of species will keep increasing in the future, as new surveys will be undertaken, so regular updates of the present list will be necessary. PMID:25947537

  13. Air-Sea heat fluxes over the Iceland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Gudrun Nina; Harden, Ben E.; Renfrew, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    On a monthly mean scale the Iceland Sea has been shown to be a region of local heat flux minimum while there are also indications that there may be dense water formation in the region. To investigate if the atmospheric conditions over the Iceland Sea can results in significant high heat flux events on shorter time scales data from a meteorological buoy, that was deployed in the area for about two years, is analysed. The observations are compared to ERA-Interim data, which is shown to generally perform very well for this central Iceland Sea location. Synoptic-scale weather patterns during different heat flux events are then examined. The high flux events with winds from the north are often found to be short lived and in between there are long period of low fluxes. Thus the high flux events are disguised in annual and monthly means. However, it still remains to be seen whether the heat fluxes in the region are large enough to drive the ocean convection needed to produce dense water.

  14. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  15. Eemian sea-level highstand in the eastern Baltic Sea linked to long-duration White Sea connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Head, Martin J.; Knudsen, Karen Luise

    2014-02-01

    Revised diatom and new dinoflagellate cyst and benthic foraminiferal data from the eastern Baltic Sea have refined our understanding of Eemian (Last Interglacial; 131-119.5 ka) sea-level change on the Russian Karelia, a former seaway linking the Baltic to the White Sea. Results from Peski, eastern Baltic show the initiation of marine conditions just before 131 ka in the latest Saalian, after the opening of a connection to the North Sea. Following the onset of the Eemian marine highstand and the opening of the White Sea connection at around 130.25 ka, near-fully marine conditions persisted in the eastern Baltic area for ca 6 kyr, until ca 124 ka. For most of the Eemian, a strong thermal stratification in the eastern Baltic resulted from an Arctic and possible North Atlantic water component from the White Sea merging with warmer waters from the North Sea. From ca 124 ka, decreasing salinity indicates the end of the marine highstand and a simultaneous closure of the Baltic Sea-White Sea connection, i.e. a duration of ca 6 kyr for this seaway. The main influence of White Sea inflow appears to be restricted to the eastern Baltic area, although a large submerged area in the Russian Karelia associated with temperate Atlantic waters could have assisted in creating a more oceanic climate for Central Europe.

  16. Journey to Deep Sea Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about deep sea vents. Kids are introduced to these underwater geysers and to the Alvin submersible by Ro Kinzler, an Earth scientist at the Museum. They then have the opportunity to travel to the bottom of the ocean aboard a virtual submersible, learning about the zones they pass through and their inhabitants. A game allows kids to explore and collect specimens from one of the mineral chimneys found at a deep sea vent. When they have collected all nine living things at the vent, they are rewarded with a desktop image.

  17. Sea ice data for all: NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizcarra, N.; Stroeve, J. C.; Serreze, M. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Meier, W.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has long been recognized as a sensitive climate indicator and has undergone a dramatic decline over the past thirty years. The National Snow and Ice Data Center's Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis blog continues to offer the public a transparent view of sea ice data and analysis. We have expanded our interactive sea ice graph to include Antarctic sea ice in response to increased attention from the public as a result of unexpected behavior of sea ice in the south. This poster explores the blog's new features and how other researchers, the media, and the public are currently using them.

  18. Ice Sheets and Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this exercise, learners use basic arithmetic to determine the amount that sea level would rise around the globe with the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Basic data for this calculation is provided. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

  19. Primary productivity in the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in primary productivity is discussed in the book based on 27 symposia texts and 19 poster abstracts. Most papers deal with particular cellular processes in pelagic phytoplankton and their relationship to whole plant photosynthesis and growth. In addition, presentations on the productivity of the seaweed, Laminaria, zooxanthellae and whole corals are included. Other articles discuss predictive modeling, new developments in remote sensing, nutrient regeneration within the sea, grazing effects, and carbon cycling. (JMT)

  20. NOAA Teacher At Sea Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

  1. Swimming with Sea Cows: Manatees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Bird Productions

    2007-03-01

    When manatees were first seen by Columbus, he thought they were mermaids..but he had been at sea for a long time! Today these gentle marine mammals are threatened by loss of habitat and collisions with boats. This video segment explores the endangered manatees of Florida and their struggle to survive, as well as some of the people who are working to save them. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

  2. Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Tessler, Zachary D.; Villanoy, Cesar

    2011-09-01

    The Sulu Sea, isolated from the neighboring ocean below 570 m, is nearly isothermal below 1250 m but with a marked salinity increase with depth. The source of the deep Sulu Sea water has been attributed to South China Sea water overflowing the 570 m topographic sill of Panay Strait. However, the Panay overflow (estimated as 0.32 × 106 m3/sec) is an unlikely source for the saltier water Sulu Sea deep water. We propose that deep Sulu Sea ventilation is derived from the south, from the Sulawesi Sea through Sibutu Passage. Sulawesi Sea water between 245 to 527 m, is mixed and heaved over the Sibutu Passage 234 m sill by the energetic tidal environment. Oxygen concentrations within the deep Sulu Sea suggest that the Sulawesi overflow is 0.15 × 106 m3/sec, with a residence time of Sulu Sea deep water of 60 years. The deep tropical Sulu Sea has the unique distinction of being ventilated from two separate sources, whose ratio may fluctuate across a range of temporal scales, associated with regional thermocline depth changes.

  3. A multivariate Baltic Sea environmental index.

    PubMed

    Dippner, Joachim W; Kornilovs, Georgs; Junker, Karin

    2012-11-01

    Since 2001/2002, the correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation index and biological variables in the North Sea and Baltic Sea fails, which might be addressed to a global climate regime shift. To understand inter-annual and inter-decadal variability in environmental variables, a new multivariate index for the Baltic Sea is developed and presented here. The multivariate Baltic Sea Environmental (BSE) index is defined as the 1st principal component score of four z-transformed time series: the Arctic Oscillation index, the salinity between 120 and 200 m in the Gotland Sea, the integrated river runoff of all rivers draining into the Baltic Sea, and the relative vorticity of geostrophic wind over the Baltic Sea area. A statistical downscaling technique has been applied to project different climate indices to the sea surface temperature in the Gotland, to the Landsort gauge, and the sea ice extent. The new BSE index shows a better performance than all other climate indices and is equivalent to the Chen index for physical properties. An application of the new index to zooplankton time series from the central Baltic Sea (Latvian EEZ) shows an excellent skill in potential predictability of environmental time series. PMID:22430308

  4. Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

    2008-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

  5. Arctic sea ice minimum extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice dropped to 3.41 million square kilometers on 16 September, 760,000 square kilometers below the minimum ice extent in 2007, which had been the low mark since the satellite record began in 1979, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) announced. Overall ice extent is 50% below where it was in the 1970s, NSIDC research scientist Walt Meier said during a 19 September briefing. He added that there is also a decrease in ice thickness. Meier said that sea ice varies from year to year with lots of ups and downs. “We wouldn't expect it to keep going down, straight off the map so to speak,” he said. “Typically after a record low, we've seen it rebound.” Meier added that the general long-term trend is for the Arctic to continue to become generally ice free. He said it is difficult to know how long it will take for that condition to be reached; because of strong variations, Arctic sea ice extent could plateau for some time.

  6. MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

  7. Holocene sea level change along the coasts of China and South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiying; Zong, Yongqiang

    2014-05-01

    This research reconstructed the Holocene sea-level history in China and South China Sea (between the equator and 40°N) by reviewing published relative sea-level and sediment records. The collected 14C dates of sea-level indicators were calibrated to calendar years before present. Details of the lithostratigraphy, micro-fossil evidence and sedimentary characteristics of the sediment records were used for quantifying the vertical relationship to local reference tidal level for each of the sea-level indicators. The corrected data were plotted to produce sea-level curves. The reconstructed sea-level curves uniformly confirm a phase of rapid sea-level rise before 8000 cal. yr BP and show marked spatial differences between latitudes. In the southern sector (southern South China Sea), relative sea level reached a highstand of c. 2 m around 5800 cal. yr BP. In the northern sector (Bohai Bay and the Yellow Sea), however, relative sea level continued to rise over the past 6000 years at a slow rate. This series of sea-level curves provide an opportunity to evaluate the effects of hydro-isostatic processes along this coast. In addition, localized tectonic movements can also be identified.

  8. The effect of the NAO on sea level and on mass changes in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimplis, M. N.; Calafat, F. M.; Marcos, M.; Jordã, G.; Gomis, D.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Struglia, M. V.; Josey, S. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2013-02-01

    Sea level in the Mediterranean Sea over the period 1993-2011 is studied on the basis of altimetry, temperature, and salinity data and gravity measurements from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) (2002-2010). An observed increase in sea level corresponds to a linear sea level trend of 3.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr dominated by the increase in the oceanic mass in the basin. The increase in sea level does not, however, take place linearly but over two 2-3 year periods, each contributing 2-3 cm of sea level. Variability in the basin sea level and its mass component is dominated by the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO influence on sea level is primarily linked with atmospheric pressure changes and local wind field changes. However, neither the inverse barometer correction nor a barotropic sea level model forced by atmospheric pressure and wind can remove fully the NAO influence on the basin sea level. Thus, a third contributing mechanism linked with the NAO is suggested. During winter 2010, a low NAO index caused a basin sea level increase of 12 cm which was almost wholly due to mass changes and is evidenced by GRACE. About 8 cm of the observed sea level change can be accounted for as due to atmospheric pressure and wind changes. The residual 4 cm of sea level change is caused by the newly identified contribution. The physical mechanisms that may be responsible for this additional contribution are discussed.

  9. Pleistocene water intrusions from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas into the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badertscher, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Göktürk, O. M.; Zumbühl, A.; Leuenberger, M.; Tüysüz, O.

    2011-04-01

    The hydrological balance of the Black Sea is governed by riverine input and by the exchange with the Mediterranean Sea through the shallow Bosporus Strait. These sources have distinctly different oxygen isotope (?18O) signatures. Therefore, the ?18O of Black Sea water directly reflects the presence or absence of a connection with the Mediterranean Sea, as well as hydrological changes in the vast watersheds of the Black and Caspian seas. However, the timing of late to middle Pleistocene water intrusions to the Black Sea is poorly constrained in sedimentary sequences. Here we present a stacked speleothem ?18O record from Sofular Cave in northern Turkey that tracks the isotopic signature of Black Sea surface water, and thus allows a reconstruction of the precise timing of hydrological shifts of the Black Sea. Our record, which extends discontinuously over the last 670,000 years, suggests that the connection between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea has been open for a significant period at least twelve times since 670,000yr ago, more often than previously suggested. Distinct minima in the Sofular ?18O record indicate at least seven intervals when isotopically depleted freshwater from the Caspian Sea entered the Black Sea. Our data provide precisely dated evidence for a highly dynamic hydrological history of the Black Sea.

