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1

Upper layer cooling and freshening in the Norwegian Sea in relation to atmospheric forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several time series in the Norwegian Sea indicate an upper layer decrease in temperature and salinity since the 1960s. Time series from Weather Station “M”, from Russian surveys in the Norwegian Sea, from Icelandic standard sections, and from Scottish and Faroese observations in the Faroe–Shetland area have similar trends and show that most of the Norwegian Sea is affected. The

J. Blindheim; V. Borovkov; B. Hansen; S.-Aa. Malmberg; W. R. Turrell; S. Østerhus

2000-01-01

2

An Operational Search and Rescue Model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea  

E-print Network

A new operational, ensemble-based search and rescue model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea is presented. The stochastic trajectory model computes the net motion of a range of search and rescue objects. A new, robust formulation for the relation between the wind and the motion of the drifting object (termed the leeway of the object) is employed. Empirically derived coefficients for 63 categories of search objects compiled by the US Coast Guard are ingested to estimate the leeway of the drifting objects. A Monte Carlo technique is employed to generate an ensemble that accounts for the uncertainties in forcing fields (wind and current), leeway drift properties, and the initial position of the search object. The ensemble yields an estimate of the time-evolving probability density function of the location of the search object, and its envelope defines the search area. Forcing fields from the operational oceanic and atmospheric forecast system of The Norwegian Meteorological Institute are used as input to th...

Breivik, Øyvind; 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.02.010

2011-01-01

3

Seabirds in the Greenland, Barents and Norwegian Seas, February-April 1982  

E-print Network

The pelagic distributions of seabirds in the Greenland, Norwegian and western Barents Seas are poorly known, especially in winter. This paper describes quantitative observations made in the course of an

R. G. B. Brown

4

Oil and gas bearing in Norwegian Sea basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian passive continental margin is represented by an extensive gentle shelf and continental slope. On the continental slope, there are the isolated Vøring, Møre and Ras basins, the Halten Terrace is situated to the east of them at the shelf, then the Nordland submarine ridge and the Trondelag Platform at the seaboard. There are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in its sections. Two complex structures are clearly distinguished in the sedimentary section: the lower stage (up to the Upper Cretaceous), reflecting the rifting structure of the basins, broken by a system of dislocations to a series of horsts, grabens, and separated blocks; and the upper stage, poorly dislocated, like a mantle covering the lower stage, with erosion and sharp unconformity. The Halten Terrace is the principal oil and gas production basin. At present, there are more than 50 oil, gas, and condensate fields in it. The following particularities have been discovered: than the field lays in the deepwater, than the age of the hydrocarbon pay is younger. It is also interesting that all gas fields are situated in the Vøring and Møre basins and western part of the Halten Terrace; the oil and gas fields, mainly at the center of the Halten Terrace; but pure oil fields, in the north of the terrace. In conformity with discovering the particularities, it is possible to say that the prospects of oil and gas bearing in the Norwegian Sea are primarilyt related to the Halten Terrace and the Vøring and Møre basins, especially the territories situated at the boundary of the two basins, where it is possible to discover large hydrocarbon accumulations like the Ormen-Lange field, because the Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous productive turbidite thick at the boundary of these basins is on the continental slope, which is considered promising a priori.

Zabanbark, A.

2013-07-01

5

Eemian cooling in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic ocean preceding continental ice-sheet growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHANGING conditions in the North Atlantic region may drive global climate changes1,2. According to previous reconstructions of the last interglacial (the Eemian), North Atlantic sea surface tempera-tures (SSTs) were similar to present-day values3. In the Norwegian Sea, even warmer conditions appeared as a single pulse of short duration4,5, whereas the Greenland ice record suggests that the warm interglacial air temperatures were interrupted by several cold periods6. Here we use faunal and stable-isotope analyses of foraminifera in two sediment cores from the North Atlantic ocean and Norwegian Sea to reconstruct high-resolution records of SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) during the Eemian interglacial. Our results, which differ significantly from the Greenland record6, show a sharp decrease in SST and SSS of the Norwegian Sea, associated with a more moderate cooling and freshening of the North Atlantic at the middle of isotope substage 5e, several millennia before the beginning of continental ice-sheet growth. Changes in the Norweg-ian Sea surface conditions appear to have represented an important climate change affecting global atmospheric and thermohaline circulations.

Cortijo, E.; Duplessy, J. C.; Labeyrie, L.; Leclaire, H.; Duprat, J.; van Wearing, T. C. E.

1994-12-01

6

Response of Norwegian Sea temperature to solar forcing since 1000 A.D  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a 1000 year long oxygen isotope record in sediments of the eastern Norwegian Sea which, we argue, represents the temperature and transport of warm Atlantic waters entering the Nordic Sea basin via the North Atlantic Drift and the large-scale Meridional Overturning Circulation. The single-sample resolution of the record is 2.5–10 years and age control is provided by

H. P. Sejrup; S. J. Lehman; H. Haflidason; D. Noone; R. Muscheler; I. M. Berstad; J. T. Andrews

2010-01-01

7

A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations

Sirpa Häkkinen; Donald J. Cavalieri

1989-01-01

8

Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex pockmarks up to 300 m wide and 12 m deep are located in the Nyegga area in the Norwegian Sea. Bathymetric data and direct visual documentation and sampling with ROVs (remotely operated vehicles) have shown that these pockmarks contain abundant methane-derived authigenic carbonate rocks. Furthermore, geochemical results and the finding of seep-associated organisms, including tubeworms and bacteria shows that

Martin Hovland; Henrik Svensen

2006-01-01

9

Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea  

E-print Network

Submarine pingoes: Indicators of shallow gas hydrates in a pockmark at Nyegga, Norwegian Sea Martin the features as true submarine pingoes, formed by the local accumulation of hydrate (ice) below the sediment the pockmark. We suggest that these submarine hydrate-pingoes manifest the exact locations where fluid flow

Svensen, Henrik

10

The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copepoda ( Calanus finmarchicus n=1,722, Paraeuchaeta norvegica n=1,955), Hyperiidae ( n=3,019), Euphausiacea ( Meganyctiphanes norvegica n=4,780), and the fishes Maurolicus muelleri ( n=500) and Pollachius virens ( n=33) were collected in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea) during summer 2001 to examine the importance of pelagic invertebrates and vertebrates as hosts of Anisakis simplex and their roles in the transfer

Sven Klimpel; Harry W. Palm; Sonja Rückert; Uwe Piatkowski

2004-01-01

11

Bioaccumulation of 137Cs in pelagic food webs in the Norwegian and Barents Seas.  

PubMed

Knowledge and documentation of the levels of radioactive contamination in fish stocks important to Norwegian fisheries is of major importance to Norwegian consumers and fish export industry. In the present study, the bioaccumulation of caesium-137 ((137)Cs) has been investigated in marine food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas. The contents of (137)Cs in the different organisms were generally low (<1 Bq kg(-1) wet weight), but a marked bioaccumulation was apparent: The concentration of (137)Cs was about 10-fold higher in the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, representing the upper level of the food web, than in the amphipod Themisto sp., representing the lower level of the food web. The Concentration Factors (CF=Bq kg(-1) wet weight/Bq l(-1) seawater) increased from 10+/-3 for a mixed sample of krill and amphipods to 165+/-5 for harbour porpoises. PMID:12527234

Heldal, Hilde Elise; Føyn, Lars; Varskog, Per

2003-01-01

12

A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Numerical Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations provides particularly good data coverage in this region for a comparison with the gridded Navy winds and air temperatures. The standard errors of estimate between the Navy and FGGE IIb winds and air temperatures are 3.6 m/s and 2.5 C, respectively. The computations for the latent and sensible heat fluxes are based on bulk formulas with the same constant heat exchange coefficient of 0.0015. The results show extremely strong wintertime heat fluxes in the northern Greenland Sea and especially in the Barents Sea in contrast to previous studies.

Hakkinen, Sirpa; Cavalieri, Donald J.

