Sample records for sea norwegian sea

  1. Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K. [BJ Services (Norway); Sorgaard, E. [Norsk Hydro, Bergen (Norway)

    1999-04-01

    During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

  2. A reassessment of the dispersion properties of 99 North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    E-print Network

    Drange, Helge

    radionuclide Technetium-99 (99 Tc) in the North and Norwegian Seas have been simulated with a regional the tracer left the source. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Technetium-99; Tracer dispersion; Atmospheric forcing; Age diagnostic 1. Introduction Technetium-99 is a highly soluble, long

  3. A numerical model for interdecadal variability of sea ice cover in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Morales-Maqueda; A. J. Willmott; M. S. Darby

    1999-01-01

    A coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere model is used to study interdecadal variability (?40 years) of sea ice depth and concentration\\u000a in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Sea. This oceanic region is represented by a meridionally aligned channel on a ?-plane\\u000a with open zonal boundaries at 60?°N and 80?°N. The model consists of a one and a half layer reduced gravity ocean model, a\\u000a thermodynamic\\/dynamic

  4. Norwegian petroleum resources with focus on challenges and opportunities in the Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Aamodt, F.R. [Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Stavanger (Norway). Exploration Branch

    1995-12-31

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf can be subdivided into 3 different petroleum provinces: (1) the North Sea, (2) the Norwegian Sea including the Jan Mayen ridge, and (3) the Barents Sea including the islands of Svalbard. The majority of the fields and discoveries and most of the resources are located in the mature North Sea Basin. Significant resources are however also discovered in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. 39 fields are in production or decided to be developed while 3 fields are closed down. Approximately 70% of the discovered resources are located in these fields, of which some are gigantic in size (Statfjord, Ekofisk, Gullfaks, Oseberg, Troll and Snorre). Most of the remaining discoveries (134) are smaller in size and approximately 2/3 of the resources are gas. According to a recent study carried out by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate the expected undiscovered Norwegian Petroleum Resources are assessed to be on the order of 3,5 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. with a level of uncertainty ranging from 2 to 6 billion Sm{sup 3} o.e. 40% of the undiscovered petroleum resources are expected to be found as oil. These are the perspectives of the Norwegian Petroleum Resources. The resources of the Barents Sea is included in this perspective. The significance of the Barents Sea resources is not particularly important in the short-medium term perspective, but will be important in the longer perspective.

  5. Distribution of overwintering Calanus in the North Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsen, A.; Pedersen, J. M.; Slagstad, D.; Semenova, T.; Timonin, A.

    2006-03-01

    During winter 2003 and 2004, zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected in the northern parts of the Norwegian Sea (68-72° N, 8-17° E) west of the Norwegian shelf break at depths down to 1800 m. The results cover both inter and intra annual changes of hydrography and distribution of Calanus spp. For the whole survey area, average seawater temperature down to 1000 m was higher in 2004 than in the same period in 2003. For the upper 500 m the difference was ca. 1°C. Calanus finmarchicus dominated at ca. 75% of the total copepod abundance. Typical abundance of C. finmarchicus in the survey area was 30 000-40 000 m-2. C. hyperboreus was found deeper than C. finmarchicus while other copepods were found at the depth of C. finmarchicus or shallower. From January to February 2004, the peak of abundance of C. finmarchicus and C. hyperboreus shifted ca. 300 m upwards indicating that ascent from overwintering depth took place at a speed of 10 m d-1 during this period. In general, high abundance of copepods was found adjacent to the shelf slope while oceanic areas had low and intermediate abundance. In the southern part of the survey area, location of high and low copepod abundance shifted both between and within years. In the northern part of the survey area where the shelf slope is less steep, copepods was present at intermediate and high abundance during all surveys.

  6. Distribution of overwintering Calanus in the North Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsen, A.; Pedersen, J. M.; Slagstad, D.; Semenova, T.; Timonin, A.

    2006-07-01

    During winter 2003 and 2004, zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected in the northern parts of the Norwegian Sea (68-72° N, 8-17° E) west of the Norwegian shelf break at depths down to 1800 m. The results cover both inter and intra annual changes of hydrography and distribution of Calanus spp. For the whole survey area, average seawater temperature down to 1000 m was higher in 2004 than in the same period in 2003. For the upper 500 m the difference was ca. 1°C. Calanus finmarchicus dominated at ca. 75% of the total copepod abundance. Typical abundance of C. finmarchicus in the survey area was 30 000-40 000 m-2. C. hyperboreus was found deeper than C. finmarchicus while other copepods were found at the depth of C. finmarchicus or shallower. From January to February 2004, the peak of abundance of C. finmarchicus and C. hyperboreus shifted approximately 300 m upwards indicating that ascent from overwintering depth took place at a speed of 10 m d-1 during this period. In general, high abundance of copepods was found adjacent to the shelf slope while oceanic areas had low and intermediate abundance. In the southern part of the survey area, location of high and low copepod abundance shifted both between and within years. In the northern part of the survey area where the shelf slope is less steep, copepods was present at intermediate and high abundance during all surveys.

  7. @Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

  8. Oil and gas bearing in Norwegian Sea basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian passive continental margin is represented by an extensive gentle shelf and continental slope. On the continental slope, there are the isolated Vøring, Møre and Ras basins, the Halten Terrace is situated to the east of them at the shelf, then the Nordland submarine ridge and the Trondelag Platform at the seaboard. There are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in its sections. Two complex structures are clearly distinguished in the sedimentary section: the lower stage (up to the Upper Cretaceous), reflecting the rifting structure of the basins, broken by a system of dislocations to a series of horsts, grabens, and separated blocks; and the upper stage, poorly dislocated, like a mantle covering the lower stage, with erosion and sharp unconformity. The Halten Terrace is the principal oil and gas production basin. At present, there are more than 50 oil, gas, and condensate fields in it. The following particularities have been discovered: than the field lays in the deepwater, than the age of the hydrocarbon pay is younger. It is also interesting that all gas fields are situated in the Vøring and Møre basins and western part of the Halten Terrace; the oil and gas fields, mainly at the center of the Halten Terrace; but pure oil fields, in the north of the terrace. In conformity with discovering the particularities, it is possible to say that the prospects of oil and gas bearing in the Norwegian Sea are primarilyt related to the Halten Terrace and the Vøring and Møre basins, especially the territories situated at the boundary of the two basins, where it is possible to discover large hydrocarbon accumulations like the Ormen-Lange field, because the Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous productive turbidite thick at the boundary of these basins is on the continental slope, which is considered promising a priori.

  9. Monitoring the surface inflow of Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea using Envisat ASAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, M. W.; Johannessen, J. A.; Dagestad, K. F.; Collard, F.; Chapron, B.

    2011-12-01

    Sea surface range Doppler velocities from nearly 1200 Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) acquisitions between 2007 and 2011, covering the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and the Skagerrak Sea, have been examined. After systematic corrections, the inflow of Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea, via the two branches of the Norwegian Atlantic Current, is investigated. Distinct expressions of the eastern branch, the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current, are revealed with a speed of 20-40 cm/s and a clear manifestation of topographic steering along the 500 m isobath. The western branch, the Norwegian Atlantic Front Current, is also depicted but with lower surface velocities. Moreover, parts of the Norwegian Coastal Current are also detected with time-averaged speed reaching up to 40 cm/s. At a spatial resolution of 10 km, the root mean square errors of these velocities are estimated to be less than 5 cm/s. The range Doppler velocity retrievals are assessed and compared to other direct and indirect estimates of the upper ocean current, including surface Lagrangian drifters, moored recording current meter measurements, and surface geostrophic current inverted from several mean dynamic topography fields. The results are promising and demonstrate that the synthetic aperture radar based range Doppler velocity retrieval method is applicable to monitoring the temporal and spatial variations of ocean surface circulation, provided the imaging geometry is favorable.

  10. Monitoring the surface inflow of Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, M. W.; Johannessen, J. A.; Chapron, B.; Dagestad, K.-F.

    2012-04-01

    Zonal and meridional sea surface velocities are estimated from range Doppler velocities from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) acquisitions between 2007 and 2011, covering the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and the Skagerrak Sea. After systematic corrections, the inflow of Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea, via the two branches of the Norwegian Atlantic Current, is investigated. Distinct expressions of the eastern branch, the Norwegian Atlantic Slope Current, are revealed with a speed of 20-40 cm/s and a clear manifestation of topographic steering along the 500 m isobath. The western branch, the Norwegian Atlantic Front Current, is also depicted but with lower surface velocities. Moreover, parts of the Norwegian Coastal Current are also detected with time-averaged speed reaching up to 40 cm/s. At a spatial resolution of 10 km, the root mean square errors of these velocities are estimated to be less than 5 cm/s. The retrievals are assessed and compared to other direct and indirect estimates of the upper ocean current, including surface Lagrangian drifters, moored recording current meter measurements, and surface geostrophic current inverted from several mean dynamic topography fields. The results are promising and demonstrate that the synthetic aperture radar based range Doppler velocity retrieval method is applicable to monitoring the temporal and spatial variations of ocean surface circulation, provided the imaging geometry is favorable.

  11. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  12. Annual and interannual variability of Atlantic Water temperatures in the Norwegian and Barents Seas: 1980–1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tore Furevik

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the oceanographic climate of the Arctic Ocean during the 1990s have been linked to anomalous heat and volume transports of Atlantic Water (AW) from the Nordic Seas. This paper focuses on the variability in the AW temperature in the Norwegian Sea and in the Barents Sea Opening (BSO), using 16 years of data from five regular hydrographic sections

  13. Oceanic distribution and life cycle of Calanus species in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilie Broms; Webjørn Melle; Stein Kaartvedt

    2009-01-01

    The distribution and demography of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus were studied throughout their growth season on a basin scale in the Norwegian Sea using ordination techniques and generalized additive models. The distribution and demographic data were related to the seasonal development of the phytoplankton bloom and physical characteristics of water masses. The resulting quantified relationships were related

  14. Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea

    E-print Network

    Svensen, Henrik

    Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea Martin the features as true submarine pingoes, formed by the local accumulation of hydrate (ice) below the sediment the pockmark. We suggest that these submarine hydrate-pingoes manifest the exact locations where fluid flow

  15. Subsea template, pipeline anchor Troll-Oseberg gas-injection scheme in Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weibye, B.S.

    1988-01-18

    The author discusses the subsea, gas production template and the 30-mile pipeline that are key elements in supplying as from the Troll field for injection into Oseberg field in the Norwegian North Sea by 1991. The author discusses the design basis and philosophies as well as the production system, template installation and control pods.

  16. Upper Cretaceous oceanic red bed foraminifera from the southern Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setoyama, Eiichi; Kaminski, Michael A.

    2014-05-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages of Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds (CORBs), which are geographically widespread and whose deposition reflects oligotrophic and well-oxygenated deep-water environments, have been described from the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Tethys. No detailed taxonomic study was, however, published on foraminifera from CORBs in the Norwegian Sea, though their existence was previously mentioned. This study, thus, investigates assemblages from a red sediment interval of the uppermost Santonian-middle Campanian Nise Formation in well 6306/5-1 drilled in the southern Norwegian Sea for taxonomy and their palaeoenvironmental implications based on morphogroup analysis. The assemblages are relatively highly diversified and composed of 61 deep-water agglutinated taxa without any calcareous forms. Biostratigraphically important Upper Cretaceous species, such as Caudammina gigantea and Uvigerinammina jankoi, are not recorded. The common occurrence of tubular forms, high diversity and the absence of small species of Upper Cretaceous abyssal fauna suggest a bathyal setting for the depositional environment of the CORBs in the Norwegian Sea. The absence of calcareous components indicates that they were deposited near or below the regional calcium carbonate compensation depth. The fauna from the red sediment interval shows similarity to both the mesotrophic flysch-type biofacies, for example in the presence of robust tubular forms and rzehakinids, and the CORB assemblages previously described in the abundant occurrence of infauna in environments with low flux of organic matter. This intermediate characteristics of the Norwegian CORB fauna is probably related to a shallower bathyal setting and higher flux of organic matter to the seafloor due to the proximity to land in a narrow proto-Norwegian Sea than abyssal and truly oligotrophic depositional environments of other CORBs. As sedimentation of CORBs can be regarded as the primary type of background hemipelagic sedimentation in deep-sea conditions, the CORB assemblages of this study may represent a background deep-sea foraminiferal assemblage of the Norwegian Sea, which was tectonically active during the Late Cretaceous and in which a thick unit of Upper Cretaceous turbidites was deposited.

  17. Structure and resilience of overwintering habitats of Calanus finmarchicus in the Eastern Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagstad, Dag; Tande, Kurt S.

    2007-11-01

    Very high concentrations of overwintering Calanus finmarchicus were found in the eastern Lofoten Basin of the Norwegian Sea close to the shelf break in January 2001-2002. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and ecological model was used to study the formation of this deep overwintering aggregation and its stability. The ecological model includes nutrients, phytoplankton and microzooplankton in addition to a stage-structured model of C. finmarchicus. Using a Eulerian approach, the model was initiated with an overwintering stock evenly distributed in the oceanic regions of the Norwegian Sea, i.e. where depths>600 m. Spawning and development of the new generation take place in response to vertical mixing and phytoplankton development. Animals are assumed to begin their descent to overwintering depths of 700-1000 m as late stage Vs. Model results show that, in late summer, high concentrations of animals were found at overwintering depths near the shelf break north of the North Sea, off the northeastern Vøring Plateau and in the eastern Lofoten Basin along the slope of the Barents Sea shelf. They remained there for months due to deep eddies and southward, deep currents along the Norwegian shelf. The simulation experiments indicate that the combined effect of deep anticyclonic circulation and vertical migration behavior of the animals may explain the high concentrations of overwintering C. finmarchicus found in field surveys in the Eastern Lofoten Basin, close to the shelf break.

  18. The nepheloid layer and horizontal sedimentary matter fluxes in the Norwegian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Lukashin; A. D. Shcherbinin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the results of long-term studies of the nepheloid layer in the Norwegian Sea in the Komsomolets test area are considered. Its principal characteristics such as its thickness, the particulate matter concentration in the\\u000a nepheloid layer, and its standing crop are presented. The nepheloid layer is formed by the near-bottom current, which, together\\u000a with the particulate standing crop,

  19. The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Klimpel; Harry W. Palm; Sonja Rückert; Uwe Piatkowski

    2004-01-01

    Copepoda ( Calanus finmarchicus n=1,722, Paraeuchaeta norvegica n=1,955), Hyperiidae ( n=3,019), Euphausiacea ( Meganyctiphanes norvegica n=4,780), and the fishes Maurolicus muelleri ( n=500) and Pollachius virens ( n=33) were collected in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea) during summer 2001 to examine the importance of pelagic invertebrates and vertebrates as hosts of Anisakis simplex and their roles in the transfer

  20. Saline outflow from the Arctic Ocean: Its contribution to the deep waters of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Iceland Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Aagaard; E. Fahrbach; J. Meincke; J. H. Swift

    1991-01-01

    Since 1985 various investigators have proposed that Norwegian Sea deep water (NSDW) is formed by mixing of warm and saline deep water from the Arctic Ocean with the much colder and fresher deep water formed by convection in the Greenland Sea (GSDW). We here report on new observations which suggest significant modification and expansion of this conceptual model. We find

  1. A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations provides particularly good data coverage in this region for a comparison with the gridded Navy winds and air temperatures. The standard errors of estimate between the Navy and FGGE IIb winds and air temperatures are 3.6 m/s and 2.5 C, respectively. The computations for the latent and sensible heat fluxes are based on bulk formulas with the same constant heat exchange coefficient of 0.0015. The results show extremely strong wintertime heat fluxes in the northern Greenland Sea and especially in the Barents Sea in contrast to previous studies.

  2. A coupled ice ocean model for the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Erland; Pietrzak, Julie; Brandt, Rune

    1999-06-01

    Simulations from a coupled ice-ocean model that highlight the importance of synoptic forcing on sea-ice dynamics are described. The ocean model is a non-hydrostatic primitive equation model coupled to a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model. The ice modelling sensitivity study presented here is part of an ongoing research programme to define the role played by sea ice in the energy balance of the Greenland Sea. The different categories of sea ice found in the subpolar regions are simulated through the use of equations for thin ice, thick ice and the Marginal Ice Zone. A basin scale numerical model of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas has a horizontal resolution of 20 km and a vertical grid spacing of 50 m. This resolution is adequate for resolving the mesoscale topographic structures known to control the circulation in this region. The spin-up reproduces the main features of the circulation, including the cyclonic gyres in the Norwegian and Greenland Basins and Iceland Plateau. Topographic steering of the flow is evident. The baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation is between 5 and 10 km so that the model is not eddy-resolving. The coupled ice-ocean model was run for a period of two weeks. The influence of horizontal resolution of the atmospheric model was tested by comparing simulations using six hourly wind fields from the ECMWF with those generated using six hourly fields from a HIRLAM, with horizontal resolutions of 1° and 0.18° respectively. The simulations show reasonable agreement with satellite ice compactness data and data of ice transports across sections at 79°N, 75°N and Denmark Strait.

  3. High Acidification Rate of Norwegian Sea Revealed by Boron Isotopes in the Deep-Sea Coral Madrepora Oculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Douville, E.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Montagna, P.; Louvat, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Frank, N.; Bordier, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification and global warming due to the increase of anthropogenic CO2 are major threats for marine calcifying organisms, such as deep-sea corals, particularly in high-latitude regions. In order to evaluate the current anthropogenic perturbation and to properly assess the impacts and responses of calcifiers to previous changes in pH it is critical to investigate past changes of the seawater carbonate system. Unfortunately, current instrumental records of oceanic pH are limited, covering only a few decades. Scleractinian coral skeletons record chemical parameters of the seawater in which they grow. However, pH variability over multidecadal timescales remains largely unknown in intermediate and deep seawater masses. Here we present a study that highlights the potential of deep-sea-corals to overcome the lack of long-term pH records and that emphasizes a rapid acidification of high latitude subsurface waters of Norwegian Sea during the past decades. We have reconstructed seawater pH and temperature from a well dated deep-sea coral specimen Madrepora oculata collected alive from Røst reef in Norwegian Sea (67°N, 9°E, 340 m depth). This large branching framework forming coral species grew its skeleton over more than four decades determined using AMS 14C and 210Pb dating (Sabatier et al. 2012). B-isotopes and Li/Mg ratios yield an acidification rate of about -0.0030±0.0008 pH-unit.year-1 and a warming of 0.3°C during the past four decades (1967-2007). Overall our reconstruction technique agrees well with previous pH calculations (Hönisch et al., 2007 vs. Trotter et al., 2011 and McCulloch et al., 2012, i.e. the iterative method), but additional corrections are here applied using stable isotope correlations (O, C, B) to properly address kinetic fractionation of boron isotopes used for pH reconstruction. The resulting pH curve strongly anti-correlates with the annual NAO index, which further strengthens our evidence for the ocean acidification rate calculated here. If the rate of atmospheric CO2 emission is not reduced, the Røst reef will become undersaturated in aragonite by the end of century. Sabatier P. et al., 2012. Biogeosciences, 9, 1253-1265. Hönisch B. et al., 2007. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 1636-1641. Trotter J. et al., 2011. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303 (2011) 163-73. McCulloch M. et al., 2012. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 82, 154-162

  4. An overview of the ecosystems of the Barents and Norwegian Seas and their response to climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeng, Harald; Drinkwater, Ken

    2007-11-01

    The principal features of the marine ecosystems in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and some of their responses to climate variations are described. The physical oceanography is dominated by the influx of warm, high-salinity Atlantic Waters from the south and cold, low-salinity waters from the Arctic. Seasonal ice forms in the Barents Sea with maximum coverage typically in March-April. The total mean annual primary production rates are similar in the Barents and Norwegian Seas (80-90 g C m -2), although in the Barents, the production is higher in the Atlantic than in the ice covered Arctic Waters. The zooplankton is dominated by Calanus species, C. finmarchicus in the Atlantic Waters of the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and C. glacialis in the Arctic Waters of the Barents Sea. The fish species in the Norwegian Sea are mostly pelagics such as herring ( Clupea harengus) and blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou), while in the Barents Sea there are both pelagics (capelin ( Mallotus villosus Mülle r), herring, and polar cod ( Boreogadus saida Lepechin)) and demersals (cod ( Gadus morhua L.) and haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus)). The latter two species spawn in the Norwegian Sea along the slope edge (haddock) or along the coast (cod) and drift into the Barents Sea. Marine mammals and seabirds, although comprising only a relatively small percentage of the biomass and production in the region, play an important role as consumers of zooplankton and small fish. While top-down control by predators certainly is significant within the two regions, there is also ample evidence of bottom-up control. Climate variability influences the distribution of several fish species, such as cod, herring and blue whiting, with northward shifts during extended warm periods and southward movements during cool periods. Climate-driven increases in primary and secondary production also lead to increased fish production through higher abundance and improved growth rates.

  5. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  6. Mid-Cenozoic post-breakup deformation in the ‘passive’ margins bordering the Norwegian–Greenland Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lundin; A. G. Doré

    2002-01-01

    Since the initial breakup of the Norwegian–Greenland Sea in Early Eocene time (Chron 24B, 53.7Ma), the conjugate ‘passive’ margins have been subject to compression, extension, magmatism, and broad uplifts and subsidence. Mid- to Late Cenozoic compressional doming basin inversion and reverse faulting occurred predominantly offshore within the rheologically weak deep Cretaceous depocenters. On the Norwegian margin, the domes seem to

  7. Mid-1980s distribution of tritium, 3He, 14C and 39Ar in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Nansen basin of the Arctic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, P.; Bonisch, G.; Kromer, B.; Loosli, H.H.; Buehler, R.

    1995-12-31

    The distributions of tritium/3He, 14C and 39Ar observed in the period between 1985 and 1987 in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are presented. The data are used to outline aspects of the large-scale circulation and the exchange of deep water between the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin. Additionally, semi-quantitative estimates of mean ages of the main water masses found in these regions are obtained. Apparent tritium/3He ages of the upper waters (depth <500m) vary from close to zero in the Norwegian Current to about 15 years at the lower boundary of the Arctic halocline. The deep waters (>1,500m depth) of the Greenland/ Norwegian Seas show apparent tritium/3He ages between about 17 years in the Greenland Sea and 30 years in the Norwegian Sea.

  8. Statistical analysis of temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2014-02-01

    The paper analyzes sea temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea. The data cover the period 1948-2010. The following questions are addressed: What type of stochastic process characterizes the temperature series? Are there any changes or patterns which indicate climate change? Are there any characteristics in the data which can be linked to the shrinking sea-ice in the Arctic area? Can the series be modeled consistently and applied in forecasting of the future sea temperature? The paper applies the following methods: Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests for testing of unit-root and stationarity, ARIMA-models in univariate modeling, cointegration and error-correcting models are applied in estimating short- and long-term dynamics of non-stationary series, Granger-causality tests in analyzing the interaction pattern between the deep and upper layer temperatures, and simultaneous equation systems are applied in forecasting future temperature. The paper shows that temperature at 2000 m Granger-causes temperature at 150 m, and that the 2000 m series can represent an important information carrier of the long-term development of the sea temperature in the geographical area. Descriptive statistics shows that the temperature level has been on a positive trend since the beginning of the 1980s which is also measured in most of the oceans in the North Atlantic. The analysis shows that the temperature series are cointegrated which means they share the same long-term stochastic trend and they do not diverge too far from each other. The measured long-term temperature increase is one of the factors that can explain the shrinking summer sea-ice in the Arctic region. The analysis shows that there is a significant negative correlation between the shrinking sea ice and the sea temperature at Station-M. The paper shows that the temperature forecasts are conditioned on the properties of the stochastic processes, causality pattern between the variables and specification of model, respectively. The estimated models forecast that temperature at 150 m is expected to increase by 0.018 °C per year, while deep water temperature at 2000 m is expected to increase between 0.0022 and 0.0024 °C per year.

  9. CO2 Storage Atlas Norwegian Sea - a case study from the Froan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sande Rød, Rita; Pham, Van T. H.

    2014-05-01

    The CO2 storage atlas of the Norwegian Sea has been prepared by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate at the request of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. The main objectives have been to identify the safe and effective areas for long-term storage of CO2 and to avoid possible negative interference with ongoing and future petroleum activity. We have built on the knowledge we have from the petroleum industry and from the two ongoing CO2 storage projects, Sleipner and Snøhvit, on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Five aquifers and six prospects have been evaluated in terms of storage capacity and safe storage of CO2. One identified storage potential is the Froan Basin Garn and Ile Formations. The Froan Basin is a NE striking Jurassic syncline on the southwestern part of the Trøndelag Platform. The aquifers in the southeastern part of the Norwegian Sea typically have a consistent dip of 1-2 degrees from the Norwegian coast to the basinal areas. In the case of permeable beds occurring along the dip slope there is a risk that CO2 injected down dip can migrate up to where the aquifer is truncated by the Quaternary glacial sediments. A simulation study was performed in order to identify possible trapping mechanisms and to understand the timing and extent of long distance CO2 migration. The storage mechanisms considered were both structural and stratigraphic trapping. A simulation sector model of the Garn/Not/Ile Formations was build covering about 10% of the total expected communicating aquifer volume. The CO2 injection well was located down dip, but alternative locations and injection zones have been simulated, with different injection rates. The injection period is 50 years, and the migration of the CO2 plume was simulated and monitored for 10.000 years. CO2 will continue to migrate upwards as long as it is in free, movable state. Migration stops when CO2 is permanently bounded or trapped, by going into solution with the formation water or by being residually trapped, or becoming structurally trapped (mineralogical trapping not considered). Based on simulation results about 400 mill tons CO2 can be stored in the Garn and Ile aquifer (8 mill tons/year over 50 years). This will require 4 injection and give acceptable pressure increase (<20bar). Within 10000 years most of the gas will have gone into solution with the formation water or being residually trapped.

  10. An improved tectonic model for the Eocene opening of the Norwegian–Greenland Sea: Use of modern magnetic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Olesen; J. Ebbing; E. Lundin; E. Mauring; J. R. Skilbrei; T. H. Torsvik; E. K. Hansen; T. Henningsen; P. Midbøe; M. Sand

    2007-01-01

    Compilation of new and vintage aeromagnetric data from the Norwegian and Greenland Seas of the NE Atlantic provides evidence for a different interpretation of several tectonic elements. The previously interpreted oceanic fracture zones (Gleipne, Surt, Bivrost, Jenegga and Vesterålen) do not exist; these were artefacts of poor navigation and wide line spacing of the vintage dataset. This reinterpretation impacts our

  11. Oceanic distribution and life cycle of Calanus species in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broms, Cecilie; Melle, Webjørn; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2009-10-01

    The distribution and demography of Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis and C. hyperboreus were studied throughout their growth season on a basin scale in the Norwegian Sea using ordination techniques and generalized additive models. The distribution and demographic data were related to the seasonal development of the phytoplankton bloom and physical characteristics of water masses. The resulting quantified relationships were related to knowledge on life cycle and adaptations of Calanus species. C. finmarchicus was the numerically dominant Calanus species in Coastal, Atlantic and Arctic waters, showing strong association with both Atlantic and Arctic waters. C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis were associated with Arctic water; however, C. glacialis was occasionally observed in the Norwegian Sea and is probably an expatriate advected into the area from various origins. Demography indicated one generation per year of C. finmarchicus, a two-year life cycle of C. hyperboreus, and both one- and two-year life cycles for C. glacialis in the water masses where they were most abundant. For the examined Calanus species, young copepodites of the new generation seemed to be tuned to the phytoplankton bloom in their main water mass. The development of C. finmarchicus was delayed in Arctic water, and mis-match between feeding stages and the phytoplankton bloom may reduce survival and reproductive success of C. finmarchicus in Arctic water. Based on low abundances of C. hyperboreus CI-III in Atlantic water and main recruitment to CI prior to the phytoplankton bloom, we suggest that reproduction of C. hyperboreus in Atlantic water is not successful.