  10. Weyl's Theory of Glaciation Supported by Isotopic Study of Norwegian Core K 11.

    PubMed

    Duplessy, J C; Chenouard, L; Vila, F

    1975-06-20

    Oxygen-18 analyses of pelagic and benthic foraminifera from core K 11 indicate that during the last glaciation Norwegian Sea bottom waters were warmer than in modern times and had the same physical parameters (temperature, oxygen isotope ratio, and salinity) as the North Atlantic deep water. This result indicates that the glacial Norwegian Sea was not a sink for dense surface water, as it is now, and that during glacial times North Atlantic deep water invaded the deep Norwegian basin. PMID:17818162

  11. Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2000-03-10

    Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

  12. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-11-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea. PMID:24035457

  13. Sea ice, climate, and multiscale composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In September of 2012, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice reached its lowest level ever recorded in more than three decades of satellite measurements. In fact, compared to the 1980's and 1990's, this represents a loss of more than half of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. While global climate models generally predict sea ice declines over the 21st century, the precipitous losses observed so far have significantly outpaced most projections. I will discuss how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics are being used to study key sea ice processes and advance how sea ice is represented in climate models. This work is helping to improve projections of the fate of Earth's ice packs, and the response of polar ecosystems. A brief video of a recent Antarctic expedition where sea ice properties were measured will be shown. Supported by NSF and ONR.

  14. Early Pliocene Nordic Seas Palaeoceanography - Relation with Ocean Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schepper, S.; Schreck, M.; Beck, K. M.; Mangerud, G.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Risebrobakken, B.

    2014-12-01

    In the northern high latitude oceans, organic-walled phytoplankton is often the only microfossil group present in the sediment record that can be used for palaeoceanographic and palaeoenvironmental studies. Recently collected dinoflagellate cyst and acritarch records from the Norwegian and Iceland Seas reveal a wide-scale, major assemblage turnover including extinction of several taxa, disappearance of heterotrophic species and decrease in productivity around 4.5 Ma. These changes can most likely be attributed to a reorganization of the ocean circulation and can be interpreted as the establishment of a more modern-like Norwegian Atlantic Current and proto-East Greenland Current. The timing at around 4.5 Ma corresponds favorably to the shoaling of the Central American Seaway and northward flow of Pacific water via the Bering Strait into the North Atlantic, the latter being evidenced by the first arrival of Pacific molluscs in the Iceland (Tjörnes section). The changes in ocean circulation are not restricted to the Nordic Seas, with increased sediment accumulation at several North Atlantic drifts (e.g. Gloria and Eirik drifts) also illustrating important changes in the North Atlantic deep-water circulation.

  15. A study of mobile trough genesis over the Yellow Sea - East China Sea region

    E-print Network

    Komar, Keith Nickolas

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation of mobile troughs over a prolific source region in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Two mobile troughs which intensified significantly after formation were...

  16. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-01-01

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

  17. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY ·Sedimentation ·Phosphorus and nutrient loading ·Harmful algal blooms LABORATORY Blue-green Algae Bloom circa 1971, Lake Erie Photo: Forsythe and Reutter OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE

  18. 1) Career Sea Pay Increases -5 Things to Know & the New Sea Pay Tables / 04 MAR 14 [LINK] All Sailors, enlisted and officer, with three or more years of total career sea duty will see their sea pay increase

    E-print Network

    1) Career Sea Pay Increases - 5 Things to Know & the New Sea Pay Tables / 04 MAR 14 [LINK] All Sailors, enlisted and officer, with three or more years of total career sea duty will see their sea pay increase by 25 percent. The current $100 Career Sea Pay-Premium will double to $200. Pending final

  19. The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibler, William D., III

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

  20. Version: July 2010 The Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP)

    E-print Network

    Khatiwala, Samar

    the DSB formed by the Dead Sea Transform Fault, it is an active tectonic region where sediments preserveVersion: July 2010 The Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) The Dead Sea as a Global Paleo Studies, Kyoto #12;1 The Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project Scientific Value: The Dead Sea, located

  1. Case Study 1 Monitoring Green Tides in Chinese Marginal Seas

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    are delivered to the ocean. In Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and Bohai Sea as Enteromorpha prolifera, see Hayden et al., 2003) occurred in coastal and offshore waters in the Yellow Sea (YS of macroalgae Ulva prolifera in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea near Qingdao, China. (a) and (b) Macroalgae

  2. The secret of the Svalbard sea ice barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; M. L. Van Woert; G. Neumann

    2004-01-01

    An elongated sea ice feature called the Svalbard sea ice barrier rapidly formed over an area in the Barents Sea to the east of Svalbard posing a significant navigational hazard. The secret of this sea ice formation lies in the bottom bathymetry, which governs the distribution of cold Arctic waters masses and sea ice growth

  3. Scientific reticence and sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.

    2007-04-01

    I suggest that a 'scientific reticence' is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report on current understanding of the sea level change issue.

  4. A new model for sea clutter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wright

    1968-01-01

    First-order (small roughness amplitude) scattering theory is applied to obtain sea clutter cross sections in terms of mean-squared height spectrum of the sea surface. The results are in remarkably good agreement with observations for vertical polarization atP-, L-, C-, andX-bands. Modification of the calculation to take into account the larger scale structure of the sea surface yields reasonable agreement for

  5. 4, 107128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel et al. Title Page Abstract aspects of the sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel 1 , V. N. Smirnov 2 , and L. V. Panov 2 1 to: A. Chmel (chmel@mail.ioffe.ru) 107 #12;OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack

  6. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Schramm; J. A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

    1995-01-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

  7. SeaWiFS: Summer in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ross Sea has been somewhat cloud free lately, providing SeaWiFS with views such as this one from December 26, 2001. Note the deep green water; this is a highly productive part of the world'd oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound. The ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Caribbean Conservation Corporation/ Sea Turtle Survival League

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contains sources of information on sea turtles, tropical birds, and other species in the Caribbean basin and the Costa Rica rainforests. Site includes information on satellite telemetry, satellite-tracked sea turtles data and maps, and sea turtle legislation. Directions, data, and other materials available allow you to create your own maps. Free printable publications available. Also information on grants, workshops, donations, and volunteer opportunities.

  9. Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2012-08-14

    This module looks at how increasing temperatures due to climate change have affected sea level rise and what effects scientist expect in the future, given rising greenhouse gas emissions. The various mechanisms of sea level rise are discussed, as well as the tools and research used to study this topic. The module also discusses how countries and communities are preparing for future increases in sea levels.

  10. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  11. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission. PMID:26155464

  12. Focus Issue: Spiky Signalers from the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science; Science's STKE and Science REV)

    2006-11-14

    This week’s issue of Science’s STKE complements the special issue of Science featuring the Sea Urchin Genome. With new insights gleaned from the 814-Mb genome of the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and its estimated 23,000 genes, this organism holds many secrets to help us understand cell signaling and the evolution of regulatory systems in biology. Two STKE Perspectives discuss signal transduction during early development in the sea urchin.

  13. Sea ice's effect on oceanic deepwater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yoshiki Komuro

    A coupled sea ice-ocean model of the Southern Ocean was used to analyze the effects of sea ice on dense, cold deepwater formation. It was found that this model can more accurately project the amount of freshwater entering the oceans from sea ice, which may help researchers better estimate ocean circulation patterns and produce more accurate climate estimates based on the ocean's salinity.

  14. NEW RESULTS ON THE FISH AND SHRIMP FAUNA OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND LAZAREV SEA (ANTARCTIC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Gun; Werner EKAU; Alfred Wegener

    A total of 151 demersal fishes and 555 shrimps were recorded on 1785 photographs which represent 1607 m2 sea floor of the shelf and upper slope of the Weddell Sea (Halley Bay near-shore area) and of the Lazarev Sea. The Lazarev Sea showed a high number of species (24) and an average abundance of 7.24 nI100 m2. In the Halley

  15. Decadal scale variability of sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Sea in relation to atmospheric variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos Skliris; Sarantis Sofianos; Athanasios Gkanasos; Anneta Mantziafou; Vasilis Vervatis; Panagiotis Axaopoulos; Alex Lascaratos

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-four years of AVHRR-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data (1985-2008) and 35 years of NOCS (V.2) in situ-based SST data (1973-2008) were used to investigate the decadal scale variability of this parameter in the Mediterranean Sea in relation to local air-sea interaction and large-scale atmospheric variability. Satellite and in situ-derived data indicate a strong eastward increasing sea surface warming trend

  16. Correlating the shallow and the deep 3D-structure of the Barents Sea/ Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The Barents Sea and Kara Sea continental shelf region is located in the northern European Arctic. The crustal configuration of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region exhibits a complex architecture of the sedimentary cover which implies the influence of diverse causative geological processes. The narrow and deep basins of the southwestern Barents Sea characterise rift basins which have been filled with thick sediments predominantly Mesozoic in age. In contrast, the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea are marked by a wide and deep basin architecture which indicates basin formation mechanisms apart from rifting. There, the sedimentary succession yields Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Cenozoic deposits are restricted to the southwesternmost parts of the Barents Sea and the oceanic domain. The lack of sediments on the shelf is attributed to strong Pleistocene uplift, subsequent erosion and recurring ice sheet coverage of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. The modelled area covers about 5 million km² with a maximum longitudinal and latitudinal extent of 2180 and 2400 km, respectively, and comprises regions beyond the Barents Sea and Kara Sea such as parts of Greenland, Fennoscandia and western Siberia. This study presents the lithospheric density configuration below the greater Barents Sea/ Kara Sea region. Thereby, five sedimentary megasequences are differentiated across the entire study area. Each unit is modelled with matrix densities and depth dependent porosities to calculate the bulk densities. The respective compaction curves reflect that strong late Cenozoic erosion and ice sheet coverage removed particularly less dense sediments on Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya, while in the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea erosion was less effective. Thus, the obtained sedimentary bulk densities vary laterally distinctively. The density setup of the subsedimentary lithosphere beneath the Barents shelf is defined by a high-resolution, velocity-converted density grid. This dataset is tested the first time against gravity to further constrain the 3D density model. Interestingly, region that experienced weaker Cenozoic erosion are underlain by a heavier mantle density composition.

  17. Strange sea distributions of the nucleon

    E-print Network

    H. Chen; F. -G. Cao; A. I. Signal

    2010-08-24

    The strange and antistrange quark distributions of the nucleon are less constrained by experimental data than the non-strange quark sea. The combination of light quark sea distributions, $\\Delta(x)=\\dbar(x)+\\ubar(x)-s(x)-\\sbar(x)$, originates mainly from non-perturbative processes and can be calculated using non-perturbative models of the nucleon. We have calculated $\\Delta(x)$ using the meson cloud model, which, when combined with the relatively well known non-strange light antiquark distributions obtained from global analysis of available experimental data, enables us to make new estimates of the total strange sea distributions of the nucleon and the strange sea suppression factor.