1989-01-01

13

High Acidification Rate of Norwegian Sea Revealed by Boron Isotopes in the Deep-Sea Coral Madrepora Oculata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification and global warming due to the increase of anthropogenic CO2 are major threats for marine calcifying organisms, such as deep-sea corals, particularly in high-latitude regions. In order to evaluate the current anthropogenic perturbation and to properly assess the impacts and responses of calcifiers to previous changes in pH it is critical to investigate past changes of the seawater carbonate system. Unfortunately, current instrumental records of oceanic pH are limited, covering only a few decades. Scleractinian coral skeletons record chemical parameters of the seawater in which they grow. However, pH variability over multidecadal timescales remains largely unknown in intermediate and deep seawater masses. Here we present a study that highlights the potential of deep-sea-corals to overcome the lack of long-term pH records and that emphasizes a rapid acidification of high latitude subsurface waters of Norwegian Sea during the past decades. We have reconstructed seawater pH and temperature from a well dated deep-sea coral specimen Madrepora oculata collected alive from Røst reef in Norwegian Sea (67°N, 9°E, 340 m depth). This large branching framework forming coral species grew its skeleton over more than four decades determined using AMS 14C and 210Pb dating (Sabatier et al. 2012). B-isotopes and Li/Mg ratios yield an acidification rate of about -0.0030±0.0008 pH-unit.year-1 and a warming of 0.3°C during the past four decades (1967-2007). Overall our reconstruction technique agrees well with previous pH calculations (Hönisch et al., 2007 vs. Trotter et al., 2011 and McCulloch et al., 2012, i.e. the iterative method), but additional corrections are here applied using stable isotope correlations (O, C, B) to properly address kinetic fractionation of boron isotopes used for pH reconstruction. The resulting pH curve strongly anti-correlates with the annual NAO index, which further strengthens our evidence for the ocean acidification rate calculated here. If the rate of atmospheric CO2 emission is not reduced, the Røst reef will become undersaturated in aragonite by the end of century. Sabatier P. et al., 2012. Biogeosciences, 9, 1253-1265. Hönisch B. et al., 2007. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 1636-1641. Trotter J. et al., 2011. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303 (2011) 163-73. McCulloch M. et al., 2012. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 82, 154-162

Gonzalez, C.; Douville, E.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Montagna, P.; Louvat, P.; Gaillardet, J.; Frank, N.; Bordier, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.

2012-12-01

14

New faunal and isotopic evidence on the late Weichselian—Holocene oceanographic changes in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downcore studies of planktonic and benthonic foraminifera and ? 18O and ? 13C in the planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) in two piston cores from the southern part of the Norwegian Sea suggest large changes in the oceanic circulation pattern at the end of oxygenisotope stage 2 and in the early part of stage 1. Prior to oxygen-isotope Termination IA (16,000-13,000 yr B.P.), an isolated watermass with lower oxygen content and temperature warmer than today existed below a low salinity ice-covered surface layer in the Norwegian Sea. Close to Termination IA, well-oxygenated deep water, probably with positive temperatures, was introduced. This deep water, which must have had physical and/or chemical parameters different from those of present deep water in the Norwegian Sea, could have been introduced from the North Atlantic or been formed within the basin by another mechanism than that which forms the present deep water of the Norwegian Sea. A seasonal ice cover in the southern part of the Norwegian Sea is proposed for the period between Termination IA and the beginning of IB (close to 10,000 yr B.P.). The present situation, with strong influx of warm Atlantic surface-water and deep-water formation by surface cooling, was established at Termination IB.

Sejrup, Hans Petter; Jansen, Eystein; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Holtedahl, Hans

1984-01-01

15

Simulations of the mesoscale circulation of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas provide the only link between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans. This is a very dynamic region, rich in mesoscale variability. A two-layer, hydrodynamic version of the Navy layered ocean model is used to simulate the mesoscale frontal features and associated current systems. The model is wind-driven using monthly mean wind stresses and inflow/outflow mass flux from the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The current transports from the model results compare favorably with transport measurements from a number of observational experiments.

Heburn, George W.; Johnson, Clifford D.

1995-01-01

16

Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

1980-01-01

17

Advective and atmospheric forced changes in heat and fresh water content in the Norwegian Sea, 1951-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

variability in the Norwegian Sea was investigated in terms of ocean heat and fresh water contents of Atlantic water above a reference surface, using hydrographic data during spring 1951-2010. The main processes acting on this variability were examined and then quantified. The area-averaged water mass cooled and freshened, but a deepening of the reference surface resulted in a positive trend in the heat content of 0.3 W m-2. Air-sea heat fluxes explained about half of the interannual variability in heat content. The effect of the advection of Atlantic and Arctic waters on the variability varied with time, apparently due to large-scale changes in the ocean circulation. The data are consistent with the explanation that changing wind patterns caused buffering and then release of Arctic water in the Iceland Sea during the late 1960s to early 1970s, and this caused large hydrographic changes in the Norwegian Sea.

Mork, Kjell Arne; Skagseth, Åystein; Ivshin, Victor; Ozhigin, Vladimir; Hughes, Sarah L.; Valdimarsson, Héîinn

2014-09-01

18

Statistical analysis of temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes sea temperature data sampled at Station-M in the Norwegian Sea. The data cover the period 1948-2010. The following questions are addressed: What type of stochastic process characterizes the temperature series? Are there any changes or patterns which indicate climate change? Are there any characteristics in the data which can be linked to the shrinking sea-ice in the Arctic area? Can the series be modeled consistently and applied in forecasting of the future sea temperature? The paper applies the following methods: Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests for testing of unit-root and stationarity, ARIMA-models in univariate modeling, cointegration and error-correcting models are applied in estimating short- and long-term dynamics of non-stationary series, Granger-causality tests in analyzing the interaction pattern between the deep and upper layer temperatures, and simultaneous equation systems are applied in forecasting future temperature. The paper shows that temperature at 2000 m Granger-causes temperature at 150 m, and that the 2000 m series can represent an important information carrier of the long-term development of the sea temperature in the geographical area. Descriptive statistics shows that the temperature level has been on a positive trend since the beginning of the 1980s which is also measured in most of the oceans in the North Atlantic. The analysis shows that the temperature series are cointegrated which means they share the same long-term stochastic trend and they do not diverge too far from each other. The measured long-term temperature increase is one of the factors that can explain the shrinking summer sea-ice in the Arctic region. The analysis shows that there is a significant negative correlation between the shrinking sea ice and the sea temperature at Station-M. The paper shows that the temperature forecasts are conditioned on the properties of the stochastic processes, causality pattern between the variables and specification of model, respectively. The estimated models forecast that temperature at 150 m is expected to increase by 0.018 °C per year, while deep water temperature at 2000 m is expected to increase between 0.0022 and 0.0024 °C per year.

Lorentzen, Torbjørn

2014-02-01

19

CO2 Storage Atlas Norwegian Sea - a case study from the Froan Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2 storage atlas of the Norwegian Sea has been prepared by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate at the request of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. The main objectives have been to identify the safe and effective areas for long-term storage of CO2 and to avoid possible negative interference with ongoing and future petroleum activity. We have built on the knowledge we have from the petroleum industry and from the two ongoing CO2 storage projects, Sleipner and Snøhvit, on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Five aquifers and six prospects have been evaluated in terms of storage capacity and safe storage of CO2. One identified storage potential is the Froan Basin Garn and Ile Formations. The Froan Basin is a NE striking Jurassic syncline on the southwestern part of the Trøndelag Platform. The aquifers in the southeastern part of the Norwegian Sea typically have a consistent dip of 1-2 degrees from the Norwegian coast to the basinal areas. In the case of permeable beds occurring along the dip slope there is a risk that CO2 injected down dip can migrate up to where the aquifer is truncated by the Quaternary glacial sediments. A simulation study was performed in order to identify possible trapping mechanisms and to understand the timing and extent of long distance CO2 migration. The storage mechanisms considered were both structural and stratigraphic trapping. A simulation sector model of the Garn/Not/Ile Formations was build covering about 10% of the total expected communicating aquifer volume. The CO2 injection well was located down dip, but alternative locations and injection zones have been simulated, with different injection rates. The injection period is 50 years, and the migration of the CO2 plume was simulated and monitored for 10.000 years. CO2 will continue to migrate upwards as long as it is in free, movable state. Migration stops when CO2 is permanently bounded or trapped, by going into solution with the formation water or by being residually trapped, or becoming structurally trapped (mineralogical trapping not considered). Based on simulation results about 400 mill tons CO2 can be stored in the Garn and Ile aquifer (8 mill tons/year over 50 years). This will require 4 injection and give acceptable pressure increase (<20bar). Within 10000 years most of the gas will have gone into solution with the formation water or being residually trapped.

Sande Rød, Rita; Pham, Van T. H.

2014-05-01

20

Comparison of velocity--depth characteristics in western North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea sediments  

SciTech Connect

The western North Atlantic was divided into 17 sediment provinces, and sonobuoy sound velocities were compiled from each region. The regions were analyzed statistically to develop least-squares regressions of the form V=V/sub 0/+Kt, where t is one-way vertical travel time. Eight regions provided velocity functions, four were inadequately sampled, and five provided mean values from single-layer solutions in sediment bodies < 1 km thick. The eight values of K are grouped very closely about a mean of 1.14 +- 0.17 km/s/sup 2/. By contrast, 12 regions from the Norwegian Sea yield 10 values of K that range from 0.6 to 2.5 km/s/sup 2/. The three highest values (>2.1 km/s/sup 2/) were measured in regions uniquely floored by thick Mesozoic epicontinental sediments that predate the breakup of the Norwegian Sea. These older sediment bodies account for most of the regional heterogeneity in the velocity functions of the Norwegian Sea. About one fifth the surface area of the North Atlantic is floored by sediments thinner than 200 m. Within these vast areas, the sound velocity of acoustic basement is a crucial factor in developing low-frequency propagation models. A contour map of basement refraction velocities in the North Atlantic shows a rough increase from 3.5 km/s near the mid-Atlantic ridge to 5.0 km/s at variable distance from the ridge. The region in which geoacoustic models are most sensitive to basement velocity is between 15/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/N, where sediment cover thinner than 200 m accounts for about half the surface area. Interval velocities from the thinner deposits of pelagic sediment seaward of the abyssal plains, are greater by about 200 m/s than those from the continental rise and abyssal plains at comparable depths of overburden. The difference suggests that sound velocities in the predominantly pelagic sediments increase more rapidly with depth than they do in the silty hemipelagic clays and turbidites nearer the continents.