  12. Seasonal development of Calanus finmarchicus in relation to phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broms, Cecilie; Melle, Webjørn

    2007-11-01

    Seasonal development of Calanus finmarchicus was studied in relation to the physical environment and phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Norwegian Sea during eight basin-scale surveys from March to August 1995. Our main objective was to gain new knowledge about the life cycle of C. finmarchicus and its adaptation to the physical and biological environment of the Norwegian Sea. Time of spawning, estimated by temperature-dependent back-calculations from the occurrences of copepodite stage 1 (CIs), varied by water mass and occurred mainly during the phytoplankton pre-bloom and bloom periods. Recruitment to CI of the year's first generation (G1) generally occurred during the bloom and late bloom. The seasonal development of C. finmarchicus was progressively delayed from Coastal to Atlantic and to Arctic water, and from south to north within Atlantic and Arctic waters. This delay was partly linked to the phytoplankton bloom development that followed the same pattern, but development of C. finmarchicus also showed an increasing tendency to lag behind the phytoplankton development in colder waters. This may explain why C. finmarchicus are less successful in colder water. The consumption of nitrate was used as proxy for the seasonal history of phytoplankton development to aid interpretation of the lifecycle of C. finmarchicus. This approach allows us to align phytoplankton bloom and copepod development sequences despite temporal and geographical variation in bloom development, which otherwise tend to cause variability in quasi-synoptic and large-scale data. Two generations of C. finmarchicus were found in southern and northern regions of Coastal Water, and in southern Atlantic Water. In northern Atlantic Water and in Arctic Water, one generation was observed.

  13. The last 18 kyr fluctuations in Norwegian Sea surface conditions and implications for the magnitude of climatic change: Evidence from the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Klitgaard-Kristensen; H. P. Sejrup; H. Haflidason

    2001-01-01

    A combined record of three cores spanning the last 18 kyr from the northern North Sea is investigated for content of benthic and planktonic foraminifera and stable oxygen isotopes. The paleoenvironmental development through this time period shows an early deglaciation (18-14.4 ka) and the Younger Dryas (12.7-11.5 ka) characterized by arctic\\/polar conditions and increased ice rafting in the Norwegian Channel.

  14. High diversity of microplankton surrounds deep-water coral reef in the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sigmund; Bourne, David G; Hovland, Martin; Murrell, J Colin

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs that exist in the depths of the oceans are surrounded by Eukarya, Archaea and bacterial communities that may play an important role in the nutrition and health of the reef. The first interdomain community structure of planktonic organisms in seawater from a deep-water coral reef is described. Community profiling and analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences from a coral reef system at 350 m depth in the Norwegian Sea revealed a rich diversity of Eukarya and Bacteria and a moderate diversity of Archaea. Most sequences affiliated with marine microplankton from deep-sea to cold-surface regions, with many sequences being similar to those described in studies of mesopelagic and oxygen minimum zones. Dominant phylotypes belonged to the Alveolata (group I, II, dinoflagellates), Stramenopiles (silicoflagellates), Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter ubique), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteria) and mesophilic Crenarchaeota (Nitrosopumilus maritimus). Several rare and novel members of the community fell into distinct phylogenetic groups. The inferred function of dominant community members suggested autotrophs that utilise light, ammonium or sulphide, and lifestyles based on host associations. The high diversity reflected a microplankton community structure, which is significantly different from that of microplankton collected at the same depth at a pelagic station away from reefs. PMID:22571287

  15. The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea).

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry W; Rückert, Sonja; Piatkowski, Uwe

    2004-09-01

    Copepoda (Calanus finmarchicus n = 1,722, Paraeuchaeta norvegica n = 1,955), Hyperiidae (n = 3,019), Euphausiacea (Meganyctiphanes norvegica n = 4,780), and the fishes Maurolicus muelleri (n = 500) and Pollachius virens (n = 33) were collected in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea) during summer 2001 to examine the importance of pelagic invertebrates and vertebrates as hosts of Anisakis simplex and their roles in the transfer of this nematode to its final hosts (Cetaceans). Third stage larvae (L3) of A. simplex were found in P. norvegica, M. muelleri and P. virens. The prevalence of A. simplex in dissected P. norvegica was 0.26%, with an intensity of 1. Prevalences in M. muelleri and P. virens were 49.6% and 100.0%, with mean intensities of 1.1-2.6 (total fish length >or=6.0-7.2) and 193.6, respectively. All specimens of C. finmarchicus and M. norvegica examined were free of anisakid nematode species and no other parasites were detected. P. norvegica, which harboured the third stage larvae, is the obligatory first intermediate host of A. simplex in the investigated area. Though there was no apparent development of larvae in M. muelleri, this fish can be considered as the obligatory second intermediate host of A. simplex in the Norwegian Deep. However, it is unlikely that the larva from P. norvegica can be successfully transmitted into the cetacean or pinniped final hosts, where they reach the adult stage. An additional growth phase and a second intermediate host is the next phase in the life cycle. Larger predators such as P. virens serve as paratenic hosts, accumulating the already infective stage from M. muelleri. The oceanic life cycle of A. simplex in the Norwegian Deep is very different in terms of hosts and proposed life cycle patterns of A. simplex from other regions, involving only a few intermediate hosts. In contrast to earlier suggestions, euphausiids have no importance at all for the successful transmission of A. simplex in the Norwegian Deep. This demonstrates that this nematode is able to select definite host species depending on the locality, apparently having a very low level of host specificity. This could explain the wide range of different hosts that have been recorded for this species, and can be seen as the reason for the success of this parasite in reaching its marine mammal final hosts in an oceanic environment. PMID:15278439

  16. Pleistocene glaciation history of the Northern North Sea and Norwegian Channel documented by basin-scale 3D seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huuse, J.; Huuse, M.

    2012-04-01

    A regionally merged (c. 30,000 km2) 'megasurvey' 3D seismic dataset and an extensive set of 2D lines, tied to the Troll (89-03) core and wireline logs, was used to investigate the glacial and inter-glacial evolution of the northernmost North Sea through the Plio-Pleistocene. An extensive regional unconformity (URU) exists throughout the study area truncating the Naust Formation, a Plio-Pleistocene glacially-influenced progradational delta system, and older strata. This major erosion surface forms the base of the Norwegian Channel, a large (800 km long) cross-shelf trough located along the southern Norwegian coast. The evolution and exact erosion mechanism of this enigmatic feature is still debated. The stratigraphic succession above the URU consists of relatively flat-lying, alternating glacial and glacio-marine units of mid Pleistocene-Holocene age. This study is the first to present fully 3D seismic-constrained maps of the URU, the Naust clinoforms and all major glacial erosion surfaces within the Norwegian Channel infill. Furthermore it documents the geometries and sedimentary facies characteristics of the till and marine units preserved within the Norwegian Channel and the Norwegian sector of the Northern North Sea. Mapped erosional surfaces reveal a diverse assemblage of glacial morpologies interpreted as mega-scale glacial lineations, tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, terminal moraines and meltwater conduits demarcating the terminus of successive grounded palaeo-ice sheets. Ice berg ploughing was common along the margin between 2.6 and 1.1 Ma with ice streaming commencing prior to 1.1 Ma. Repeated occupation of the NC by fast flowing ice streams, during the Elsterian, Saalian, and Weichselian (MIS 12, 10, 8, 6, 2), led to a progressively westward erosion of the channel margin, migrating approximately 60 km between 1.1 Ma and the LGM. Although well imaged by seismic data, the prolific record of glaciations and interglacials in the Northern North Sea require better age constraints to further fine tune the record of Pleistocene environmental changes. Whilst a large number of wells exist in the North Sea, giving basic lithological information, only very few have sufficiently detailed stratigraphic data in the Pleistocene section. Further research should thus include coring tied to high-resolution seismic data that can be linked to the basin-scale 3D seismic observations presented herein. As this study provides a unique insight into the spatial and temporal dynamics of shelf-edge glaciation in the northern North Sea and its Atlantic margin throughout the late Cenozoic, the plethora of features documented within the Northern North Sea may serve as a template for interpreting other less well imaged glaciated margins.

  17. Organic carbon and mineral nutrient limitation of oxygen consumption, bacterial growth and efficiency in the Norwegian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Antonio Cuevas; Jorun K. Egge; T. Frede Thingstad; Birte Töpper

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bacteria in the transformation of organic matter in subarctic waters, we investigated the effect of\\u000a mineral nutrients (ammonia and phosphate) and organic carbon (glucose) enrichment on heterotrophic bacterial processes and\\u000a community structure. Eight experiments were done in the Norwegian Sea during May and June 2008. The growth-limiting factor\\u000a (carbon or mineral nutrient) for heterotrophic bacteria

  18. Gas migration and carbon capture in one of the World's largest pockmark fields, the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Hammer, O.; Linge, H. C.; Forsberg, C. F.; Tjelta, T.

    2013-12-01

    Acoustic imaging has revealed more than 7000 pockmarks above the Troll East gas field in the Norwegian Sea. The pockmarks range in size from 10 to 100 meters in diameter and are typically 6 meters deep. High-resolution bathymetric data shows that there is no evidence of structural control on the location of the pockmarks. This conclusion is in agreement with statistical analysis of the pockmark distribution which shows neighbor avoidance up to a scale of hundreds of meters and no indication of a fractal geometry. The pockmarks generally represent isolated structures and sometimes are identified in clusters with a central parent pockmark surrounded by smaller sized satellite pockmarks. Seafloor observations show that carbonate deposits are common within the pockmarks, providing shelter to the local fauna. Carbonate blocks collected from the pockmarks showed evidence for three distinct generations including micritic Mg-calcite/aragonite, micritic aragonite, and botryoidal aragonite. The carbon isotopic values of these phases are 13C depleted and 18O enriched, indicating a methanogenic origin and possibly a component sourced from dissociation of gas hydrates. Water geochemistry from shallow cores within and outside the pockmarks gave no indication of active seepage. This conclusion is further supported by no direct observations of fluid flow within the pockmarks, no bacterial mats nor obvious chemosymbiotic communities. In addition, oxidized carbonate surfaces indicate a gradual excavation and exposure at the sea floor. We conclude that one of the world's largest pockmark fields is currently inactive and that its formation is likely related to deglaciation processes about 11 ky ago.

  19. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that also corresponds to the main depocenter of the first Triassic sequence. We suggest that both the salt thickness and the sedimentary differential loading, combined with the subsidence of the basin, have influenced the change of the salt pattern in domain 2. In domain 3, the reactivation of pre-salt faults might have triggered some of the salt structures. This area also received a large amount of sediments from the Skagerrak area during the Triassic subsidence, which may have influenced the distribution and evolution of salt diapirs and turtle structures. The combination of the different triggering processes and the different basin geometry of domain 3, which is bounded by highs to the South and North, in comparison to domain 2 which is open towards the Central Graben, are probably the key parameters that have controlled the salt pattern in this area. Finally, salt tectonics reactivations were likely controlled by the distribution of younger sediments and the successive tectonic regimes.

  20. Influence of lithofacies and diagensis on Norwegian North Sea chalk reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brasher, J.E.; Vagle, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The depositional mechanism of chalk is a key influence in the chalk`s ultimate reservoir quality. Classically, the depositional mechanism is interpreted from core descriptions. Where core data are lacking, dipmeter and borehole imagery logs have proven useful in making lithofacies assessments. Criteria for recognition of three chalk categories are established. Category III chalks correspond to those chalks that have been deposited by gravity flows or slumping and tend to have the best reservoir parameters. Category I chalks are most often affiliated with pelagic deposition and tend to have the poorest reservoir parameters. Category II chalks are intermediate between I and III. Anomalously high primary porosities have been maintained in Norwegian North Sea chalks where the effects of mechanical and chemical compaction have been limited. The diagenetic pathway of a chalk reflects changes brought about by mechanical and chemical compaction. Five factors most heavily influence the diagenetic pathway: (1) burial depth, (2) chalk type, (3) overpressuring, (4) presence of hydrocarbons, and (5) original grain size. Assessments of the sedimentological model, diagenetic pathway, and resultant reservoir quality are provided in case studies of Edda, Tor, and Eldfisk fields. Because the distribution of chalk is largely independent of existing structures, most fields have a component of stratigraphic/diagenetic trapping. Each case study shows unique examples of how petrophysical and reservoir engineering data can be incorporated in assessments of chalk type and the diagenetic pathway and how they may affect reservoir parameters and productivity.

  1. On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

  2. Feedbacks of sedimentation on crustal heat flow - New insights from the Vøring Basin, Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, S.; Ruepke, L. H.

    2009-04-01

    Information on the nature and origin of rift basins is preserved in the presently observed stratigraphy. Basin modeling aims at recovering this information with the goal of quantifying a basin's structural and thermal evolution. Decompaction and backstripping analysis is a classic and still popular approach to basin reconstruction [Steckler and Watts, 1978]. The total and tectonic subsidences, as well as sedimentation rates are calculated by the consecutive decompaction and removal of individual layers. The thermal history has to be computed separately using forward thermal models. An alternative is coupled forward modeling, where the structural and thermal history is computed simultaneously. A key difference between these reconstruction methods is that feedbacks of sedimentation on crustal heat flow are often neglected in backstripping methods. In this work we use the coupled basin modeling approach presented by Rüpke et al. [2008] to quantify some of the feedbacks between sedimentation and heat flow and to explore the differences between both reconstruction approaches in a case study from the Vøring Basin, Norwegian Sea. In a series of synthetic model runs we have reviewed the effects of sedimentation on basement heat flow. These example calculations clearly confirm the well-known blanketing effect of sedimentation and show that it is largest for high sedimentation rates. Recovery of sedimentation rates from the stratigraphy is, however, not straightforward. Decompaction-based methods may systematically underestimate sedimentation rates as sediment thickness is assumed to not change/thin during stretching. We present a new method for computing sedimentation rates based on forward modeling and demonstrate the differences between both methods in terms of rates and thermal feedbacks in a reconstruction of the Vøring basin (Euromargin transect 2). We find that sedimentation rates are systematically higher in forward models and heat flow is clearly depressed during times of high sedimentation. In addition, computed subsidence curves can differ significantly between backtripping and forward modeling methods. This shows that integrated basin modeling is important for improved reconstructions of sedimentary basins and passive margins. Rupke, L. H., et al. (2008), Automated thermotectonostratigraphic basin reconstruction: Viking Graben case study, AAPG Bulletin, 92(3), 309-326. Steckler, M. S., and A. B. Watts (1978), SUBSIDENCE OF ATLANTIC-TYPE CONTINENTAL-MARGIN OFF NEW-YORK, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 41(1), 1-13.

  3. From conjugate volcanic rifted margins to micro-continent formation: Double breakup development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv; Sand, Morten; Sveinn Arnarson, Thorarinn

    2014-05-01

    We re-evaluate the structure and spreading evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and surrounding volcanic (rifted) margins based on new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. The new dataset combined with long-offset seismic and gravity data allow us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the conjugate margin systems in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the rifting to the drifting stage. We particularly focus on the new JAS-12 aeromagnetic survey acquired between the Aegir Ridge and the Jan Mayen micro-continent, which was initially part of the Møre-Vøring-Greenland rift system. Combined with the previous NB-07 and JAS-05 surveys, our final compilation fully covers the continent-ocean transition and the whole oceanic spreading system from the Møre margin to the conjugate Jan Mayen micro-continent with high quality, high-resolution and reliable magnetic data. The new dataset allowed a new, consistent and precise interpretation of the magnetic polarity chrons and oceanic fractures, providing the basis for more accurate rotation poles estimation, and better basin and crustal reconstructions between Norway, Greenland and the Jan Mayen micro-continent. This dataset allowed us to clarify the pre- and post-breakup configurations of the rift system and discuss the mechanisms involved during the onset of the two phases of breakup leading to the micro-continent formation. Our observations and models suggest that the pre-breakup rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This episode led to a significant thinning of the continental crust and an exhumation of pre-existing lower crust. However, we have not been able to identify and/or validate any clear domains of exhumed and denudated serpentinised mantle. The first Eocene breakup is mostly characterised by severe magmatism (sill, SDRS). Lithospheric/asthenospheric processes leading to rift localisation do not necessarily represent a continuum of lithospheric deformation with the precedent thinning system. Diking and disconnected lithospheric plumbing are proposed to explain the Eocene breakup. After the first phase of continental breakup, two major phases of spreading influenced the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Phase I (from C24 to C21r, ~54 to 49 Ma) marks the earliest phase of spreading, probably initiated in the central and outer part of the Møre Basin. During this period, the formation of overlapping systems and pseudo-fault development, indirectly influenced by the proto-margin segmentation, suggests the presence of additional micro-plates in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. We also observed a significant change in the oceanic spreading system in the late Early Eocene. Based on observations from the surrounding areas, this supports a major and distinct tectonic and magmatic event in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around C21r (49-47.9 Ma), the beginning of a second phase. During Phase II, from C21r-C12 or possibly younger (48-<32 Ma) of the Norway Basin development, spreading rates decreased, spreading direction changed leading to the formation of unexpected N-S oriented oceanic fracture zones. Phase II probably coincides with the climax of extension and possibly local spreading that is suspected in the southern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent forming a complex area of oceanic, transitional and continental fragments before its complete dislocation from East Greenland in Latest Oligocene.

  4. On the influence of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas upon the bottom waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH L. REID; RONALD J. LYNN

    1971-01-01

    The bottom waters of the North Pacific and North Indian Oceans have temperature and salinity distributions that suggest origins from the extreme waters of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas. We attempt to trace these waters from their sources to the abyssal Pacific and Indian oceans by examining distributions of temperature and salinity along a stratum defined by density parameters. We

  5. Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Bjørklund; G. Cortesea; N. Swanberg; H. J. Schrader

    1998-01-01

    The overall abundance and species composition of the polycystine and phaeodarian radiolaria have been determined in 63 surface sediment samples from the GIN Seas. These results are compared to chemical and physical properties of the overlying water masses. There are three abundance maxima in the distribution of radiolarian skeletal debris preserved in these surface sediments, centered on the Iceland Plateau,

  6. Seasonal increase in sea temperature triggers pancreas disease outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms.

    PubMed

    Stene, A; Bang Jensen, B; Knutsen, Ø; Olsen, A; Viljugrein, H

    2014-08-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease causing negative impacts on economy of salmon farms and fish welfare. Its transmission route is horizontal, and water transport by ocean currents is an important factor for transmission. In this study, the effect of temperature changes on PD dynamics in the field has been analysed for the first time. To identify the potential time of exposure to the virus causing PD, a hydrodynamic current model was used. A cohort of salmon was assumed to be infected the month it was exposed to virus from other infective cohorts by estimated water contact. The number of months from exposure to outbreak defined the incubation period, which was used in this investigation to explore the relationship between temperature changes and PD dynamics. The time of outbreak was identified by peak in mortality based on monthly records from active sites. Survival analysis demonstrated that cohorts exposed to virus at decreasing sea temperature had a significantly longer incubation period than cohorts infected when the sea temperature was increasing. Hydrodynamic models can provide information on the risk of being exposed to pathogens from neighbouring farms. With the knowledge of temperature-dependent outbreak probability, the farmers can emphasize prophylactic management, avoid stressful operations until the sea temperature is decreasing and consider removal of cohorts at risk, if possible. PMID:23980568

  7. Sea Education Association (SEA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

  8. Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

  9. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea — results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992–1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Salbu; A. I. Nikitin; P. Strand; G. C. Christensen; V. B. Chumichev; B. Lind; H. Fjelldal; T. D. S. Bergan; A. L. Rudjord; M. Sickel; N. K. Valetova; L. Føyn

    1997-01-01

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching

  10. [Effect of the parasitic dinoflagellate Ellobiopsis chattoni (Protozoa: Mastigophora) on the winter mortality of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda) in the Norwegian Sea].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, S F

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of the parasitic dinoflagellate Ellobiopsis chattoni on the winter mortality of natural population of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea (materials was collected in March-April 1989 and September 1990). Dinoflagellate infection occurred during autumn (the infection rates of copepods with E. chattoni was 15%, as average). Average mortality rate in C. finmarchicus was about 0.08% per day, or about one-tenth of total mortality in winter period. PMID:12070964

  11. A baseline study of metals in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea, with focus on mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead.

    PubMed

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Maage, Amund; Duinker, Arne; Julshamn, Kaare; Iversen, Svein A

    2015-05-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically and economically important fish population in the Norwegian Sea. It was the first of several Norwegian fish stocks subject to a baseline study designed to give a comprehensive account of the levels of contaminants in a fish species from most of its area of distribution and during different seasons. During 2006 and 2007, 800 individual herring were sampled in their feeding areas in the Norwegian Sea in spring and autumn and at their spawning grounds off the coast of Norway during late winter. Metals including Hg, Cd, As and Pb were determined in muscle samples of individual herring, and mean concentrations±sd (mgkg(-1)ww) were: Hg: 0.04±0.03, Cd: 0.010±0.006, As: 2.2±0.6 and Pb: <0.01-0.10. Apart from one sample, no individual herring exceeded the EU's maximum level for any of these elements, as has been seen also in previous monitoring. Hg and Cd concentration increased with increasing fish age and As concentration varied seasonally, possibly due to uptake during feeding (summer), elimination during starvation (winter) and up-concentration during spawning (spring). PMID:25703778

  12. Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers.

    PubMed

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2012-09-01

    Atlantic salmon populations are reported to be declining throughout its range, raising major management concerns. Variation in adult fish abundance may be due to variation in survival, growth, and timing of life history decisions. Given the complex life history, utilizing highly divergent habitats, the reasons for declines may be multiple and difficult to disentangle. Using recreational angling data of two sea age groups, one-sea-winter (1SW) and two-sea-winter (2SW) fish originated from the same smolt year class, we show that sea age at maturity of the returns has increased in 59 Norwegian rivers over the cohorts 1991-2005. By means of linear mixed-effects models we found that the proportion of 1SW fish spawning in Norway has decreased concomitant with the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea. Furthermore, the decrease in the proportion of 1SW fish was influenced by freshwater conditions as measured by water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration. These results suggest that part of the variability in age at maturity can be explained by the large-scale changes occurring in the north-eastern Atlantic pelagic food web affecting postsmolt growth, and by differences in river conditions influencing presmolt growth rate and later upstream migration. PMID:23139878

  13. Petroleum migration, alteration, and remigration within Troll field, Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Horstad, I. [Saga Petroleum, Sandvika (Norway); Larter, S.R. [Univ. of Newcastle, Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Troll field represents the largest petroleum discovery within the entire North Sea area in oil equivalents, with 74% of the accumulated petroleum present as dry gas and 26% as a heavy biodegraded oil leg. The field is divided into several provinces based on the distribution of gas and oil, and the gas and oil have been suggested to be cogenetic. The migration and filling model presented in this paper suggests that the oil and gas represent two different migration phases and that gas migration and filling predate oil emplacement. Two different oil populations have been characterized and mapped in Troll field applying conventional geochemical techniques. We suggest that the two oil populations migrated into the structure through two different migration systems. Oil and gas were subsequently biodegraded within the reservoir. The two oil populations have been found in neighboring oil and gas discoveries, and an oil-oil correlation with these discoveries has been used to determine the location of field filling points and regional migration routes. When oil biodegradation terminated, fresh oil continued to migrate into the reservoir and mixed with the residue of the biodegraded oil. The field was tilted downward to the west in the Neogene, and oil and gas remigrated within the field with a possible spillage of gas. Tilting resulted in a dominantly upward movement of the oil phase whereas gas migrated laterally. Residual oils in the water zone have been used to reconstruct the paleoconfiguration of the field that controlled the current distribution of oil populations within Troll field.

  14. Towards a 4D topographic view of the Norwegian sea margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten Smelror; John Dehls; Jörg Ebbing; Eiliv Larsen; Erik R. Lundin; Øystein Nordgulen; Per Terje Osmundsen; Odleiv Olesen; Dag Ottesen; Christophe Pascal; Thomas F. Redfield; Leif Rise

    2007-01-01

    The present-day topography\\/bathymetry of the Norwegian mainland and passive margin is a product of complex interactions between large-scale tectonomagmatic and climatic processes that can be traced back in time to the Late Silurian Caledonian Orogeny. The isostatic balance of the crust and lithosphere was clearly influenced by orogenic thickening during the Caledonian Orogeny, but was soon affected by post-orogenic collapse

  15. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast ... the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium erythraeum , found in the sea turn reddish-brown when ...

  16. SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles

    E-print Network

    in the United States are currently listed either as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act, Malaysia Hawksbill Endangered Hawaii 1Status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). 2Sea turtles in the U the world's oceans. Of the seven species found worldwide, six are found in U.S. waters and include

  17. Caprock integrity for offshore CO2 storage in the Norwegian North Sea - Seismic investigation of a soft sediment seafloor fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landschulze, K.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Utsira formation (fm) below the Norwegian North Sea is a promising candidate for CCS due to its big expanse, the relatively easy accessibility and its physical properties, like high porosity and permeability. Situated only about 900m below the seafloor, caprock integrity is a more crucial issue than in deeper lying storage candidates. Earlier studies determined a thick shale layer on top of the Utsira fm, especially in and around the area that presently is used to store CO2. This is also confirmed by the monitoring techniques used to ensure that CO2 stays in the subsurface. The Hugin Fracture that was discovered in 2011 above the northern part of the Utsira fm is leaking methane-enriched ancient glacial melt water and may question the overall quality of the caprock seal. In this study, we present recent high-resolution near-offset conventional 3D seismic of an area of about 980km^2 around the fracture as well as high-frequency shallow 2D-seismic lines. We investigate how far the fracture reaches into the subsurface, whether it is connected to other structures that may serve as fluid pathway at least for glacial meltwater and if there is any sign of a fluid migration pathway to the deep subsurface, i.e. the Utsira fm. Preliminary results show that the Hugin Fracture itself can be traced down to about 50m or 184ms TWT. The fracture is situated above one of many buried tunnel valleys that are criss-crossing the study area in the topmost 500ms TWT of the seismic cube. In addition, there are numerous very shallow bright spots indicating gas pockets, with unknown source of the gas, i.e. biogenic or thermogenic. Some of these bright spots seem to be connected to tunnel valleys or fractures. Our preliminary results calls for a more thorough investigation of the shallow subsurface, especially above the Utsira fm, prior to starting large-scale CCS. A HiSAS reflection image of the seafloor expression of the Hugin Fracture, discovered on a UiB-led cruise in June 2011. It is located in Norwegian block 16/4, 25 km north of an operational offshore CO2 injection site.