  18. A Multi-Disciplinary Sea Ice Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalsa, S. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R. E.; Pulsifer, P. L.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.; McCusker, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice is a central element of the Arctic system and a strong indicator of high-latitude climate change. In addition to the many scientific disciplines in which sea ice is of importance, the domains of transportation, defense, natural resources and human settlements all have interests in and contribute to the body of knowledge regarding sea ice. To help advance the interdisciplinary understanding and usability of sea ice data we have developed a preliminary sea ice ontology. This effort began with a workshop in which sea ice modelers, field researchers, remote sensing scientists and operational forecasters described the facets of sea ice from the perspective of their respective disciplines. We will describe the features of this ontology and highlight some of the challenges we encountered in building it. We will also describe our plans to incorporate indigenous sea ice knowledge, map some existing sea ice data sets using the ontology, and to link the ontology to relevant marine, polar, atmospheric, and global ontologies and semantic services.

  19. Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-08-08

    This website, designed for K-12 teachers and students, offers materials and activities based on the "Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure" mission to explore deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Students can step into the shoes of deep-sea scientists as they follow the expedition and listen to recordings of student communications with the researchers via e-mail and telephone calls placed directly to Alvin, a research submersible, as it made its way deep into the Pacific. Topics include sea creatures, geology, plate tectonics, and chemistry of the deep ocean. Video clips are also provided to help students visualize the underwater experience.

  20. Sonmicat: Sea Level Observation System of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    SONMICAT is the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges (relative sea levels) and from modern geodetic techniques (vertical land motion and absolute sea levels) for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims to be: - an integrated sea level monitoring system (different types of data, sources, time and space scales), - a sea level information system handling the data measured by different observation networks, - a local/regional component of international sea level observing systems (GLOSS, ESEAS, etc.), and - a local/regional interface for related European and Global projects and databases (PSML, TIGA, etc.) There is a gap of sea level data (GLOSS, PSML, TIGA) in the coast of Catalonia, although several groups and institutions have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it. Up to now, the system has started at l'Estartit and Barcelona harbours. A description of the actual SONMICAT infraestructure and campaigns - especially at Barcelona harbour - are presented. In June 2014, an airborne LiDAR campaign has been carrying on in Barcelona following two ICESat tracks. First results of the airborne survey will also be presented.

  1. In search of the sea monster.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    2006-03-01

    The sea monster played an important part in launching the Danish Galathea Deep Sea Expedition of 1950-1952. Part scientific object, part media darling and part fundraising strategy, the sea monster brought scientists, journalists and politicians together in support of the expedition. The scientific leader of the expedition, Anton F. Bruun, contended the scientific reality of such a creature; the leader of the press section attached to the expedition, Hakon Mielche, dreamt of the grand headlines finding the sea monster would attract; and everyone involved used the 'poor little thing' to promote the expedition to sponsors and in public. PMID:16455137

  2. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Peder A.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009–2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids. PMID:22319130

  3. The Probability Distribution of Sea Surface Wind Speeds. Part I: Theory and SeaWinds Observations

    E-print Network

    Monahan, Adam Hugh

    The Probability Distribution of Sea Surface Wind Speeds. Part I: Theory and SeaWinds Observations expressions for the probability distribution of w in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the vector of the probability distribution of sea surface wind speeds play a central role in a number of problems in meteorology

  4. Late and Postglacial Sea-Level Change and Paleoenvironments in the Oder Estuary, Southern Baltic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Müller

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of sea-level change in the southern Baltic Sea region is important for understanding the variations in late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change across northern Europe. These variations are a consequence of the response of the Earth's crust to the deglaciation of Fennoscandia and of the water added to the oceans from the melting of all Pleistocene ice sheets. The

  5. Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and

    E-print Network

    fisheries. Moreover, the sea lions and the fisheries compete for the same prey species of fish. If a federalSteller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Groundfish Harvest Specifications EIS 9 Essential Fish Habitat EIS 9 2008 Revised Recovery Plan

  6. [Determination of monosialogangliosides in sea cucumbers and sea urchins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Cong, Peixu; Li, Zhaojie; Xu, Jie; Yu, Jiajia; Chang, Yaoguang; Xue, Changhu

    2013-05-01

    An approach based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantification of monosialogangliosides (MG) in sea cucumbers and sea urchins. The gangliosides of sea cucumbers and sea urchins were extracted according to the Svennerholm method and cleaned up by C8 solid phase extraction column. The extracts were separated on an APS-2 NH2 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3 microm) with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate (pH 5.6) under gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed for quantification of each analyte in the samples. The method was capable to distinguish gangliosides with different types of sialic acid in a single run. The limit of quantification was 0.22 ng for nonsulfated monosialoganglioside (NMG) and 0.29 ng for sulfated monosialoganglioside (SMG), and the linear range was 1-40 ng for both compounds. Only NMG was detected in sea cucumbers while both NMG and SMG were detected in sea urchins. Quantification results suggested that NMG was most abundant in Parastichopus californicus among all the sea cucumbers detected and SMG was most abundant in Anthocidaris crassispina among all the sea urchins. The contents of MGs in sea urchins (4.30 - 6.40 mg/g) were much higher than those in sea cucumbers (8 -131 microg/g). The method is suitable for the quantification of monosialogangliosides in sea urchins and sea cucumbers. PMID:24010336

  7. A numerical experiment on the sedimentation processes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Yanagi; Koh-ichi Inoue

    1995-01-01

    Sedimentation processes of suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang are investigated with the use of a three-dimensional numerical model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea which includes the tidal current, residual flow and wind waves. Suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe mainly deposits in the Bohai Sea and that from the old

  8. Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chente Tseng; Chiyuan Lin; Shihchin Chen; Chungzen Shyu

    2000-01-01

    Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA\\/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold

  9. Seasonal sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and at the Atlantic European coasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Tsimplis; A. G. P. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Hourly sea level data from tide gauges and a barotropic model are used to explore the spatial and temporal variability of sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coasts of the Iberian peninsula on seasonal time scales. Significant spatial variability is identified in the observations in all seasons. The Atlantic stations show larger extreme values than the

  10. Sea Turtles: Navigating with Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source of

    E-print Network

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    Sea Turtles: Navigating with Magnetism Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source satellite telemetry has now demonstrated for the first time that adult turtles also navigate using the Earth's magnetic field. Kenneth J. Lohmann The ability of sea turtles to navigate across vast expanses of seemingly

  11. SEA TURTLE RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center

    E-print Network

    Southwood Williard, Amanda

    SEA TURTLE RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center Sponsors of North Carolina Wilmington North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences KAREN BEASLEY SEA TURTLE RESCUE AND REHABILITATION CENTER MISSION STATEMENT · The conservation and protection of all species of marine turtles, both

  12. SEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS IN THE BALTIC SEA DERIVED FROM MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA

    E-print Network

    Hamburg,.Universität

    -sensor, algae blooms, surface currents, optical flow ABSTRACT: Mesoscale dynamic sea surface featuresSEA SURFACE CURRENT FIELDS IN THE BALTIC SEA DERIVED FROM MULTI-SENSOR SATELLITE DATA Benjamin, such as eddies, fronts, or dipoles, are of key importance for our understanding of local dynamics of the marine

  13. Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Harms

    2004-01-01

    What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather

  14. Comparison of TOPEX sea surface heights and tide gauge sea levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary T. Mitchum

    1994-01-01

    TOPEX sea surface height data from the first 300 days of the mission are compared to sea level data from 71 tide gauges. The initial comparison uses sea surface height data processed according to standard procedures as defined in the users handbook. It is found that the median correlations for island and for coastal tide gauges are 0.53 and 0.42,

  15. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...in a safe manner, via small boat or raft, during...sea turtles, marine mammals, summer flounder...sea turtles, marine mammals, summer flounder, scup...notified through the Small Entity Compliance Guide...including whole marine mammals, sea turtles, and...

  16. Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Robin

    Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA Robin Robertson, Laurie of baroclinic tides. Model results indicate that tides play a significant role in the circulation and heat flux in the Weddell Sea. We discuss the influence of tides on mean flow through the modified effective bot- tom drag

  17. Sea Ice Response to Atmospheric and Oceanic Forcing in the Bering Sea JINLUN ZHANG, REBECCA WOODGATE, AND RICHARD MORITZ

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Sea Ice Response to Atmospheric and Oceanic Forcing in the Bering Sea JINLUN ZHANG, REBECCA March 2010) ABSTRACT A coupled sea ice­ocean model is developed to quantify the sea ice response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing in the Bering Sea over the period 1970­2008. The model captures

  18. The Holocene sea level story since 7500 BP – Lessons from the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black and the Azov Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Brückner; D. Kelterbaum; O. Marunchak; A. Porotov; A. Vött

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the obvious controversy between the so far published sea level curves of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. It starts with a discussion of the methods of reconstructing sea level curves, the evaluation of sea level indicators, and the application of the radiocarbon dating method. At least since 7500BP, when the Black Sea and the Mediterranean were

  19. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century

    E-print Network

    Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces the global sea ice and sea surface temperature (GISST) data sets

  20. Rulers of the Jurassic Seas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Motani, Ryosuke.

    2000-01-01

    Available free from Scientific American's Website, this article takes a thorough and fascinating look at the marine reptiles known as Ichthyosaurs that lived during the Mesozoic Era. The text covers recent discoveries about the evolution of Ichthyosaurs from land dwelling reptiles, including limb adaptations. Highlights of the article are special sections about ichthyosaur eyes and diet, and color illustrations and diagrams. The text contains hyperlinks to related pages (Britannica.com, Tree of Life, American Cetacean Society, etc.). "Rulers of the Jurassic Seas" is a good read for students of paleontology or marine science.

  1. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  2. Advanced deep sea diving equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danesi, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

  3. Melting Ice, Rising Seas - Duration: 4 minutes, 32 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  4. 34 CFR 300.149 - SEA responsibility for general supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA responsibility for general supervision...WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision...of Procedural Safeguards § 300.149 SEA responsibility for general...

  5. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20 Section 2.20 Navigation...JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the...

  6. 50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area...

  7. 34 CFR 300.149 - SEA responsibility for general supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA responsibility for general supervision...WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision...of Procedural Safeguards § 300.149 SEA responsibility for general...

  8. 34 CFR 300.150 - SEA implementation of procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false SEA implementation of procedural safeguards...WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision...of Procedural Safeguards § 300.150 SEA implementation of procedural...

  9. 34 CFR 300.150 - SEA implementation of procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false SEA implementation of procedural safeguards...WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision...of Procedural Safeguards § 300.150 SEA implementation of procedural...

  10. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20 Section 2.20 Navigation...JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the...

  11. 34 CFR 300.227 - Direct services by the SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 true Direct services by the SEA. 300.227 Section 300.227 Education...Eligibility § 300.227 Direct services by the SEA. (a) General. (1) An SEA must use the payments that would otherwise...

  12. 34 CFR 300.150 - SEA implementation of procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA implementation of procedural safeguards...WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision...of Procedural Safeguards § 300.150 SEA implementation of procedural...

  13. 50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area...

  14. 34 CFR 300.227 - Direct services by the SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Direct services by the SEA. 300.227 Section 300.227 Education...Eligibility § 300.227 Direct services by the SEA. (a) General. (1) An SEA must use the payments that would otherwise...