Houtz, R.E.

1980-11-01

21

Paleogeography of the Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins in the Paleogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published and original data on the lithology and fauna (mainly foraminifers) of the Paleogene Norwegian-Greenland and Northwestern European Sea Basins are generalized in this article. Their paleogeographic evolution and the character of development of connections with the North Atlantic, Mesotetis, and the Arctic Ocean are established from the moment of generation to their disappearance. It is shown that the paleogeographic conditions of the studied sedimentation basins depend to a great extent on the tectonic movements of lithospheric plates. Iceland Plume volcanism exerted a considerable influence on the paleoenvironment and sedimentogenesis. The paleotectonic and climatic conditions of sedimentation are reconstructed. The occurrence of bauxite-bearing continental residual soil and other data point to a tropical, humid climate in the Early Paleogene, which changed into a moderate humid climate by the end of the Late Paleogene. Terrigenous sediments, including oil-and-gas bearing ones, were formed in the sea basins; they contain products of eroded residual soil, placers of accessory minerals, pyroclastics of volcanoes of the Iceland Plume, and zeolite-bearing, amber-bearing, phosphorite-bearing, and glauconitic horizons that have practical interest.

Kharin, G. S.; Lukashina, N. P.

2010-04-01

22

Water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea during the past 28,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) seas are important regulators of heat transport in the Northern Hemisphere and of ocean-atmosphere CO2exchange1-5. Rapid changes in the circulation of surface and deep waters in this region may induce nonlinear climatic effects and climate instabilities2,3. Here we present carbon and oxygen isotope data that provide a record of circulation changes in the GIN

Terje Veum; Eystein Jansen; Maurice Arnold; Ida Beyer; Jean-Claude Duplessy

1992-01-01

23

Gas migration and carbon capture in one of the World's largest pockmark fields, the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic imaging has revealed more than 7000 pockmarks above the Troll East gas field in the Norwegian Sea. The pockmarks range in size from 10 to 100 meters in diameter and are typically 6 meters deep. High-resolution bathymetric data shows that there is no evidence of structural control on the location of the pockmarks. This conclusion is in agreement with statistical analysis of the pockmark distribution which shows neighbor avoidance up to a scale of hundreds of meters and no indication of a fractal geometry. The pockmarks generally represent isolated structures and sometimes are identified in clusters with a central parent pockmark surrounded by smaller sized satellite pockmarks. Seafloor observations show that carbonate deposits are common within the pockmarks, providing shelter to the local fauna. Carbonate blocks collected from the pockmarks showed evidence for three distinct generations including micritic Mg-calcite/aragonite, micritic aragonite, and botryoidal aragonite. The carbon isotopic values of these phases are 13C depleted and 18O enriched, indicating a methanogenic origin and possibly a component sourced from dissociation of gas hydrates. Water geochemistry from shallow cores within and outside the pockmarks gave no indication of active seepage. This conclusion is further supported by no direct observations of fluid flow within the pockmarks, no bacterial mats nor obvious chemosymbiotic communities. In addition, oxidized carbonate surfaces indicate a gradual excavation and exposure at the sea floor. We conclude that one of the world's largest pockmark fields is currently inactive and that its formation is likely related to deglaciation processes about 11 ky ago.

Mazzini, A.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Hammer, O.; Linge, H. C.; Forsberg, C. F.; Tjelta, T.

2013-12-01

24

Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that also corresponds to the main depocenter of the first Triassic sequence. We suggest that both the salt thickness and the sedimentary differential loading, combined with the subsidence of the basin, have influenced the change of the salt pattern in domain 2. In domain 3, the reactivation of pre-salt faults might have triggered some of the salt structures. This area also received a large amount of sediments from the Skagerrak area during the Triassic subsidence, which may have influenced the distribution and evolution of salt diapirs and turtle structures. The combination of the different triggering processes and the different basin geometry of domain 3, which is bounded by highs to the South and North, in comparison to domain 2 which is open towards the Central Graben, are probably the key parameters that have controlled the salt pattern in this area. Finally, salt tectonics reactivations were likely controlled by the distribution of younger sediments and the successive tectonic regimes.

Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

2014-05-01

25

SEA TURTLES Sea Turtles  

E-print Network

317 SEA TURTLES UNIT 24 Sea Turtles Unit 24 PROTECTED RESOURCES STAFF NMFS Office of Protected are listed as endangered. The authority to protect and conserve sea turtles in the marine environment for protection of sea turtles, their eggs, and hatchlings on land (nesting beaches). SPECIES AND STATUS Sea

26

Influence of lithofacies and diagensis on Norwegian North Sea chalk reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The depositional mechanism of chalk is a key influence in the chalk`s ultimate reservoir quality. Classically, the depositional mechanism is interpreted from core descriptions. Where core data are lacking, dipmeter and borehole imagery logs have proven useful in making lithofacies assessments. Criteria for recognition of three chalk categories are established. Category III chalks correspond to those chalks that have been deposited by gravity flows or slumping and tend to have the best reservoir parameters. Category I chalks are most often affiliated with pelagic deposition and tend to have the poorest reservoir parameters. Category II chalks are intermediate between I and III. Anomalously high primary porosities have been maintained in Norwegian North Sea chalks where the effects of mechanical and chemical compaction have been limited. The diagenetic pathway of a chalk reflects changes brought about by mechanical and chemical compaction. Five factors most heavily influence the diagenetic pathway: (1) burial depth, (2) chalk type, (3) overpressuring, (4) presence of hydrocarbons, and (5) original grain size. Assessments of the sedimentological model, diagenetic pathway, and resultant reservoir quality are provided in case studies of Edda, Tor, and Eldfisk fields. Because the distribution of chalk is largely independent of existing structures, most fields have a component of stratigraphic/diagenetic trapping. Each case study shows unique examples of how petrophysical and reservoir engineering data can be incorporated in assessments of chalk type and the diagenetic pathway and how they may affect reservoir parameters and productivity.

Brasher, J.E.; Vagle, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1996-05-01

27

Disintegration of a marine-based ice stream - evidence from the Norwegian Channel, north-eastern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream repeatedly drained large part of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet through Mid and Late Pleistocene glacial stages. During parts of Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3, glacial ice from Fennoscandia and the British Isles coalesced in the central North Sea and the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream reached the shelf edge on multiple occasions. Through the last decades a large amount of acoustic and sediment core data have been collected from the Norwegian Channel, providing a good background for studies focussing on stability- and development-controlling parameters for marine-based ice streams, the retreat rate of the Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, and the behaviour of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. Further, this improved understanding can be used to develop more accurate numerical climate models and models which can be used to model ice-sheet behaviour of the past as well as the future. This study presents new acoustic records and data from sediment cores which contribute to a better understanding of the retreat pattern and the retreat rate of the last ice stream that occupied the Norwegian Channel. From bathymetric and TOPAS seismic data, mega-scale glacial lineations, grounding-zone wedges, and end moraines have been mapped, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the pro- and subglacial conditions at the time of the creation of these landforms. It is concluded that the whole Norwegian Channel was deglaciated in just over 1 000 years and that for most of this time the ice margin was located at positions reflected by depositional grounding-zone wedges. Further work will explore the influence of channel shape and feeding of ice from western Norwegian fjords on this retreat pattern through numerical modelling.

Morén, Björn M.; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Hjelstuen, Berit O.; Haflidason, Haflidi; Schäuble, Cathrina; Borge, Marianne

2014-05-01

28

Water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Jan Mayen Ridge using in-situ current measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen Ridge, with bottom depths of 1000 m and less, runs southwards from Jan Mayen and separates the warmer and saltier Atlantic Water in the Norwegian Sea from the colder and fresher Arctic water in the Iceland Sea. During the International Polar Year (IPY, 2007-2008), three current meter moorings were deployed with the purpose to investigate water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Ridge and their forcing mechanisms. These are the first in-situ current measurements for this region. The results showed relatively weak currents on the Ridge that frequently shifted direction except near-bottom and at the western slope of the Ridge. All current measurements showed low eddy activity and tidal velocities (less than 0.05 ms- 1). Wind-forced near-inertial motion generated from transient atmospheric low pressure systems were observed in the mixed layer being strongest during autumn and winter when ocean velocities reached 0.7 ms- 1. Near surface currents on the Ridge are influenced by local winds on a time scale of 6 days and longer, but during the two-year deployment no pronounced seasonal variation was observed, mainly due to a lack of seasonality in the local winds. In a 2000 m deep channel that cuts the Ridge, there was pronounced seasonal variation in the currents at all depths below 40 m with stronger flow toward the Iceland Sea during winter compared to summer. The variability of the deep current was found to be influenced by the large-scale wind stress curl. There was a weak net flow with averaged velocities of ~ 0.01 ms- 1 over the Ridge that was directed westward in the upper layer, signifying a small net transport of modified Atlantic Water into the Iceland Sea.