  18. Phytoplankton production and growth regulation in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparative study of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland shelves and Barents/Norwegian/Greenland seas and shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen Harrison, W.; Yngve Børsheim, K.; Li, William K. W.; Maillet, Gary L.; Pepin, Pierre; Sakshaug, Egil; Skogen, Morten D.; Yeats, Philip A.

    2013-07-01

    A study was made of phytoplankton (distribution, phenology, physiology, productivity and community composition) and environment properties that influence their growth (light and nutrients) comparing the western Subarctic Atlantic (Labrador Sea, Labrador/Newfoundland shelves) with the eastern Subarctic (Barents, Norwegian and Greenland Seas and shelves) and drawing on ship-based observations, satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) and output from a 3D coupled ecosystem-ocean circulation model, covering the last 15-25 yrs. Similarities between regions were seen in geographic variability (e.g. latitudinal gradients), seasonal cycles and magnitude of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and community composition. Regional differences were related to geographic location, presence/absence of ice, seasonal mixing, source waters (Arctic versus Atlantic) and nutrient supply, and response to atmospheric forcing. With regard to the latter, most of the observations considered in this study cover the recent period of rapid warming and the historical out-of-phase response (e.g. ice conditions, air and ocean temperatures, hydrography) of the western and eastern Subarctic Atlantic to atmospheric forcing is no longer apparent. Observations and modelling looking back over the last two decades suggest that the timing of the spring bloom and peak seasonal productivity are occurring progressively earlier in the year, particularly at high latitudes in both the western and eastern Subarctic. Climate change (ocean warming) is projected to increase overall phytoplankton productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic and will be manifest particularly in ice-influenced regions Labrador/Newfoundland Shelves, Barents/Greenland Seas and shelves and regions where Arctic outflow and Atlantic inflow influence phytoplankton dynamics. Northward movement of Atlantic waters as a result of climate change, manifest earliest in the eastern Subarctic (Norwegian/Barents Seas) will displace cold-water phytoplankton species with warm-water species and shift community transitions zones farther north in the coming decades.

  19. Ichnofabric mapping and interpretation of Jurassic reservoir rocks of the Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bockelie, J.F. (Norsk Hydro Exploration, Stabekk (Norway))

    1991-06-01

    Recurrent sediment fabric and trace fossil associations in the Norwegian offshore Jurassic sequences have been interpreted by the ichnofabric concept. In the Sognefjord Formation (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian) of the Troll Field five basic ichnofabrics were recognized and named after the dominant ichnogenus present, respectively: Helminthoida, Anconichnus, Palaeophycus, Ophiomorpha and Skolithos. These ichnofabrics developed in sediments deposited in marine environments ranging from quiescent offshore to high energy, shallow water nearshore situations. When sequence patterns of ichnofabrics were mapped within five chronostratigraphic reservoir zones of the Troll Field it was possible to recognize both how the frequency of a given ichnofabric may change in time in a restricted area or may change in its areal distribution in a restricted time interval. Such maps have been integrated with lithofacies maps and dip-meter studies in cored sequence to produce quantitative base maps for computerized reservoir models. The maps can also be used as a powerful tool for facies predictions.

  20. Autophagy at sea.

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha; Rusten, Tor Erik; Kraft, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    The 3rd EMBO Conference on, "Autophagy: Molecular mechanism, physiology and pathology" organized by Anne Simonsen and Sharon Tooze, was held in May 2013 on a sea cruise along the Norwegian coastline from Bergen to Tromsø. Researchers from all corners of the world presented work covering autophagosome biogenesis, physiological regulation of autophagy, selective autophagy and disease. PMID:23917436

  1. Sea urchin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (NOAA; Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

    2004-12-23

    The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

  2. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  3. Recovery of Benthic Megafauna from Anthropogenic Disturbance at a Hydrocarbon Drilling Well (380 m Depth in the Norwegian Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Andrew R.; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m?2) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m?2). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m?2) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m?2). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m?2) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest persistence of disturbance for three years, with unclear consequences for other components of the benthic fauna. PMID:23056177

  4. Recovery of benthic megafauna from anthropogenic disturbance at a hydrocarbon drilling well (380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea).

    PubMed

    Gates, Andrew R; Jones, Daniel O B

    2012-01-01

    Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m(-2)) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m(-2)). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m(-2)) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m(-2)). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m(-2)) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest persistence of disturbance for three years, with unclear consequences for other components of the benthic fauna. PMID:23056177

  5. Environmental control of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic performance at the Jan Mayen Front in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erga, Svein Rune; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Hovland, Erlend; Hancke, Kasper; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Rey, Francisco

    2014-02-01

    The Jan Mayen Front is located in the Norwegian Sea to the east of the Jan Mayen Ridge and separates warm, salty Atlantic water and colder, less salty Arctic water. The effects of the light regime, hydrographical conditions and nutrients on the variations of chlorophyll a (chl a), quantum efficiencies of photochemistry in PSII (Fv:Fm) and effective absorption cross-section of PSII (?PSII) at the Front were studied in June 2007. Stratified waters were seen on both sides of the Front and lowered nutrient concentrations were seen shallower than 10-20 m. The lowest values of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd (?), were found at 500-550 nm (0.07-0.16 m- 1), while Kd (465 nm) ranged between 0.08 and 0.17 m- 1 and Kd (380 nm) between 0.13 and 0.20 m- 1. Chl a concentrations seldom exceeded 1.0 mg m- 3 outside pure Atlantic Water, while elevated concentrations (3-4 mg m- 3) developed at depth (20-30 m) east of the Front in Atlantic Water. For the upper 100 m N/P, Si/P, N/Si and POC/PON ratios were 15.2, 8.0, 1.7 and 6.2, respectively. The quantum efficiency was strongly influenced by nutrients, suggesting nutrient limitation of phytoplankton biomass at the Front in June, but also light inhibition probably was a contributing factor in the upper part of the water column. High quantum efficiencies (0.5) and effective absorption cross sections (> 700 Å2 quanta- 1) were seen to the east of the Front and at depth (20-40 m) in stratified Atlantic waters. We therefore conclude that the Jan Mayen Front did not have a stimulatory effect on phytoplankton biomass enhancement and photosynthetic performance. This is in part due to the weak horizontal density front caused by density compensation of temperature and salinity characteristics of the adjacent water masses, and the associated weak vertical mixing.

  6. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

    1997-08-25

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv. PMID:9241886

  7. Sea Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, aren’t doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathan’s investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  8. Sea Chest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

  9. Enhanced late gas generation potential of petroleum source rocks via recombination reactions: Evidence from the Norwegian North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Michael; Horsfield, Brian

    2006-08-01

    Gas generation in the deep reaches of sedimentary basins is usually considered to take place via the primary cracking of short alkyl groups from overmature kerogen or the secondary cracking of petroleum. Here, we show that recombination reactions ultimately play the dominant role in controlling the timing of late gas generation in source rocks which contain mixtures of terrigeneous and marine organic matter. These reactions, taking place at low levels of maturation, result in the formation of a thermally stable bitumen, which is the major source of methane at very high maturities. The inferences come from pyrolysis experiments performed on samples of the Draupne Formation (liptinitic Type II kerogen) and Heather Formation (mixed marine-terrigeneous Type III kerogen), both Upper Jurassic source rocks stemming from the Norwegian northern North Sea Viking Graben system. Non-isothermal closed system micro scale sealed vessel (MSSV) pyrolysis, non-isothermal open system pyrolysis and Rock Eval type pyrolysis were performed on the solvent extracted, concentrated kerogens of the two immature samples. The decrease of C 6+ products in the closed system MSSV pyrolysis provided the basis for the calculation of secondary gas (C 1-5) formation. Subtraction of the calculated secondary gas from the total observed gas yields a "remaining" gas. In the case of the Draupne Formation this is equivalent to primary gas cracked directly from the kerogen, as detected by a comparison with multistep open pyrolysis data. For the Heather Formation the calculated remaining gas formation profile is initially attributable to primary gas but there is a second major gas pulse at very high temperature (>550 °C at 5.0 K min -1) that is not primary. This has been explained by a recondensation process where first formed high molecular weight compounds in the closed system yield a macromolecular material that undergoes secondary cracking at elevated temperatures. The experiments provided the input for determination of kinetic parameters of the different gas generation types, which were used for extrapolations to a linear geological heating rate of 10 -11 K min -1. Peak generation temperatures for the primary gas generation were found to be higher for Heather Formation ( Tmax = 190 °C, equivalent to Ro appr. 1.7%) compared to Draupne Formation ( Tmax = 175 °C, equivalent to appr. Ro 1.3%). Secondary gas peak generation temperatures were calculated to be 220 °C for the Heather Formation and 205 to 215 °C for the Draupne Formation, respectively, with equivalent vitrinite reflectance values ( Ro) between 2.4% and 2.0%. The high temperature secondary gas formation from cracking of the recombination residue as detected for the Heather Formation is quantitatively important and is suggested to occur at very high temperatures ( Tmax approx. 250 °C) for geological heating rates. The prediction of a significant charge of dry gas from the Heather Formation at very high maturity levels has important implications for petroleum exploration in the region, especially to the north of the Viking Graben where Upper Jurassic sediments are sufficiently deep buried to have experienced such a process.

  10. Norwegian remote sensing experiment: Evaluation of the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer of sea ice research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Svendsen; K. Kloster; B. Farrelly; O. M. Johannessen; J. A. Johannessen; W. J. Campbell; P. Gloerse; D. Cavalieri; C. Mätzler

    1983-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for estimating total and multiyear sea ice concentration from passive microwave and surface air temperature measurements. The algorithm was made for use with Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data. It is based on radiation physics and may thus easily be modified to suit other passive microwave instruments. A comparison between Nimbus 7 SMMR

  11. POSSIBLE LUNAR TIDE EFFECTS ON CLIMATE AND ECOSYSTEM VARIABILITY IN THE NORDIC SEAS AND THE BARENTS SEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Yndestad

    The inflow of North Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea has a major influence on northern Europe climate and ecosystem dynamics in the Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea. In the period from 1900 to 2005, the temperature variability of North Atlantic Water and the Barents Sea temperature was correlated with the 18.6 year amplitude tide

  12. Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-26

    In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  13. Sea turtles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. F. Lohmann; Kenneth J. Lohmann

    2006-01-01

    odern sea turtles are an important component of a wide range of tropical, temperate, and cold water marine ecosystems . Their inclusion on various lists of endangered specie s reflects past over-exploitation and the current need for better management . Today, seven or eight species of sea turtles are recognised, in two families and six genera. Adults typically migrate between

  14. A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high-latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data have been used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems, since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere; SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted simultaneous analysis of TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

  15. A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data were used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere: SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted us to analyze simultaneous TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

  16. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll and Calanus finmarchicus in the Norwegian Sea - A basin-scale habitat comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagøien, Espen; Melle, Webjørn; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-09-01

    Seasonal patterns for mixed layer depths, nutrients, chlorophyll, and Calanus finmarchicus in different water masses between 62 and 70°N of the Norwegian Sea were compared using spatiotemporally aggregated basin-scale data. Norwegian Coastal Water was stratified throughout the year due to a low-salinity upper layer. The winter mixed layer depth was typically about 50-60 m, and the spring phytoplankton bloom peaked in late April. In Atlantic and Arctic Waters the winter mixed layer depths were much greater, typically about 175-250 m. Due to the requirement for thermal stratification, the phytoplankton build-ups there were slower and the peaks were delayed until late May. Seasonal development of mixed layer depths, nutrient consumption and chlorophyll was similar for the Atlantic and Arctic areas. Young Calanus copepodites of the first new generation in Coastal Water peaked in early May, preceding the peak in Atlantic Water by about 2 weeks, and that in Arctic Water by about 6 weeks. While the young G1 cohorts in Coastal and Atlantic waters coincided rather well in time with the phytoplankton blooms, the timing of the cohort in Arctic Water was delayed compared to the phytoplankton. Two or more Calanus generations in Coastal Water, and two generations in Atlantic Water were observed. Only one generation was found in Arctic Water, where scarce autumn data precludes evaluation of a possible second generation.

  17. Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

  18. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  19. Student Experiments at Sea (SEAS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interdisciplinary curriculum introduces the scientific process, experimental design and data analysis. Units on plate tectonics, hydrothermal vents, ridge visualization, surveying deep sea organisms. Students become the scientists, developing proposals for at-sea investigations, teacher coordinates submission to researchers studying the East Pacific Rise. Students retrieve, organize, analyze and report data from their experiment. Past experimental journals are posted. Free registration required to access curriculum and submit proposal.

  20. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  1. Savage Seas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

  2. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  3. Sea Launch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

  4. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. Sea ice in the China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Shuqi [National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts, Beijing (China)

    1993-12-31

    In every winter, sea ice occurring in Bohai Sea and the North Yellow Sea is the first-year ice which is going through generating, developing and thawing processes. Therefore, it is necessary to spatially and temporally describe ice period, freezing range, thickness variations and general motion of sea ice. The purpose of this paper is to provide initial general situation and features of sea ice for forecasting and researching sea ice.

  6. Aral Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The retreating shoreline leaves the surface encrusted with salt and with agrochemicals brought in by the rivers. As the Sea's moderating ... Large Aral, and may be associated with windblown snow and/or salt particles carried aloft. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  7. From Sea to Shining Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

  8. Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this resource, students will discover that there are notable differences between sea ice and fresh-water ice, such as density. In on segment, students learn that the first sign of freezing on the sea is an oily appearance of the water caused by the formation of needle-like crystals. The site explains the relationship between growth and the rate at which heat flows from the water and that the ice pack can alter its shape and dimension due to the movement of winds, currents, thermal expansion, and contraction of the ice. Types of ice described here include new ice, nilas, young ice, first-year ice, and old ice while the forms of ice covered include pancake ice, brash ice, ice cake, floe, and fast ice. The site also explains the meteorological and oceanographic factors that control the amount and movement of ice.

  9. Sea World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

  10. Acoustic seabed classification using QTC IMPACT on single-beam echo sounder data from the Norwegian Channel, northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidem, Ellen Johanne; Landmark, Knut

    2013-10-01

    Sediment mapping is important for understanding the physical processes, the impact of human activity, and the conditions for marine life on the seabed. For this purpose, the seabed classification tool QTC IMPACT analyses statistical variations in single-beam echo sounder data. QTC was applied in a large and physically diverse area of the Norwegian Channel, between 59°30?N and 61°N, to produce a new sediment map and to verify the QTC algorithm. The results were interpreted using ground truth (grain size analyses of 40 gravity cores and five grab samples), multi-beam echo sounder bathymetry (MBES), and seismo-acoustic profiles. Surficial sediments were divided into five classes: (1) mud and silt, (2) a variety of clay, silt and sand, (3) sandy mud with gravel, (4) sand with gravel, and (5) clay and sandy clay. Along the Norwegian coast, where MBES imagery shows evidence of glacial erosion, the surficial sediment distribution is variable. The echo shape analysis of QTC did not produce a natural partition of the data, and statistical assumptions did not always hold. Sediment classification was therefore sensitive to the choice of cluster algorithm. However, QTC produced the most physically plausible results on a large scale compared to other cluster algorithms. Class boundaries were consistent with supporting data. One exception is a transition from muddy to sandy sediments not visible in seismo-acoustic data. A possible explanation is that seabed fluid seepage and water current erosion cause sand particle transport into the western part of the channel. The study confirms the capability of QTC in a complex environment, but there are some possible improvements.

  11. Sea Cucumbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    What reef animal comes in a rainbow of crazy colors, can throw out its innards to immobilize predators, then creep away and regrow a brand-new stomach? It’s the sea cucumber, prized as a gastronomic delight by some cultures and beginning to yield some of its secrets to scientists. Follow host Ari Daniel Shapiro from a Chinatown market to the reefs of Fiji to learn more about this amazing creature. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

  12. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  13. Tracking Sea Otters

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

  14. Studying Sea Otters

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sea otter researcher Michelle Staedler, of the Monterey Bay Aquarium, records sea otter behavior in her logbook as part of a study with the USGS and the University of California at Santa Cruz on sea otter behavior. ...

  15. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  16. Extensional tectonics, halokinesis, eustacy in the Norwegian Central Graben, North Sea: A testing ground for sequence and seismic stratigraphic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, P.A. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom); Prosser, S.D. [Saga Petroleum a.s., Sandvika (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The Norwegian Central Graben is a mature hydrocarbon province with proven reserves within the Upper Jurassic succession. Several phases of extensional tectonics ranging from the Permo-Triassic to the Upper Jurassic, and a thick mobile salt section, serve to complicate a clear regional understanding of the area. A full integration of structural interpretation, seismic and sequence stratigraphic principles, biostratigraphy and core studies is required to achieve a realistic interpretation and predict Upper Jurassic facies distributions within this complex area. Utilizing some 30 wells, regional seismic data and biostratigraphy, candidate sequence boundaries and regionally correlatable flooding surfaces (e.g. Eudoxus), have been identified. Horizon flattening on these surfaces has allowed the recognition of thickening-away reflection geometries adjacent to salt features and divergent geometries into graben boundary faults. This facilitates the identification of the dominant local or regional controls on accommodation space creation. Detailed seismic facies analysis was then used to reveal the relative expansion or suppression of depositional systems tracts as a response to either regional or local structural controls. It was subsequently possible to place these systems within a biostratigraphically constrained regional framework. Mapping the base Zechstein, base Jurassic and base Cretaceous horizons has provided a map view of the active faults and slopes controlling sediment transport at any given time. This provided the third dimension essential in depicting the spatial distribution of depositional systems, and is a crucial component of any sequence stratigraphic interpretation. A regional picture of the progressive evolution of this complex area has been thus been derived, and the effect of both regional and local controls on sequence stratigraphic expressions has been determined.

  17. Extensional tectonics, halokinesis, eustacy in the Norwegian Central Graben, North Sea: A testing ground for sequence and seismic stratigraphic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, P.A. (Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom)); Prosser, S.D. (Saga Petroleum a.s., Sandvika (Norway))

    1996-01-01

    The Norwegian Central Graben is a mature hydrocarbon province with proven reserves within the Upper Jurassic succession. Several phases of extensional tectonics ranging from the Permo-Triassic to the Upper Jurassic, and a thick mobile salt section, serve to complicate a clear regional understanding of the area. A full integration of structural interpretation, seismic and sequence stratigraphic principles, biostratigraphy and core studies is required to achieve a realistic interpretation and predict Upper Jurassic facies distributions within this complex area. Utilizing some 30 wells, regional seismic data and biostratigraphy, candidate sequence boundaries and regionally correlatable flooding surfaces (e.g. Eudoxus), have been identified. Horizon flattening on these surfaces has allowed the recognition of thickening-away reflection geometries adjacent to salt features and divergent geometries into graben boundary faults. This facilitates the identification of the dominant local or regional controls on accommodation space creation. Detailed seismic facies analysis was then used to reveal the relative expansion or suppression of depositional systems tracts as a response to either regional or local structural controls. It was subsequently possible to place these systems within a biostratigraphically constrained regional framework. Mapping the base Zechstein, base Jurassic and base Cretaceous horizons has provided a map view of the active faults and slopes controlling sediment transport at any given time. This provided the third dimension essential in depicting the spatial distribution of depositional systems, and is a crucial component of any sequence stratigraphic interpretation. A regional picture of the progressive evolution of this complex area has been thus been derived, and the effect of both regional and local controls on sequence stratigraphic expressions has been determined.

  18. California Sea Grant 1 California Sea Grant

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    California Sea Grant 1 California Sea Grant Strategic Plan 2010­2013 #12;2 Strategic Plan 2010­2013 The National Sea Grant College Program, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, supported this publication under NOAA grant number NA08OAR4170669, project number C/P-1 through

  19. The wind sea and swell waves climate in the Nordic seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves in the Nordic Seas (North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind sea and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the North Sea. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind sea and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic Seas are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.

  20. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  1. Beaufort Sea: information update

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

  2. Atlantic Water flow through the Barents and Kara Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Schauer; Harald Loeng; Bert Rudels; Vladimir K. Ozhigin; Wolfgang Dieck

    2002-01-01

    The pathway and transformation of water from the Norwegian Sea across the Barents Sea and through the St. Anna Trough are documented from hydrographic and current measurements of the 1990s. The transport through an array of moorings in the north-eastern Barents Sea was between 0.6Sv in summer and 2.6Sv in winter towards the Kara Sea and between zero and 0.3Sv

  3. Sea Turtle Conservancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

  4. Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

  5. Earthquake hazard assessment in the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Bungum; P. H. Swearingen; G. Woo

    1986-01-01

    The assessment of seismic hazard in regions such as the North Sea where the activity rate is comparatively low requires the adoption of a methodology designed to maximize the use of available sources of information, including historical and instrumental seismicity, geology, tectonics and local soil properties. In a series of site-specific studies of seismic hazard in the Norwegian sector of

  6. Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-10-30

    Users can search for and view sea surface temperature imagery. They may choose from the latest image, or browse archived imagery that dates back approximately two weeks. Links to other sea surface temperature datasets are included.

  7. Sea Turtle Populations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners will model how a sea turtle population changes over time, from eggs to adults, using puffed rice. Learners create a chart, calculate population fluctuation for each transitional stage of sea turtles' lives, and graph the population at each stage. Learners investigate different factors including migration and human fishing that affect the size of the sea turtle population. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

  8. Sea Education Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Headquartered in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, SEA offers a variety of science programs at sea for high school and college students. Site features information on the vessels, the crew, current voyages, admissions information, and a wealth of photographs from past expeditions. Also includes a section where you can track the progress of the SEA boats and hear daily, and archived, audio reports.

  9. Tracking Sea Otters

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sea otter researchers Michelle Staedler, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Tim Tinker, USGS, work together to locate sea otters in their study project. USGS scientists and their partners study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

  10. Alaska: Beaufort Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), illustrate different methods that may be used to assess sea ice type. Sea ice in the Beaufort Sea ... scattering. The MISR map at right was generated using a statistical classification routine (called ISODATA) and analyzed using ice ...

  11. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  12. Deep-Sea Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson plan students will learn about special vehicles used in recent Black Sea research and the theory that the Black Sea during the Ice Age was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that was eventually flooded. Students will describe the purpose of the research vehicles by writing newspaper articles pretending they have just returned from the Black Sea expedition.

  13. Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geophysical Institute of University of Fairbanks

    In this activity, students will learn the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise. They will create and explore topographic maps as a means of studying sea level rise and how it will affect Alaska's coastline.

  14. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  15. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-08-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

  16. THE SEALS, SEA-LIONS, AND SEA OTTER OF

    E-print Network

    THE SEALS, SEA-LIONS, AND SEA OTTER OF THE PACIFIC COAST Marine Biological Laboratory OODS HOLE, SEA-LIONS, AND SEA OTTER OF THE PACIFIC COAST Descriptions, Life History Notes, Photographs, and sea otter of the Pacific from Mexico to Point Barrow and the Hawaiian Islands. For each of twelve

  17. Forcing of oceanic heat anomalies by air-sea interactions in the Nordic Seas area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schlichtholz; M.-N. Houssais

    2011-01-01

    Hydrographic data and atmospheric reanalysis from 1982 to 2005 are used to show a strong link of the Atlantic water temperature (AWT) anomalies observed in the transition zone between the Norwegian Atlantic current and the West Spitsbergen current in summer to the surface heat flux (SHF) anomalies observed over the Barents Sea open water in the preceding late winter. A

  18. Sea Ice Variability in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Miller, A. J.; McClean, J.; Eisenman, I.; Hendershott, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Bering Sea consists of a shallow continental shelf in the northeast and a deep basin in the southwest. Sea ice in the Bering Sea concentrating in the shelf region exhibits large seasonal and interannual variations, which significantly impact the local marine ecosystem. Understanding of the physical mechanisms governing this sea-ice variability, however, remains incomplete. To better understand regional sea-ice variability we use a fine resolution (1/10-degree) global ocean and sea-ice model and available observations. The simulation consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and CICE models, and was run with Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment (CORE2) interannually varying atmospheric forcing for 1970-1989. Here we analyze 1980-1989; the first 10 years are treated as the spin-up period. We examine the partitioning of the ice volume tendencies into thermodynamic and dynamic components, as well as corresponding surface atmospheric and oceanic variables, in order to understand the relationship between sea ice variability and varying atmospheric and oceanic conditions. Focusing on the seasonal cycle first, we find that sea ice is mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast. Winds cause sea ice to drift southwestward from the north to the western ice edge. Along the ice edge, ice is melted by warm waters carried by the Bering Slope Current, especially in the west in winter; while in fall and spring, basal melting of sea ice spreads into the interior of ice pack. The ice growth rate is larger in winter than in fall and spring. Ice transport from the north to the southwest becomes weaker in fall and spring than in winter. The Bering Sea is ice free in summer. Surface melting is insignificant in all seasons. The interannual variability of sea ice in the Bering Sea can be largely explained by thermodynamics on the large scale. The dynamic ice transport, however, is often important locally, especially around the ice margins with ocean and land. Local dynamic and thermodynamic ice volume changes usually have opposite signs with similar magnitudes, implying a negative feedback between them. Through the surface heat flux budget, we find that sensible heat flux dominates the surface heat exchange with the atmosphere, which controls the ice growth in the north. Ocean-ice heat flux largely determines the basal melting along the ice edge in the south. Through the force balance analysis, we find that the ice motion is in steady state on the monthly timescale. Ice velocity correlates well with the wind stress, which is nearly balanced by the opposite ocean stress. Internal ice stress is not substantial except near the land boundaries in the north.

  19. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Focus on Sea Otters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A Monterey Bay Aquarium website where you can learn about the biology and population recovery of sea otters. Features include the opportunity to "meet" the otters on exhibit at the aquarium and viewing them through the live otter cam. Many sea otter-related games, activities, and resources. Links to other fascinating exhibits at the Aquarium. Several downloadable videos available, each with their own enjoyable sea otter antics.

  1. SeaWIFS Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), a NASA project using satellites to collect ocean color data to quantify phytoplankton abundance. Provides background information on SeaWIFS project, technology and data. Teacher Resource section has: online presentation on how and why scientists study ocean color; Living Ocean Teacher's Guide with brief information on ocean color, carbon cycle and greenhouse gas effect; and, links to other websites with ocean color activities.

  2. [The characteristics of the population of the deep waters of the Norwegian Sea in the region of the loss of the Komsomolets nuclear-powered submarine].