  15. 34 CFR 300.227 - Direct services by the SEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Direct services by the SEA. 300.227 Section 300.227 Education...Eligibility § 300.227 Direct services by the SEA. (a) General. (1) An SEA must use the payments that would otherwise...

  16. 34 CFR 300.149 - SEA responsibility for general supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true SEA responsibility for general supervision...WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision...of Procedural Safeguards § 300.149 SEA responsibility for general...

  17. 50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area...

  18. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20 Section 2.20 Navigation...JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line defining the...

  19. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations...

  20. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations...

  1. 46 CFR 42.30-30 - Enclosed seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) Black Sea. This sea is included in the Summer Zones. (1) However...29. Summer: March 1 to November 30. (c) Mediterranean. This sea is included in the Summer Zones....

  2. 46 CFR 42.30-30 - Enclosed seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) Black Sea. This sea is included in the Summer Zones. (1) However...29. Summer: March 1 to November 30. (c) Mediterranean. This sea is included in the Summer Zones....

  3. 46 CFR 42.30-30 - Enclosed seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) Black Sea. This sea is included in the Summer Zones. (1) However...29. Summer: March 1 to November 30. (c) Mediterranean. This sea is included in the Summer Zones....

  4. 46 CFR 42.30-30 - Enclosed seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) Black Sea. This sea is included in the Summer Zones. (1) However...29. Summer: March 1 to November 30. (c) Mediterranean. This sea is included in the Summer Zones....

  5. 46 CFR 42.30-30 - Enclosed seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) Black Sea. This sea is included in the Summer Zones. (1) However...29. Summer: March 1 to November 30. (c) Mediterranean. This sea is included in the Summer Zones....

  6. Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Shevchenko; Y. S. Dolotov; N. N. Filatov; T. N. Alexeeva; A. S. Filippov; E.-M. Nöthig; A. N. Novigatsky; L. A. Pautova; A. V. Platonov; N. V. Politova; T. N. Rat'kova; R. Stein

    2005-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast) estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV \\

  7. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

  8. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

  9. Influence of the North Atlantic on climate change in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glok, Natalia; Alekseev, Genrikh; Smirnov, Aleksander; Vyasilova, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the observations taken from the meteorological archives, satellite and historic visual observations of sea ice, global SST, data of water temperature in the upper layer on the section in the Barents Sea. For processing data was used factor analysis, calculation of correlation matrices with different delay between the Barents Sea and selected areas in North Atlantic. It is shown that the inflow of Atlantic water into the Barents Sea has a major influence on the climate of the region and its changes affect the variations of all climate characteristics. Decadal and interannual changes of air temperature in the Barents Sea are closely related (correlation over 0.8) with temperature of water, coming from the Norwegian Sea. The effect of these changes is seen in the air temperature in the Kara Sea. Atlantic water inflow especially impact on winter sea ice in the Barents Sea. The correlation between the average water temperature at section along the Kola meridian and sea ice extent in the Barents Sea in May reaches values of -0.86. To enhance the predictive capability established dependence, the study was extended to the area of the North Atlantic, where temperature anomalies are formed. In the North Atlantic from the equator to 80 ° N were identified 6 areas where the average annual SST anomalies are associated with SST anomalies and sea ice extent (SIE) in the Barents Sea. Detailed analysis with monthly SST from HadISST for 1951 - 2013 identified two areas with the greatest influence on the Barents Sea. One area is the northern region of the Gulf Stream and other is the equatorial region. The corresponding delays amounted to 26 months and 4-5 years. The relationship between changes AMO index, averaged over August-October, and SIE in the Barents Sea in January is evaluated. Correlation coefficient between them with 3 year delay is -0.54. Implemented study revealed the importance of teleconnection between SST anomalies in the North Atlantic and SST and SIE in the Barents Sea with a delay of several months to several years, which have prognostic significance. This research is supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Russia (project RFMEFI61014X0006)

  10. Climate and sea ice variability in the SW Labrador Sea during the late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2014-05-01

    The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice components in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice records based on proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25 has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover, found in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice. We tested the reliability of this biomarker against observational sea ice data off Newfoundland (SW Labrador Sea), where box cores covering the last ca. 100-150 years were collected. Based on the results, IP25 proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing variability in past sea ice concentrations in the area. After having successfully validated the proxy in the SW Labrador Sea, we further analysed IP25 from a sediment core NE of Newfoundland covering the last ca. 5000 years, providing the southernmost multi-millennial record of this proxy to date. Based on this record and on diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data and alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the same core, we reconstructed climatic conditions in and Arctic sea ice export to the SW Labrador Sea area: Alkenone-based SSTs show a clear albeit variable decline after the Holocene Climate Optimum, while at the same time diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data suggest decreased melt water export from the Arctic. The IP25 record reveals increased sea ice export from the Baffin and Hudson Bays starting ca 1500 yr cal. BP, accelerating ca. 800 yr cal. BP and culminating at the height of the Little Ice Age. Sea ice export during the last century is comparable to the export during the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

  11. A Climatological study of sea breezes in the Red Sea region of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Basit A.; Abualnaja, Yasser

    2015-04-01

    Long term near surface observations from 20 stations, buoys, high resolution model data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and Weather Research and Forecasting Modeling System (WRF(ARW)) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the Eastern side of the Red Sea region. Additionally, satellite data from second-generation Meteosat (MSG) and Radar soundings have also been analyzed to investigate major characteristics of sea breeze flow. Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic synoptic conditions, weak gradient winds, intense radiation, relatively cloud-free skies and strong near surface sea - land thermal gradient. In order to identify sea breeze signal a set of criteria based on synoptic condition, diurnal reversal of wind direction and thermal gradient has been devised. Results show that sea breezes in this region occur almost all year, but this meso-scale phenomenon is most frequent in summer months (May to August) when it occurs for almost half of the summer days. The onset of the sea breeze in this region is about 0800 LST (Local Standard Time). The sea breeze decays after 1700 LST, however, the timing of the onset and decay could be affected by season, sea-land thermal gradient, topography, sea-land orientation and the direction and strength of the prevailing wind. The depth of the predicted inflow layer reaches 1 kilometer while the height of sea breeze head may reach 3 kilometers. The rocky mountain range of Al-Sarawat, east of the Red Sea coast, restricts the inland propagation of sea breeze and significantly affects the structure of the flow. A detailed process analysis of the available data is being conducted to better understand the Sea Breeze and its effect on the local meteorology.

  12. Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Roger G.

    2008-07-01

    Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along the sea route peaked in the 1980s, but there is renewed interest associated with a lengthening ice-free season and mineral exploitation. Since July 1991, the NSR has been open to all merchant vessels.

  13. Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; M. L. Van Woert; G. Neumann

    2005-01-01

    Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (~1-2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called ``the Svalbard sea ice barrier,'' spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard.

  14. Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Nghiem; M. L. Van Woert; G. Neumann

    2005-01-01

    Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (?1–2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called “the Svalbard sea ice barrier,” spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard.

  15. Meteorological buoy observations from the central Iceland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, B. E.; Renfrew, I. A.; Petersen, G. N.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first continuous in situ atmospheric observations from the central Iceland Sea collected from a meteorological buoy deployed for a 2 year period between 23 November 2007 and 21 August 2009. We use these observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product and demonstrate that it represented low-level meteorological fields and surface turbulent fluxes in this region very well. The buoy observations showed that moderate to strong winds were common from any direction, while wind speeds below 5 ms-1 were relatively rare. The observed low-level air temperature and surface heat fluxes were related to the wind direction with cold-air outbreaks most common from the northwest. Mean wintertime turbulent heat fluxes were modest (<60 Wm-2), but the range was substantial. High heat flux events, greater than 200 Wm-2, typically occurred every 1-2 weeks in the winter, with each event lasting on average 2.5 days with an average total turbulent heat flux of ˜200 Wm-2 out of the ocean. The most pronounced high heat flux events over the central Iceland Sea were associated with cold-air outbreaks from the north and west forced by a deep Lofoten Low over the Norwegian Sea.

  16. Studies on sea snake venom

    PubMed Central

    TAMIYA, Nobuo; YAGI, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography and NMR analyses showed that the toxins have a three-finger structure, in which three fingers made of three loops emerging from a dense core make a gently concave surface of the protein. The sequence comparison and the location of essential residues on the protein suggested the mechanism of binding of the toxin to the acetylcholine receptor. Classification of snakes by means of sequence comparison and that based on different morphological features were inconsistent, which led the authors to propose a hypothesis “Evolution without divergence.” PMID:21422738

  17. Maine and The Mortal Sea: Taking Stock of the Past, Present and Future of Our Living Sea

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    Maine and The Mortal Sea: Taking Stock of the Past, Present and Future of Our Living Sea Darling for an interdisciplinary exchange based on W. Jeffrey Bolster's prize-winning book The Mortal Sea: Fishing the Atlantic

  18. Searching the Ocean for Deep Sea Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web-based slide show walks students through the painstaking and difficult search for deep sea vents. In pictures and text, it provides an overview of the subject explaining the process whereby the location of deep sea vents can be discovered from the surface using indirect methods.

  19. DESCRIPTIVE TEXT SEA WATER INORGANIC CARBON DATABASE

    E-print Network

    water from bottles ("grab samples") collected at sea from Niskin bottle casts. The CDRG has measured prefix on the bottle number indicates a type of sample bottle. "P" represents a 1 liter borosilicate measurements were made in duplicate. Two glass sample bottles normally were filled consecutively with sea water

  20. Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2005-01-01

    High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and personal identity.

  1. Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-01

    In this data analysis activity, learners use data collected by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to study Chilean sea bass populations. Learners formulate catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Dissostichus eleginoides and analyze the trends in these values. Learners also assess the Chilean sea bass population and determine if the population is being overfished.

  2. Lecture course on Sea level variations

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    level rise from tide gauges "viewpoint of the solid Earth" "A tide staff" Rate is ~ 20 cm/century 7 Level rise between 1993 and 2010 by satellite ALTIMETRY Sea level is rising (by altimetry) "viewpoint of space" 1993-2010 8Friday, November 11, 2011 #12;Sea level will be rising (IPCC scenarios) Figure 11

  3. The Risk of Sea Level Rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Titus; V. Narayanan

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. The United Nations Framework ,Convention ,on Climate ,Change ,requires nations to implement,measures for adapting to rising sea level and other effects of changing climate. To decide upon an appropriate response, coastal planners and engineers must weigh the cost of these measures against the likely cost of failing to prepare, which depends on the probability of the sea rising a

  4. Scientific reticence and sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Hansen

    2007-01-01

    I suggest that a ‘scientific reticence’ is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report

  5. Sea Level: On the Rise Lesson Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environmental Protection Agency

    "Sea Level: On the Rise" is designed to teach middle-school students about the relationship between climate change and sea-level rise. It is a lesson plan created for the Environmental Protection Agency's Student's Guide to Global Climate Change.