Mork, Kjell Arne; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Jónsson, Steingrímur; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Ostrowski, Marek

2014-11-01

29

On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net productivity, then for equivalent regions in the Norwegian Sea and Labrador Sea (the areas of each most affected by Atlantic inflow), the differences in ambient temperatures and bloom dynamics apparently have little impact. With global warming, as temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas increase up to a certain threshold, the timing of life history events for C. finmarchicus will likely be advanced and the number of generations produced per year could increase. The time spent in the near surface layers will probably decrease, however, while the overall effect on population size may not be large. Once the temperature threshold for unfavourable survival of C. finmarchicus has been exceeded, the distribution range for C. finmarchicus will likely contract northwards, with important consequences for dependent species in the affected regions.

Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

2013-07-01

30

Effect of concentrate supplementation levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of SEA and SEA × Norwegian goats under on-farm conditions.  

PubMed

A 2?×?3 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of goat genotypes and different concentrate levels on growth and slaughter characteristics of Small East African × Norwegian crossbred (SEA × N) and Small East African (SEA) goats. The three concentrate levels were T0 (no access to concentrate), T66 (66 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance) and T100 (100 % access to ad libitum concentrate allowance). Twenty-four castrated goats of each genotype (18 months old with an average weight of 16.7?±?0.54 kg) were randomly allotted into T0, T66 and T100 treatments. Daily feed intake and fortnight body weight measurements were recorded for the whole 84-day experimental period, after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/day, which was 183 g/day higher than that of the T66 group. Supplemented goats (T66 and T100) had significantly (P?SEA goats had higher (P?SEA × N animals. Among supplemented goats, the cost of a 1-kg gain under T66 was Tshs 213/= cheaper than T100 (US$1???Tshs 1,500). It is concluded that goats should be grazed and supplemented with 353 g concentrate/day for satisfactory fattening performance and higher economic return on investment. PMID:23832702

Hozza, William A; Kifaro, George C; Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E

2013-11-01

31

From conjugate volcanic rifted margins to micro-continent formation: Double breakup development of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-evaluate the structure and spreading evolution of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and surrounding volcanic (rifted) margins based on new high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys. The new dataset combined with long-offset seismic and gravity data allow us to have a better understanding of the structure and evolution of the conjugate margin systems in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the rifting to the drifting stage. We particularly focus on the new JAS-12 aeromagnetic survey acquired between the Aegir Ridge and the Jan Mayen micro-continent, which was initially part of the Møre-Vøring-Greenland rift system. Combined with the previous NB-07 and JAS-05 surveys, our final compilation fully covers the continent-ocean transition and the whole oceanic spreading system from the Møre margin to the conjugate Jan Mayen micro-continent with high quality, high-resolution and reliable magnetic data. The new dataset allowed a new, consistent and precise interpretation of the magnetic polarity chrons and oceanic fractures, providing the basis for more accurate rotation poles estimation, and better basin and crustal reconstructions between Norway, Greenland and the Jan Mayen micro-continent. This dataset allowed us to clarify the pre- and post-breakup configurations of the rift system and discuss the mechanisms involved during the onset of the two phases of breakup leading to the micro-continent formation. Our observations and models suggest that the pre-breakup rift system evolved through a significant Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thinning phase. This episode led to a significant thinning of the continental crust and an exhumation of pre-existing lower crust. However, we have not been able to identify and/or validate any clear domains of exhumed and denudated serpentinised mantle. The first Eocene breakup is mostly characterised by severe magmatism (sill, SDRS). Lithospheric/asthenospheric processes leading to rift localisation do not necessarily represent a continuum of lithospheric deformation with the precedent thinning system. Diking and disconnected lithospheric plumbing are proposed to explain the Eocene breakup. After the first phase of continental breakup, two major phases of spreading influenced the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Phase I (from C24 to C21r, ~54 to 49 Ma) marks the earliest phase of spreading, probably initiated in the central and outer part of the Møre Basin. During this period, the formation of overlapping systems and pseudo-fault development, indirectly influenced by the proto-margin segmentation, suggests the presence of additional micro-plates in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. We also observed a significant change in the oceanic spreading system in the late Early Eocene. Based on observations from the surrounding areas, this supports a major and distinct tectonic and magmatic event in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around C21r (49-47.9 Ma), the beginning of a second phase. During Phase II, from C21r-C12 or possibly younger (48-<32 Ma) of the Norway Basin development, spreading rates decreased, spreading direction changed leading to the formation of unexpected N-S oriented oceanic fracture zones. Phase II probably coincides with the climax of extension and possibly local spreading that is suspected in the southern part of the Jan Mayen micro-continent forming a complex area of oceanic, transitional and continental fragments before its complete dislocation from East Greenland in Latest Oligocene.

Gernigon, Laurent; Blischke, Anett; Nasuti, Aziz; Olesen, Odleiv; Sand, Morten; Sveinn Arnarson, Thorarinn

2014-05-01

32

On the influence of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas upon the bottom waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottom waters of the North Pacific and North Indian Oceans have temperature and salinity distributions that suggest origins from the extreme waters of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas. We attempt to trace these waters from their sources to the abyssal Pacific and Indian oceans by examining distributions of temperature and salinity along a stratum defined by density parameters. We

JOSEPH L. REID; RONALD J. LYNN

1971-01-01

33

Rock Physical study on an Upper-Palaeozoic Chert and Carbonate Interval in Wells from the Eastern Norwegian Barents Sea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their general interest as hydrocarbon reservoir, the Upper Palaeozoic chert and carbonate interval in the Norwegian Barents Sea has been investigated from seismic data and well logs. We established a framework for geophysical well log analysis and reservoir characterization for the Finnmark Platform, an area situated in the South-Eastern part of the Norwegian Barents Sea. The interval is composed by approximately 600 m carbonate facies covered by a 60 m interval of spiculitic chert facies. The carbonate facies is characterized by lateral and vertical lithological variations including limestones, dolomites, evaporites and clastic material. The spiculitic interval exists in spiculitic chert and clay alternated with limestones. Data extends over an area with different palaeo environments from inner platform settings to continental slope and even basinal settings. Log curve data from four wells were processed through geophysical well log analysis using Powerlog and Matlab. Multi-well trend analysis was performed for a diagnostic modeling of the rock physical parameters. The examination of the variation of petrophysical properties, and how that variation transfers into the elastic domain is a key to the correlation of rock properties and the seismic attribute information. The final goal is to improve porosity and mineralogy predictions in pseudo-wells from 3D seismic data. The analyses of cross plots allow distinguishing several intervals which in certain cases correspond to individual stratigraphic units. The spiculite interval shows for example different rock types based on rock physics and these parameters can be linked with seismic. For the synthetic seismogram an s-wave velocity log has been modeled. We observed that for several lithological intervals such as the mixed limestone-dolomites and spiculites the Greenberg-Castagna model fitted the best, but for pure dolomite intervals the Krief model is more accurate. Furthermore, for the purest limestone the best fit was obtained for the differential effective medium equations. These intervals should be treated differently for obtaining the best fitting velocity-porosity relations.

Colpaert, A.; Mienert, J.; Fotland, B.

2004-12-01

34

Diet among oil-workers on off-shore oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea.  

PubMed

Dietary studies based on 24 h recalls were carried out on four oil installations in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Two hundred and three persons were interviewed about what they had eaten the previous 24 h. Food purchased for the installations in the previous 5 months was recorded. Results based on 24 h recalls showed that average daily intake of energy was 12.2 MJ of which 17% came from protein, 44% from fat and 39% from carbohydrate, including 8% from sugar. Meat, vegetables, fresh fruits, seafood (shellfish), french fries, eggs, cream and ice-cream were important components of the diet, while bread, fish and cereals played a minor role. Average daily intake (mg) of nutrients were: calcium 1244, iron 15, vitamin A 1049 micrograms, vitamin D 4.1 micrograms, thiamin 1.6, riboflavin 2.2, nicotinic acid 22, ascorbic acid 143. Dietary fibre intake, estimated as unavailable carbohydrate, was on average 19 g, and the average daily intake of cholesterol was 755 mg. Intakes were compared with the Norwegian recommended dietary allowance. Most of the employees chose a diet which when eaten over a longer period of time may contribute to the development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and thereby increase the morbidity and mortality from CHD in the oil industry. PMID:1390597