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, M E; Shushkina, E A; Vereshchaka, A L; Nezlin, N P

    1995-01-01

    Specific features of vertical distribution and migration of planktonic organisms were studied for estimation of direct pathway of distribution of radionuclides in case they are released in the environment from the sunk nuclear submarine "Komsomolets" (73 degrees 42'N, 13 degrees 15'E, depth 1700 m). The materials were collected by 150-liter bathometers and planktonic nets in July 1994. In addition, planktonic animals were directly counted from deep-sea submarines "Mir". Distribution of the total biomass of plankton was considered and distribution in the water column from the surface to the depth 1700 m was quantitatively estimated for the following species: Calanus finmarchicus, C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa, Euchaeta spp., Sagitta elegans, Themisto abyssorum, and Hymenodora glacialis. The Norway sea hollow is filled by the local Arctic water and this facilitates penetration of many species during seasonal and other migrations down to the demersal layers, i.e., to depths, which are not specific for these organisms in basins with usual water stratification. Mass accumulations of Th. abyssorum have been found in the demersal layer, which is a main component of feeding of commercial plankton-eating fish as well as migrations of this crustacean across the water. PMID:8520439

  3. Sea Turtle Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This packet includes background information, quick facts, links to additional sea turtle resources, and a classroom modeling activity that demonstrates population estimation, life history, and hatching success rates.

  4. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  5. Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), such as the one hiding here under a boulder, and Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) are occasionally seen in Hurricane Hole. Hawksbills feed mostly on sponges while Greens eat mostly sea grasses....

  6. The GIN Sea---A synthesis of its physical oceanography and literature review 1972 1985

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Sawyer Hopkins

    1991-01-01

    A synthesis and review of the physical oceanography of the GIN Sea (Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas) is presented. An accompanying bibliography is included from 1972 through 1985. Some 1986 works are also noted. Emphasis is placed on describing the GIN Sea as a major semi-enclosed basin that plays a role unique among the world's oceans: by providing a strong

  7. Variations in Ionic Ratios between Reference Sea Water and Marine Aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Chesselet; Jacques Morelli; Patrick Buat-Menard

    1972-01-01

    Atmospheric particles were collected over the open sea (western Mediterranean, North Atlantic, and Norwegian Sea) by air filtration and cascade impactor sampling. The observed K\\/Na concentration ratios exhibited marked variation and were greater than the reference ratio in bulk sea water. These concentration ratios can be related to the existence of a chemical fractionation affecting the marine aerosols produced by

  8. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

    1999-01-01

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

  9. Bering Sea Expedition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alaska Seas and Rivers Curriculum

    In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

  10. Tracking Sea Otters

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage holds out a VHF receiver, hoping to hear the tell-tale beep that helps her locate sea otters that are part of study to monitor and learn more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from nea...

  11. Spotting Sea Otters

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage looks through a telescope to help her locate and identify tagged sea otters, then records the otter's location for a study aimed at learning more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from...

  12. Sea wave energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perkins; C. A. Jr

    1978-01-01

    A fixed structure encloses a vertically spaced plurality of superimposed channels that are open at one end of the sea to receive deep sea waves approaching a shoreline. Each of the channels has an entrance ramp that slopes upwardly shorewardly to induce breaking of a wave at and over an apex of the ramp that merges into a shorewardly downwardly

  13. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  14. Red sea drillings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, D.A.; Whitmarsh, R.B.; Ali, S.A.; Boudreaux, J.E.; Coleman, R.; Fleisher, R.L.; Girdler, R.; Manheim, F.; Matter, A.; Nigrini, C.; Stoffers, P.; Supko, P.R.

    1973-01-01

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present - and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  15. Sea Level Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Randall Jackson

    Video and animations of sea level from NASA's Climate website. Since 1992, NASA and CNES have studied sea surface topography as a proxy for ocean temperatures. NASA Missions TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1 and Jason 2 have been useful in predicting major climate, weather, and geologic events including El Nino, La Nina, Hurricane Katrina, and the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

  16. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  17. Antarctica: Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, shows how sea ice forms in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and how its seasonal fluctuation dramatically changes the continent. The segment, two minutes thirty-five seconds in length, includes rare footage of the destruction of the British ship 'Endurance', trapped and crushed by sea ice in 1914.

  18. Tracking Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Classroom activity introduces the biology of sea turtles, population status, human impacts. Focuses on Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), smallest and more endangered of sea turtle species. This teacher's guide provides NOAA tracking data and instructions for students to follow the migration routes of six turtles in the Gulf of Mexico. Links to related activities using satellite data.

  19. Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  20. Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  1. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Report's Topic in Depth explores the world of sea cucumbers, or Holothuroidea, a diverse group of intriguing marine animals. The first site (1), from the Tree of Life Web Project, provides nice clear images of sea cucumbers and brief concise sections on Characteristics, The Orders of Holothuroidea, Fossil History, and Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships. The second site (2), from the Charles Darwin Research Station, displays short answers to commonly asked questions about sea cucumbers like: What is their importance within the marine communities?; How do sea cucumbers reproduce?; and What is the potential environment impact of overexploiting sea cucumber populations? From Enchanted Learning, the third site (3) features a diagrammed print-out of a s ea cucumber along with short descriptions of Holothuroidea anatomy, diet, classification, and predators. Hosted by the Royal BC Museum, the fourth site (4) contains a brief research paper by curator Philip Lambert on taxonomy issues concerning sea cucumbers. The fifth site (5), developed by Richard Fox of Lander University, contains detailed instructions for a laboratory exercise with Sclerodactyla briareus, a species of sea cucumber. From MoonDragon's Health & Wellness website, the sixth site (6) contains a sea cucumber recipe and briefly discusses sea cucumber cuisine and health benefits. Hosted by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, the seventh site (7) provides information about an international conference titled: Conservation of s ea cucumbers in Malaysia, their Taxonomy, Ecology and Trade. The site contains concluding remarks, abstracts from papers presented at the conference, and a list of email contacts for conference participants. The final (8) site from the Environmental News Network'features a short article about an Ecuadorian court upholding sea cucumber fishing limits in the Galapagos islands.

  3. KILLER WHALES PURSUE SEA LIONS IN BERING SEA DRAMA

    E-print Network

    KILLER WHALES PURSUE SEA LIONS IN BERING SEA DRAMA Jim Branson NMFS Fisheries Management Agent a pod of 7 killer whales ( rampus vectipinna) pursue a band of 20 to ~' 5 Steller sea lions (Eumetopias E of N from Bogoslof Island, a very large sea lion rookery. At the time, there were 9 SRTMs

  4. SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2012-2103

    E-print Network

    Streeto · Biosafety Manager: Sid Paula · Laser Safety Officer: Xiaowei Yan · Radiation Safety: StephenSEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2012-2103 Program Structure and Responsibilities Dr. Anas Chalah #12;SEAS Safety Program SEAS Safety Program Structure We have developed a great model

  5. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. (NOAA, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  6. Arctic Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beverly L. Meier

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

  7. Is The Sea Level?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    In this activity students will observe that the sea level changes and will hypothesize what causes this change. They will then check their hypothesis with a data set. Many students are surprised to learn that sea level is not the same everywhere on earth and that it changes with the seasons. The main cause of this change is the temperature change in the ocean - warmer waters are higher than colder waters. Students will discover this information as they complete the activity and then see if the temperature effect holds true on another data set showing temperature and sea height changes caused by the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  8. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect estimates of global sea level acceleration for time spans of less than about 50 years. This means that tide gauges alone cannot serve as a reliable leading indicator of climate change in less than many decades. This time required can be significantly reduced if the interdecadal fluctuations of sea level can be understood in terms of their forcing mechanisms, and then removed from the tide gauge records.

  9. Sea Level: On The Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-11-26

    Learners will understand the relationship between climate change and sea-level rise. In the first activity, they will learn that heated water causes sea level to rise through a process called thermal expansion. They will also perform an experiment to learn that melting land-based ice contributes to greater sea-level rise than melting sea ice.

  10. Halocarbons associated with Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Helen M.; Hughes, Claire; Shaw, Marvin J.; Roscoe, Howard K.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Liss, Peter S.

    2014-10-01

    Short-lived halocarbons were measured in Arctic sea-ice brine, seawater and air above the Greenland and Norwegian seas (~81°N, 2-5°E) in mid-summer, from a melting ice floe at the edge of the ice pack. In the ice floe, concentrations of C2H5I, 2-C3H7I and CH2Br2 showed significant enhancement in the sea ice brine, of average factors of 1.7, 1.4 and 2.5 times respectively, compared to the water underneath and after normalising to brine volume. Concentrations of mono-iodocarbons in air are the highest ever reported, and our calculations suggest increased fluxes of halocarbons to the atmosphere may result from their sea-ice enhancement. Some halocarbons were also measured in ice of the sub-Arctic in Hudson Bay (~55°N, 77°W) in early spring, ice that was thicker, colder and less porous than the Arctic ice in summer, and in which the halocarbons were concentrated to values over 10 times larger than in the Arctic ice when normalised to brine volume. Concentrations in the Arctic ice were similar to those in Antarctic sea ice that was similarly warm and porous. As climate warms and Arctic sea ice becomes more like that of the Antarctic, our results lead us to expect the production of iodocarbons and so of reactive iodine gases to increase.

  11. A Sea Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a teacher education program organized by the Sea Education Association in Woods Hole (Massachusetts). The experience, including activities and examples of studies conducted, is discussed. Contact information for future cruises is included. (CW)

  12. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  13. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Purple sea urchin swarm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-04

    Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

  15. Sea Floor Spreading I

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Activity and Starting Point page by R.M. MacKay. Clark College, Physics and Meteorology.

    In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

  16. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  17. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

  18. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  19. Sensing the sea bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    William Wilcock and a team of scientists and engineers drilled holes in the sea floor, and inadvertently provided a breeding ground for octopuses, in their attempt to understand deep-ocean hydrothermal venting.

  20. Smart Sea Lions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-08-27

    This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores whether animals and humans are more similar than we think. Meet Rio, a sea lion who demonstrates to researchers reasoning skills once thought limited to humans.

  1. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  2. Stellar Sea Lion Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

  3. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South China Sea. What data are available, however, and if Hong Kong is used, as it is herein, as an indicator of what the perturbations of other regional cities upon the South China Sea are like, then it is impacted grossly and an ecological disaster has probably already, but unknowingly, happened. PMID:11827109

  4. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

  5. Green Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Detailed information on the biology, natural history, factors influencing the population, and protection measures of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Included are three in-class activities and one field activity all designed to raise awareness of the green sea turtle and what humans are doing to affect the population. The site is geared towards the Hawaiian sub-species, however, most of the facts and activities are applicable elsewhere.

  6. National Sea Grant Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Only facility housing complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, obtain citations, abstracts and over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

  7. Sea Urchin Embryology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Advanced high school level laboratory activities using sea urchins to observe fertilization and early developmental stages. This is a comprehensive site complete with multiple labs, support lessons, background information, animated graphics illustrating lab techniques, printable overheads (also available in Spanish and French), and a glossary of terms. A one-stop site for sea urchin information, experiments, suppliers, and research. Links to additional resources are available.

  8. All About Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This comprehensive site is an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expedition in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains a glossary of sea ice terms and references to additional information, which all serve as an excellent introduction. Data are also available from various collection methods for student interpretation.

  9. Sea Level rise contributors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    M.F. Meier

    This web page from the National Snow and Ice Data Center contains two related visualizations. The first visualization gives an estimate of the percent contribution to sea level change since the 1990s from three contributors - small glaciers and ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The second visualization shows the cumulative contribution to sea level from small glaciers and ice caps plotted with the annual global surface air temperature anomaly.

  10. North Sea circulation: Atlantic inflow and its destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, N. G.; Johannessen, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the Atlantic inflow to the North Sea and its variability, pathways and destination. Results from a numerical model show that the variability of Atlantic inflow is dependent on the inflow location. The inflow between Orkneys and Shetland and in the Shetland shelf area show a strong connection to the strength in westerly winds in winter and spring on a weekly timescale, while the inflow in the Norwegian Trench has a longer response time to the large-scale wind pattern. About 50% of the Atlantic water that enters the North Sea is mixed with fresher water before it leaves the North Sea as the Norwegian Coastal Current. This illustrates the important role of estuarine processes within the North Sea and Skagerrak area, and their interaction with the Atlantic water.

  11. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion. PMID:21141661

  12. North Sea development activity surges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that operators in the North Sea have reported a burst of upstream activity. Off the U.K.: Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Co. installed three jackets in its North Everest and Lomond fields. It also completed laying the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline, which will carry the fields' gas to shore. BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd. installed the jacket for it Unity riser platform 5 {1/2} km from its Forties Charlie platform. Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. tested a successful appraisal well in Britannia field in Block 15/30, about 130 miles northeast of Aberdeen. In the Norwegian North Sea, Saga Petroleum AS placed Snorre oil and gas field on production 6 weeks ahead of schedule and 1.5 billion kroner under budget at a cost of 16.6 billion kroner; and downstream off the U.K., Phillips Petroleum Co. (U.K.) Ltd. awarded Allseas Marine Contractors SA, Essen, Belgium, a pipelay and trenching contract for its Ann field development project in Block 49/6a.

  13. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  14. On large outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Laxon, Seymour W.

    2005-01-01

    Winter outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea are estimated using a 10-year record of satellite ice motion and thickness. The mean winter volume export through the Svalbard/Franz Josef Land passage is 40 km3, and ranges from -280 km3 to 340 km3. A large outflow in 2003 is preconditioned by an unusually high concentration of thick perennial ice over the Nansen Basin at the end of the 2002 summer. With a deep atmospheric low situated over the eastern Barents Sea in winter, the result is an increased export of Arctic ice. The Oct-Mar ice area flux, at 110 x 10 to the third power km3, is not only unusual in magnitude but also remarkable in that >70% of the area is multiyear ice; the ice volume flux at340 km3 is almost one-fifth of the ice flux through the Fram Strait. Another large outflow of Arctic sea ice through this passage, comparable to that in 2003, is found in 1996. This southward flux of sea ice represents one of two major sources of freshwater in the Barents Sea; the other is the eastward flux of water via the Norwegian Coastal Current. The possible consequences of variable freshwater input on the Barents Sea hydrography and its impact on transformation of Atlantic Water en route to the Arctic Ocean are examined with a 25-year coupled ice-ocean model.

  15. A lithosphere-scale structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J. I.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a regional 3-D structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region which is the first to combine information on the sediments and the crystalline crust as well as the configuration of the lithospheric mantle. Therefore, we have integrated all available geological and geophysical data, including interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, seismological data, geological maps and previously published 3-D models into one consistent model. This model resolves four major megasequence boundaries (earliest Eocene, mid-Cretaceous, mid-Jurassic and mid-Permian) the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a newly calculated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The thickness distributions of the corresponding main megasequences delineate five major subdomains (the northern Kara Sea, the southern Kara Sea, the eastern Barents Sea, the western Barents Sea and the oceanic domain comprising the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Eurasia Basin). Relating the subsidence histories of these subdomains to the structure of the deeper crust and lithosphere sheds new light on possible causative basin forming mechanisms that we discuss. The depth configuration of the newly calculated LAB and the seismic velocity configuration of the upper mantle correlate with the younger history of this region. The western Barents Sea is underlain by a thinned lithosphere (80 km) resulting from multiple Phanerozoic rifting phases and/or the opening of the NE Atlantic from Paleocene/Eocene times on. Notably, the northwestern Barents Sea and Svalbard are underlain by thinnest continental lithosphere (60 km) and a low-velocity/hot upper mantle that correlates spatially with a region where late Cenozoic uplift was strongest. As opposed to this, the eastern Barents Sea is underlain by a thicker lithosphere (~ 110-150 km) and a high-velocity/density anomaly in the lithospheric mantle. This anomaly, in turn, correlates with an area where only little late Cenozoic uplift/erosion was observed.

  16. Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas: current structure and volume fluxes from moored current meters, VM-ADCP and SeaSoar-CTD observations, 1995–1999

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kjell Arild Orvik; Øystein Skagseth; Martin Mork

    2001-01-01

    This study deals with the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas, an important factor for climate, ecology and biological production in Northern Europe. The investigations are carried out along the Svinøy standard hydrographic section, which cuts through the Atlantic inflow to the Norwegian Sea just to the north of the Faroe–Shetland Channel. In the Svinøy

  17. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

  18. Bioprospecting / Deep Sea Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The first portion of the radio broadcast discusses the relatively new field of bioprospecting, the exploration of the sea floor for novel compounds and processes that may have industrial or medical applications. Bioprospectors are trying to collect samples of deep-sea organisms which may yield new pharmaceutical compounds, as in the case of Conus magnus, a sea snail whose venom has yielded a painkiller 1000 times more potent than morphine. There is also discussion of who owns these resources and what can be done to protect them. This segment is 12 minutes in length. The second segment of the broadcast traces the history of undersea exploration, including methods of measuring ocean depth, the bathysphere used by William Beebe and Otis Barton, the modern Alvin submersible, and remotely operated vehicles. There is also discussion of the motives and inspiration for ocean exploration; the deep sea knowledge of whalers; and comparisons of deep sea research with space exploration. This segment is 34 minutes and 40 seconds in length.

  19. The Lofoten Vortex of the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Roshin P.; Chafik, Léon; Nilsen, J. Even Ø.; Eldevik, Tor; Halo, Issufo

    2015-02-01

    The Lofoten Basin is the largest reservoir of ocean heat in the Nordic Seas. A particular feature of the basin is 'the Lofoten Vortex', a most anomalous mesoscale structure in the Nordic Seas. The vortex resides in one of the major winter convection sites in the Norwegian Sea, and is likely to influence the dense water formation of the region. Here, we document this quasi-permanent anticyclonic vortex using hydrographic and satellite observations. The vortex' uniqueness in the Nordic Seas, its surface characteristics on seasonal, inter-annual, and climatological time-scales, are examined together with the main forcing mechanisms acting on it. The influence of the vortex on the hydrography of the Lofoten Basin is also shown. We show that the Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas penetrate the deepest inside the Lofoten Vortex, and confirm the persistent existence of the vortex in the deepest part of the Lofoten Basin, its dominant cyclonic drift and reveal seasonality in its eddy intensity with maximum during late winter and minimum during late autumn. Eddy merging processes are studied in detail, and mergers by eddies from the slope current are found to provide anticyclonic vorticity to the Lofoten Vortex.

  20. Last deglaciation of the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejrup, H. P.; Nygård, A.; Haflidason, H.; Hjelstuen, B.; Zuhlsdorff, C.; Bigg, G. R.; Hall, A.; Clark, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Extensive off shore data suggest that Pleistocene ice sheets reached the shelf edge on many occasions in the North Sea region. Even still fragmentary, a better understanding of the last glaciation and deglaciation of the North Sea region is starting to emerge from both marine and onshore data. During the time interval between 39 and 29 cal ka, periods with ameliorated climate (including the Ålesund, Sandnes and Tolsta interstadials) alternated with periods of restricted glaciation in Scotland and western Norway. Between 29 and 25 cal ka maximum Weichselian glaciation of the region occurred, with the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets coalescing in the central North Sea. Decoupling of the ice sheets had most likely occurred at 25 cal ka, with development of a marine embayment in the northern North Sea. Between 21 and 18 cal ka glacial ice expanded westwards from Scandinavia onto the North Sea Plateau, in the Tampen readvance. The last major expansion of glacial ice into the offshore areas was between 17.5 and 15.5 cal ka. At this time ice expanded from Norway onto the Måløy Plateau and across Caithness and Orkney to east of Shetland. The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, one of the major paleo icestreams draining into the eastern Atlantic, was periodically active between 29 and 18 cal ka BP. Some of the key sites used for the reconstruction of the last deglaciation will be presented, and the implication of this history for possible ice dammed lakes and influence on ocean circulation will be discussed.

  1. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWeb is a nonprofit organization aimed at raising awareness of the ocean and marine life that play "a critical role in our everyday life and in the future of our planet." SeaWeb employs a team of professionals from biology, exploration, and various communication disciplines. The current campaigns include an effort to protect the declining Caspian Sea Sturgeon ("the source of most of the world's caviar"), an attempt to reduce overfishing of swordfish, and a report about the changes occurring in the world's oceans. This Web site is a robust source of information about many threats that are facing marine ecosystems, and an attempt to reduce the dangers by educating the public about the impacts of their behavior.

  2. New York Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Sea Grant program was established in 1966, and a few years later, the state of New York sponsored the program's first outpost. Currently, the New York Sea Grant (NYSG) is a cooperative program of the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell University. On the homepage, visitors can look over sections that include "Extension", "Research", "Education", "Publications", and "Theme Areas". The "Theme Areas" is a good place to start, as it features topical material on coastal processes and hazards, fisheries, and aquatic invasive species. Their helpful publication "Currents" is also worth a look, and it contains materials on grant opportunities, research materials, fact sheets, and public awareness programs. Moving on, the "Related Sites" area contains links to "Hot Topics" (topical news items related to the sea and such) and affiliated organizations.

  3. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  4. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  5. Long-term variability in Arctic sea surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajkumar Kamaljit; Maheshwari, Megha; Oza, Sandip R.; Kumar, Raj

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we used 30 years of an operational sea surface temperature (SST) product, the NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST Version 2 dataset, to examine variations in Arctic SSTs during the period December 1981-October 2011. We computed annual SST anomalies and interannual trends in SST variations for the period 1982-2010; during this period, marginal (though statistically significant) increases in SSTs were observed in oceanic regions poleward of 60°N. A warming trend is evident over most of the Arctic region, the Beaufort Sea, the Chuckchi Sea, Hudson Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Iceland Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Bering Strait, etc.; Labrador Sea experienced higher temperature anomalies than those observed in other regions. However, cooling trends were observed in the central Arctic, some parts of Baffin Bay, the Kara Sea (south of Novaya Zemlya), the Laptev Sea, the Siberian Sea, and Fram Strait. The central Arctic region experienced a cooling trend only during 1992-2001; warming trends were observed during 1982-1991 and 2002-2010. We also examined a 30-yr (1982-2011) record of summer season (June-July-August) SST variations and a 29-yr (1982-2010) record of September SST variations, the results of which are discussed.

  6. RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

    We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

  7. Deep Drilling at Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kate Ramsayer

    This Science News for Kids article provides an image-rich overview of a deep-sea drilling project off the coast of British Columbia. The article guides students through the exploration, explaining how deep sediment cores are taken, what researchers find in the cores, and details of what life is like on a research ship. It features links to an online poll, an opportunity for students to submit comments, a deep-sea drilling word find, and links to supplementary reading questions and related sites.

  8. Melting Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation Teachers' Domain

    This activity uses a mix of multimedia resources and hands-on activities to support a storyline of investigation into melting sea ice. The lesson begins with a group viewing of a video designed to get students to consider both the local and global effects of climate change. The class then divides into small groups for inquiry activities on related topics followed by a presentation of the findings to the entire class. A final class discussion reveals a more complex understanding of both the local and global impacts of melting sea ice.

  9. Lighting Up the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic Xpeditions

    This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

  10. Melting Sea Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This activity uses a mix of multimedia resources and hands-on activities to support a storyline of investigation into melting sea ice. The lesson begins with a group viewing of a video designed to get students to consider both the local and global effects of climate change. The class then divides into small groups for inquiry activities on related topics followed by a presentation of the findings to the entire class. A final class discussion reveals a more complex understanding of both the local and global impacts of melting sea ice.

  11. National Sea Grant Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the website for the only facility housing a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, where users may obtain citations, abstracts and access to over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

  12. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead and on sea ice in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  13. A lithosphere-scale structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J. I.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Barents Sea and Kara Sea region as part of the European Arctic shelf, is geologically situated between the Proterozoic East-European Craton in the south and early Cenozoic passive margins in the north and the west. Proven and inferred hydrocarbon resources encouraged numerous industrial and academic studies in the last decades which brought along a wide spectrum of geological and geophysical data. By evaluating all available interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3-D-models, we were able to develop a new lithosphere-scale 3-D-structural model for the greater Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. The sedimentary part of the model resolves four major megasequence boundaries (earliest Eocene, mid-Cretaceous, mid-Jurassic and mid-Permian). Downwards, the 3-D-structural model is complemented by the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a newly calculated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The thickness distribution of the main megasequences delineates five major subdomains differentiating the region (the northern Kara Sea, the southern Kara Sea, the eastern Barents Sea, the western Barents Sea and the oceanic domain comprising the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Eurasia Basin). The vertical resolution of five sedimentary megasequences allows comparing for the first time the subsidence history of these domains directly. Relating the sedimentary structures with the deeper crustal/lithospheric configuration sheds some light on possible causative basin forming mechanisms that we discuss. The newly calculated LAB deepens from the typically shallow oceanic domain in three major steps beneath the Barents and Kara shelves towards the West-Siberian Basin in the east. Thereby, we relate the shallow continental LAB and slow/hot mantle beneath the southwestern Barents Sea with the formation of deep Paleozoic/Mesozoic rift basins. Thinnest continental lithosphere is observed beneath Svalbard and the NW Barents Sea where no Mesozoic/early Cenozoic rifting has occurred but strongest Cenozoic uplift and volcanism since Miocene times. The East Barents Sea Basin is underlain by a LAB at moderate depths and a high-density anomaly in the lithospheric mantle which follows the basin geometry and a domain where the least amount of late Cenozoic uplift/erosion is observed. Strikingly, this high-density anomaly is not present beneath the adjacent southern Kara Sea. Both basins share a strong Mesozoic subsidence phase whereby the main subsidence phase is younger in the South Kara Sea Basin.

  14. Introduction Deep-sea deposits from submarine landslides, debris

    E-print Network

    Introduction Deep-sea deposits from submarine landslides, debris flows, and turbidity currents have with submarine mass-wasting. An example is the Storegga landslide on the Norwegian margin, which occurred about 9 detached from the front of slowing-down submarine landslides. With a runout ratio of the order 0

  15. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  16. National Sea Grant Educators Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

  17. 3, 637669, 2006 Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 3, 637­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Mediterranean Sea forecast: effects of high-resolution atmospheric forcings S. Natale1 , R. Sorgente2 , S­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  18. Tides & Currents: Sea Level Trends

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years. This resource illustrates regional trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change including national and global stations. Impacts on changing sea levels in relation to atmospheric and oceanic processes as well as other Earth systems are explained and supported with educations resources.

  19. Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

  20. Steller Sea Lion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A comprehensive site featuring the threatened Steller Sea Lion. Site includes information on its critical habitat, protection measures, distribution information, and much more. Explore the Literature, Presentations, and Images section for an abundance of information from conferences, workshops, and research. Site features a wealth of photographs and video, as well as contact information for the program.

  1. Sea Turtles Coloring Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using excellent line drawings, this coloring book provides great background information about sea turtles in both English and Spanish. Species profiles, biology and life cycle, ecology, distribution, uses and threats, like fishing and habitat destruction, are covered. Measures for protection and conservation are introduced.

  2. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  3. Labour Flexibilization at Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine B. N. Chin

    2008-01-01

    Cruise line employment of men and women contract seafarers from all over the world since the late twentieth century has produced what is called multinational or ‘mini UN’ crew on board large modern cruise ships. This phenomenon is encouraged by open ship registries that legally endorse and affirm the flexibilization of labour at sea. Labour flexibilization processes, however, are not

  4. Redlands Institute: Salton Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Salton Sea Database Program (SSDP) at the University of Redlands, Redlands Institute (RI) was a project administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Special Programs. The purpose behind the SSDP was to bring a wide range of data management and analysis tools and professionals "to support multi-disciplinary and coordinated decision-making across all the professional and scientific teams and stakeholders involved in the restoration of California's largest inland body of water, the Salton Sea." Part of their outreach work includes this fine website, which includes sections titled "Ecological Issues", "Data & Research", and "Exploring the Area". First-time visitors may want to start by clicking on the "Ecological Issues" area. Here they can learn about the science of the area, the contemporary issues facing the survival of the Salton Sea, and some of the proposed solutions to restore the Sea. Journalists and scientists will appreciate the "Data & Research" area, as it features digital maps of the area, GIS data, public policy documents, and an image database. The casual traveler will enjoy the "Exploring the Area" section, and here they will find information about current weather conditions, fishing reports, and California State park materials.