  6. Potential collapse of North Sea cod stocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Cook; A. Sinclair; G. Stefánsson

    1997-01-01

    In common with many fish stocks in the North Sea, cod are heavily exploited with as much as 60% of the fishable stock being removed annually1. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), which advises fishery managers on the state of fish stocks in the northeast Atlantic, has recommended that exploitation rates be reduced considerably and immediately,

  7. Monsters of the Deep: Deep Sea Bioluminescence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J.D. Knight

    This award-winning Sea and Sky website uses creative graphics to explore deep sea bioluminescence. It defines the phenomenon of bioluminescence, explains the chemical reactions involved, describes organisms with this adaptation, and investigates possible reasons for this dazzling light show. Links direct users to similar pages about hydrothermal vents, ocean layers, and more.

  8. The risk of sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Titus; Vijay Narayanan

    1996-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change requires nations to implement measures for adapting to rising sea level and other effects of changing climate. To decide upon an appropriate response, coastal planners and engineers must weigh the cost of these measures against the likely cost of failing to prepare, which depends on the probability of the sea rising a

  9. Sea breeze in Mallorca. A numerical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ramis; A. Jansà; S. Alonso

    1990-01-01

    Summary The Spanish island of Mallorca is located almost in the centre of the western Mediterranean. Very often from April to October, and almost every day during the summer, the sea breeze circulation develops. The shape and the topography of the island determine that the main characteristic feature of the sea breeze is the existence of a convergence line in

  10. Measurements during SWATH ship sea trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hart

    2000-01-01

    A new ship must undergo a rigorous set of sea trials to receive final certification. The sea trials program measures the vessel's performance against its design specifications and code requirements. The performance evaluation includes the ship's powering requirements (ability to achieve and maintain its design speed in a variety of conditions), fuel economy, maneuvering capabilities (safe and efficient handling), and

  11. Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot data, compare data, and draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

  12. Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

  13. 20,000 Microbes Under the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Kunzig

    This website contains the introduction to a Discover Magazine article about bacteria found living under the floor of the Black Sea. The sea floor core, taken in 2001, contained a cubic meter of bacteria. The full article is available to Discover Magazine Subscribers or may be purchased online.

  14. Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

  15. Optical properties of the Kara Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Johnson; Vernon Asper; Thomas McClimans; Alan Weidemann

    2000-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to understand dispersion processes which affect the redistribution of nuclear wastes in the Arctic from dump sites in the Kara Sea and in the rivers which flow into the Kara Sea. We focus on vertical profiles of light beam transmission and fluorometry made over the delta region fronting the Ob and Yenisey Rivers

  16. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Antarctic Sea Ice in the IPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Ackley; D. K. Perovich; C. A. Geiger

    2003-01-01

    Antarctic Sea Ice covers an area of 20 million km2 at maximum extent and therefore represents an areal coverage larger than either the Arctic ice cover or the Antarctic continent. Studies of Antarctic sea ice in the modern era were only initiated well after the IGY, with the advent of passive microwave satellite coverage in 1973, followed by the use

  18. Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  19. Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

  20. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (principal investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  1. Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

    2006-03-22

    Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'. PMID:17148336

  2. AAAS Symposium on Sea and Its Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous

    1973-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science will sponsor a symposium on the Sea and Its Resources to be held in Mexico City on June 2528, 1973. The resources of the sea represent a significant potential for the future of mankind. The symposium will try to identify these resources more completely and to determine how they can be used

  3. SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES

    E-print Network

    SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES 1953 AND 1954 1B logical lSSESI JUL 9 1956 WOODS HOLE, Mft of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, JohnL. Farley, Director SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES 1953 Scientific Report--Fisheries No. 175 Washington, D.C May 1956 #12;ABSTRACT Development of electromechanical

  4. Analysis of explosives in sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Hoffsommer; Jerome M. Rosen

    1972-01-01

    Summary A rapid method for the analysis of the explosives, TNT, RDX, and tetryl in sea water present in the part per billion to part per trillion range by vapor phase chromatography with the nickel-63 electron capture detector is described. Results of the analyses of sea water samples near two munitions dumping areas are given.

  5. Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

  6. Minimal late Holocene sea level rise in the Chukchi Sea: arctic insensitivity to global change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Owen K.; Jordan, James W.

    2001-12-01

    Long-term estimates of sea level rise are essential for planning responses to anthropogenic global change. The tectonically stable, unglaciated eastern Chukchi Sea coast has numerous depositional environments for extracting long-term records in the absence of tide gauge data. Radiocarbon ages ( n=27) on paleo-marsh beds along several Seward Peninsula lagoons allows the reconstruction of sea level over the last 6000 years in northwest Alaska and indicate a modest sea level rise, ˜1.5 m, or 0.27 mm year -1. Neoglacial (1600-200 cal BC) storm deposits from Kotzebue Sound to Barrow are 1-1.5 m below modern storm surge elevations, supporting the inference of a lower eustatic sea level. Our data-constrained sea level curve establishes that the Chukchi Sea responds at a considerably slower rate than other regions of the world, supporting recent models of isostatic response for the arctic.

  7. Caspian Sea surface circulation variability inferred from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, Murat

    2014-02-01

    Multiyear (1993-2007) satellite-derived Sea Level Anomaly (SLA), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and model-derived mean dynamic topography were used together to analyze climatological and interannual variations of the Caspian Sea surface circulation. Constructed geostrophic currents are in good agreement with the known circulation features of the Caspian Sea, obtained from models and verified by some drifter observations. It is shown that the climatological surface circulation of the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS) is dominated by a basin-wide cyclonic circulation in winter, switching to an anticyclonic circulation in summer. A dipole pattern (an anticyclonic eddy near 39.5°N and a cyclonic one near 38°N) exist in the Southern Caspian Sea (SCS) (stronger from September to January). Evaluation of the multiyear geostrophic velocities shows that the Caspian Sea surface circulation exhibits strong interannual variations, with the location and intensity of the circulation patterns changing from one year to another.

  8. Potential for rapid transport of contaminants from the Kara Sea.

    PubMed

    Pfirman, S L; Kögeler, J W; Rigor, I

    1997-08-25

    Export of sea ice from the Kara Sea may redistribute contaminants entrained from atmospheric, marine and riverine sources. Ice exiting the Kara Sea ice to the north, will influence the Fram Strait, Svalbard and Barents Sea regions. Kara Sea ice may also be exported to the Barents Sea through straits north and south of Novaya Zemlya. Some ice from the Kara Sea makes its way into the Laptev Sea to the north and south of Severnaya Zemlya. Data on ice exchange and contaminant levels are not adequate to assess contaminant flux. PMID:9241881

  9. NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Sea Scallop Dredge Surveys

    E-print Network

    NOAA Fisheries Protocols For Sea Scallop Dredge Surveys January 7, 2004 Prepared by: Members..................................................................................................................................... 5 NOAA Fisheries Sea Scallop Dredge Survey Protocols.............................................................................................. 8 Survey Operational Procedures

  10. Flavor Structure of the Nucleon Sea

    E-print Network

    Wen-Chen Chang; Jen-Chieh Peng

    2014-10-07

    We review the current status and future prospects on the subject of flavor structure of the nucleon sea. The flavor structure of the nucleon sea provides unique information on the non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions allowing stringent tests of various models on the partonic structures of the nucleons as well as lattice QCD calculations. The scope of this review covers the unpolarized, polarized, and the transverse-momentum dependent sea-quark distributions of the nucleons. While the main focus of this review is on the physics motivation and recent progress on the subject of the nucleon sea, we also discuss future prospects of addressing some outstanding issues on the flavor structure of the nucleon sea.

  11. Quark sea asymmetries of the octet baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Neetika; Dahiya, Harleen [Department of Physics, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, 144011 (India)

    2010-06-01

    The effects of 'quark sea' in determining the flavor structure of the octet baryons have been investigated in the chiral constituent quark model ({chi}CQM). The {chi}CQM is able to qualitatively generate the requisite amount of quark sea and is also known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin and related issues in the nonperturbative regime. The Bjorken scaling variable x has been included phenomenologically in the sea quark distribution functions to understand its implications on the quark sea asymmetries like d(x)-u(x), d(x)/u(x), and Gottfried integral for the octet baryons. The results strengthen the importance of quark sea at lower values of x.

  12. Quark sea asymmetries of the octet baryons

    E-print Network

    Neetika Sharma; Harleen Dahiya

    2010-05-31

    The effects of "quark sea" in determining the flavor structure of the octet baryons have been investigated in the chiral constituent quark model (\\chiCQM). The \\chiCQM is able to qualitatively generate the requisite amount of quark sea and is also known to provide a satisfactory explanation of the proton spin and related issues in the nonperturbative regime. The Bjorken scaling variable x has been included phenomenologically in the sea quark distribution functions to understand its implications on the quark sea asymmetries like \\bar d(x)-\\bar (x), \\bar d(x)/\\bar u(x) and Gottfried integral for the octet baryons. The results strengthen the importance of quark sea at lower values of x.

  13. Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

  14. Wind-driven circulation in Titan's seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokano, Tetsuya; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2015-04-01

    Circulation in Titan's seas forced by wind is simulated by an ocean circulation model using surface wind data predicted by a global circulation model. Wind-driven circulation is insignificant throughout much of the annual cycle, but becomes significant from late spring to late summer, when the wind stress becomes strong. The large-scale circulation in summer is predominantly southward near the sea surface and northward near the sea bottom. The sea surface current can get as fast as 5 cms-1 in some areas. Titan's rotation affects the vertical structure of sea currents in the form of an Ekman spiral if the wind is strong. The maximum wind set-up at the shores is of the same order of magnitude as the tidal range. Wind stirring may reduce thermal stratification in summer, but may be unable to destroy stratification of methane-rich liquids on top of ethane-rich liquids that can result from imbalances between evaporation and precipitation.

  15. Coherent sea level variation in and around the Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanowatari, Takuya; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the seasonal and interannual variations of the sea level in and around the Sea of Okhotsk and their causes, based on tide gauge and satellite altimeter data. The sea level all along the coastal region of the Sea of Okhotsk is found to be dominated by the seasonal variation with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer, which cannot be explained by the annual cycle of atmospheric heat flux and pressure. This sea level variation appears to reflect ocean current variations. Both the Arrested Topographic Waves (ATWs) caused by alongshore wind stress and the Sverdrup transport by wind stress curl show corresponding seasonal variations. Seasonal amplitude of the sea level is relatively large along Sakhalin Island with a tendency of a larger amplitude toward the south. This meridional dependence is consistent with the ATWs, but not with the Sverdrup transport in the Sea of Okhotsk. Seasonal variation of the geostrophic current velocity expected from the sea level variation is comparable to that of the observed nearshore current and is consistent with the theoretical ATW transport. It is also revealed that, on an interannual timescale, the wintertime sea level fluctuates quite coherently all around the Sea of Okhotsk and further along the East Kamchatka and Oyashio coasts in the North Pacific. The altimeter data clearly show that this coherent sea level variation is trapped over the coastal and continental shelf regions with depths shallower than 1000 m. The wintertime sea levels have a higher correlation with the ATW transport than with the Sverdrup transport in the Sea of Okhotsk and the upstream East Kamchatka coast. All these suggest that the interannual sea level variation along the coastal and shelf regions in winter, as well as the seasonal variation, is mainly caused by the ATWs (coastal trapped current forced by the alongshore wind stress). The wintertime Sverdrup transport, raised by the previous studies, is the secondary contributor to these variations.