Oshaug, A; Ostgård, L I; Trygg, K U

1992-07-01

35

Assessment of seal quality for potential storage sites in the Norwegian North Sea from well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid migration through caprocks is a crucial process when it comes to evaluate their sealing capacity for underground CO2 storage. Migration mechanisms such as flow through fault systems or along wells are quite easily identified by their relatively large size and because these features can be monitored by the use of reflection seismic data or well logs. However, microcracks in rocks, which can allegedly cause fluid migration through tight rocks, are difficult to detect from large scale observations and can only be deduced from thorough investigation. The objective of this work is to evaluate the likelihood of microfracture networks in potential seals (shales) through the analysis of well log data. This study focuses on the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous shale succession in the Norwegian North Sea. The main target of the study is the Draupne Formation (upper Jurassic) found in the Horda Platform / Viking Graben area. It has been deposited syn-rift during the second episode of the Viking graben formation in the Upper Jurassic, and thus has a burial depth ranging from 914 to 4573 m. This formation is identified in well logs by its sharp decrease in ultrasonic velocity and density, and specifically high resistivity and gamma ray readings. Other studied shale formations include the rest of the Viking Group (Heather Formation), the Tyne Group in the Central Graben (Farsund, Haugesund and Mandal) and the Boknfjord Group in the Norwegian-Danish Basin (Egersund, Flekkefjord, Sauda and Tau). Public well log data from 104 boreholes in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea have been analyzed and among them, 87 had a complete set of logs that are necessary for our analysis: ultrasonic velocities, gamma ray, density and resistivity. This study illustrates that the first-order variation of the ultrasonic velocity for the Draupne Formation in the Norwegian North Sea is of course due to depth. Diagenesis, whether mechanical or chemical, stiffens the rock by strengthening the grain contacts and/or cementing them. This increases the ultrasonic velocity through the rock. The depth at which the transition between mechanical and chemical transition, together with the geothermal gradient study, help us to separate areas where these identified shales have a ductile rheology (softer rock, self healing low-conductivity cracks) from those where stiffening by secondary quartz cementation yields a brittle rheology (stronger rock, high-conductivity cracks). Two other parameters are likely to influence the velocity, namely TOC and the presence of gas in the porous network of the rock. When taking into account the influence of both depth and TOC, around 80 % of the studied wells follow a distinct pattern. When taking into account gas as a pore fluid, around half of the other studied wells follow the same trend.

Angeli, M.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Faleide, J. I.

2012-04-01

36

A numerical ocean circulation model of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas  

E-print Network

of the excessively large eddy viscosities used for computational stability . Finally, the work of LEGUTKE (1986) must and Greenland Seas 369 00 [H (H os~8aa) + 8~ (COSH, B~&)) - Laa (x 0)~ am (H aa)] ( ~ a a - La (PoH ~ a l,a 00 di dz) - a~ p HH f-H i j dz' dz + [8a( a 0 P-r(v)dz)- a(ac~* f~F"-r(u)dz)l aa* - fAudz, acos*aa

Stevens, David

37

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea World informational resource on all eight species of sea turtles. Excellent introduction to sea turtles including information on their classification, habitat, diet, reproduction, and much more. Includes photographs and illustrations throughout. Features two teaching activities for grades K-2.

38

Barite and barium in sediments and coral skeletons around the hydrocarbon exploration drilling site in the Træna Deep, Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barite and barium concentrations in bottom sediments and coral skeletons from the vicinity of the hydrocarbon exploration well drilled in 1992 1993 in the Træna Deep, Norwegian Sea have been studied to assess the spreading of the drilling mud and related ecological effects on Lophelia petrusa coral reefs. Sand size barite crystals derived from the drilling mud and elevated Ba concentrations in surface (0 2 cm) sediments were found up to 4 km from the exploration drilling site. 210Pb-dating results on sediment cores indicate that Ba-rich surface intervals (0 2 cm) record ca. 20 years of sedimentation history, and connect Ba enrichment with exploration drilling. The geographic distribution of Ba contents in sediments allowed the reconstruction of the drilling mud dispersal pattern showing transport eastward from the drilling site, consistent with the prevailing current directions. The presence of relatively coarse-grained sediments and barite crystals trapped in coral polyps, ca. 500 m down current from the drilling site, reflects the elevated turbulence and sediment supply during the drilling activity. This elevated sediment dispersion likely placed a stress upon the coral reefs, but due to strong currents that effectively dilute episodic drilling waste and sediment discharges, the damage does not appear significant.

Lepland, Aivo; Mortensen, Pål Buhl

2008-11-01

39

Seismic waveform inversion and imaging of deepwater glacial sedimentary fans in the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this poster we show results from 2D acoustic pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion using multichannel seismic data, complemented by coincident travel-time tomography of wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer data. The study area is located within the deep ocean basin in the northeastern parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. This area was affected by intense Quaternary glacial sedimentation in the Storfjorden and Bjørnøya Fans and formation of submarine mega-slides. The seismic source used for the data acquisition consisted of an array of six airguns, and the wavefield was recorded by a 3-km-long 240-channel streamer. After some initial processing, pre-stack depth migration and waveform inversion was performed in order to obtain an image the glacial sedimentary package. The background velocity model was obtained from travel time tomography on the coincident ocean bottom seismometer data. We first show inversion results for a test model which is based on the our knowledge of the geology of the area. We then show the inversion results on the real data. One of the main differences between the test inversion and the real data inversion is the inknown source wavelet in the latter case. We show how the source wavelet affects the inversion results and how to properly take the source wavelet into account.

Libak, Audun; Poor Moghaddam, Peyman; Minakov, Alexander; Ruud, Bent Ole; Keers, Henk; Mjelde, Rolf

2013-04-01

40

Phytoplankton production and growth regulation in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparative study of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland shelves and Barents/Norwegian/Greenland seas and shelves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of phytoplankton (distribution, phenology, physiology, productivity and community composition) and environment properties that influence their growth (light and nutrients) comparing the western Subarctic Atlantic (Labrador Sea, Labrador/Newfoundland shelves) with the eastern Subarctic (Barents, Norwegian and Greenland Seas and shelves) and drawing on ship-based observations, satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) and output from a 3D coupled ecosystem-ocean circulation model, covering the last 15-25 yrs. Similarities between regions were seen in geographic variability (e.g. latitudinal gradients), seasonal cycles and magnitude of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and community composition. Regional differences were related to geographic location, presence/absence of ice, seasonal mixing, source waters (Arctic versus Atlantic) and nutrient supply, and response to atmospheric forcing. With regard to the latter, most of the observations considered in this study cover the recent period of rapid warming and the historical out-of-phase response (e.g. ice conditions, air and ocean temperatures, hydrography) of the western and eastern Subarctic Atlantic to atmospheric forcing is no longer apparent. Observations and modelling looking back over the last two decades suggest that the timing of the spring bloom and peak seasonal productivity are occurring progressively earlier in the year, particularly at high latitudes in both the western and eastern Subarctic. Climate change (ocean warming) is projected to increase overall phytoplankton productivity in the Subarctic Atlantic and will be manifest particularly in ice-influenced regions Labrador/Newfoundland Shelves, Barents/Greenland Seas and shelves and regions where Arctic outflow and Atlantic inflow influence phytoplankton dynamics. Northward movement of Atlantic waters as a result of climate change, manifest earliest in the eastern Subarctic (Norwegian/Barents Seas) will displace cold-water phytoplankton species with warm-water species and shift community transitions zones farther north in the coming decades.

Glen Harrison, W.; Yngve Børsheim, K.; Li, William K. W.; Maillet, Gary L.; Pepin, Pierre; Sakshaug, Egil; Skogen, Morten D.; Yeats, Philip A.

2013-07-01

41

Sea urchin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

42

Red Sea  

article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

2013-04-16

43

Geology of Barents Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

1984-09-01

44

Recovery of Benthic Megafauna from Anthropogenic Disturbance at a Hydrocarbon Drilling Well (380 m Depth in the Norwegian Sea)  

PubMed Central

Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m?2) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m?2). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m?2) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m?2). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m?2) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest persistence of disturbance for three years, with unclear consequences for other components of the benthic fauna. PMID:23056177

Gates, Andrew R.; Jones, Daniel O. B.

2012-01-01

45

Environmental control of phytoplankton distribution and photosynthetic performance at the Jan Mayen Front in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen Front is located in the Norwegian Sea to the east of the Jan Mayen Ridge and separates warm, salty Atlantic water and colder, less salty Arctic water. The effects of the light regime, hydrographical conditions and nutrients on the variations of chlorophyll a (chl a), quantum efficiencies of photochemistry in PSII (Fv:Fm) and effective absorption cross-section of PSII (?PSII) at the Front were studied in June 2007. Stratified waters were seen on both sides of the Front and lowered nutrient concentrations were seen shallower than 10-20 m. The lowest values of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd (?), were found at 500-550 nm (0.07-0.16 m- 1), while Kd (465 nm) ranged between 0.08 and 0.17 m- 1 and Kd (380 nm) between 0.13 and 0.20 m- 1. Chl a concentrations seldom exceeded 1.0 mg m- 3 outside pure Atlantic Water, while elevated concentrations (3-4 mg m- 3) developed at depth (20-30 m) east of the Front in Atlantic Water. For the upper 100 m N/P, Si/P, N/Si and POC/PON ratios were 15.2, 8.0, 1.7 and 6.2, respectively. The quantum efficiency was strongly influenced by nutrients, suggesting nutrient limitation of phytoplankton biomass at the Front in June, but also light inhibition probably was a contributing factor in the upper part of the water column. High quantum efficiencies (0.5) and effective absorption cross sections (> 700 Å2 quanta- 1) were seen to the east of the Front and at depth (20-40 m) in stratified Atlantic waters. We therefore conclude that the Jan Mayen Front did not have a stimulatory effect on phytoplankton biomass enhancement and photosynthetic performance. This is in part due to the weak horizontal density front caused by density compensation of temperature and salinity characteristics of the adjacent water masses, and the associated weak vertical mixing.