  5. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  6. Whither Arctic Sea Ice?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Betsy Youngman

    In this activity students work with real datasets to investigate a real situation regarding disappearing Arctic sea ice. The case study has students working side-by-side with a scientist from the National Snow and Ice Data Center and an Inuit community in Manitoba.

  7. SeaDiscovery.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaDiscovery.com is an online source for "underwater tech and ocean science news." The site presents not only news, but information about maritime technology employment which includes featured jobs and resumes. It also allows access to the Maritime Technology Reporter magazine and provides links to a number of important directories.

  8. Classroom of the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Denise Monte

    2000-03-01

    Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

  9. Sea Grant's Education Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    Considers the status of the education agenda of the Sea Grant Program as it turns 30. Projects described include Operation Pathfinder, which aims to educate minority teachers and/or teachers of minority students. Also described are a program in which seafood processors and resellers are trained in safety and health areas, and programs to train…

  10. Black Sea Battle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Story of the invasion of jellyfish into the Black Sea and the resulting affects on the native fish population. An excellent introduction into introduced species and their effects on an ecosystem. Site features an abundance of information on alien species and the delicacy that goes into eradicating them. Also links to additional non-traditional science-related news events.

  11. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  12. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  13. Under the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity integrates art and science as students use books and other sources to learn more about the creatures that live in the ocean. Once they have learned about various sea creatures and their habitats, they will construct an undersea environment in their classroom.

  14. Sea Surface Temperature Climatology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Education Online

    This interactive animation shows global sea surface temperature averages for the same months over a number of years. Click on the map to see values for a particular month. This takes leads to a viewer that allows users to manipulate the figure, zooming in to a particular spot, altering the size, or changing the format.

  15. Harvesting the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    Information on commercial fishing is provided, and a board game is described which requires students to watch for ocean signs of good fishing, choose equipment to catch specific types of fish, and consider effects of weather on working at sea. A reproducible copy of the game, with instructions, is included. (IAH)

  16. Rising Sea Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  17. Sea Level Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive program focuses on the role of sea level in climate change. Sections include an overview and a list of relevant NASA satellite missions and their objectives. A third section, entitled Global View, covers the following 5 topics: Latest View, Large El Niño, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami, and La Niña.

  18. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

  19. The Cosmonaut Sea Wedge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solli, K.; Kuvaas, B.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Leitchenkov, G.; Guseva, J.; Gandyukhin, V.

    2007-01-01

    A set of multi-channel seismic profiles (~15000 km) acquired by Russia, Norway and Australia has been used to investigate the depositional evolution of the Cosmonaut Sea margin of East Antarctica. We recognize a regional sediment wedge below the upper part of the continental rise. The wedge, herein termed the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge, is positioned stratigraphically underneath the inferred glaciomarine section and extends for at least 1200 km along the continental margin and from 80 to about 250 km seaward or to the north. Lateral variations in the growth pattern of the wedge indicate several overlapping depocentres, which at their distal northern end are flanked by elongated mounded drifts and contourite sheets. The internal stratification of the mounded drift deposits suggests that westward flowing bottom currents reworked the marginal deposits. The action of these currents together with sea-level changes is considered to have controlled the growth of the wedge. We interpret the Cosmonaut Sea Wedge as a composite feature comprising several bottom current reworked fan systems.

  20. Modern sea power

    SciTech Connect

    Till, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides discussions of political, technical and military aspects of nuclear power. The contents include naval warfare in the nuclear age; politics, money, law and technology; a technological change; implications of technology; sea control; strategic deterrents; amphibious operations, maritime interdiction; inshore operations, naval diplomacy and conclusion.

  1. Sea Turtle Skeleton - Skull

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  2. Sea Turtle Skeleton - Nostrils

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-26

    The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

  3. Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-27

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  4. Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-07-15

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  5. The Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several large, irregularly shaped icebergs are floating in the Weddell Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, in this true-color MODIS image from February 17, 2002. The location of several of the bergs has changed little over the last three months. Compared to an image acquired on November 13, 2001, the berg at the upper right of the image has spun around, but is still hanging around in the same general location. Similar slow-movers can be seen just to the east of the Larsen Ice Shelf, which hugs the eastern coast of the Peninsula. The northernmost of those two bergs is designated A38b; the southernmost one is A38a. These bergs were once part of an iceberg greater than 2,700 square miles that broke off the Ronne Ice Shelf (to the south) back in 1998. While the waters of the Weddell Sea in the area ought to be deep enough to float those bergs, it is possible that they have run aground on a topographic high, or ridge, in the sea floor. However, little is known about the underwater topography of that region, and it is also possible that the bergs are simply so massive that they resist being moved by surface wind or ocean currents. While four years might seem like a long time for an iceberg to hang around, these are certainly no record holders. A berg that broke off the Ross Ice Shelf (on the other side of Antarctica) drifted north and went aground south of Australia. That berg calved in 1987, and hasn't really moved in ten years. While the big bergs have not moved much in the span of time between these images, there is a big difference in the amount of sea ice present in the two images. In general, the rounder chunks of ice are more likely to be seasonal sea ice that forms from the freezing of sea water, while the larger, jagged-edged pieces of ice are more likely to be bergs that broke off an ice shelf at the margin of the continent. It's the height of summer in Antarctica in the February image, and much of the sea ice has melted or drifted away, leaving a relatively large expanse of clear ocean. Credit:

  6. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  7. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

  9. North Sea Sediment Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Serna, Alexandra; Lahajnar, Niko; Emeis, Kay

    2014-05-01

    The North Sea is a semi-enclosed shelf sea attached to the North-east Atlantic and in its south-eastern part receives significant matter from river discharge and atmospheric deposition: Anthropogenic nutrients, dissolved carbon and organic compounds have elevated pristine background concentrations in the coastal strip of the North Sea since about 250 years as a consequence of intensified agriculture and industrialisation since then, In such a marine environment the legacy of old inputs and the influence of processes in the sediment on the biogeochemistry of the overlying water column increases with decreasing water depth. On the other hand the flux of particulate organic matter into the surface sediment (~15 cm depth) also increases with decreasing water depth or distance from the coast. Both effects are also described by results of ECOHAM-M simulations, the coupled pelagic-benthic ecosystem model that includes a prognostic multi-layer sediment module adopted from the global biogeochemical model HAMOCC as part of the MPI-earth-system model (MPI-ESM).The transfer from deep sea to coastal applications required different adaptations, such as changes in porosity values, in dissolution and organic matter remineralisation rates, and stoichiometries. In the model, two pelagic detritus pools, one slowly sinking with semi-labile organic matter, and one fast sinking with labile organic matter are collected in one sediment pool. After a spin-up of several hundred years the 3d-coupled model for the southern and central North Sea attains equilibrium, where the local inputs and outputs of the pelagic and benthic module are balanced. From this equilibrium state we initialised a realistic decadal run (2000-2009). Analysing the seasonal and interannual model results we found that the variability of sediment efflux in the model is low compared to the more dynamic pelagic system components, but simulated (and observed) sediment pore water profiles clearly show concentration gradients from the coast into the central North Sea. Data on organic matter concentration and quality in surface sediments along a comparable transect suggest that not only the loading with POM decreases with distance to land, but also the reactivity of organic matter, indicated by amino acid composition as a measure of the degree of protein degradation. This ageing or degradation effect can also be seen in a near-shore surface sediment core where the C/N ratio increases with depth, while the relative concentration of labile material in sedimentary organic matter decreases. We discuss how the quality of organic particulate matter could be integrated into the sediment model equations.

  10. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to increased use of shelf sea space.

  11. Tachyonic Dirac sea

    E-print Network

    Ernst Trojan

    2012-04-03

    We consider a system of many fermions with tachyonic energy spectrum \\varepsilon_k=\\sqrt{k^2-m^2} and clarify that tachyons with imaginary energy and low momentum (ktachyon Fermi system and make contribution to the thermodynamical functions. The energy and pressure acquire additional constant terms that, however, is not reflected in the sound speed. Replacement $m=im$ results in the thermodynamical functions and the sound speed of an ordinary Fermi gas. When the Fermi momentum approaches the Dirac sea level k_F=m, the group velocity of most tachyons above the sea is unbound, while the sound speed tends to infinity. This scenario is not encountered in practice because the cold tachyon Fermi gas becomes unstable with respect to hydrodynamical perturbations when k_Ftachyon system is always finite and exceeds the critical value depending on the tachyon mass m.

  12. Sea Ice 1987 - 2012

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features a video that illustrates both seasonal patterns and long-term changes in sea ice distribution across the Arctic Ocean. It draws data from two satellite instruments that measure emitted microwave radiation, which helps distinguish open ocean from ice. It shows that during the winter months, a layer of ice forms across vast expanses of the Arctic Ocean and each summer, more than half of that ice vanishes. Students discover that this natural cycle of freezing and thawing is influenced both by seasonal temperature variations and long-term climate change and that scientists are using satellite images to measure the distribution of Arctic sea ice in order to gain a better understanding of how it is linked to Earth's climate system.

  13. The Disappearing Aral Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  14. Salish Sea Expeditions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At-sea education program combines classroom study with shipboard science studies in Puget Sound, Washington. Offers spring programs for schools and home schoolers, summer programs for families and youngsters; expeditions of 1 to 5 days involve oceanographic sampling activities, navigation and sailing responsibilities aboard a 61-foot sailing vessel. Teachers can join a preview sail to evaluate; site provides details on water quality, plankton and other studies and equipment used.

  15. WINDandSEA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site was built in response to the many reference questions that are posed to the library and is meant to make internet searching more efficient for those concerned with oceanic and atmospheric issues, and the general public. Presently WINDandSEA has over 1,000 links to science and policy sites organized by topic and alphabetically within topic. All sites have been reviewed and annotated by NOAA staff.

  16. Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

    1999-09-30

    Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

  17. Bering Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The surface waters of the Bering Sea around the Pribilof Islands, off Alaska's west coast, exhibited a dark green color on May 15, 2002, in this SeaWiFS true-color image. The green color of the currents there suggests the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Careful inspection reveals some a reddish tinges of light reflected by this bloom, particularly in a long east to west band just south of the Pribilof Islands, and just north of the Aleutian Island chain (disappearing toward the lower righthand corner of this scene beneath the cloud bank). Some scientists speculate this could be another Phaeocystis bloom, similar to the bloom of this species that was observed in these waters roughly this time last year. Such blooms are typically accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor in the immediate vicinity. The light brown color of the surface waters along the Alaskan shoreline are probably due to suspended sediments washed off from the land. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Curonian Spit, Baltic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 25, 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying on NASA's Terra satellite, captured this image of the Curonian (or Courland)spit, the Curonian Lagoon (also known as the Courland Lagoon) it encloses, and part of the Baltic Sea. Just 3,800 meters (about 12,460 feet) at its widest point, the spit encloses a lagoon of some 1,620 square kilometers (625 square miles). In this image, dark blue indicates deep water, and lighter blue indicates shallow and/or sediment-laden water. Different shades of blue distinguish the deeper Baltic Sea and the shallower Curonian Lagoon. Vegetation appears in varying shades of green, paved surfaces and bare ground appear in shades of beige and gray, and sandy areas appear off-white. Obvious sandy areas appear along the length of the spit. On the Baltic Sea side, a thin off-white band of beach runs the length of the spit; on the Curonian Lagoon side, intermittent beaches carve their way into the narrow strip of land.

  19. Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joycelyn Thomson

    2005-02-15

    The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

  20. Sea & Ships: Explore online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in England notes that its goal is "working to illustrate for everyone the importance of the sea, ships, time and the stars and their relationship with people." There is so much to explore in the "Sea and Ships" portion of the NMM website, but a great way to see everything it has to offer is by using the "Sea and Ships Directory" at the bottom of the homepage. It divides the material up by "Subjects", "People", "Collections", "Online Galleries", and "Games and Interactives". Visitors interested in lessons about the ocean that come in the form of games, quizzes and stories, should definitely check out the "Your Ocean" link from the "Games and Interactives". The "Your Waste" lesson gives visitors the opportunity to test their skills at "managing an oil spill clean-up operation", in the game "Oil Crisis!" Keeping waste to a minimum is what the quiz "Pollution Solutions" addresses, and is also on the "Your Waste" page. Other lessons include "Your Energy", "Your Stuff" and "Your Climate".

  1. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the...

  2. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the...

  3. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the...

  4. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...must: (1) Notify the sea sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the vessel. (2) Provide the sea sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by the...

  5. Water Mass Properties and Distribution between South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil Akhir, Mohd; Arsad, Shukri

    2013-04-01

    A definition of water mass properties, characteristics and its origin along the coast of northern Borneo are presented based on 55 CTD casts cruises in July 2009 combined with five Argo profiling floats at surrounding seas. The T-S relation in the study area, which includes South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea, show existences of eight water masses. In reference of earlier studies, we define water masses in the surface mixed layer with strong mixed of Open Sea Water (OSW), Continental Shelf Water (CSW) and Tropical Surface Water (TSW). Below the layer of this active mixing is a zone of rapid transition called the Seasonal Thermocline Water (STW). Meanwhile, the Maximum Salinity Water (MSW), Permanent Thermocline Water (PTW), North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and Deep Water (DW) were found at the depth range from below the seasonal thermocline to about 1000 m. In addition, study of BRAN (BLUElink ReANalysis) global ocean model was conducted to demonstrate how current circulation influence the exchange of water mass between the 3 seas. Sulu Sea sits in the middle and has very limited connection between the other two seas. Connection with Celebes Sea occurs at the inlet of 200m depth. Water exchange happens in two ways; surface inflow and subsurface outflow. While in South China Sea, inlet is limited to 50m depth and surface flow is mostly dominant. The current circulation of the adjacent sea demonstrate some of the water mass were origiated as far as north South China Sea and Pacific Ocean. Water mass differences between the seas were further classified to distinguish dissimilarities and define the origin the difference. Given the unique geographical background and current circulation of the area, the characteristics of the interaction between water mass distribution and current circulation has provide important overview to the area which previously not well understood.

  6. Aliens among us SEA-MONKEYS

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Aliens among us SEA-MONKEYS® FUN FACTS Did you know? Sea-Monkeys® · breathe through their legs, so adults have three. W hat is the connection between Sea-Monkeys® and aliens? Be- lieve it or not NASA scientists think it is possible that some alien life might resemble Sea-Monkeys®. Sea

  7. Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

    1999-01-01

    Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

  8. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  9. Sea Scallop Shell Lab Handout

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Shell Lab teacher's guide, students will examine sea scallop shells to figure out as much as possible about the scallops living on the sea floor in one three important fishery grounds, Hudson Canyon, off New Bedford, MA, and George's Bank. The activity emphasizes observation, measurements, and basic calculations. The teacher's guide is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

  10. Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

  11. Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

    2003-12-01

    While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although their experience at SEA may be their only hands-on exposure to scientific research, they take away an understanding of the process and an ability to think critically about scientific problems.

  12. Salton, A Sea of Controversy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristin B. Vessey

    1999-01-01

    The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

  13. Clues from the Black Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students apply scientific theory and hypothesis to studies being conducted in the Black Sea. They will discuss the purpose of and theory behind the Black Sea study and use maps to explain the flood theory. Students will also write hypotheses suggesting what certain pieces of evidence might reveal about the Black Sea and the flood. Next, they will read about the researchers' discoveries and list the items they found. Students will conclude by writing plans, pretending they are going to lead the next Black Sea expedition, and hypothesizing what they might find and what those findings might signify.

  14. NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

  15. The Sea Around Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Rachel L.

    1991-12-01

    Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our natural environment, will want to read this classic work.

  16. Sea and Sky

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J. Knight

    This comprehensive site contains information about both astronomy and the oceans. The Sky section contains astronomical resources, news links, an image gallery, games and general links for more information. The Cosmos contains details about stars, planets, moons, pulsars, galaxies, black holes, quasars, star clusters, nebulas, dark matter and constellations. There is also a section about astronomers and a timeline of space exploration. The Sea section contains news links, aquarium resources, an image gallery, games and links for more information about the oceans. The Ocean Realm highlights the many creatures that live in the oceans. There are also details about ocean exploration and an exploration timeline.

  17. Science Nation: Sea Turtles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Researchers at the University of North Carolina are studying how loggerhead and other sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field for a journey of thousands of miles around the Atlantic Ocean. The turtles react to the Earth's magnetic field as they navigate a five-to-10-year journey that takes them from the east coast of the United States to the coast of Portugal, south toward the west coast of Africa, then back toward the beach where they were born. A better understanding of this turtle ability could help in research of both animal and human navigation.

  18. SeaWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

  19. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens. It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

  20. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility...2) of this section, the value of: (1) Seed will be...Have readily identifiable boundaries; and (3) Be managed and...commodities having any dollar value after the disaster shall...

  1. Holocene sea surface temperature and sea ice extent in the Okhotsk and Bering Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Naomi; Katsuki, Kota; Nakagawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Akiko; Seki, Osamu; Addison, Jason A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Sato, Miyako

    2014-08-01

    Accurate prediction of future climate requires an understanding of the mechanisms of the Holocene climate; however, the driving forces, mechanisms, and processes of climate change in the Holocene associated with different time scales remain unclear. We investigated the drivers of Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice extent in the North Pacific Ocean, and the Okhotsk and Bering Seas, as inferred from sediment core records, by using the alkenone unsaturation index as a biomarker of SST and abundances of sea ice-related diatoms (F. cylindrus and F. oceanica) as an indicator of sea ice extent to explore controlling mechanisms in the high-latitude Pacific. Temporal changes in alkenone content suggest that alkenone production was relatively high during the middle Holocene in the Okhotsk Sea and the western North Pacific, but highest in the late Holocene in the eastern Bering Sea and the eastern North Pacific. The Holocene variations of alkenone-SSTs at sites near Kamchatka in the Northwest Pacific, as well as in the western and eastern regions of the Bering Sea, and in the eastern North Pacific track the changes of Holocene summer insolation at 50°N, but at other sites in the western North Pacific, in the southern Okhotsk Sea, and the eastern Bering Sea they do not. In addition to insolation, other atmosphere and ocean climate drivers, such as sea ice distribution and changes in the position and activity of the Aleutian Low, may have systematically influenced the timing and magnitude of warming and cooling during the Holocene within the subarctic North Pacific. Periods of high sea ice extent in both the Okhotsk and Bering Seas may correspond to some periods of frequent or strong winter-spring dust storms in the Mongolian Gobi Desert, particularly one centered at ?4-3 thousand years before present (kyr BP). Variation in storm activity in the Mongolian Gobi Desert region may reflect changes in the strength and positions of the Aleutian Low and Siberian High. We suggest that periods of eastward displacement or increased intensity of the Aleutian Low correspond with times of increased extent of sea ice in the western Okhotsk Sea and eastern Bering Sea.

  2. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  3. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead at sunset in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

  4. Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea. ...

  5. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  6. ROC Sampling Deep Sea Urchin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Images of the remotely operated vehicle Jason2 sampling a sea urchin in a deep sea mussel community found near a gas seep on the U.S. outer continental shelf. Images courtesy Deepwater Canyons 2013 - Pathways to the Abyss expedition, NOAA-OER/BOEM/USGS....

  7. How SeaBirds Dine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1888-01-01

    As I have ascertained that the following fact is not well known, I send you this account in the hope that it may be of interest to naturalists and to the general public. Anyone who lives in the Western Hebrides will have often watched on a calm day the sea-birds feeding with noisy clamour in the sea-lochs and about the

  8. Probability of sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  9. Glass Munchers Under the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leslie Mullen

    This NASA Astrobiology Institute article documents recent findings of bacterial life beneath the sea floor. These newly discovered bacteria are thought to live as far down as 500 meters beneath the sea floor and eat through volcanic rock, leaving behind burrows. The article contains hyperlinks to websites explaining some key vocabulary, related websites, and color photos and maps.

  10. Connecting the Seas of Norden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasche, Øyvind; Österblom, Henrik; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brander, Keith; Conley, Daniel J.; Durant, Joël M.; Eikeset, Anne M.; Goksøyr, Anders; Jónsson, Steingrímur; Kjesbu, Olav S.; Kuparinen, Anna; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2015-02-01

    The Nordic Seas are highly sensitive to environmental change and have been extensively monitored and studied across a broad range of marine disciplines. For these reasons, the Nordic seas may serve as a pilot area for integrated policy development in response to ongoing climate change.

  11. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nissenbaum

    1978-01-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea

  12. Salton: A Sea of Controversy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kristin B. Vessey

    2000-09-01

    The Salton Sea is an accidental lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area's ecosystems. The sea is important for wildlife and recreation but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be sav

  13. Evidence of Ice Free Seas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LuAnn Dahlman

    In this activity, students make a model sea floor sediment core using two types of buttons to represent fossil diatoms. They then compare the numbers of diatom fossils in the sediment at different depths to determine whether the seas were free of ice while the diatoms were alive.

  14. Occurrence of rogue sea states and consequences for marine structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta M.; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of occurrence of combined wave systems like wind sea and swell may increase in some ocean areas due to the observed change of storm tracks. These combined sea states, when crossing at a particular angle, may lead to more frequent occurrence of rogue events. The present study addresses these rogue-wave-prone sea states and their probabilities of occurrence. The analysis is based on hindcast data from the North Atlantic, the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Nigeria and Australia and supported by numerical simulations performed by the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM, West et al. J Geophys Res 92:11803-11824, 1987). The hindcast data have been generated by the wave model WAM. Long-term probabilistic description of significant wave height and spectral peak period is established for the selected locations and probability of occurrence of crossing rogue-wave-prone sea states is indicated. Further, the occurrence of individual rogue waves in low, intermediate and high sea states is also evaluated. The results are discussed from the perspective of design and operations of ships and offshore structures.

  15. May organic pollutants affect fish populations in the North Sea?

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil; Beyer, Jonny; Berntssen, Marc; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Lang, Thomas; Balk, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    The North Sea is a highly productive area with large fish populations that have been extensively harvested over the past century. North Sea fisheries remain important to the surrounding countries despite declining fish stocks over the past decades. The main reason for declining fish stocks is nearly certainly overfishing, but other environmental pressures also affect fish populations, such as eutrophication, climate change, and exposure to metals and organic pollutants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and organochlorine compounds. There are three main sources of organic pollutants in the North Sea: atmospheric, land-based sources, and inputs from offshore gas and oil installations. All three sources contribute to elevated concentrations of organic pollutants in the North Sea compared to the Norwegian Sea. There is evidence that chlorinated organic contaminants were present in sufficiently high concentrations in the southern North Sea two decades ago, to alter embryonal development in fish. The results from extensive, long-term monitoring programs show that some diseases decreased whereas other increased in the southern North Sea and that, among other factors, contaminants may play a role in the temporal changes recorded in disease prevalence. Recent studies demonstrated that components in offshore effluents may affect fish reproduction and that tissues of fish near oil rigs are structurally different to tissues of fish from reference areas. Data on effluents from offshore activities have recently become available through an international workshop (BECPELAG) and follow-up studies. PMID:16291566

  16. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  17. The Abyss of the Nordic Seas Is Warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svein Østerhus; Tor Gammelsrød

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, the multiyear oceanographic time series from ocean weather station Mike at 66°N, 2°E indicate a warming by about 0.01°C yr1 in the deep water of the Norwegian Sea. The time of onset of this warming is depth dependent, starting at 2000-m depth in 1987 but not at the 1200-m level until 1990. The warming abruptly halts

  18. The Aral Sea: Then and Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan asks students to consider what happens when a sea shrinks and to compare pictures of the Aral Sea at different times. They will conclude by pretending to be residents of the Aral Sea region, drawing before and after pictures of how changes to the sea have affected their lives. Students will conduct an experiment to see whether salt evaporates with water; hypothesize what might happen to people, animals, and plants living near a shrinking sea; compare satellite images of the Aral Sea from 1973 and 1999; match problems in the Aral Sea region with statements about these problems in the Aral Sea family activity; discuss changes that are occurring in the Aral Sea region; and create drawings depicting the lives of people in the Aral Sea region before and after the sea began to shrink.

  19. Beneath the Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains videos from the "Beneath the Sea" television episode, related website articles and student activities, and an interactive ocean game that tests knowledge of what creatures live at what depth. The videos feature technologies that have opened up the farthest reaches of the ocean and a remote submarine as it dives to the unexplored middle depths of the ocean off Monterey, California, revealing a spectacular variety of new life forms. The videos total approximately one hour in length. The articles explore how life survives in dark hot ocean vents and how this may shed light on the origin of life on Earth; evidence in support of the flood in the biblical story of Noah; and what deep-ocean research has revealed about continental drift, plate tectonics, and the formation of the Earth.

  20. Deep Sea Duel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-29

    This Android app for the Illuminations online game Deep Sea Duel card game helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

  1. Deep Sea Duel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-02

    This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

  2. Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean Sea

    E-print Network

    Kaminski, Michael A.

    Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean by the Mediterranean at V12 ka, allowing saline waters to penetrate the Marmara Sea. These saline waters reached Sea connections following the last deglaciation Michael A. Kaminski a;b;Ã , Ali Aksu c , Matthew Box a

  3. Sea Star Succumbing to Sea Star Wasting Disease

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Unlike their smiling cartoon brethren on television, since 2013, real-life sea stars have been suffering from a wasting disease epidemic in which they lose limbs and literally disintegrate in a matter of days. ...

  4. Sea level variation in the eastern Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Yanagi; Tatsuya Akaki

    1994-01-01

    Mean sea level variations in the eastern Asia region during 1950 to 1991 are investigated with the use of observed sea level data at 16 stations. It is suggested from the data analysis, that the main cause of long-term sea level variation in this region may be the plate tectonic processes. The mean sea levels along the eastern coasts of

  5. Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs: Testing Ecological Hypotheses Using-Central Adriatic and South Catalan Sea) and two time periods (mid-late 1970s and 1990s) in the Mediterranean Sea to species removal; Niche model; Ecopath model; Mediterranean Sea. INTRODUCTION Degradation of marine

  6. Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

    2015-03-01

    The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

  7. SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE February 2014 National Sea Grant Office's

    E-print Network

    :40pm ­ 11:10am Lake Champlain Sea Grant (Garber) #12;SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE ­ February 2014 3 11:10am at a glance USC Sea Grant at a glance TEXAS Sea Grant at a glance LAKE CHAMPLAIN Sea Grant at a glance

  8. Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of terrigenous matter settles in natural sediment traps of fjords. The Barents Sea bottom has rather dissected relief. A number of isometric or, rarer, elongated underwater elevations (Perseus, Central, the Admiralty Bar, the Goose shoal) and separation trenches and troughs (South and North Barents Sea troughs, Perseus, Aldanov, Medvezhinsky, Franz Victoria, West and South Novozemelsky trenches) can be distinguished. The major processes that control a structure of the friable sedimentary cover of Arctic shelves appear on the seismic acoustic records as chaotic effect of cryolithogenesis (permafrost, themokarst, thawed patches, paleoriverbeds, etc.) and hydrocarbons migration (gas hydrates, gas saturated sediments, gas seeping, porkmarks, etc). Such phenomena are the main components of geo-risks for oil and gas fields development in Arctic Seas and are, together with the gas hydrates deposits, the top priority objects of seismic acoustic measurements. The shelf of the Barents Sea is one of the most extensively studied with high resolution acoustic methods because of large-scale engineering and geological problems solved in process of its industrial development. Mainly, it is related to exploring and development of oil and gas fields, oil terminals and submarine pipelines construction, and building up the whole infrastructure for their exploitation.