  16. Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the North Sea Fan: glacially-fed gravity flow aprons, hemipelagic sediments, and large submarine slides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. King; Hans Petter Sejrup; Haflidi Haflidason; Anders Elverhøi; Inge Aarseth

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 1000 km of high resolution sleeve-gun array transects on the North Sea Fan, located at the mouth of the Norwegian Channel, reveal three dominant styles of sedimentation within a thick (> 900 m) Quaternary sediment wedge comprising numerous sequences. These are interpreted as: terrigenous hemipelagic sedimentation, large scale translational slides, and aprons of glaciogenic debris flow deposits contributing to

  17. Complex Stratigraphic Evolution of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalki, Khalid A.; Mahmud, Syed A.

    2015-04-01

    The Red Sea rift, separates the African and the Arabian continents, and is considered a type location of a juvenile rift-related small ocean. Geological studies and drilling programs date back to more than half a century yet very little is known about the stratigraphic evolution to the wider geological community. Following the arrival of the Afar plume at the late Oligocene (ca 30 Ma) the southern Red Sea underwent rapid extension culminating in extended continental crust or seafloor spreading, which stalled during the early Miocene at the central Red Sea due to either slowing of the convergence between Arabia and Eurasia or the onset of the Arabian plate passive margin collision with Eurasia. The mainland pan of the region was uplifted, resulting in the development of the Red Sea erosional escarpment. Shelf sedimentation (Middle-late Miocene to Pleistocene successions) then ensued and covered oceanic and continental crust. The present day spreading centre resumed in the southern Red Sea at 5 Ma and has been propagating northward until the present-day. However, detailed analysis of the basin shows a more complex pattern of basin development with late Oligocene succession restricted to the western Red Sea coast and the southern sectors. Well data suggest that up to 4 km of sediments exist in the southern Red Sea shallowing upward to the northern sector; 3 km or more of this section consists of Miocene evaporates, which contains intercalated anhydrite and shale horizons. These Miocene evaporates are overlain by Quaternary reefal limestone, and recent volcanic rocks restricted to the central axial trough zone of the Red Sea. In this study extensive well data that is well spread in the area was used to evaluate the stratigraphic architecture, build-ups, and local controls on deposition. Potential stratigraphic models have been developed. The distribution of stratigraphy in the Red Sea area yields complex correlation, with unique depositional characteristics in discrete zones within the Red Sea basin.

  18. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  20. ALGEBRA I. HOJA 5 1) Sea G una grupo y sea N un subgrupo normal de G. Sea x un elemento de torsion de G. Demostrad que el

    E-print Network

    Otero Domínguez, Margarita

    ´ALGEBRA I. HOJA 5 1) Sea G una grupo y sea N un subgrupo normal de G. Sea x un elemento de torsi que la aplicaci´on f : A - A definida por f(a) = ak es un isomorfismo. 5) Sea N un subgrupo normal de implica que xN es N. 6) Sea G un grupo abeliano con n elementos y p un entero primo con n. Demostrad que

  1. Organic iodine in Antarctic sea ice: A comparison between winter in the Weddell Sea and summer in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granfors, Anna; Ahnoff, Martin; Mills, Matthew M.; Abrahamsson, Katarina

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have recognized sea ice as a source of reactive iodine to the Antarctic boundary layer. Volatile iodinated compounds (iodocarbons) are released from sea ice, and they have been suggested to contribute to the formation of iodine oxide (IO), which takes part in tropospheric ozone destruction in the polar spring. We measured iodocarbons (CH3I, CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2) in sea ice, snow, brine, and air during two expeditions to Antarctica, OSO 10/11 to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer and ANT XXIX/6 to the Weddell Sea in austral winter. These are the first reported measurements of iodocarbons from the Antarctic winter. Iodocarbons were enriched in sea ice in relation to seawater in both summer and winter. During summer, the positive relationship to chlorophyll a biomass indicated a biological origin. We suggest that CH3I is formed biotically in sea ice during both summer and winter. For CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2, an additional abiotic source at the snow/ice interface in winter is suggested. Elevated air concentrations of CH3I and CH2ClI during winter indicate that they are enriched in lower troposphere and may take part in the formation of IO at polar sunrise.

  2. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere, land vegetation and carbonate platforms are major CO2 buffers which may both take up and release CO2. CO2 can be released from the ocean due to changes in the pCO2 caused by growth of coral reefs and by uptake of CO2-rich freshwater from karst provinces. Efficient sinks of CO2 are the weathering products of silicate rocks; long-term sinks are organic deposits caused by regional anoxic events which preferrably develop during sea level rises and highstands; and coal-bearing strata. Deposition of limestone also removes CO2 from the atmospheric-hydrospheric cycle at a long term. Biotic crises are often related to either sea-level lows or sea-level highs. Long-term sea-level lows, characteristic of glacial periods, indicate cooling as major cause of extinction. During verly long-lasting greenhouse episodes the sea level is very high, climate and circulation systems are stable and biotic crises often develop as a consequence of oxygen depletion. On land, niche-splitting, complex food web structures and general overspecialization of biota will occur. Whether the crisis is caused by a single anoxic event (e.g. in the Late Devonian) or a disturbance by an asteroid impact (e.g. the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary), it will only trigger total collapse of an ecosystem if a large part of it was already in decline. The regulatory mechanisms and buffers are thermodynamically extremely efficient if they are given sufficient time in which to deploy their power. However, after major catastrophes the re-establishment of successful ecosystems will take millions of years. The present rate of sea level and associated temperature rise is much too fast to be compensated and buffered by the network of natural controls. It is likely that the transitional time towards a new steady state will be an extremely variable and chaotic episode of unpredictable duration.

  3. Review of critical factors for SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jasmine@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per; Kornov, Lone

    2013-01-15

    The implementation process involved in translating Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) intention into action is vital to an effective SEA. Many factors influence implementation and thus the effectiveness of an SEA. Empirical studies have identified and documented some factors influencing the implementation of an SEA. This research is fragmented, however, and it is still not clear what are the most critical factors of effective SEA performance, and how these relate to different stages of the implementation process or other contextual circumstances. The paper takes its point of departure in implementation theory. Firstly, we introduce implementation theory, and then use it in practice to establish a more comprehensive model related to the stages in the implementation process. Secondly, we identify the critical factors in order to see how they are related to the different stages of SEA or are more general in character. Finally we map the different critical factors and how they influence the overall results of an SEA. Based on a literature review, we present a comprehensive picture of the critical factors and where they are found in the process. We conclude that most of the critical factors identified are of a more general character influencing the SEA process as such, while only one out of four of these factors relates to the specific stages of the SEA. Based on this mapping we can sketch a picture of the totality of critical factors. In this study 266 notions of critical factors were identified. Seen at the level of notions of critical factors, only 24% of these relate to specific stages while for 76% the critical factors are of a more general nature. These critical factors interact in complex ways and appear in different combinations in different stages of the implementation process so tracing the cause and effect is difficult. The pervasiveness of contextual and general factors also clearly suggests that there is no single way to put SEA into practice. The paper identifies some of the critical factors for effective SEA implementation, but further research is still needed to conclude which factors are more critical than others, just as the contingencies on which they depend are not easy to unravel. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research on critical factors influencing SEA implementation is fragmented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical factors are used to discuss 'hot-spots' in the implementation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical factors are just as broad as the concept of effectiveness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both stage and general factors are relevant in explaining the effectiveness of SEA.

  4. Tides of the Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kjerfve, B.

    1981-05-20

    Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, K/sub 1/, O/sub 1/, and P/sub 1/) show local detail of phase and amplitude. Each of the semidiurnal component tides is characterized by anticlockwise rotating amphidromes centered in the eastern Caribbean. There is evidence of strong radiational forcing of the S/sub 2/ tide in the south-western Caribbean. The diurnal component tides are largely uniform in both phase and amplitude for most of the western and central Caribbean. However, the diurnal phases increase rapidly towards the northwest and the Yucatan Channel.

  5. Current Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation shows the most recent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data available for the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coast region. Users can see the progression of warm waters (shown in yellow, orange, and red) slowly filling the Gulf of Mexico. This natural annual warming contributes to the possible formation of hurricanes in the Gulf. The animation updates every 24 hours, and still images of the data are also available. There is also imagery of the most recent 10-day average of SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean, which is used by scientists for studying El Nino and La Nina. Warmer colors (yellow, red, orange) indicate positive anomalies (temperatures above normal). The imagery is from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite.

  6. North Sea produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    North Sea platform produced water systems were designed up to 10 years ago utilising plant largely developed for other industries. Generally the systems were designed without adequate knowledge of the produced water itself or the flow-rates. Many fields are now experiencing injection water break-through and consequently far greater flow rates than envisaged. By reference to Britoil's Thistle and Beatrice platforms, this paper describes some of the short-comings of systems, the resultant modifications and extensions, and performance data before and after modifications. The paper addresses the fundamentals of produced water treatment technology and presents operating data from: a. Laboratory model testing and offshore pilot trials of cartridge coalescers; b. Modified tilted plate assemblies; c. Induced and dissolved gas processes; d. System interactions and practical operating problems.

  7. Find the Deep Sea Vent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive tool helps students grasp the difficult task of locating deep sea vents by allowing them to virtually "survey" a portion of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Students begin by using a CTD (Conductivity - Temperature - Depth) package to take a number of initial water-temperature readings. They then focus on a 40-kilometer (24.8-mile) path, taking up to 55 temperature readings along it. Based on their readings, they narrow in on a specific segment and select five points to survey, using the CTD package in its vertical mode. Finally, they select one of these points and send a submersible down to determine if they have truly found a hydrothermal vent.

  8. Plastic litter in the sea.

    PubMed

    Depledge, M H; Galgani, F; Panti, C; Caliani, I; Casini, S; Fossi, M C

    2013-12-01

    On June 2013 a workshop at the University of Siena (Italy) was organized to review current knowledge and to clarify what is known, and what remains to be investigated, concerning plastic litter in the sea. The content of the workshop was designed to contribute further to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) following an inaugural workshop in 2012. Here we report a number of statements relevant to policymakers and scientists that was overwhelming agreement from the participants. Many might view this as already providing sufficient grounds for policy action. At the very least, this early warning of the problems that lie ahead should be taken seriously, and serve as a stimulus for further research. PMID:24157269

  9. Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Ingo

    2004-02-01

    What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather shallow shelf sea within the Arctic Ocean, located between the Barents Sea to the west and the Laptev Sea to the east. The importance of the Kara Sea is manifold: climate change issues like ice formation and freshwater runoff, environmental problems from dumping of radioactive waste or oil exploitation, and finally, the Northern Sea route, which crosses large parts of the Kara Sea, underline the economical and ecological relevance of that region. In spite of severe climate conditions, the Kara Sea is relatively well investigated. This was achieved through intense oceanographic expeditions, aircraft surveys, and polar drift stations. Russian scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) carried out a major part of this outstanding work during the second half of the last century.