Erga, Svein Rune; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Hovland, Erlend; Hancke, Kasper; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Rey, Francisco

2014-02-01

46

Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.  

PubMed

Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv. PMID:9241886

Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

1997-08-25

47

Quantifying the Ocean, Freshwater and Human Effects on Year-to-Year Variability of One-Sea-Winter Atlantic Salmon Angled in Multiple Norwegian Rivers  

PubMed Central

Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979–2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to conserve this species. PMID:21897867

Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J.; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Storvik, Geir O.; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

2011-01-01

48

Sea Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, aren’t doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathan’s investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

2012-07-28

49

Provenance of Neoproterozoic to upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, eastern Greenland: Implications for recognizing the sources of sediments in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from Neoproterozoic to Cretaceous sandstones exposed in eastern Greenland, 70°30'-74°N, are reported to characterize and evaluate the provenance from Greenland during pre-breakup and post-breakup sedimentation in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Middle Devonian to Lower Cretaceous samples all show similar detrital zircon age distributions characterized by variable Archean populations, abundant Proterozoic populations ranging from ca. 2000 to 900 Ma and a Caledonian population peaking at ca. 440 Ma. Neoproterozoic sediments of the Eleonore Bay Supergroup give a more narrow age distribution with a dominant age peak at 1100 to 1000 Ma, a secondary peak at 1700-1400 Ma, and rare Archean to Paleoproterozoic ages. We suggest that the Neoproterozoic metasediments of the Krummedal and Smallefjord sequences and the Eleonore Bay Supergroup together with Caledonian rocks of age ca. 440 Ma and variable amounts of Paleoproterozoic basement were the main sources for the analyzed Middle Devonian to Lower Cretaceous sandstones. The scarcity of Archean zircons could indicate a rather limited role of the Archean basement rocks of the eastern Greenland Caledonian orogenic belt as a source for some of the analyzed younger sedimentary rocks. The composite age distribution of the zircons from the Phanerozoic eastern Greenland samples, i.e., a minor Archean to Paleoproterozoic (Siderian and Rhyacian) component, abundant Paleoproterozoic (Orosian) to Neoproterozoic (Tonian) ages, and a significant Lower Silurian (Caledonian) signal, is very similar to zircon age distributions reported for Upper Cretaceous turbidite sandstones from large parts of the Norwegian Sea, and to the age distributions determined in this study for three Oligocene sandstone samples from east of Jan Mayen Island. Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene Norwegian Sea sandstones, known to be derived from Norway, differ from this eastern Greenland-derived pattern by a near total lack of Archean zircon ages and a less pronounced Caledonian component. Wide detrital zircon age spectra with a distinct Silurian group and a population of Neoarchean zircons is thus suggested as indicative of sediments sourced from the studied area of eastern Greenland. The Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons suggest that Eoarchean crust derived from a source with chondritic Lu/Hf ratios at ca. 3900-3700 Ma contributed to zircon-forming processes in the source area for the eastern Greenland sandstones until ca. 2300 Ma. The Caledonian orogeny in this area was probably a crust reworking event with a limited contribution from depleted mantle.

Slama, Jiri; Walderhaug, Olav; Fonneland, Hege; Kosler, Jan; Pedersen, Rolf B.

2011-07-01

50

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-03-29

51

Caspian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 feet in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18oF, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

52

A submarine landslide complex affecting the Jan Mayen Ridge, Norwegian-Greenland Sea: slide-scar morphology and processes of sediment evacuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swath-bathymetry data and 2D multichannel seismics reveal for the first time an up to ~60 km wide amphitheater-shaped slide scar on the eastern flank of the Jan Mayen Ridge, a micro-continent in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The scar opens southeastward where it continues as a narrower, topographically controlled translational area. It includes secondary scars, as well as channels and escarpments. Based on the identification of secondary scars, the slide is classified as a slide complex and the total volume of missing sediments was estimated at ~60 km3. From the overall shape of the scar, the upslope widening from a bottleneck- or channel-like bypass-area, the failure is inferred to have had a retrogressive development. The absence of ridges, slabs and sediment blocks indicates that the failed sediments have been evacuated entirely. The smaller channels were formed from single or repetitive smaller flows post-dating the large failure events.

Laberg, Jan S.; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Amundsen, Hilde; Baeten, Nicole; Forwick, Matthias; Rydningen, Tom A.; Vorren, Tore O.

2014-02-01

53

A cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea observed with the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently, the scarcity of meteorological observations over polar areas has limited studies of high latitude weather systems, but now data from polar orbiting satellites offer a new opportunity to observe and describe these systems. TOVS data were used successfully for delineating synoptic and subsynoptic systems since they provide the vertical temperature structure of the atmosphere: SSM/I observations have proved valuable for analyzing storms through water vapor and rain determinations. These positive results prompted us to analyze simultaneous TOVS and SSM/I observations obtained during a cold air outbreak over the Norwegian Sea. After a description of the instruments and the retrieval schemes, the mutually supporting information from these two independent instruments is discussed. Implications for the monitoring of polar lows are presented.

Claud, Chantal; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Petty, Grant W.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

1992-01-01

54

The genesis of sea level variability in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional variability of sea level is an integral indicator of changing oceanographic conditions due to different processes of oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin. The present study explores the nature of sea level variability in the Barents Sea-a marginal shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean. A characteristic feature that distinguishes this sea from other Arctic shelf seas is that it is largely ice free throughout the year. This allows continuous monitoring of sea level by space-borne altimeters. In this work we combine satellite altimetry, ocean gravity measurements by GRACE satellites, available hydrography data, and a high-resolution ocean data synthesis product to estimate the steric and mass-related components of sea level in the Barents Sea. We present one of the first observational evidence of the local importance of the mass-related sea level changes. The observed 1-3 month phase lag between the annual cycles of sea level in the Barents Sea and in the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Iceland, Greenland seas) is explained by the annual mass-related changes. The analysis of the barotropic vorticity budget shows that the mass-related sea level variability in the central part of the Barents Sea is determined by the combined effect of wind stress, flow over the varying bottom topography, and dissipation, while the impact of vorticity fluxes is negligible. Overall, the steric sea level has smaller amplitudes and mainly varies on the seasonal time scale. The thermosteric sea level is the main contributor to the steric sea level along the pathways of the Atlantic inflow into the Barents Sea. The relative contribution of the halosteric sea level is dominant in the southeastern, eastern, and northern parts of the Barents Sea, modulated by the seasonal sea ice formation/melt as well as by continental runoff. The variability of the thermosteric sea level in the Barents Sea is mostly driven by variations in the net surface heat flux, whereas the contribution of heat advection becomes as important as the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange at interannual time scales.

Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.; Kirillov, Sergey A.

2013-09-01

55

Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

56

Satellite observations of a polar low over the Norwegian Sea by Special Sensor Microwave Imager, Geosat, and TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many polar lows are generated at the boundary between sea ice and the ocean, in regions of large temperature gradients, where in situ observations are rare or nonexistent. Since satellite observations are frequent in high-latitude regions, they can be used to detect polar lows and track their propagation and evolution. The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) providing estimates of surface wind speed, integrated cloud liquid water content, water vapor content, and precipitation size ice-scattering signal over the ocean; the Geosat radar altimeter measuring surface wind speed and significant wave height; and the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) allowing the determination of temperature and humidity profiles in the atmosphere have been used in synergy for a specific case which occurred in the Norwegian Sea on January, 23-24 1988. All three instruments show sharp atmospheric gradients associated with the propagation of this low across the ocean, which permit the detection of the polar low at a very early stage and tracking it during its development, propagation, and decay. The wind speed gradients are measured with good qualitative agreement between the altimeter and SSM/I. TOVS retrieved fields prior to the formation of the low confirm the presence of an upper level trough, while during the mature phase baroclinicity can be observed in the 1000-500 hPa geopotential thicknesses.

Claud, Chantal; Mognard, Nelly M.; Katsaros, Kristina B.; Chedin, Alain; Scott, Noelle A.

1993-01-01

57

Sea Legs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

Macdonald, Kenneth C.