  9. Total and organic mercury in Barents sea pelagic fish

    SciTech Connect

    Joiris, C.R.; Ali, I.B.; Hoisbeek, L. Bossicart, M.; Tapia, G. [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-11-01

    One of the main questions, when studying mercury levels in natural samples, is to define how far the measured concentrations correspond to natural- or background-levels or to actual contamination due to human activities. To establish background pristine levels of Hg in the marine environment, areas of very low human activities are often proposed. Arctic and Antarctic waters, together with deep oceans waters, are best suited and provide themselves for such studies. Barents Sea areas were used in this study, even if the existence of an important atmospheric transport of Hg probably caused an increase of Hg levels at a global scale. Instead of analyzing mercury from the very low concentrations in sea water, it is much easier to identify it from the higher concentrations which organisms, used as bioindicators, have built up in their tissues. By using these bioindicators to study the bioavailable fraction of the stable residues, one also integrates small scale temporal and spatial variations. Pelagic fish were used in this work to study the ecotoxicology of Hg in the Barents Sea. This study has been made possible due to recent access of the Barents Sea to western scientists and it is to serve as a complement to existing studies by the same team in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, and the southwestern part of the Barents Sea. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Sea salt CCN contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.; Noble, S.

    2011-12-01

    Volatility measurements (Twomey 1971; Hudson and Da 1996) showed that most CCN over the ocean are not NaCl. However, other reports indicate NaCl as a major CCN component. Here we contrast cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectral volatility (thermal fractionation) measurements from three aircraft field projects to provide insight into the relative contribution of sea salt. The most remote location, PASE (mid-Pacific), had the highest average CCN concentrations (NCCN) probably because it was the least cloudy whereas the less remote, but more cloudy,RICO(Caribbean)had the lowest average NCCN (Hudson and Noble 2009). In RICO particle concentrations in all size ranges larger than 0.3 micrometers were well correlated with wind speed (R ~ 0.87) but uncorrelated with NCCN (Fig. 1A). Smaller particles in RICO were correlated with NCCN but uncorrelated with wind speed. In PASE only particles larger than 10 micrometers were correlated with wind speed and concentrations in these size ranges were uncorrelated with NCCN. Particles smaller than 10 micrometers in PASE were uncorrelated with wind speed but well correlated with NCCN. In both projects particle concentrations smaller than these respective sizes were highly correlated with NCCN, at all S in PASE but mainly with NCCN at high S in RICO. CCN volatility measurements showed high correlations between refractory NCCN and wind speed, especially for low supersaturation (S) NCCN, and no correlation of volatile NCCN at all S with wind speed. In PASE there was only a weak positive correlation between refractory NCCN and wind and also no correlation between volatile NCCN and wind. These results indicate that in clean maritime air the wind originated component of NCCN can be substantial (i.e., > 30% for wind > 14 m/s) but that in maritime air with higher NCCN the wind derived CCN component is probably less than 10%. The contrast in cloudiness between the two projects was responsible for many of the differences noted between them. A third project (POST) showed appropriately intermediate results to those of RICO and PASE. The results indicate that the effects of clouds on NCCN play a major role in the relative influence of sea salt on NCCN and ultimately on climate. Hudson, J.G. and S. Noble, 2009: Geophys. Res. Let., 36, L13812, Hudson, J.G. and X. Da, 1996: J. Geophys. Res., 101, 4435-4442. Twomey, S.: 1971: J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 377-381.

  11. Deep Sea Vents Web List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This student-friendly list has eight web sites that relate to deep sea vents. A short description follows each site, listing the reference materials, interactive tools, videos, sound recordings, photo archives, or other resources that can be found there.

  12. A Can of Sea Worms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  13. Antarctic Ice: Sea Level Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, explains what might happen to global sea level if atmospheric warming caused the collapse and melting of the West Antarctica Ice Sheet. The segment is three minutes nineteen seconds in length.

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2008-01-17

    In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

  15. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  16. The Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-08-09

    This video adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department describes how humans are helping restore safe nesting grounds for the critically endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle to ensure its successful repopulation.

  17. Sea Turtle Protection and Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This extensive site describes the population status of each U.S. sea turtle species and how they are protected by law. Each species' scientific name, biology, threatened or endangered status, description, human impacts, population trends, distribution, and photos are documented. Read the downloadable Recovery Plans for each species, as well as learn about turtle legislation. Site also features reports and proceedings from various sea turtle symposia and conferences.

  18. Mapping Deep-sea Habitats

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mel Goodwin

    In this lesson students investigate bathymetric mapping of deep-sea habitats to see how deep-sea areas of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands can be mapped to facilitate their exploration with a manned submersible. Students will create a two-dimensional topographic map from bathymetric survey data, a three-dimensional model of landforms from a two-dimensional topographic map, and will interpret two- and three-dimensional topographic data.

  19. Sea Turtle First Aid Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2007-01-01

    This activity (located on page 4 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into testing a repair material. Groups of learners perform “first aid” on a cut orange, which represents propeller damage on the back of a leatherback sea turtle. Learners use a variety of repair materials and predict how well various treatments will work, then observe treated, untreated, and uncut control oranges for 4 days. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

  20. Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kalinowski, Laura

    This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

  1. SeaWIFS: Teacher Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The SeaWIFS project uses space technology to study phytoplankton. Site contains: The Living Ocean Teacher's Guide, a guide for grades 9-10 that discusses satellites, ocean color, phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and greenhouse effect; Classic CZCS Scenes, a tutorial about ocean color using some of the more interesting CZCS images; and Monitoring the Earth from Space with SeaWiFS, an presentation about ocean color; and several other remote sensing resources.

  2. Impacts into oceans and seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Nemtchinov; T. V. Loseva; A. V. Teterev

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of cosmic bodies into oceans and seas lead to the formation of very high waves. Numerical simulations of 3-km and 1-km comets impacting into a 4 km depth ocean with a velocity of 20 km\\/sec have been conducted. For a 1-km body, depth of the interim crater in the sea bed is about 8 km below ocean level, and

  3. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  4. Polar Sea Ice Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Smith

    The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Polar Sea Ice Processes module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic lecture viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

  5. From Shore to Sea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

  6. Correlation at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Richard L.; Farr, Keith B.; McColgan, Michele W.; Smith, Ralph G.

    1997-03-01

    This paper discusses an optical correlator interfaces to a FLIR and laser rangefinder to aid aircraft landing aboard an aircraft carrier. The purpose was to recognize aircraft and provide precision track in spite of the engine plume which is visible in IR images. Toward the end of the program, an opportunity arose to piggyback on tests of a Navy FLIR system, on board the USS Enterprise. The Navy's developmental FLIR and laser rangefinder were mounted on the carrier and provided excellent imagery with concurrent range data. The correlator performed a limited set of experiments at sea, tracking an aircraft from 8000 feet until almost touchdown. The challenges to the correlator we operation in a harsh environment and real time interfacing with other hardware. Real time range information controlled a series of filters in the correlator. The system fit into a standard panel rack and utilized remote alignment. The system operated during the chock of aircraft launch and landing, with no need to open up the optical box.

  7. North Sea platforms revamped

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, J.

    1999-12-01

    Many of the early North Sea platforms are reaching their end-of-field life. Most are still equipped with their original drilling package. In a few cases the package has either been removed or decommissioned. The early installations were designed for much simpler and less demanding wells than the horizontal, extended-reach or designer wells common today. Extended-reach wells now can be drilled realistically from ageing platforms, without incurring massive capital expenditure. This can be achieved using the existing drilling package to the limit of its capabilities and supplementing where necessary with relatively minor upgrades or the use of temporary equipment. Drilling even a few more wells from existing platforms not only prolongs field life, it enables any surplus processing capacity to be made available to develop near-field potential with extended-reach drilling (ERD) or by tying back subsea satellite wells, or for processing third-party fluids. The paper describes well design, surface equipment, mud pumps, shakers and solids control equipment, drill cuttings disposal systems, derrick and hoisting system, top drive and drillstring, downhole equipment, well planning, casing wear, logistics, rig preparations, and ERD vs. subsea tie-backs.

  8. Research papers The genesis of sea level variability in the Barents Sea

    E-print Network

    , University of Miami, and Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami, FL, USA, b Jet 1­3 month phase lag between the annual cycles of sea level in the Barents Sea and in the Nordic seas

  9. State estimation of the Labrador Sea with a coupled sea ice-ocean adjoint model

    E-print Network

    Fenty, Ian Gouverneur

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice (SI) and ocean variability in marginal polar and subpolar seas are closely coupled. SI variability in the Labrador Sea is of climatic interest because of its relationship to deep convection/mode water formation, ...

  10. Features of the northern North Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Einar; Sætre, Roald; Mork, Martin

    1991-05-01

    During the autumn of 1987 the Autumn Circulation Experiment (ACE) was carried out in the northern North Sea. The transverse flow of mixed Scottish coastal and Atlantic water from the northeast of Scotland towards Norway (the Dooley Current) was clearly observed through the thermohaline, nutrient and current distribution. A significant core of high salinity Atlantic water was found to the north of this flow, demonstrating a pronounced flux of Atlantic water onto the northern North Sea plateau. The presence of this water is theoretically shown to be important for explaining the eastward flow towards Norway. The theory also indicates that the transport of this current is reduced as a result of detrainment doubling the entrainment along the path. A topographically steered cyclonic eddy with a scale of 100 km is clearly documented. A major barotropic southeastward flow towards Skagerrak of cold, heavy bottom water from the northern plateau was revealed, in addition to the better known circulation in the vicinity of the Norwegian Trench.

  11. Source spectral properties of small earthquakes in the northern North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vyacheslav M. Zobin; Jens Havskov

    1995-01-01

    Source parameters of 40 small shallow earthquakes (M = 2.5?3.5) in the northern North Sea Region were calculated using P-wave spectra of digital records from the Western Norway Network station HYA. The results show a difference in the source spectral properties of earthquakes generated in the North Sea rift zone and the uplift zone of the Norwegian coastal margins. Corner

  12. Flexible subsea slug catcher is designed for use in North Sea's Troll field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huntley

    1986-01-01

    Anticipated flow conditions in a future 62-km, 32-in. pipeline for a gas\\/condensate field in the East Troll area, Norwegian North Sea sector, have prompted the commissioning of a sub sea slug catcher by the field's operator. The resulting design concept can be adopted to handle either natural-gas or crude-oil production. Pipelines carrying two-phase hydrocarbon flow-gas and condensated or crude oil

  13. Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melet, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kessler, W.; Verron, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source of the EUC, variations of its characteristics are expected to play a role in the equatorial thermocline features and more generally on decadal climate variability. Therefore, the study of the Solomon Sea is a key issue of the SPICE program. In this study, we focus on the variability of the Solomon Sea in term of sea level. The Solomon Sea is semi closed with a complex topography and numerous islands. Thus, the use of classical gridded altimetric products is inadequate. Consequently, this work is based on original along track Topex/Poseidon data. New data processing (CTOH/LEGOS) has been applied to recover proper data and to gain more information on the altimetric signal in this region. A track-by-track specific and customized post processing has been used to finalize the dataset. These new altimetric data have been assessed against tide gauge data. The analysis of the resulting sea level anomalies exhibits the highest variability observed in the tropical Pacific in an area centred near 8°S and expanding from each side of the Solomon Islands, outside of the WBC. Sea level variability presents a wide temporal spectrum, from intraseasonal to interannual ranges with the notable influence of the monsoon and of ENSO. In the Solomon Sea, three frequencies emerge : 60, 365 and 2000 days. The 60-days frequency seems particularly important in the Solomon Sea compared with the surrounding waters and an EOF analysis is used to understand its features. We also depict the signature of the New Guinea Coastal Current (NGCC), the western boundary current flowing north along the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea, which is particularly important for the connection to the equator. In parallel to this study, a hierarchy of high resolution (1/4°, 1/12°) regional models is also being built. The altimetric dataset will be used to perform a realistic simulation of the region circulations through data assimilation.

  14. Effects of sea ice dynamics on the Antarctic sea ice distribution in a coupled ocean atmosphere model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ogura; A. Abe-Ouchi; H. Hasumi

    2004-01-01

    Impact of sea ice dynamics on the Southern Ocean sea ice distribution is investigated using a coupled ocean-sea ice-atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) and a separate offline sea ice model driven by monthly mean climatological boundary conditions. Sea ice dynamics considerably affects sea ice distribution of the OAGCM as well as of the offline model. When sea ice dynamics (advection)

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  17. SeaWinds - Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

    Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

    The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

    Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

    The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

    With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

  18. Sea Ice, an Antarctic Habitat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A 'click-and-learn' sub site hosted by the Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), this is a succinct, educational tour of sea-ice and its associated ecological communities. Short synopses introduce the dynamics of sea-ice formation, the microstructure of sea-ice (including crystal structure, brine channels, and ice algae), the effects of ice melt on resident organisms, the logistics of sea-ice research, and _land fast-ice_ and platelet ice habitats. Introductions also exist for the following organisms: krill; whales (i.e., Orcas, southern bottlenosesd dolphins, minke whales); sea birds (i.e., skuas and snow petrals), penguins (i.e., emperor, adelie, and chinstraps), and seals (i.e., weddell, crabeater, leopard, and ross.) Enlargeable thumbnail images accompany the habitat and inhabitant descriptions. Further investigations (at an accelerated level) are prompted with the inclusion of bibliographic references and scientific research presentations (in PDF format) on fast-ice and platelet ice, as well as links to the main site for the AWI.

  19. Internal and external forcing of sea level variability in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2015-02-01

    The variability of sea level in the Black Sea is forced by a combination of internal and external processes of atmospheric, oceanic, and terrestrial origin. We use a combination of satellite altimetry and gravity, tide gauge, river discharge, and atmospheric re-analysis data to provide a comprehensive up-to-date analysis of sea level variability in the Black Sea and to quantify the role of different environmental factors that force the variability. The Black Sea is part of a large-scale climatic system that includes the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic. The seasonal sea level budget shows similar contributions of fresh water fluxes (precipitation, evaporation, and river discharge) and the Black Sea outflow, while the impact of the net surface heat flux is smaller although not negligible. We find that the nonseasonal sea level time series in the Black and Aegean seas are significantly correlated, the latter leading by 1 month. This lag is attributed to the adjustment of sea level in the Black Sea to externally forced changes of sea level in the Aegean Sea and to the impact of river discharge. The nonseasonal sea level budget in the Black Sea is dominated by precipitation and evaporation over the sea itself, but external processes such as river discharge and changes in the outflow can also cause some large synoptic-scale sea level anomalies. Sea level is strongly coupled to terrestrial water storage over the Black Sea drainage basin, which is modulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We show that during the low/high NAO southwesterly/northeasterly winds near the Strait of Gibraltar and southerly/northerly winds over the Aegean Sea are able to dynamically increase/decrease sea level in the Mediterranean and Black seas, respectively.

  20. Seasonal changes in the circulation of the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrell, W. R.; Henderson, E. W.; Slesser, G.; Payne, R.; Adams, R. D.

    1992-02-01

    A line of 10 current meter moorings was deployed across the northern North Sea between Scotland and Norway during the Autumn Circulation Experiment (ACE). Three persistent inflows were identified; the Fair Isle current, the inflow along the western edge of the Norwegian Trench, and a third inflow offshore from the Fair Isle current. Cross-correlations of the principal components of the current meter records support the hypothesis that this inflow was independent of the Fair Isle current. In addition, lagged rotary correlations between the principal components of the currents and the wind demonstrate that the third inflow exhibited a markedly different response to the wind than did the Fair Isle current. Temperature and salinity characteristics have been used to suggest that this third inflow may have been of recent Atlantic origin. During the period prior to the removal of stratification within the northern North Sea it has been estimated that the Fair Isle current resulted in a volume flux into the North Sea of ˜20 × 10 4m 3 s -1, the inflow within the Norwegian Trench of ˜102 × 10 4m 3 s -1 and the northerly Atlantic inflow of ˜40 × 10 4m 3 s -1.

  1. ConcepTest: Effect of Rain on Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A majority of Earth's water is in the oceans. Predict what would happen to sea level if rain fell continuously all over the world's oceans. a. Sea level would rise b. Sea level would fall c. Sea level ...

  2. Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub-eustatic values (i.e. they do not exceed the global average) and show little (but still significant) variations across the basin associated with the subsidence driven by the meltwater load. For year 2050, TIM calculations predict a sea-level rise of ~10 and ~30 cm for the mid range and the high end scenarios, respectively. Mainly because of the distinct mantle viscosity profiles adopted in ICE-5G(VM2) and KL05, the GIA patterns differ significantly and, in contrast with the TIM fingerprint, are both characterized by strong variations across the Mediterranean Sea, showing maximum values in the bulk of the basin. For the OR component, a significant geographical variation is observed across the Mediterranean sub-basins, corresponding to different Atlantic boundary conditionsAccording to this study, the total future sea-level rise for year 2050 will reach maximum values for the extreme scenario (hig-hend prediction for TIM, KL05 for GIA and EA1B2 for OR) of ˜ 27 cm in average with peak of ˜ 30 cm in the central sub-basins. Our results show that when these three components of future sea-level rise are simultaneously considered, the spatial variability is enhanced because of the neatly distinct geometry of the three fingerprints. References: Carillo, A., Sannino, G., Artale, V., Ruti, P., Calmanti, S., DellAquila, A., 2012, Clim. Dyn. 39 (9-10), 2167-2184; Fleming, K. and Lambeck, K., 2004, Quat. Sci. Rev. 23 (9-10), 1053-1077; Meehl, G.A., and 11 others, 2007, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press; Peltier W.R., 2004, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 111-149; Spada, G. and Stocchi, P., 2007, Comput. and Geosci., 33(4), 538-562; Spada G., Bamber J. L., Hurkmans R. T. W. L., 2013, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1-5, 40.

  3. Orientation and open-sea navigation in sea turtles

    PubMed

    Lohmann; Lohmann

    1996-01-01

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta L.) emerge from underground nests, scramble to the sea and begin a transoceanic migration by swimming away from their natal beach and into the open ocean. Evidence suggests that hatchlings sequentially use three different sets of cues to maintain orientation during their initial migration offshore. While on the beach, hatchlings find the ocean by crawling towards the lower, brighter seaward horizon and away from the dark, elevated silhouettes of vegetation and dunes. Upon entering the ocean, turtles initially orient seawards by swimming into waves, which can be detected as orbital movements from under water. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that turtles can transfer a course initiated on the basis of waves or visual cues to a course mediated by a magnetic compass. Thus, by setting a magnetic course on the basis of nearshore cues that indicate the seaward direction, hatchlings may continue on offshore headings after entering deep water beyond sight of land. Sea turtles may use the earth's magnetic field not only as a cue for compass orientation but also as a source of world-wide positional information. Recent experiments have demonstrated that loggerheads can detect subtle differences in magnetic field inclination and intensity, two geomagnetic features that vary across the surface of the earth. Because most nesting beaches and oceanic regions are marked by a unique combination of these features, these findings raise the possibility that adult sea turtles navigate using a bicoordinate magnetic map. PMID:9317364

  4. SeaWorld Snack Shop - SeaWorld Classroom Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea World - Just for Teachers

    2012-05-06

    In this problem-solving activity, challenges students to take on the role of a Food Services Manager placing orders for a snack shop at Sea World. To solve the problem they will use data and proportional reasoning to make predictions and communicate findings.

  5. Diversity and Distribution of Marine Microbial Eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lovejoy; R. Massana; C. Pedros-Alio

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August

  6. Sea Otter Pup Wants the Worm

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A sea otter pup watches eagerly as its mother eats a fat innkeeper worm in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

  7. The quest for sea-floor integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, Till; Huhn, Katrin; Bischof, Kai

    2015-03-01

    The status of sea floors is an important part of healthy marine ecosystems and intact coastlines. We need laws and a sea-floor management regime to make the exploitation of marine resources sustainable.

  8. Sensitivity study of a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, D.M.; Mysak, L.A.; Manak, D.K. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1993-02-15

    A numerical simulation of the seasonal sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian seas is presented. The sea ice model is extracted from Oberhuber's (1990) coupled sea ice-mixed layer-isopycnal general circulation model and is written in spherical coordinates. The advantage of such a model over previous sea ice models is that it can be easily coupled to either global atmospheric or ocean general circulation models written in spherical coordinates. In this model, the thermodynamics are a modification of that of Parkinson and Washington, while the dynamics use the full Hibler viscous-plastic rheology. Monthly thermodynamic and dynamic forcing fields for the atmosphere and ocean are specified. The simulations of the seasonal cycle of ice thickness, compactness, and velocity, for a control set of parameters, compare favorably with the known seasonal characteristics of these fields. A sensitivity study of the control simulation of the seasonal sea ice cover is presented. The sensitivity runs are carried out under three different themes, namely, numerical conditions, parameter values, and physical processes. This last theme refers to experiments in which physical processes are either newly added or completely removed from the model. Approximately 80 sensitivity runs have been performed in which a change from the control run environment has been implemented. Comparisons have been made between the control run and a particular sensitivity run based on time series of the seasonal cycle of the domain-averaged ice thickness, compactness, areal coverage, and kinetic energy. In addition, spatially varying fields of ice thickness, compactness, velocity, and surface temperature for each season are presented for selected experiments. A brief description and discussion of the more interesting experiments are presented. The simulation of the seasonal cycle of Arctic sea ice cover is shown to be robust. 31 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Isotopic Composition and Origin of the Red Sea and Salton Sea Geothermal Brines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig

    1966-01-01

    Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls

  10. Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    E-print Network

    Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands of the environmental, social, and economic effects of alternatives to the Steller sea lion protection measures and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is listed

  11. Geophysical Aspects of Sea-ice Nomenclatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference discusses the evolution of nomenclature for sea ice, originally developed for polar travel, and how it is seen from a geophysical perspective, particularly ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction or remote sensing. The site includes links to a number of student papers on sea-ice geophysics that provide background and material for discussion on the geophysical aspects of sea-ice nomenclatures. There is also a link to a pictorial glossary of sea ice terms and evolution.

  12. Phytoplankton blooms beneath the sea ice in the Chukchi sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Perovich, Donald K.; Pickart, Robert S.; Brown, Zachary W.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Lowry, Kate E.; Mills, Matthew M.; Palmer, Molly A.; Balch, William M.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Brownlee, Emily; Frey, Karen E.; Laney, Samuel R.; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Greg Mitchell, B.; Moore, G. W. K.; Reynolds, Rick A.; Sosik, Heidi M.; Swift, James H.

    2014-07-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, phytoplankton blooms on continental shelves are often limited by light availability, and are therefore thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. During July 2011 in the Chukchi Sea, a large phytoplankton bloom was observed beneath fully consolidated pack ice and extended from the ice edge to >100 km into the pack. The bloom was composed primarily of diatoms, with biomass reaching 1291 mg chlorophyll a m-2 and rates of carbon fixation as high as 3.7 g C m-2 d-1. Although the sea ice where the bloom was observed was near 100% concentration and 0.8-1.2 m thick, 30-40% of its surface was covered by melt ponds that transmitted 4-fold more light than adjacent areas of bare ice, providing sufficient light for phytoplankton to bloom. Phytoplankton growth rates associated with the under-ice bloom averaged 0.9 d-1 and were as high as 1.6 d-1. We argue that a thinning sea ice cover with more numerous melt ponds over the past decade has enhanced light penetration through the sea ice into the upper water column, favoring the development of these blooms. These observations, coupled with additional biogeochemical evidence, suggest that phytoplankton blooms are currently widespread on nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in waters where under-ice blooms develop are ~10-fold too low. These massive phytoplankton blooms represent a marked shift in our understanding of Arctic marine ecosystems.

  13. Mean sea level variability in the North Sea: Processes and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Calafat, Francisco M.; Arns, Arne; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Mean sea level (MSL) variations across a range of time scales are examined for the North Sea under the consideration of different forcing factors since the late 19th century. We use multiple linear regression models, which are validated for the second half of the 20th century against the output of a tide+surge model, to determine the barotropic response of the ocean to fluctuations in atmospheric forcing. We find that local atmospheric forcing mainly initiates MSL variability on time scales up to a few years, with the inverted barometric effect dominating the variability along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind controlling the MSL variability in the south from Belgium up to Denmark. On decadal time scales, MSL variability mainly reflects steric changes, which are largely forced remotely. A spatial correlation analysis of altimetry observations and gridded steric heights suggests evidence for a coherent signal extending from the Norwegian shelf down to the Canary Islands. This fits with the theory of longshore wind forcing along the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic causing coastally trapped waves to propagate over thousands of kilometers along the continental slope. Implications of these findings are assessed with statistical Monte-Carlo experiments. It is demonstrated that the removal of known variability increases the signal to noise ratio with the result that: (i) linear trends can be estimated more accurately; (ii) possible accelerations (as expected, e.g., due to anthropogenic climate change) can be detected much earlier. Such information is of crucial importance for anticipatory coastal management, engineering, and planning.

  14. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background. PMID:24159849

  15. Isotopic composition and origin of the red sea and salton sea geothermal brines.

    PubMed

    Craig, H

    1966-12-23

    Abstract. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls the circulation of the Red Sea. On this sill sea water penetrates a thick evaporite sequence to a depth of 2000 meters, and, driven by its increased density relative to sea water, flows northward to emerge in the brine-filled deeps. PMID:17807292

  16. Salish Sea Act3vity Book

    E-print Network

    Salish Sea Act3vity Book #12;Salish Sea . Salish sea is the traditional name for the inland stars (sometimes called starfish) are found along the northwest coast than anywhere else in the world in the quieter tidepools. Urchins eat algae, seaweed, and plankton (tiny floating plants). #12;The Giant Pacific

  17. Sea Turtle Tracks at Nesting Site

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A morning photo depicts evidence of a sea turtle nesting the previous night (from the sea, left; return to sea, right). The protective stakes mark a nest from an earlier week as part of a county research program that marks and records every eighth nest....