  10. Putting SEA in context: A discourse perspective on how SEA contributes to decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.runhaar@geo.uu.nl

    2009-04-15

    Over the last couple of years there is an ongoing debate in the environmental assessment literature about the contribution of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to public decision-making and how this can be understood and enhanced by better incorporating insights from policy analysis, planning theory and political sciences. By explicitly framing SEA as an element in a process where stakeholders with diverging interests struggle, acceptability of SEA processes and results by stakeholders has become an important element in SEA evaluation. In addition, the importance of other context variables, such as the institutional organisation, and the need for SEA to adapt to this context, is stressed. Thus far, publications in this area have been dealing with the operationalisation of SEA's 'contribution', typologies of roles that SEA can or should play in different policy settings and on factors that stimulate or impede SEA to play these roles. In this paper an alternative approach is suggested that starts from the deliberative processes around a particular policy issue or decision supported by SEA. Of particular interest are 'discourses': the frames through which groups of actors give meaning to aspects of the policy issues and decisions that are supported by SEA. Discourses do not only reflect conflicts of interests and power play, but also the ways in which actors perceive and understand aspects of the world. Decision-making is conceptualised as a 'system of competing discourse coalitions and their struggles to 'control shared meanings' and to gain acceptance of their framing of a policy issue' [Durning D. A review of Fischer and Forrester (1993) The argumentative turn in policy analysis and planning. Policy Sci 1995;28(1):102-8]. SEA is one of the events in this process that may impact upon dominant discourses. Discourse analysis allows for an understanding of arguments that are considered legitimate for (not) incorporating particular elements of SEA. In addition it opens the door to relatively new strategies for SEA professionals to enhance their contribution to decision-making.

  11. The Antarctic sea ice concentration budget of an ocean-sea ice coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, Olivier; Goosse, Hugues; Fichefet, Thierry; Holland, Paul R.; Uotila, Petteri

    2015-04-01

    The Antarctic sea ice concentration budget of the NEMO-LIM ocean-sea ice coupled model is computed and analyzed. Following a previously developed method, the sea ice concentration balance over the autumn-winter seasons is decomposed into four terms, including the sea ice concentration change during the period of interest, advection, divergence and a residual accounting for the net contribution of thermodynamics and ice deformation. Preliminary results from this analysis show that the geographical patterns of all budget terms over 1992-2010 are in qualitative agreement with the observed ones. Sea ice thermodynamic growth is maintained by horizontal divergence near the continent and in the central ice pack, while melting close to the ice edge is led by sea ice advection. Quantitatively however, the inner ice pack divergence and associated sea ice freezing are much stronger, as compared to observations. The advection of sea ice in both the central pack and the marginal areas are likewise stronger, which corroborates the findings of a previous study in which the same methods were applied to a fully coupled climate model. Nonetheless, the seasonal evolution of sea ice area and total extent are reasonably well simulated, since enhanced sea ice freezing due to larger divergence in the central pack is compensated by intensified melting in the outer pack owing to faster advection. Those strong dynamic components in the sea ice concentration budget are due to ice velocities that tend to be biased high all around Antarctica and particularly near the ice edge. The obtained results show that the applied method is particularly well suited for assessing the skills of an ocean-sea ice coupled model in simulating the seasonal and regional evolution of Antarctic sea ice for the proper physical reasons.

  12. Sediment Waves of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putans, V. A.

    2008-12-01

    An area of approximately 1000 km2 of sediment waves is identified at the continental slope in the western Derbent Basin, central Caspian Sea, in water depths of 100-700 m. The waves are migrating up a steep angle (3.4°) slope to the west-northwest. They are typically slope-parallel, 15-30 m in amplitude and 150-400m in wavelength. Based on swath bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles, the sediments can be divided into eight acoustic units, which are parasequences of the regional HST. These parasequenses are evidences of transgression-regression subcycles inside the HST in whole. A quantitative measurement of key morphobathymetric parameters (such as wavelength, height, asymmetry and wave-form indexes) was performed for the each unit on three high-resolution one-channel seismic polygons. These measurements are determined with respect to water depth or downslope distance from the shallowest wave. The "regressive" units have sinusoidal wave-formed reflectors, the weaker the deeper the unit is. Wave amplitudes are also decreasing downward, meanwhile the wavelength is increasing, so do the symmetry. This might be caused not only by different environments but by sediment pressure as well. The "transgressive" units have weak but continuous parallel reflectors displaying well-developed waveforms mimicking and smoothing those below. The original construction of the waves may have been by integrating turbidits and bottom currents activity. The Derbent Basin is a seismically active domain where frequent turbidites are caused by trigging. The high sediment supply from Caucasus, as well strong bottom currents and Caspian famous permanent sea-level changes, form very peculiar geologic/stratigraphic setting.

  13. Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colón, P.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J. A.; Chao, Y.; Neumann, G.; Ortmeyer, M.

    2008-12-01

    We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time last year as observed by the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite (QSCAT). This decrease of perennial ice continues the precipitous declining trend observed in this decade. Furthermore, the perennial sea ice pattern change was deduced by buoy-based estimates with 50 years of data from drifting buoys and measurement camps to track sea ice movement around the Arctic Ocean. The combination of the satellite and surface data records confirms that the reduction of winter perennial ice extent broke the record in 2008 compared to data over the last half century. In the winter, the loss of perennial ice extent was driven by winds that compressed the ice and transported it out of the Fram Strait and Nares Strait to warmer ocean waters at lower latitudes, where the ice melted very effectively. Another historical fact is that the boundary of perennial sea ice already crossed the North Pole (NP) in February 2008, leaving the area around the NP occupied by seasonal sea ice. This is the first time, not only from the satellite data record but also in the history of sea ice charting at the National Ice Center since the 1970's, that observations indicate the seasonal ice migration into the NP area so early in winter. In the Bering Sea by 12 March 2008, the sea ice edge reached to an extent that coincided with the continental shelf break, indicating bathymetric effects on the distribution of water masses along the Aleutian North Slope, Bering Slope, Anadyr, and Kamchatka Currents that governed the pattern of sea ice formation in this region. Moreover, QSCAT observations showed that, in the 2008 winter, seasonal ice occupied the Northern Sea Route, and most of two routes of the Northwest Passage, north and south of Victoria Island, which facilitated ice retreat and the opening of waterways this summer. Most importantly, the shift from a perennial to a seasonal ice covered Arctic Ocean significantly decreases the overall surface albedo resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice albedo feedback mechanism. In early September 2008, a major melt event occurred over a large region extending from the Beaufort Sea across the Kara Sea toward the Laptev Sea, with active melt areas encroaching in the NP vicinity. This melt event was caused by an advection of warm air from the south, which melted and pushed sea ice away at the same time. At that time, the total extent of Arctic sea ice was about 0.5 million km2 (size of Spain) larger than that at the same time last year.

  14. Severe Storm in the Sea of Azov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A fierce storm struck both the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on November 11, 2007. According to news reports, as many as 10 ships either sank or ran aground, one of them an oil tanker. The Russian tanker Volganeft-139 was anchored to the sea floor in the Kerch Strait linking the Black and Azov Seas when 108-kilometer- (67-mile-) per-hour winds tore the ship apart. As of November 12, up to 2,000 metric tons of fuel oil had leaked from the ship. On November 11, 2007, the day the storm struck, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of the region. Thick clouds obscure the view of much of the land area, including Ukraine, Belarus, western Russia, and Georgia. Clouds also obscure the Sea of Azov, although skies over the Black Sea are somewhat clearer. Over the Sea of Azov and immediately to the north, the clouds form a vague swirling pattern, suggestive of a low-pressure cyclonic system.

  15. Dissolved organic matter in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoikkala, L.; Kortelainen, P.; Soinne, H.; Kuosa, H.

    2015-02-01

    Several factors highlight the importance of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in coastal ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea: 1) DOM is the main energy source for heterotrophic bacteria in surface waters, thus contributing to the productivity and trophic state of bodies of water. 2) DOM functions as a nutrient source: in the Baltic Sea, more than one-fourth of the bioavailable nutrients can occur in the dissolved organic form in riverine inputs and in surface water during summer. Thus, DOM also supports primary production, both directly (osmotrophy) and indirectly (via remineralization). 3) Flocculation and subsequent deposition of terrestrial DOM within river estuaries may contribute to production and oxygen consumption in coastal sediments. 4) Chromophoric DOM, which is one of the major absorbers of light entering the Baltic Sea, contributes highly to water color, thus affecting the photosynthetic depth as well as recreational value of the Baltic Sea. Despite its large-scale importance to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, DOM has been of minor interest compared with inorganic nutrient loadings. Information on the concentrations and dynamics of DOM in the Baltic Sea has accumulated since the late 1990s, but it is still sporadic. This review provides a coherent view of the current understanding of DOM dynamics in the Baltic Sea.

  16. Nitrous oxide cycling in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, Hermann W.; Rapsomanikis, Spyridon; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2001-01-01

    Depth profiles of dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in the central and western Arabian Sea during four cruises in May and July-August 1995 and May-July 1997 as part of the German contribution to the Arabian Sea Process Study of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study. The vertical distribution of N2O in the water column on a transect along 65°E showed a characteristic double-peak structure, indicating production of N2O associated with steep oxygen gradients at the top and bottom of the oxygen minimum zone. We propose a general scheme consisting of four ocean compartments to explain the N2O cycling as a result of nitrification and denitrification processes in the water column of the Arabian Sea. We observed a seasonal N2O accumulation at 600-800 m near the shelf break in the western Arabian Sea. We propose that, in the western Arabian Sea, N2O might also be formed during bacterial oxidation of organic matter by the reduction of IO3- to I-, indicating that the biogeochemical cycling of N2O in the Arabian Sea during the SW monsoon might be more complex than previously thought. A compilation of sources and sinks of N2O in the Arabian Sea suggested that the N2O budget is reasonably balanced.

  17. Sea-ice thermodynamics and brine drainage.

    PubMed

    Worster, M Grae; Rees Jones, David W

    2015-07-13

    Significant changes in the state of the Arctic ice cover are occurring. As the summertime extent of sea ice diminishes, the Arctic is increasingly characterized by first-year rather than multi-year ice. It is during the early stages of ice growth that most brine is injected into the oceans, contributing to the buoyancy flux that mediates the thermo-haline circulation. Current operational sea-ice components of climate models often treat brine rejection between sea ice and the ocean similarly to a thermodynamic segregation process, assigning a fixed salinity to the sea ice, typical of multi-year ice. However, brine rejection is a dynamical, buoyancy-driven process and the salinity of sea ice varies significantly during the first growth season. As a result, current operational models may over predict the early brine fluxes from newly formed sea ice, which may have consequences for coupled simulations of the polar oceans. Improvements both in computational power and our understanding of the processes involved have led to the emergence of a new class of sea-ice models that treat brine rejection dynamically and should enhance predictions of the buoyancy forcing of the oceans. PMID:26032321

  18. Probabilistic Forecasting of Arctic Sea Ice Extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic is changing rapidly. Most noticeable has been the series of record, or near-record, annual minimums in sea ice extent in the past six years. The changing regime of sea ice has prompted much interest in seasonal prediction of sea ice extent, particularly as opportunities for Arctic shipping and resource exploration or extraction increase. This study presents a daily sea ice extent probabilistic forecast method with a 50-day lead time. A base projection is made from historical data and near-real-time sea ice concentration is assimilated on the issue date of the forecast. When considering the September mean ice extent for the period 1995-2012, the performance of the 50-day lead time forecast is very good: correlation=0.94, Bias = 0.14 ×106 km^2 and RMSE = 0.36 ×106 km^2. Forecasts for the daily minimum contains equal skill levels. The system is highly competitive with any of the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook estimates. The primary finding of this study is that large amounts of forecast skill can be gained from knowledge of the initial conditions of concentration (perhaps more than previously thought). Given the simplicity of the forecast model, improved skill should be available from system refinement and with suitable proxies for large scale atmosphere and ocean circulation.