58

Student Experiments at Sea (SEAS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interdisciplinary curriculum introduces the scientific process, experimental design and data analysis. Units on plate tectonics, hydrothermal vents, ridge visualization, surveying deep sea organisms. Students become the scientists, developing proposals for at-sea investigations, teacher coordinates submission to researchers studying the East Pacific Rise. Students retrieve, organize, analyze and report data from their experiment. Past experimental journals are posted. Free registration required to access curriculum and submit proposal.

59

Savage Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

60

Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

2013-01-01

61

Sea Launch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

62

Sea ice in the China Sea  

SciTech Connect

In every winter, sea ice occurring in Bohai Sea and the North Yellow Sea is the first-year ice which is going through generating, developing and thawing processes. Therefore, it is necessary to spatially and temporally describe ice period, freezing range, thickness variations and general motion of sea ice. The purpose of this paper is to provide initial general situation and features of sea ice for forecasting and researching sea ice.

Deng Shuqi [National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts, Beijing (China)

1993-12-31

63

Aral Sea  

... The retreating shoreline leaves the surface encrusted with salt and with agrochemicals brought in by the rivers. As the Sea's moderating ... Large Aral, and may be associated with windblown snow and/or salt particles carried aloft. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

2013-04-16

64

Ross Sea  

article title:  Icebergs in the Ross Sea     View Larger Image Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this Multi-angle Imaging ... the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from ...

2013-04-16

65

From Sea to Shining Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

Scott, Beverly

2005-01-01

66

Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will discover that there are notable differences between sea ice and fresh-water ice, such as density. In on segment, students learn that the first sign of freezing on the sea is an oily appearance of the water caused by the formation of needle-like crystals. The site explains the relationship between growth and the rate at which heat flows from the water and that the ice pack can alter its shape and dimension due to the movement of winds, currents, thermal expansion, and contraction of the ice. Types of ice described here include new ice, nilas, young ice, first-year ice, and old ice while the forms of ice covered include pancake ice, brash ice, ice cake, floe, and fast ice. The site also explains the meteorological and oceanographic factors that control the amount and movement of ice.

67

Acoustic seabed classification using QTC IMPACT on single-beam echo sounder data from the Norwegian Channel, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment mapping is important for understanding the physical processes, the impact of human activity, and the conditions for marine life on the seabed. For this purpose, the seabed classification tool QTC IMPACT analyses statistical variations in single-beam echo sounder data. QTC was applied in a large and physically diverse area of the Norwegian Channel, between 59°30?N and 61°N, to produce a new sediment map and to verify the QTC algorithm. The results were interpreted using ground truth (grain size analyses of 40 gravity cores and five grab samples), multi-beam echo sounder bathymetry (MBES), and seismo-acoustic profiles. Surficial sediments were divided into five classes: (1) mud and silt, (2) a variety of clay, silt and sand, (3) sandy mud with gravel, (4) sand with gravel, and (5) clay and sandy clay. Along the Norwegian coast, where MBES imagery shows evidence of glacial erosion, the surficial sediment distribution is variable. The echo shape analysis of QTC did not produce a natural partition of the data, and statistical assumptions did not always hold. Sediment classification was therefore sensitive to the choice of cluster algorithm. However, QTC produced the most physically plausible results on a large scale compared to other cluster algorithms. Class boundaries were consistent with supporting data. One exception is a transition from muddy to sandy sediments not visible in seismo-acoustic data. A possible explanation is that seabed fluid seepage and water current erosion cause sand particle transport into the western part of the channel. The study confirms the capability of QTC in a complex environment, but there are some possible improvements.

Eidem, Ellen Johanne; Landmark, Knut

2013-10-01

68

Mammals of the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

69

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

70

Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2005-01-01

71

The wind sea and swell waves climate in the Nordic seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves in the Nordic Seas (North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind sea and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the North Sea. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind sea and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic Seas are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.

Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela

2015-02-01

72

Atlantic Water flow through the Barents and Kara Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathway and transformation of water from the Norwegian Sea across the Barents Sea and through the St. Anna Trough are documented from hydrographic and current measurements of the 1990s. The transport through an array of moorings in the north-eastern Barents Sea was between 0.6Sv in summer and 2.6Sv in winter towards the Kara Sea and between zero and 0.3Sv

Ursula Schauer; Harald Loeng; Bert Rudels; Vladimir K. Ozhigin; Wolfgang Dieck

2002-01-01

73

Sea Turtle Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

74

Dispersal of the radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from point sources in the Barents and Norwegian Seas and its potential contamination of the Arctic marine food chain: coupling numerical ocean models with geographical fish distribution data.  

PubMed

Dispersal of (137)Cs from the nuclear submarine wrecks Komsomolets and K-159, which are resting on the seabed in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, respectively, is simulated using realistic rates and hypothetical scenarios. Furthermore, spatiotemporal (137)Cs concentrations in Northeast Arctic cod and capelin are estimated based on survey data. The results indicate that neither continuous leakages nor pulse discharges will cause concentrations of (137)Cs in cod muscle or whole body capelin exceeding the intervention level of 600 Bq/kg fw. Continuous leakages from Komsomolets and K-159 and pulse discharges from Komsomolets induced negligible activity concentrations in cod and capelin. A pulse discharge of 100% of the (137)Cs-inventory of K-159 will, however, result in concentrations in muscle of cod of above 100 times the present levels in the eastern Barents Sea. Within three years after the release, (137)Cs levels above 20 Bq/kg fw in cod are no longer occurring in the Barents Sea. PMID:23771062

Heldal, Hilde Elise; Vikebø, Frode; Johansen, Geir Odd

2013-09-01

75

Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drilling and appraisal on the Southern Utsira High, Norwegian North Sea, has proved several large oil/gas discoveries, including the giant Johan Sverdrup, Edvard Grieg, Draupne, Ragnarrock and Apollo oil fields, making this a prolific petroleum area. The Southern Utsira High contains a variety of hydrocarbon density fluids found at several stratigraphic levels illustrating the compartmentalized nature of accumulations and charge history. The Southern Utsira High has been in a position to receive an oil/gas charge for a considerable period of time, with the basin towards the west most likely generating petroleum from early Eocene (50M Mabp) to its maximum present day burial depth. However, reservoir temperatures on the Southern Utsira High are just above the threshold for biodegradation (80°C). The Southern Utsira High oils are non-biodegraded suggesting that the majority of the oil charged relatively late - ca.3 million years ago to present day. The effects of the glaciation on the filling history of the Southern Utsira High are currently being assessed. It is clear that several erosional surfaces in the Pliocene can be identified, as well as glacial channels and moraine deposits, indicating that significant deposition and erosion occurred in the last five million years. Importantly, the effects of glacial rebound mean that the Southern Utsira High more than likely underwent tilting and possible leakage, not just once, but several times in the last 1 million years. The effects of tilting/leakage of geological areas on oil migration have been recognized by several authors. However, the detailed integration of geological mapping and geochemical evidence has not previously been published. The implications of a detailed assessment of tilting of a ''high' through time are; 1) opening up areas where oil migration is thought to be high risk or impossible; 2) identify possible paleo-oil columns aiding the de-risking of discovery appraisal strategies. The evidence of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

Stoddart, Daniel

2014-05-01

76

Earthquake hazard assessment in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of seismic hazard in regions such as the North Sea where the activity rate is comparatively low requires the adoption of a methodology designed to maximize the use of available sources of information, including historical and instrumental seismicity, geology, tectonics and local soil properties. In a series of site-specific studies of seismic hazard in the Norwegian sector of

H. Bungum; P. H. Swearingen; G. Woo

1986-01-01

77

All That Unplowed Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

78

Sea Education Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Headquartered in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, SEA offers a variety of science programs at sea for high school and college students. Site features information on the vessels, the crew, current voyages, admissions information, and a wealth of photographs from past expeditions. Also includes a section where you can track the progress of the SEA boats and hear daily, and archived, audio reports.

79

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sea otter researchers Michelle Staedler, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Tim Tinker, USGS, work together to locate sea otters in their study project. USGS scientists and their partners study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

80

``In Forbidden Seas''  

Microsoft Academic Search

``D. W. T.'', who writes a review of the sea-otter, or rather of a book called ``In Forbidden Seas'', in NATURE of January 26, tells us that he is not aware that any living naturalist has ever seen this animal in its natural state. Now, Captain H. J. Snow, who is the author of ``In Forbidden Seas'', is, from my

John Milne

1911-01-01

81

Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. (Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)); Berggren, W.A. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA (USA)); Kaminski, M.A. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)); D'Lorio, M.A. (Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Nepean, Ontario (Canada)); Cloetingh, S. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Griffiths, C.M. (Univ. of Trondheim (Norway))

1990-05-01

82

Mapping Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to climate change, learners create and explore topographical maps as a means of studying sea level rise. Learners use various everyday materials including ice and a potato to investigate the difference between sea ice and glaciers in relation to sea level rise, create and use a topographical map to predict sea level rise, and discuss how sea level rise will affect Alaska's coastline. This lesson plan includes detailed activity procedure guidelines, critical thinking questions, an overhead, and handouts. NOTE: material cost does not include cost to purchase DVD since it is not essential to the activity.