  18. Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Environmental changes in the central Baltic Sea during the past 1000 years: inferences from Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnem¨unde (IOW), Seestrasse 15, D­18119 Warnem¨unde, Germany. Dippner, S. Hille et al. Ice Age), the environmental conditions of the central Baltic Sea were distinctly

  19. Sea Ice Yearly Minimum in the Arctic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GSFC/Science Visualization Studio

    This series of visualizations show the annual Arctic sea ice minimum from 1979 to 2010. The decrease in Arctic sea ice over time is shown in an animation and a graph plotted simultaneously, but can be parsed so that the change in sea ice area can be shown without the graph.

  20. 33 CFR 2.32 - High seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High seas. 2.32 Section 2.32 Navigation...JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.32 High seas. (a) For purposes of special...States as defined in 18 U.S.C. 7, high seas means all waters seaward of...

  1. Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

  2. AMSR-E Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document: Sea Ice Products

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    1 AMSR-E Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document: Sea Ice Products Thorsten Markus and Donald J 20771 1. Overview The AMSR-E sea ice standard level 3 products include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The AMSR-E standard sea ice concentration product is generated using

  3. The Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-Sea Fog over the Yellow and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, F.

    2013-12-01

    A stratus-sea fog event occurred on 3 June 2011 over the Yellow and East China Seas (as shown in figure) is investigated observationally and numerically. Emphasis is put on the influences of the sea surface temperature front (SSTF) and of the synoptic circulations on the transition of stratus to sea fog. The southerly winds from a synoptic high pressure transport water vapor from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea, while the subsidence induced by the high contributes to the formation of the temperature inversion on the top of the stratus or stratocumulus that appears mainly over the warm flank of a sea surface temperature front in the East China Sea. Forced by the SSTF, there is a secondary cell within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), with a sinking branch on the cold flank and a rising one on the warm flank of the SSTF. This sinking branch, in phase with the synoptic subsidence, forces the stratus or stratocumulus to lower in the elevation getting close to the sea surface as these clouds move northward driven by the southerly winds. The cloud droplets can either reach to the sea surface directly or evaporate into water vapor that may condense again when coming close to the cold sea surface to form fog. In this later case, the stratus and fog may separate. The cooling effect of cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic heating induced by the subsidence and thus helps the transition of stratus to sea fog in the southern Yellow Sea. By smoothing the SSTF in the numerical experiment, the secondary cell weakens and the sea fog patches shrink obviously over the cold flank of the SSTF though the synoptic subsidence and moist advection still exist. A conceptual model is suggested for the transition of stratus to sea fog in the Yellow and East China Seas, which is helpful for the forecast of sea fog over these areas. The satellite visible image of the stratus-fog event. The fog appears in the Yellow Sea and the stratocumulus in the East China Sea.

  4. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  5. Great Lakes Region Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

  6. Great Lakes Region Sea Grant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

  7. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

  8. Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

  9. Scour in the North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Watson

    1974-01-01

    Scour or seabed erosion around drilling and production platform legs and pipelines in the North Sea can be a major environmental problem because of the combination of shallow water depths, fast tidal currents, and mobile sand waves and banks. Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward understanding the mechanism of seabed scour around offshore platforms, but the North

  10. Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients: 8 ounces pasta shells 12 ounces tuna in water, canned 1 onion 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one

  11. Navigating the Seas of Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stephanie; Kennedy, Steve; McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather

    As the sun, moon, and stars helped sea captains to navigate, policy (defined as a formalized idea to encourage change) indicates general direction and speed but does not establish a specific approach to achieve implementation. Formal and informal policies have advantages and disadvantages. These are steps in navigating policy formation: identify…

  12. A Deep-Sea Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Georgia E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

  13. Past and present Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

    2013-04-01

    The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

  14. TROPICAL ATLANTIC/ Warmer sea surface

    E-print Network

    in atmospheric pressure and its associated impacts are known as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). #12;-south contrast in sea level pressure over the North Atlantic Ocean, with low pressure in the north near Iceland and high pressure in the south near the Azores. The pressure contrast drives surface winds and wintertime

  15. SEA K-12 Lesson Plans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Award-winning ideas from SEA Semester's educators. This collection of over 25 lesson plans covers topics in marine biology, coastal ecology, chemical and physical oceanography, seafloor geology and nautical science. Each plan includes target grades, keywords, introduction and background, advice on how to best integrate the activities into classroom curriculum, instructions and tips, materials list, procedures, suggestions for evaluation, extensions.

  16. Alaska SeaLife Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

  17. Global Sea SurfaceTemperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

  18. Tides of the British Seas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandon, Frank

    1975-01-01

    Examines the gravitational effects and the way that local conditions interact with these effects to produce the tides characteristic of the British seas. Presents some effects of tides including the possibility of harnessing tidal energy and the effect of tidal friction on the use of the earth as a clock. (GS)

  19. Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species (SGNIS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea Grant's award winning, comprehensive exotic species resource center with everything from educational materials to research findings on a variety of exotic species. Site features peer-reviewed literature, unreviewed publications, and the outreach section includes a searchable database of reference material covering all aspects of nonindigenous species, including individual exotic species. Also features an outstanding kid's section containing games and information on exotics.

  20. Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, B)

    2007-07-14

    Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

  1. Westward intensification in marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gengxin; Xue, Huijie

    2014-03-01

    An idealized model was used to examine why the strong western boundary current (WBC) is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) but not in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and Japan/East Sea (JES). Results suggested that the stronger WBC in the SCS is mainly attributed to the direct contribution of the inflow and the strong monsoon. Although the Gulf Stream transports a large amount of water into the GOM, the passage in the southeast corner guides the inflow out of the gulf and inhibits the inflow from intensifying the WBC. Meanwhile, the wind stress in the GOM is weakest among the three marginal seas. The meridional ocean ridge and the particular layout of the continental slope of JES prevent the whole basin from participating in the westward intensification. Besides, the throughflow has adverse effects on the formulation of WBC in JES. The variation of Coriolis parameter with latitude leads to the westward intensification in marginal seas. However, a strong WBC cannot be observed in the absence of reasonable collocation of wind, inflow, and topography.

  2. Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

    2006-10-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

  3. Facing up to sea rise.

    PubMed

    Pernetta, J

    1994-01-01

    A milder and less extreme climate, abundance of fish and mollusks, transport and communication, and fertile land at low altitudes have drawn humans to coastal areas and river valleys for centuries. More than 60% of the world's population occupy the 150 km closest to the coast. Millions of tourists come to coastlines and small tropical islands for recreation. About 80% of the global fish supply originates from the 19 km closest to the shore. Fish are the only protein source for the rapidly growing populations in many developing countries. Global climate change is increasing the sea level so much that by 2050, the mean increase will be about 38 cm (24-52 cm). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes that the effects of sea level rise will differ from place to place. Direct effects are flooding of low-lying coastal areas and increased erosion rates. An indirect effect includes higher water tables and intrusion of saline water into aquifers, resulting in loss of fresh ground water resources. These effects may make coastal areas less suitable for settlement and agriculture. Coral sand settled on top of coral reefs makes up the unstable, small atoll islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. People on these islands depend almost entirely on the sea for their livelihood and on the small amount of fresh water with which they grow root crops and drink. Rising sea levels also threaten low lying countries, e.g., Bangladesh, and densely populated deltas, e.g., the Nile. Changes in the frequency and severity of flooding will increase Bangladesh's dependence on foreign aid. IPCC sees 3 possible responses to the rising sea level: defense, retreat, and accommodation. Accommodation is the only practical choice for many developing countries. A switch from rice cultivation to mariculture of prawns and fish is an example of accommodation. We need to more completely understand the natural processes in coastal environments to be better prepared for climate change. PMID:12287486

  4. Management of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, W. J.; Zijlstra, J. J.

    1980-03-01

    The Wadden Sea situated along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany and The Netherlands represents one of the world's largest bar-built type of estuaries. The area is a typical sedimentation and mineralization basin, with a large influx of organic matter from the adjoining North Sea, consequently a delicate oxygen balance and a rich benthic macrofauna, poor in species, which serves as food for juveniles of some commercially important North Sea fishes and for large numbers of migrating and wintering waders and waterfowl. Past and present activities of the human society in the area include fisheries (mainly for shrimp and mussels, semi-culture), shipping, land reclamation, recreation, dredging for sand and shells, and waste discharge from industries and human communities. Until the present these activities, although sometimes conflicting, did not fundamentally affect the area and its biota (pollution excluded), but future claims, including the construction of large deep-sea harbours, drilling for natural gas and oil, large-scale land reclamation and increased industrialization etc., might gradually induce degradation. For instance, area reduction by continued land reclamation could lead to irreversible losses of specific biotopes (e. g. salt-marshes, mud-flats), which could affect the size of bird and fish populations in a much wider region. Increased pollution, which has already inflicted damage on bird and seal populations, could reduce the fauna and hence the value of the area as a natural sanctuary. In the event of a proposal for a new human activity in the area, the present standing practice in the countries concerned requires an evaluation of its safety and economic aspects and its environmental impact. However, the various plans are considered separately and there is a general need for integrated management of the area.

  5. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    PubMed

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

  6. Flavor Structure of Intrinsic Nucleon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Wen-Chen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic charm suggested by Brodsky et al. is extended to lighter quarks. Extraction of the intrinsic ?, d¯, and s¯ seas is obtained from an analysis of the d¯ - ?, s + s¯, and ? + d¯ - s -s¯ distributions. The connection between the intrinsic/extrinsic seas and the connected/disconnected seas in lattice QCD is also examined. It is shown that the connected and disconnected components for the ?(x) + d¯(x) sea can be separated. The striking x-dependence of the [s(x) + s¯(x)]/[?(x) + d¯(x)] ratio is interpreted as an interplay between the connected and disconnected seas.

  7. Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.

    PubMed

    Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

    2013-08-01

    After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes. PMID:23908231

  8. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  9. Compaction of North-sea chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszthelyi, Dániel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Ekofisk field is the largest petroleum field in the Norwegian North Sea territory where oil is produced from chalk formations. Early stage of oil production caused considerable changes in pore fluid pressure which led to a reservoir compaction. Pore collapse mechanism caused by the dramatic increase of effective stress, which in turn was caused by the pressure reduction by hydrocarbon depletion, was early identified as a principal reason for the reservoir compaction (Sulak et al. 1991). There have been several attempts to model this compaction. They performed with variable success on predicting the Ekofisk subsidence. However, the most of these models are based on empirical relations and do not investigate in detail the phenomena involved in the compaction. In sake of predicting the Ekofisk subsidence while using only independently measurable variables we used a chalk compaction model valid on geological time-scales (Japsen et al. 2011) assuming plastic pore-collapse mechanism at a threshold effective stress level. We identified the phenomena involved in the pore collapse. By putting them in a sequential order we created a simple statistical analytical model. We also investigated the time-dependence of the phenomena involved and by assuming that one of the phenomena is rate-limiting we could make estimations of the compaction rate at smaller length-scales. By carefully investigating the nature of pressure propagation we could upscale our model to reservoir scale. We found that the predicted compaction rates are close enough to the measured rates. We believe that we could further increase accuracy by refining our model. Sulak, R. M., Thomas, L. K., Boade R. R. (1991) 3D reservoir simulation of Ekofisk compaction drive. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 43(10):1272-1278, 1991. Japsen, P., Dysthe, D. K., Hartz, E. H., Stipp, S. L. S., Yarushina, V. M., Jamtveit. (2011) A compaction front in North Sea chalk. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 116(B11)

  10. On the cloudiness and cloud types around the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, J.; Dmitrieva, L. R.; Shatunova, M.; Chumako, M.; Khan, V.; Calbó, J.; González, J.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Ten years (2000-2010) of cloud ground observations from 332 synoptic stations (with 3h time resolution) for the regions around the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea were analyzed. The considered variables were: total cloud cover (TCLD), cloud cover from low or middle clouds (LMCLD), low cloud type (LCLD), middle cloud type (MCLD) and high cloud type (HCLD). Data analyses were carried out for the whole dataset and several subsets: cloudless observations, 1-layer observations, and multi-layer observations. For the whole dataset, the analyses included frequency of cloudy observations, frequency of multilayer observations, and mean TCLD. We studied also frequency of 1-layer of clouds only, and frequency of each type of clouds (low, middle, high). Results show a large spatial and seasonal variability with respect to TCLD, cloud types and the frequency of multilayer cloud observations. Moreover, over the ten-year period, the evolution of the annual mean TCLD is investigated, showing a positive trend in the northern region of the Black Sea. Acknowledgements: This work has been undertaken within the frame and support of the CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512).

  11. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  12. Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol: A trajectory study of 25 years of year-round sea salt aerosol record at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Tian-Kunze; L. Kaleschke; R. Weller; G. König-Langlo; D. Wagenbach; S. Rast; G. Santos; A. Richter; M. Begoin

    2009-01-01

    Recently it was recognized that sea ice is a source of sea salt aerosols in coastal Antarctica, playing a more important role than open ocean during winter time. Frost flowers which grow on the surface of newly-formed sea ice are considered to contribute to the generation of sea salt aerosols. The exact mechanism of the release of sea salt aerosols

  13. Lithosphere-scale 3D gravity modelling of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Barents - Kara Sea region covers the major part of the European Arctic shelf. Its northern and western boundaries are young passive margins which originate from early Paleocene-Eocene opening of the Eurasia Basin and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. In contrast, the basement of the Barents and Kara shelves has been consolidated much earlier, during three major late Precambrian to Permian orogenies. Additionally, the shelf experienced multiple episodes of localised subsidence which resulted in the formation of ultra-deep sedimentary basins varying strongly in their geometry between different subregions. Consequently, the preserved sedimentary record is interrupted by major megasequence boundaries that are well-described in the western Barents Sea. Using this subdivision for the sedimentary record, we traced four major megasequence boundaries across the Barents and Kara shelves by analysing interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3D-models. We integrate this shallow information into a 3D geological model and complement the latter downward with the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a new lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The sedimentary units have been assigned physical properties considering the respective lithology to calculate a depth-dependent density distribution. Thereby, the obtained bulk densities also account for late Cenozoic uplift/erosion and the maximum Pleistocene ice sheet thickness. For the lithospheric mantle, the density distribution is constrained by an earlier published velocity model (Levshin et al., 2007). On the base of isostatic calculations and 3D gravity modelling the density configuration of the crystalline crust and the geometry of potential high-density bodies is investigated. Finally, we correlate preserved sediment maxima and reconstructed erosion maps with subsedimentary velocity and density variations to gain new insights into the development of Barents and Kara Sea basins. Levshin, A. L., Schweitzer, J., Weidle, C., Shapiro, N. M., & Ritzwoller, M. H. (2007). Surface wave tomography of the Barents Sea and surrounding regions. Geophysical Journal International, 170(1), 441-459. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03285.x

  14. Alkenone production in the East Sea/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Sunghye; Park, Yonggi; Lee, Ho Jin; Harada, Naomi

    2014-02-01

    To test the applicability of alkenones as a proxy for past sea surface temperature (SST) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), this study investigated the season and depth of alkenone production in the area. Surface and subsurface seawater samples were collected from the East Sea during cruises carried out by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute of Korea in 2008-2010. Surface samples were filtered for suspended material at two-month intervals. Subsurface samples were collected at water depths of 20, 50, 70 and 100 m by CTD bottle casts at two stations, one a coastal station and the other an offshore station. The results of alkenone analysis show that the concentration of total C37 alkenones was generally high in the surface mixed layer and decreased with depth, indicating that alkenones were most likely produced in or close to the surface mixed layer. Alkenone concentration varied seasonally: high in spring to fall and significantly reduced in winter. Comparisons of alkenone-based temperatures with in situ seawater temperatures show that alkenone temperatures measured from suspended particles in the surface waters were close to in situ SST in summer but were lower in winter. During winter, when alkenone production is significantly reduced, alkenones may be suspended for relatively long times and are likely to be advected from the north by eddies from Subpolar Front meanders. In summer when new production of alkenones increases, the settling velocity of alkenones appears to increase and residence time becomes shorter than in winter, suggesting that particles are less likely to be significantly advected at that time. Importantly, at the offshore station, coretop alkenone temperature corresponds to annual-averaged SST, while at the coastal station it corresponds to summer-to-fall averaged SST.

  15. Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

    2012-07-01

    An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

  16. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before the 1990s, 137Cs inflow exceeded outflow in the annual balance, but the opposite pattern is observed nowadays. This tendency of prevailing of 137Cs outflow processes in the Barents Sea may be explained by natural decay and ecosystem self-cleaning of the radioactivity, which has penetrated previously. According to our assumptions, in total, 37400 TBq of 137Cs penetrated, and 26300 TBq of 137Cs were output from the Barents Sea during the period 1950-2010, i.e., 70.2% of this isotope was removed. From the 1960s through the present, the inflow of 90Sr exceeded the outflow. In total, 24800 TBq of 90Sr penetrated, and 19600 TBq of 90Sr were output through the northern and northeastern margins of the Barents Sea, i.e., 79.1% of this isotope was removed. From 1960 through the 1980s, the income/outcome ratio in the Barents Sea was quite stable and constituted 1.4-1.5 for 137Cs and 1.1-1.2 for 90Sr. The increase of the impact of atmospheric precipitation on 137Cs income was up to 42% in 1986 due to the Chernobyl disaster, and the income/outcome ratio increased to 2.6. The atmospheric income of 90Sr in 1986 was minor, and the ratio stayed the same for this isotope.

  17. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  18. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines

    PubMed Central

    Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

    2012-01-01

    The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine’s unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine’s architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material. PMID:22984468

  19. Journey to Deep Sea Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about deep sea vents. Kids are introduced to these underwater geysers and to the Alvin submersible by Ro Kinzler, an Earth scientist at the Museum. They then have the opportunity to travel to the bottom of the ocean aboard a virtual submersible, learning about the zones they pass through and their inhabitants. A game allows kids to explore and collect specimens from one of the mineral chimneys found at a deep sea vent. When they have collected all nine living things at the vent, they are rewarded with a desktop image.

  20. Weyl's Theory of Glaciation Supported by Isotopic Study of Norwegian Core K 11.

    PubMed

    Duplessy, J C; Chenouard, L; Vila, F

    1975-06-20

    Oxygen-18 analyses of pelagic and benthic foraminifera from core K 11 indicate that during the last glaciation Norwegian Sea bottom waters were warmer than in modern times and had the same physical parameters (temperature, oxygen isotope ratio, and salinity) as the North Atlantic deep water. This result indicates that the glacial Norwegian Sea was not a sink for dense surface water, as it is now, and that during glacial times North Atlantic deep water invaded the deep Norwegian basin. PMID:17818162

  1. Swimming with Sea Cows: Manatees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    When manatees were first seen by Columbus, he thought they were mermaids..but he had been at sea for a long time! Today these gentle marine mammals are threatened by loss of habitat and collisions with boats. This video segment explores the endangered manatees of Florida and their struggle to survive, as well as some of the people who are working to save them. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

  2. Fracture of multiyear sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Sammonds; S. A. F. Murrell; M. A. Rist

    1998-01-01

    The fracture and flow of multiyear sea ice was investigated under triaxial compression and uniaxial tension in the temperature range -40 ø to -3.5øC, for strain rates from 10 -7 to 10 -2 s -1, and for confining pressures up to 30 MPa using 40 mm diameter specimens. Specimens both in the horizontal plane of the multiyear floe and perpendicular

  3. Fracture of multiyear sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Sammonds; S. A. F. Murrell; M. A. Rist

    1998-01-01

    The fracture and flow of multiyear sea ice was investigated under triaxial compression and uniaxial tension in the temperature range -40° to -3.5°C, for strain rates from 10-7 to 10-2s-1, and for confining pressures up to 30 MPa using 40 mm diameter specimens. Specimens both in the horizontal plane of the multiyear floe and perpendicular to this plane were tested.

  4. Fracture of multiyear sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammonds, P. R.; Murrell, S. A. F.; Rist, M. A.

    1998-09-01

    The fracture and flow of multiyear sea ice was investigated under triaxial compression and uniaxial tension in the temperature range -40° to -3.5°C, for strain rates from 10-7 to 10-2s-1 and for confining pressures up to 30 MPa using 40 mm diameter specimens. Specimens both in the horizontal plane of the multiyear floe and perpendicular to this plane were tested. The results of short-rod fracture toughness tests on multiyear and first-year sea ice at temperatures -20°C are also reported. The multiyear sea ice came from an unridged portion of a single floe about 7 m thick, which was found to be massive and not blocky with large voids. The ice had low salinity and high porosity. The inelastic deformation of multiyear sea ice was found to be strongly dependent upon strain rate, temperature, and confining pressure. In compression, four main types of deformation were observed. (1) Under uniaxial compression, completely brittle fracture at high strain rates (of 10-3 to 10-2 s-1) was characterized by multiple axial splitting. (2) Application of even a small confining pressure inhibited splitting, and fracture took place by the formation of a narrow shear fault inclined at 45±3°. (3) At higher confining pressures, plastic deformation accompanied substantial cracking activity. (4) However, at still higher confining pressures, cracking was completely inhibited and deformation was entirely plastic. At -20°C, shear fracture occurred according to a maximum shear stress criterion and hence was pressure independent, with crack nucleation dominating the fracture behavior. At -40°C, however, the shear fracture stress was found to be strongly pressure dependent up to 14 MPa and could be described in terms of a Coulombic failure envelope. The unusual 45° orientation of ice shear fractures, together with the unusual pressure dependencies of ice peak strengths, may be explained by the fact that low-stress slip and cleavage occurs in the basal planes of ice crystals.

  5. NOAA Teacher At Sea Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

  6. Primary productivity in the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in primary productivity is discussed in the book based on 27 symposia texts and 19 poster abstracts. Most papers deal with particular cellular processes in pelagic phytoplankton and their relationship to whole plant photosynthesis and growth. In addition, presentations on the productivity of the seaweed, Laminaria, zooxanthellae and whole corals are included. Other articles discuss predictive modeling, new developments in remote sensing, nutrient regeneration within the sea, grazing effects, and carbon cycling. (JMT)

  7. Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this poster presentation is to develop technologies to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. The Medusa Isosampler (isobaric sampler), for sampling fluids eminating from deep sea hydrothermal vents and cold seep sites analogous to extraterrestrial environments, is described by the presentation. The following instruments are integrated with the isosampler, and also described: in situ flow-through chemical sensor, intrinsic fluorescent-based microbial detector, isotope ratio spectral detector.

  8. Salton Sea solar pond project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Meitlis, I.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing salt gradient solar ponds within the Salton Sea is being studied. These ponds would serve a dual purpose: (1) become a depository for unwanted salt and (2) supply thermal energy for driving turbine electric power systems. Under present circumstances, the rise in salinity is expected to eliminate fish life and create other unfavorable conditions. The proposed concept would have a power generation potential of 600 MWe.

  9. Ice Sheets and Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this exercise, learners use basic arithmetic to determine the amount that sea level would rise around the globe with the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Basic data for this calculation is provided. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

  10. Arctic sea ice minimum extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice dropped to 3.41 million square kilometers on 16 September, 760,000 square kilometers below the minimum ice extent in 2007, which had been the low mark since the satellite record began in 1979, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) announced. Overall ice extent is 50% below where it was in the 1970s, NSIDC research scientist Walt Meier said during a 19 September briefing. He added that there is also a decrease in ice thickness. Meier said that sea ice varies from year to year with lots of ups and downs. “We wouldn't expect it to keep going down, straight off the map so to speak,” he said. “Typically after a record low, we've seen it rebound.” Meier added that the general long-term trend is for the Arctic to continue to become generally ice free. He said it is difficult to know how long it will take for that condition to be reached; because of strong variations, Arctic sea ice extent could plateau for some time.

  11. MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

  12. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, Nicole [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunke, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Adrian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  13. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  14. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2013-11-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea. PMID:24035457

  15. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Roder, C.; Berumen, M. L.; Bouwmeester, J.; Papathanassiou, E.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Voolstra, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ‘deep-sea’ and ‘cold-water’ corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

  16. Historical Antarctic mean sea ice area, sea ice trends, and winds in CMIP5 simulations

    E-print Network

    Mahlstein, Irina

    In contrast to Arctic sea ice, average Antarctic sea ice area is not retreating but has slowly increased since satellite measurements began in 1979. While most climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project ...

  17. A study of mobile trough genesis over the Yellow Sea - East China Sea region

    E-print Network

    Komar, Keith Nickolas

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the formation of mobile troughs over a prolific source region in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Two mobile troughs which intensified significantly after formation were...

  18. Marine environments in the China Seas and their prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, C. [National Research Center for Marine Environment Forecasts, Beijing (China)

    1993-12-31

    The China Seas surround the China continent to its south and east, and connect with the Pacific Ocean. In this paper, marine environmental elements in the China Seas such as marine climate, storm surge, sea wave, sea temperature, sea ice, tsunami and red tide, are analyzed. The predication of marine environments, especially oceanic disasters with good accuracy are also given in this paper.

  19. Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stanichny; A. Davidov; S. Djenidi; U. Horstmann; R. Stanichnaya; D. Soloviev

    2004-01-01

    The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the

  20. Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas

    E-print Network

    Vries, Hans de

    G G G G Flood Vulnerability and Flood Protection North and Baltic Seas Meteorological Forcings NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 1 #12;G G G G Overview GLAMEPS Harmonie G G G G NorthSea/BalticSeaMeteorologicalForcingsforDCSM28April2009 2 #12;G G G G DCSM and Hirlam History

  1. The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibler, William D., III

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

  2. Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey

    E-print Network

    Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey · Sea Lion Species · California Sea Lions (not listed) - increasing · Steller Sea Lions eDPS (threatened) ­ increasing (delisting review under way, June 2010) · Steller Sea Lions wDPS (endangered) - decreasing · Predators ­ varied diet

  3. Anchovy fisheries in the Adriatic Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANDO CINGOLANI; GIANFRANCO GIANNETTI; ENRICO ARNERI

    SUMMARY: Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) is one the most important commercial species of the Adriatic Sea. With a surface area of 138,000 km2, about one twentieth of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea produced about 13,000 tonnes of anchovy in 1991, equal to 19% of the Mediterranean anchovy catches. The value of Adriatic anchovy catches has been estimated at about

  4. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  5. Journey to the Deep Sea Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This six-day unit provides an in-depth look at the dynamic forces at work on the sea floor. Throughout the unit, students collect their findings in a portfolio. The comprehensive curriculum materials include teacher tools such as individually downloadable readings and detailed daily breakdowns of tasks, a hands-on experiment, three activities about how scientists find deep sea vents and two activities about the thriving ecosystems found in deep sea vents.

  6. Caribbean Conservation Corporation/ Sea Turtle Survival League

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contains sources of information on sea turtles, tropical birds, and other species in the Caribbean basin and the Costa Rica rainforests. Site includes information on satellite telemetry, satellite-tracked sea turtles data and maps, and sea turtle legislation. Directions, data, and other materials available allow you to create your own maps. Free printable publications available. Also information on grants, workshops, donations, and volunteer opportunities.

  7. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-07-01

    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs.

  8. Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes the Research Institute's use of science in developing solutions for conservation challenges facing marine ecosystems and species. Overviews of research projects in ecology, physiology, bioacoustics and aquaculture. Species studied include: marine mammals, sea turtles, whale shark, white sea bass and others. Explains how satellite tracking technology is used to study survival needs of endangered species (leatherback sea turtle, Hawaiian monk seal). Outlines educational objectives and contributions, news and events. Appropriate for grades 8 and up.