  19. Recent trends in sea ice-associated phytoplankton blooms in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, K. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The northern Bering and Chukchi Seas are among the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and act as important carbon sinks, particularly during May and June when seasonal sea ice-associated phytoplankton blooms occur throughout the region. Sea ice melt and breakup during spring strongly drive this production by enhancing light availability in the water column, enabling stratification and stabilization of the water column, and introducing a new source of nutrients to surface waters. Recent variability in sea ice extent in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas may therefore have profound impacts on spring phytoplankton production. In particular, passive microwave (SMMR and SSM/I) satellite data show strong interannual variability in sea ice area during winter and early spring months over the 1978-2008 time series, but no statistically significant trends. However, for months adjacent to the ice-free season (June-November), significant declines occurred for June (-3222 km2 or -8.5%/decade), July (-902 km2 or - 24.5%/decade), September (-1105 km2 or -23.8%/decade), October (-3879 km2 or - 20.0%/decade), and November (-10521 km2 or -13.0%/decade), suggesting that sea ice is breaking up earlier and reforming later each year. In this study, we focus on utilizing multi-sensor satellite data to investigate key temporal and spatial linkages between sea ice variability and chlorophyll biomass throughout the northern Bering and Chukchi Sea regions. We incorporate AMSR-E passive microwave measurements of sea ice extent and Aqua-MODIS derived concentrations of chlorophyll-a over the years 2002-2008. Remotely sensed measurements are validated with in situ data collected onboard the US Coast Guard Cutter Healy during the spring of 2006, 2007 and 2008. Surface phytoplankton blooms and peaks in chlorophyll-a concentrations are nearly coincident with the onset of sea ice degradation and begin to decline within approximately two weeks of the start of the blooms. Recent trends of earlier sea ice breakup in the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas therefore directly affect the timing and also likely the intensity of phytoplankton blooms. With earlier sea ice breakup, although sea ice melt still enables stratification and provides nutrients to surface waters, sunlight conditions may not yet be ideal for phytoplankton blooms and the intensity of chlorophyll-a peaks may thus be dampened. The potential implications of these shifts in the timing of sea ice breakup might reasonably include lowered overall productivity if seasonal sea ice retreat continues as expected.

  20. The convective desalination of sea ice

    E-print Network

    Rees Jones, David

    2014-07-01

    provided by the department and my college, Christ’s. The breath of God produces ice, and the broad waters become frozen. (Job 37:10) Contents Contents ix 1 Overview 1 2 Sea-Ice Modelling 7 2.1 Sea ice and the polar climate... components of the physical climate system. Evolving in space and time, sea ice has thermal and mechanical properties that must be updated dynamically for a faithful representation within climate models. Such models are vital tools to help people everywhere...

  1. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  2. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of salt flux leads to a threefold increase of shelf-slope volume flux below the warm core of Atlantic water. This threefold increase would be a sufficient substitute for a similar amount of dense water that currently forms in the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian (GIN) seas but is expected to decrease in a warming climate. PMID:24555308

  3. A model for the consolidation of rafted sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bailey; D. L. Feltham; P. R. Sammonds

    2010-01-01

    Rafting is one of the important deformation mechanisms of sea ice. This process is widespread in the north Caspian Sea, where multiple rafting produces thick sea ice features, which are a hazard to offshore operations. Here we present a one-dimensional, thermal consolidation model for rafted sea ice. We consider the consolidation between the layers of both a two-layer and a

  4. ConcepTest: Effect of Ice Sheet on Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the last ice age there was a large ice sheet over much of Canada and the northern U.S. What was the effect on global sea levels? a. Sea level was higher b. Sea level was lower c. Sea level was the same as ...

  5. Modelling of melt ponds on a sea ice floe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Scott; D. Feltham

    2009-01-01

    During winter the ocean surface at the poles freezes over to form sea ice. Sea ice floats on the ocean surface and has a matrix structure caused by the rejection of salts during freezing. In the summer sea ice melts at its surface creating melt ponds. An accurate estimate of the fraction of the upper sea-ice surface covered in melt

  6. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  7. Climate change impact on the Mediterranean Sea circulation

    E-print Network

    Ribes, Aurélien

    Climate change impact on the Mediterranean Sea circulation: a regional modelling approach Samuel. In the Mediterranean Sea, many authors have also described a THC driven by heat and water losses at the sea surface getting into the Mediterranean Sea across the Gibraltar Strait at the surface and salty and cold water

  8. Controls on Arctic Sea Ice Strength: Constraints from Geophysical Observations.

    E-print Network

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    Controls on Arctic Sea Ice Strength: Constraints from Geophysical Observations. Sea ice exhibits and the ocean, the "sea ice system" exhibits a dynamical behavior that has both fluid and solid properties. Interestingly, some features of sea ice are similar to those observed for the Earth's crust. Fractures spanning

  9. A twist in sea urchin gastrulation and mesoderm specification

    E-print Network

    Hardin, Jeff

    A twist in sea urchin gastrulation and mesoderm specification WeiWeng*.Jan Cheethamt.Jeff Hardint, sea urchin myogenic factor-1 (SUM-1), plays an important role in myogenic determination during sea in transgenic sea urchin embryos, suggesting that other factors, either positive or negative, influence

  10. SEA URCHINS: A New Fishery Develops In California

    E-print Network

    SEA URCHINS: A New Fishery Develops In California Susumu Kato Sea urchins, long considered pests time, energy, and money are spent trying to eradicate sea urchins in California waters. Rather than simple destruction, the National Marine Fisheries Service is promoting the utilization of sea urchin roe

  11. Positioning Sea Grant An Integrated National Communications Plan

    E-print Network

    Positioning Sea Grant An Integrated National Communications Plan 2003-06 Prepared and Submitted March 10, 2003 by Stephen Wittman, Wisconsin Sea Grant #12;2 #12;3 Positioning Sea Grant: An Integrated communications "inside the beltway" to attain greater federal support for the National Sea Grant College Program

  12. Development of Black Sea nowcasting and forecasting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Korotaev; T. Oguz; V. L. Dorofeyev; S. G. Demyshev; A. I. Kubryakov; Y. B. Ratner

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the development of the Black Sea community nowcasting and forecasting system under the Black Sea GOOS initiative and the EU framework projects ARENA, ASCABOS and ECOOP. One of the objectives of the Black Sea Global Ocean Observing System project is a promotion of the nowcasting and forecasting system of the Black Sea, in order to implement the

  13. Ballast water exchangeable seas identified by ocean color satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kozai; H. Ishida; K. Okamoto; Y. Fukuyo

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the identification of ballast water exchangeable seas with MODIS Aqua-derived diffuse attenuation coefficient K 490 along the LNG carrier s routes between Japan and Qatar during the period from 2002 to 2005 Study areas include the northwestern Pacific Ocean the East China Sea the South China Sea the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea Based on

  14. JET FORMATION AT THE SEA ICE EDGE HAROLD DBS HEORTON

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    JET FORMATION AT THE SEA ICE EDGE HAROLD DBS HEORTON UCL PhD January 2013 1 #12;I, Harold Heorton flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. Sea ice edge jets have been observed (Johannessen et al. 1983). This thesis presents a study of a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation

  15. The coral record of last interglacial sea levels and sea surface temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm T. McCulloch; Tezer Esat

    2000-01-01

    The rise and fall of the Last Interglacial (LI) sea levels and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are evaluated using U-series dating combined with Sr\\/Ca ratios in corals from both stable and tectonically uplifted sites. Along the stable coastal margin of Western Australia, an extensive series of LI coral reefs occur at heights of 2–3 m above present-day sea level. These

  16. Nutrient distribution in the North Aegean Sea affected by the Black Sea Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Souvermezoglou, Ekaterini

    2015-04-01

    The North Aegean Sea is a region of the Mediterranean Sea where the Black Sea exchange waters through the Dardanelles straits. In this work, the temporal and spatial variation of inorganic nutrients were studied along a north-south transect of three stations (MD1, MD2, MD3) located close to the Dardanelles straits, during winter-spring period (January, March, April and May 2011). High DO concentrations were recorded in the BSW water mass corresponding to ??

  17. SeaWinds Product User Manual Ocean and Sea Ice SAF

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    /OSI/KNMI/TEC/MA/134 O&SI SAF SeaWinds Product User Manual version 1.6 August 2009 1 DOCUMENT SIGNATURE TABLE Name DateSeaWinds Product User Manual Ocean and Sea Ice SAF Version 1.6 August 2009 #12;SAF 2005 Minor Adaptation to SDP, included file name convention Version 1.2 Apr 2006 Minor Adapted web

  18. Sea-ice-thickness variability in the Chukchi Sea, spring and summer 2002–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Shirasawa; Hajo Eicken; Kazutaka Tateyama; Toru Takatsuka; Toshiyuki Kawamura

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of sea-ice thickness were obtained from drill holes, an ice-based electromagnetic induction instrument (IEM), and a ship-borne electromagnetic induction instrument (SEM) during the early-melt season in the southern Chukchi Sea in 2002 and 2004, and in late summer 2003 at the time of minimum ice extent in the northern Chukchi Sea. An ice roughness criterion was applied to distinguish

  19. Three-dimensional structure of tidal current in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyu Guo; Tetsuo Yanagi

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional tidal current model is developed and applied to the East China Sea (ECS), the Yellow Sea and the Bohai\\u000a Sea. The model well reproduces the major four tides, namely M2, S2, K1 and O1 tides, and their currents. The horizontal distributions of the major four tidal currents are the same as those calculated\\u000a by the horizontal two-dimensional models.

  20. Satellite-derived long-term variability of sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos Skliris; Annita Mantziafou; Sarantis Sofianos; Athanasios Gkanasos; Panagiotis Aksaopoulos; Vasilis Vervatis

    2010-01-01

    Twenty four years of AVHRR-derived sea surface temperature (SST) daily data (1985-2008) are used to investigate the long-term variability of this parameter in the Mediterranean Sea. Results indicate a strong eastward increasing sea surface warming trend with a mean annual warming rate of about 0.035 °C\\/yr for the western sub-basin and of about 0.055 °C\\/yr for the eastern sub-basin. The