  9. Steriod dynamics in immature sea turtles

    E-print Network

    Morris, Yuki A

    1982-01-01

    numbers of adult and im- mature individuals in a given sea turtle population. In some animals, evidence indicates that early experi- ences greatly influence the physiology and the behavior of the adult. Such influences may exist for sea turtles...: Biology STEROID DYNAMICS IN IMMATURE SEA TURTLES A Thesis by YUKI ANN MORRIS Approved as to styie and content by: David W. Owens (Chairman of Committee) Heimut W. Sauer (Head of Department) Robert C. Bur hardt (Member) Max S. Amoss (Member...

  10. Lena River Delta and East Siberian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. Arctic sea ice as a granular plastic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Overland; S. Lyn McNutt; Sigrid Salo; Joanne Groves; Shusun Li

    1998-01-01

    An important consideration in understanding sea ice mechanics is the integration of observed sea ice behavior on a floe neighborhood scale (1-10 km) into ice dynamics on a regional scale O(50km). We investigate sea ice kinematics from October 1993 through April 1994 using relative motions from 13 drifting buoys with Global Positioning System navigation in a 20-km array centered on

  12. South China Sea WWW Virtual Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rosenburg, David

    The South China Sea WWW Virtual Library is a new subsection of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library edited by David Rosenberg, professor of political science at Middlebury College (Vermont). This site will serve as a centralized resource for students, researchers, and policymakers interested in South China Sea regional development, environment, and security issues. The South China Sea WWW VL links to online publications, databases, maps, images, related institutions, and a print bibliography.

  13. Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2012-08-14

    This module looks at how increasing temperatures due to climate change have affected sea level rise and what effects scientist expect in the future, given rising greenhouse gas emissions. The various mechanisms of sea level rise are discussed, as well as the tools and research used to study this topic. The module also discusses how countries and communities are preparing for future increases in sea levels.

  14. [On differentiation of cod (Gadus morhua L.) groups in Baltic Sea].

    PubMed

    Stroganov, A N; Bleil, M; Oeberst, R; Winkler, H; Semenova, A V

    2013-09-01

    Using the AGP*, PGI-1*, PGI-2*, LDH*, IDH*, and PGM* allozyme markers, the differentiation of cod groups during the spawning period in Baltic Sea was evaluated. It was shown that cod samples from the eastern and western parts of Baltic Sea (being statistically significantly different from the cod samples from the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, and the Skagerrak Strait) demonstrated a high degree of identity (I = 0.99-1.0), which could be associated with the observed from the beginning of the present millennium increased migration of cod from eastern Baltic regions to the waters of Bornholm basin, and the distribution of the part of migrants from Bornholm basin to Arkona basin. PMID:25486775

  15. [On differentiation of cod (Gadus morhua L.) groups in Baltic Sea].

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Using the AGP*, PGI-1*, PGI-2*, LDH*, IDH*, and PGM* allozyme markers, the differentiation of cod groups during the spawning period in Baltic Sea was evaluated. It was shown that cod samples from the eastern and western parts of Baltic Sea (being statistically significantly different from the cod samples from the Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, and the Skagerrak Strait) demonstrated a high degree of identity (I = 0.99-1.0), which could be associated with the observed from the beginning of the present millennium increased migration of cod from eastern Baltic regions to the waters of Bornholm basin, and the distribution of the part of migrants from Bornholm basin to Arkona basin. PMID:25508906

  16. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Peder A.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009–2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids. PMID:22319130

  17. Correlating the shallow and the deep 3D-structure of the Barents Sea/ Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The Barents Sea and Kara Sea continental shelf region is located in the northern European Arctic. The crustal configuration of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region exhibits a complex architecture of the sedimentary cover which implies the influence of diverse causative geological processes. The narrow and deep basins of the southwestern Barents Sea characterise rift basins which have been filled with thick sediments predominantly Mesozoic in age. In contrast, the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea are marked by a wide and deep basin architecture which indicates basin formation mechanisms apart from rifting. There, the sedimentary succession yields Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Cenozoic deposits are restricted to the southwesternmost parts of the Barents Sea and the oceanic domain. The lack of sediments on the shelf is attributed to strong Pleistocene uplift, subsequent erosion and recurring ice sheet coverage of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. The modelled area covers about 5 million km² with a maximum longitudinal and latitudinal extent of 2180 and 2400 km, respectively, and comprises regions beyond the Barents Sea and Kara Sea such as parts of Greenland, Fennoscandia and western Siberia. This study presents the lithospheric density configuration below the greater Barents Sea/ Kara Sea region. Thereby, five sedimentary megasequences are differentiated across the entire study area. Each unit is modelled with matrix densities and depth dependent porosities to calculate the bulk densities. The respective compaction curves reflect that strong late Cenozoic erosion and ice sheet coverage removed particularly less dense sediments on Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya, while in the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea erosion was less effective. Thus, the obtained sedimentary bulk densities vary laterally distinctively. The density setup of the subsedimentary lithosphere beneath the Barents shelf is defined by a high-resolution, velocity-converted density grid. This dataset is tested the first time against gravity to further constrain the 3D density model. Interestingly, region that experienced weaker Cenozoic erosion are underlain by a heavier mantle density composition.

  18. Changes in Extremes of Relative Sea-level: the Baltic Sea case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M.; Barbosa, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Long records of relative sea-level heights from coastal tide gauge stations provide valuable information on regional variability. The analysis of such records is usually focused on the estimation of linear slopes by ordinary least squares regression. However, sea-level variability can include not only changes in the mean but also changes in the shape and spread of the sea-level values distribution over time. These variations can be more important than changes in mean sea-level - in particular, changes in extreme high waters can impact considerably coastal locations and populations. In this study, this issue is addressed by analyzing the variability of extreme sea-levels in the Baltic Sea through quantile regression. This method allows to derive slopes, along with corresponding uncertainties, for different quantiles of the sea-level distribution. A total of 70 tide gauges along the Baltic sea coastlines are considered. The results show that in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea, including the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the rate of change of relative sea-level is significantly higher at the 0.9 quantile (corresponding to the largest 10% of sorted sea-level values) than at the mean. The Baltic Sea is a shallow, semi-enclosed sea. Relative sea-level heights are directly influenced by land uplift, which varies considerably along the Baltic Sea coastlines and by the exchange of water through the Danish Straits, mainly determined by meteorological conditions (particularly winds and atmospheric pressure). The distinct rate of change of high-waters in the upper Baltic Sea seems to be associated with corresponding changes in atmospheric conditions, particularly westerly winds.

  19. Predicting the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Caribbean Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIANNE R. FISH; ISABELLE M. COTE; JENNIFER A. GILL; ANDREW P. JONES; SASKIA RENSHOFF; ANDREW R. WATKINSON

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Th ep rojected rise in sea level is likely to increase the vulnerability of coastal zones in the Caribbean, which,are already under,pressure from,a combination,of anthropogenic,activities and,natural processes. One of the major effects will be a loss of beach habitat, which provides nesting sites for endangered sea turtles. To assess the potential impacts of sea-level rise on sea turtle nesting

  20. Population status of California sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

  1. Sea level rise and its coastal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, Anny; Cozannet, Gonéri Le

    2014-02-01

    Global warming in response to accumulation of human-induced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere has already caused several visible consequences, among them increase of the Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content, melting of glaciers, and loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Ocean warming and land ice melt in turn are causing sea level to rise. Sea level rise and its impacts on coastal zones have become a question of growing interest in the scientific community, as well as in the media and public. In this review paper, we summarize the most up-to-date knowledge about sea level rise and its causes, highlighting the regional variability that superimposes the global mean rise. We also present sea level projections for the 21st century under different warming scenarios. We next address the issue of the sea level rise impacts. We question whether there is already observational evidence of coastal impacts of sea level rise and highlight the fact that results differ from one location to another. This suggests that the response of coastal systems to sea level rise is highly dependent on local natural and human settings. We finally show that in spite of remaining uncertainties about future sea levels and related impacts, it becomes possible to provide preliminary assessment of regional impacts of sea level rise.

  2. Biogeochemistry of the Salton Sea, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrhein, C.; Reese, B. K.; Anderson, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Salton Sea is a saline, closed basin lake 70 meters below MSL in the southern desert of California. It is the largest lake in California with a surface area of 945 km2 and an annual inflow of 1,600 million m3. The Sea is hypereutrophic due to nutrient inputs from farm runoff, and anaerobic conditions in the bottom water result in summer and fall releases of hydrogen sulfide and fish kills. The salinity of the Sea is 47 g/L and rising, with an annual salt load of 4 million metric tons. Plans are being developed for construction of a salt repository to control salinization, improve water quality, and maintain the Sea as a refuge for migratory waterfowl. We estimate 700,000 metric tons of calcite are precipitating in the Sea each year, along with 7,000 tons of iron sulfide minerals. Potentially, 70,000 metric tons of hydrogen sulfide are produced in the Sea each year. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide production, reoxidation in the water column, and atmospheric releases will be reported. Hydrodynamic modeling of the current Sea, and the proposed smaller Sea, indicate that partitioning the Sea could lead to persistent stratification and episodic releases of hydrogen sulfide during fall mixing.

  3. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  4. Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), is the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. The PSMSL data set is the main source of information on long term changes in global sea level during the last two centuries. This site contains data sets, and information on other services such as vertical land movements and air pressure. There are answers to frequently asked questions about sea level changes, packets on data use available, annual reports, and other contacts for more information.

  5. Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-08-08

    This website, designed for K-12 teachers and students, offers materials and activities based on the "Extreme 2008: A Deep Sea Adventure" mission to explore deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Students can step into the shoes of deep-sea scientists as they follow the expedition and listen to recordings of student communications with the researchers via e-mail and telephone calls placed directly to Alvin, a research submersible, as it made its way deep into the Pacific. Topics include sea creatures, geology, plate tectonics, and chemistry of the deep ocean. Video clips are also provided to help students visualize the underwater experience.

  6. Coastal Consequences of Sea Level Rise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-18

    This self-paced tutorial explores the evidence for sea level rise related to global climate change and the consequences for humanity, especially for coastal-dwelling populations. Learners explore how a warming climate contributes to sea level rise, examine how satellites collect sea level data, and analyze interactive data to understand the potential consequences of climate change on sea level in different parts of the world. Multimedia educational resources including video clips and glossary links to vocabulary are included. This is the seventh of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

  7. Coastal eolian landforms and sea level fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badyukova, E. N.; Solovieva, G. D.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is dedicated to correlation of the formation of coastal marine landforms with sea level fluctuations and climate changes in the last millennium using the southeastern Baltic region as an example. The morphological analysis of spits and historical evidence reveal three sea level oscillations in its evolution. It is shown that the sea level rise against the background of the sandy material excess in the coastal zone and optimum angle of the prevailing land-directed wind are the main factors responsible for accumulation of the thickest sandy formations. The recent climate warming and related sea level rise provoke global destabilization of coastal dune massifs.

  8. Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niiler, Pearn P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

  9. Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chente Tseng; Chiyuan Lin; Shihchin Chen; Chungzen Shyu

    2000-01-01

    Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA\\/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold

  10. A numerical experiment on the sedimentation processes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Yanagi; Koh-ichi Inoue

    1995-01-01

    Sedimentation processes of suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang are investigated with the use of a three-dimensional numerical model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea which includes the tidal current, residual flow and wind waves. Suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe mainly deposits in the Bohai Sea and that from the old

  11. NOAA's Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    and Technology Program is to provide sound scientific information needed to conserve and manage deep-sea coralNOAA's Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems Research over activities that disturb the seafloor. Recovery from damage may take decades, or even centuries, as most deep

  12. NOAA's Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    NOAA's Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems Deep-sea corals can and pipelines, and other human activities that disturb the seafloor. Recovery from damage may take decades Act. · Produces sound science to support NOAA's role in the management of fishing impacts

  13. Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Robin

    Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA Robin Robertson, Laurie of baroclinic tides. Model results indicate that tides play a significant role in the circulation and heat flux in the Weddell Sea. We discuss the influence of tides on mean flow through the modified effective bot- tom drag

  14. Territorial behavior in juvenile red sea bream Pagrus major and crimson sea bream Evynnis japonica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaya KUDOH; Kosaku YAMAOKA

    2004-01-01

    The territorial behavior of juvenile red sea bream Pagrus major and crimson sea bream Evynnis japonica was examined at Morode Cove, Ehime Prefecture. Four exclusive types of behavior (attack, mutual attack, head down threat and mutual display) and one escaping behavior (fleeing) were observed in both species. Juvenile of the two sea bream could discriminate between each other and change

  15. SEA TURTLE RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center

    E-print Network

    Southwood Williard, Amanda

    SEA TURTLE RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center Sponsors of North Carolina Wilmington North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences KAREN BEASLEY SEA TURTLE RESCUE AND REHABILITATION CENTER MISSION STATEMENT · The conservation and protection of all species of marine turtles, both

  16. Sea Turtles: Navigating with Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source of

    E-print Network

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    Sea Turtles: Navigating with Magnetism Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source satellite telemetry has now demonstrated for the first time that adult turtles also navigate using the Earth's magnetic field. Kenneth J. Lohmann The ability of sea turtles to navigate across vast expanses of seemingly

  17. SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee.

    E-print Network

    _streeto@harvard.edu Sid Paula, Biosafety Manager, spaula@mcb.harvard.edu Xiaowei Yan, Manager of Laser Safety, xiaoweiSEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee. We appreciate your Officer list · SEAS/EHS Safety Tools ­ How often do I update ... ? · Lab Inspection Schedule, and Peer

  18. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 120 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea

    E-print Network

    Chu, Peter C.

    ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 1­20 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS

  19. An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea

    E-print Network

    Stramski, Dariusz

    An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea Miroslaw Dareckia) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color (in-water) algorithms in the Baltic Sea these standard algorithms inadequate for pigment determinations in the Baltic. Although new parameterization

  20. Unlocking a Sea Ice Secret

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Rachel Obbard

    2013-04-22

    Dr. Rachel Obbard and her research group from Dartmouth College traveled to the Antarctic to collect samples of sea ice. Next stop: the GeoSoilEnviroCARS x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. This U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron x-ray research facility gave the Obbard team the frontier scientific tools they needed to study the path bromide takes as it travels from the ocean to the atmosphere.

  1. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  2. UN adopts Law of Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

  3. Aral Sea, Kazakhstan,CIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Situated in the middle of an immense desert, much like the Great Salt Lake of Utah, the Aral Sea (45.0N, 59.0E) is landlocked in the center of a broad basin. Rivers flow in but not out; water escapes only by evaporation. In recent years, river water has been diverted for agricultural irrigation and the lake level has fallen 40 to 50 ft., its surface has shrunk by almost 40 % and the salinity has almost tripled. Twenty species of fish are now extinct.

  4. The electrolysis of sea water

    E-print Network

    Stoddard, William Bull

    1952-01-01

    ). t ~ Is & ~ ( I ~ d ~ loxl '-. sl y )V' 1. 1 ':. 5 d ~ & I ~ I & o ~ 1 ~ 1', 7 ~ (& &C ~ 167, 1. . lxlo 'xl . . . xls- ~3 ~ 3 0 ~ 6P IG ~ . ~ 7 ~o:I. -;. ' . -e water of no~el corn. o ition t-. maxitue value 2' or the recovery..., s of but a few people. In abstract form there are reported the following having to do with the electroly- sis of sea watero 2" 8 SOLUTION A ? CELLULOSE ACETATE TUBE B ? LUCITE DISKS C ? GLASS TUBING D ? GRAPHITE ANODE E ? RUBBER STOPPER F ? STEEL...

  5. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic patterns occur in the model, but with typically smaller magnitudes and with season-specific geographical and directional differences.

  6. Climate and sea ice variability in the SW Labrador Sea during the late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckström, Kaarina; Massé, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2014-05-01

    The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice components in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice records based on proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25 has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover, found in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice. We tested the reliability of this biomarker against observational sea ice data off Newfoundland (SW Labrador Sea), where box cores covering the last ca. 100-150 years were collected. Based on the results, IP25 proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing variability in past sea ice concentrations in the area. After having successfully validated the proxy in the SW Labrador Sea, we further analysed IP25 from a sediment core NE of Newfoundland covering the last ca. 5000 years, providing the southernmost multi-millennial record of this proxy to date. Based on this record and on diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data and alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the same core, we reconstructed climatic conditions in and Arctic sea ice export to the SW Labrador Sea area: Alkenone-based SSTs show a clear albeit variable decline after the Holocene Climate Optimum, while at the same time diatom and dinoflagellate cyst data suggest decreased melt water export from the Arctic. The IP25 record reveals increased sea ice export from the Baffin and Hudson Bays starting ca 1500 yr cal. BP, accelerating ca. 800 yr cal. BP and culminating at the height of the Little Ice Age. Sea ice export during the last century is comparable to the export during the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

  7. SciFeatureSciFeature SEA-MONKEYS AND ALIENS?

    E-print Network

    SciFeatureSciFeature MSU SEA-MONKEYS® AND ALIENS? What is the connection between Sea-Monkeys® and aliens? Believe it or not NASA scientists think it is possible that some alien life might resemble Sea

  8. 46 CFR 42.30-30 - Enclosed seas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Summer: April 1 to October 31. (b) Black Sea. This sea is included in the Summer Zones. (1) However...29. Summer: March 1 to November 30. (c) Mediterranean. This sea is included in the Summer Zones....

  9. Melting Ice, Rising Seas - Duration: 4:32.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  10. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109...the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and...

  11. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109...the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and...

  12. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109...the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and...

  13. 50 CFR 648.109 - Sea turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sea turtle conservation. 648.109 Section 648.109...the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.109 Sea turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and...

  14. 50 CFR 648.106 - Sea Turtle conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea Turtle conservation. 648.106 Section 648.106...the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.106 Sea Turtle conservation. Sea turtle regulations are found at 50 CFR parts 222 and...

  15. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

  16. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

  17. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

  18. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

  19. Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Roger G.

    2008-07-01

    Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along the sea route peaked in the 1980s, but there is renewed interest associated with a lengthening ice-free season and mineral exploitation. Since July 1991, the NSR has been open to all merchant vessels.

  20. Mapping of sea bottom topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Under suitable conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom topography and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom topography in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.

  1. Studies on sea snake venom

    PubMed Central

    TAMIYA, Nobuo; YAGI, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography and NMR analyses showed that the toxins have a three-finger structure, in which three fingers made of three loops emerging from a dense core make a gently concave surface of the protein. The sequence comparison and the location of essential residues on the protein suggested the mechanism of binding of the toxin to the acetylcholine receptor. Classification of snakes by means of sequence comparison and that based on different morphological features were inconsistent, which led the authors to propose a hypothesis “Evolution without divergence.” PMID:21422738

  2. 4, 47374776, 2004 Sea salt in snow on

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 4737­4776, 2004 Sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions F. Domine et al and Physics Discussions The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions F. Domine 1, 4737­4776, 2004 Sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions F. Domine et al. Title Page

  3. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Schiffman; B. S. Mildor; R. G. Bilham

    2010-01-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift <=30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which

  4. Earthquakes and secular sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Melini; A. Piersanti; G. Spada; E. Casarotti

    2003-01-01

    By means of a model of global postseismic deformation we have computed the cumulative residual vertical displacement, the geoid heigth changes and the relative sea level variations due to all the M>=7 earthquakes of the last century. Our aim is to ascertain if earthquakes could play a role in the assessment of the trend of sea level rise observed by

  5. Sea Scallop Shell Lab Teacher's Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Lab handout, students will examine sea scallop shells to determine their size, approximate age, and meat yield. This lab activity is complete with objectives, math and science standards, materials list, procedure, and extensions. The handout is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

  6. Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodwell, M. J.

    INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES

  7. Scientific reticence and sea level rise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Hansen

    2007-01-01

    I suggest that a ‘scientific reticence’ is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report

  8. Metagenomic Sequencing of Two Salton Sea Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Erik R.; Schackwitz, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

  9. Optical properties of the Kara Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Johnson; Vernon Asper; Thomas McClimans; Alan Weidemann

    2000-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to understand dispersion processes which affect the redistribution of nuclear wastes in the Arctic from dump sites in the Kara Sea and in the rivers which flow into the Kara Sea. We focus on vertical profiles of light beam transmission and fluorometry made over the delta region fronting the Ob and Yenisey Rivers

  10. Estimating Diet Composition in Sea Lions

    E-print Network

    Estimating Diet Composition in Sea Lions: Which Technique to Choose? Dominic Tollit and Susan Columbia, Canada Abstract Reliable estimates of diets are vital to monitor impacts of sea lion popu, coupled with preferen- tial regurgitation and enumeration biases, can confound accurate diet

  11. Sea Stars Underwater Offshore Northern California

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Three sea stars on a rock, surrounded by a sandy seafloor littered with broken shells. Each sea star is approx. 10 - 15 cm (4-6 inches) across. Image acquired 4.5 km (3 miles) offshore Pigeon Point, southern San Mateo County, California at a depth of 52 meters....

  12. Potential collapse of North Sea cod stocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Cook; A. Sinclair; G. Stefánsson

    1997-01-01

    In common with many fish stocks in the North Sea, cod are heavily exploited with as much as 60% of the fishable stock being removed annually1. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), which advises fishery managers on the state of fish stocks in the northeast Atlantic, has recommended that exploitation rates be reduced considerably and immediately,

  13. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Leinfelder; H. Seyfried

    1993-01-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an icehouse episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year

  14. Frazil deposition under growing sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. McGuinness; M. J. M. Williams; P. J. Langhorne; C. Purdie; J. Crook

    2009-01-01

    Platelet ice may be an important component of Antarctic landfast sea ice. Typically, it is found at depth in first-year landfast sea ice cover, near ice shelves. To explain why platelet ice is not commonly observed at shallower depths, we consider a new mechanism. Our hypothesis is that platelet ice eventually appears due to the sudden deposition of frazil ice

  15. Analysis of explosives in sea water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Hoffsommer; Jerome M. Rosen

    1972-01-01

    Summary A rapid method for the analysis of the explosives, TNT, RDX, and tetryl in sea water present in the part per billion to part per trillion range by vapor phase chromatography with the nickel-63 electron capture detector is described. Results of the analyses of sea water samples near two munitions dumping areas are given.

  16. Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Calmet

    1992-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

  17. Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

    2009-01-01

    Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

  18. Searching the Ocean for Deep Sea Vents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web-based slide show walks students through the painstaking and difficult search for deep sea vents. In pictures and text, it provides an overview of the subject explaining the process whereby the location of deep sea vents can be discovered from the surface using indirect methods.

  19. Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

  20. California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    2014­2017 California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan 1 #12;The National Sea Grant College://nsgl.gso.uri.edu. University of California CASG College Program 9500 Gilman Dr., Dept. 0232 La Jolla, CA 92093-0232 (858) 534-4440 http://www.csgc.ucsd.edu Report No. P­010 Design: www.SharonBelknapDesign.com San Diego, California

  1. Forward electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Golden; M. Cheney; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; Thomas C. Grenfell; D. Isaacson; Jin Au Kong; S. V. Nghiem; J. Sylvester; P. Winebrenner

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in forward modeling of the electromagnetic scattering properties of sea ice are presented. In particular, the principal results include the following: (1) approximate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from multilayer random media with rough interfaces, based on the distorted Born approximation and radiative transfer (RT) theory; (2) comprehensive theory of the effective complex permittivity of sea ice based on

  2. Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Cane; A. C. Clement; A. Kaplan

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of historical sea surface temperatures provides evidence for global warming since 1900, in line with land-based analyses of global temperature trends, and also shows that over the same period, the eastern equatorial Pacific cooled and the zonal sea surface temperature gradient strengthened. Recent theoretical studies have predicted such a pattern as a response of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  3. Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

  4. Improvements on the Sea Gravimeter Gss2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Graf; Reinhard Schulze

    1961-01-01

    ß Abstract. Several improvements made on the Askania 'Sea Gravimeter Gss2 after Graf' have considerably widened the scope of application of this instrument. Some of these altera- tions are described. The phenomena resulting from the heavier damping used are treated in detail. In the laboratory, the sea gravimeter was subjected to accelerations up to ñ100,000 mgal. It was found that

  5. 6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title than potential frost flower contact W. R. Simpson 1 , D. Carlson 1 , G. Hoenninger 1,2, , T. A. Douglas. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

  6. Paleoclimatic studies with Dead Sea Sediments

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Kenneth

    evaluation of the global warming effects. DeadSea Saharo-Arabian desert belt ITCZ July Dead Sea basin Maximum and its late Quaternary climate history reflect global shifts of the major ocean- atmospheric systems dust washed to the lake by the winter floods. It provides information on the dust sources and mode

  7. Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

  8. Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot data, compare data, and draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

  9. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  10. Mailman seas Administrator's Guide 1.2

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    : listname@lists.seas.upenn.edu The email will include instructions, a password and the URL for your list Options Administrative Interface (requires password) Administration page http://lists.seas.upenn.edu/mailman/admin/your-list passwords twice. Managing member lists Configuration Categories Membership Management View list members

  11. Ocean Currents and Sea Surface Temperature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joan Carter

    In this classroom activity, students access sea surface temperature and wind speed data from a NASA site, plot and compare data, draw conclusions about surface current and sea surface temperature, and link their gained understanding to concerns about global climate change.

  12. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

  14. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (principal investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  15. 22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

    This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El NiÃo and La NiÃa are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

  16. Inverse electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Goldenl; D. Borup; M. Cheney; E. Cherkaeva; M. S. Dawson; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; D. Isaacson; S. A. Johnson; Arthur K. Jordan; Jin Au Kong; Ronald Kwok; Son V. Nghiem; Robert G. Onstott; J. Sylvester; D. P. Winebrenner; I. H. H. Zabel

    1998-01-01

    Inverse scattering algorithms for reconstructing the physical properties of sea ice from scattered electromagnetic field data are presented. The development of these algorithms has advanced the theory of remote sensing, particularly in the microwave region, and has the potential to form the basis for a new generation of techniques for recovering sea ice properties, such as ice thickness, a parameter

  17. Sea Change Part 2: In the Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Grossman

    This video is the second of a three-video series in the Sea Change project, which follows the work of Dr. Maureen Raymo, paleogeologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, who travels with fellow researchers to Australia in search of evidence of sea level that was once higher than it is today.

  18. Monsters of the Deep: Deep Sea Bioluminescence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J.D. Knight

    This award-winning Sea and Sky website uses creative graphics to explore deep sea bioluminescence. It defines the phenomenon of bioluminescence, explains the chemical reactions involved, describes organisms with this adaptation, and investigates possible reasons for this dazzling light show. Links direct users to similar pages about hydrothermal vents, ocean layers, and more.

  19. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. More on Sea Turtles and Seaweed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Tian

    2005-01-01

    "Sea turtle" and "seaweed"--otherwise known as "returnee from abroad" and "unemployed from abroad," respectively-- are a pair of popular new terms that are innately connected. In this article, the author discusses the common plight faced by "sea turtles" and "seaweeds" who returned from abroad to work in China. The author describes the experiences…