Fairbanks, University O.

2008-01-01

83

Dust Storm, Aral Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

2002-01-01

84

the East Sea Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea Sea of Japan provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with 210 . the aid of Pb-derived sediment

Gi-Hoon Hong; Sang-Han Lee; Suk-Hyun Kim; Chang-Soo Chung; M. Baskaran

85

THE SEALS, SEA-LIONS, AND SEA OTTER OF  

E-print Network

THE SEALS, SEA-LIONS, AND SEA OTTER OF THE PACIFIC COAST Marine Biological Laboratory OODS HOLE, SEA-LIONS, AND SEA OTTER OF THE PACIFIC COAST Descriptions, Life History Notes, Photographs, and sea otter of the Pacific from Mexico to Point Barrow and the Hawaiian Islands. For each of twelve

86

Power from the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of sea thermal power systems exploiting the temperature difference between water at the surface and in the depths of tropical seas is examined. It has been estimated that the cost of electricity from sea thermal plants based on projected 1985 prices may be as low as 25 mills\\/kW hr, in contrast with about 37 mills\\/kW hr for nuclear

M. Swann

1976-01-01

87

Focus on Sea Otters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Monterey Bay Aquarium website where you can learn about the biology and population recovery of sea otters. Features include the opportunity to "meet" the otters on exhibit at the aquarium and viewing them through the live otter cam. Many sea otter-related games, activities, and resources. Links to other fascinating exhibits at the Aquarium. Several downloadable videos available, each with their own enjoyable sea otter antics.

88

Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2014-08-01

89

Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.  

PubMed

Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

2014-05-01

90

Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hawksbill Sea Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata), such as the one hiding here under a boulder, and Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) are occasionally seen in Hurricane Hole. Hawksbills feed mostly on sponges while Greens eat mostly sea grasses....

91

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

92

Sea Anemone: Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

Hunt, John D.

1982-01-01

93

Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

94

Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

95

Sea bed mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a discussion on sea bed processes with engineering applications. It brings together the material currently available only in technical reports of research papers. It provides formulae and background references necessary for design calculation of problems such as sea bed or coastal erosion, and sub-marine pipeline stability. It also covers dissipation of wave energy, formation of ripples and

Sleath

1984-01-01

96

Spotting Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage looks through a telescope to help her locate and identify tagged sea otters, then records the otter's location for a study aimed at learning more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from...

97

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage holds out a VHF receiver, hoping to hear the tell-tale beep that helps her locate sea otters that are part of study to monitor and learn more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from nea...

98

Sea Otter Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teacher's manual on sea otters with lesson plans on: using the web as a research tool; reading and developing writing skills; social studies with role playing activity in community conflict resolution. Includes a glossary, links to additional resources, and background materials on sea otter history, distribution, vital statistics, behavior, role in food web, threats and conservation measures. Suggests conservation activities for classroom or school.

99

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea

Iolanda Osvath; Pavel P Povinec; Murdoch S Baxter

1999-01-01

100

Red sea drillings.  

PubMed

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

1973-01-26

101

Black Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

102

Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Report's Topic in Depth explores the world of sea cucumbers, or Holothuroidea, a diverse group of intriguing marine animals. The first site (1), from the Tree of Life Web Project, provides nice clear images of sea cucumbers and brief concise sections on Characteristics, The Orders of Holothuroidea, Fossil History, and Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships. The second site (2), from the Charles Darwin Research Station, displays short answers to commonly asked questions about sea cucumbers like: What is their importance within the marine communities?; How do sea cucumbers reproduce?; and What is the potential environment impact of overexploiting sea cucumber populations? From Enchanted Learning, the third site (3) features a diagrammed print-out of a s ea cucumber along with short descriptions of Holothuroidea anatomy, diet, classification, and predators. Hosted by the Royal BC Museum, the fourth site (4) contains a brief research paper by curator Philip Lambert on taxonomy issues concerning sea cucumbers. The fifth site (5), developed by Richard Fox of Lander University, contains detailed instructions for a laboratory exercise with Sclerodactyla briareus, a species of sea cucumber. From MoonDragon's Health & Wellness website, the sixth site (6) contains a sea cucumber recipe and briefly discusses sea cucumber cuisine and health benefits. Hosted by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, the seventh site (7) provides information about an international conference titled: Conservation of s ea cucumbers in Malaysia, their Taxonomy, Ecology and Trade. The site contains concluding remarks, abstracts from papers presented at the conference, and a list of email contacts for conference participants. The final (8) site from the Environmental News Network'features a short article about an Ecuadorian court upholding sea cucumber fishing limits in the Galapagos islands.

103

SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2012-2103  

E-print Network

Safety Administrative Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety #12;SEAS Safety ProgramSEAS Safety Program Services Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety · Relay relevant information back to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend

104

Global sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

Douglas, B.C. (NOAA, Rockville, MD (USA))

1991-04-15

105

Sea level variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect estimates of global sea level acceleration for time spans of less than about 50 years. This means that tide gauges alone cannot serve as a reliable leading indicator of climate change in less than many decades. This time required can be significantly reduced if the interdecadal fluctuations of sea level can be understood in terms of their forcing mechanisms, and then removed from the tide gauge records.

Douglas, Bruce C.

1992-01-01

106

Arctic Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the area of Arctic sea ice has changed over recent years. First, learners graph the area of Arctic sea ice over time from 1979 to 2007. Then, learners use this information to extrapolate what the area will be in 2018 and graph their predictions. In part two of the activity, learners make a flip book to simulate the sea changes they just graphed. This resource includes background information related to the Northwest Passage and questions for learners to answer after completing this activity.

Meier, Beverly L.

2012-06-26

107

Sea Perch Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

David Lalejini, an employee of the Naval Research Laboratory at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, helps a pair of teachers deploy a remotely-operated underwater Sea Perch robot during workshop activities Dec. 11. The Stennis Education Office teamed with Naval Research Laboratory counterparts to conduct a two-day workshop Dec. 10-11 for Louisiana and Mississippi teachers. During the no-cost workshop, teachers learned to build and operate Sea Perch robots. The teachers now can take the Sea Perch Program back to students.

2010-01-01

108

Is The Sea Level?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will observe that the sea level changes and will hypothesize what causes this change. They will then check their hypothesis with a data set. Many students are surprised to learn that sea level is not the same everywhere on earth and that it changes with the seasons. The main cause of this change is the temperature change in the ocean - warmer waters are higher than colder waters. Students will discover this information as they complete the activity and then see if the temperature effect holds true on another data set showing temperature and sea height changes caused by the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

2007-12-12

109

Drag of the sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how the drag of the sea surface can be computed from the wind speed and the sea state. The approach, applicable both for fully developed and for developing seas, is based on conservation of momentum in the boundary layer above the sea, which allows one to relate the drag to the properties of the momentum exchange between

V. K. Makin; V. N. Kudryavtsev; C. Mastenbroek

1995-01-01

110

3. The Sea Urchin Introduction  

E-print Network

3. The Sea Urchin leffHardin Introduction The sea urchin embryo has been used for more than of echinoderms and, in particular, of sea urchins, that was carried out at these marine stations was influential; Morgan, 1927). Later, in the early part of the twentieth century, the experiments performed on sea urchin

Hardin, Jeff

111

Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle  

E-print Network

Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean 17 September 2014 Available online 28 September 2014 Keywords: Sea ice Ice growth/melt Sea ice motion Heat flux Climate dynamics Bering Sea a b s t r a c t The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability

Eisenman, Ian

112

Sea level change  

SciTech Connect

The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Meier, M.F. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

113

Purple sea urchin swarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

114

Smart Sea Lions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW explores whether animals and humans are more similar than we think. Meet Rio, a sea lion who demonstrates to researchers reasoning skills once thought limited to humans.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2009-08-31

115

Sea Floor Spreading I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

Activity and Starting Point page by R.M. MacKay. Clark College, Physics and Meteorology.

116

Sea Ice Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

Arrigo, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

117

Record Sea Ice Minimum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

2007-01-01

118

Stellar Sea Lion Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

119

Black Sea Becomes Turquoise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

2002-01-01

120

Egypt and Red Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

1982-01-01

121

Global sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

Bruce C. Douglas

1991-01-01

122

Sea Level rise contributors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page from the National Snow and Ice Data Center contains two related visualizations. The first visualization gives an estimate of the percent contribution to sea level change since the 1990s from three contributors - small glaciers and ice caps, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The second visualization shows the cumulative contribution to sea level from small glaciers and ice caps plotted with the annual global surface air temperature anomaly.

Meier, M. F.; Dyurgerov, Mark; Center, National S.

123

All About Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site is an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expedition in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains a glossary of sea ice terms and references to additional information, which all serve as an excellent introduction. Data are also available from various collection methods for student interpretation.

124

Sea Slug Forum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists, students, divers and aquarists can ask questions, post information, look up species profiles, references and links about nudibranchs, bubble-shells, sea hares and other sea slugs worldwide. Messages archived by scientific name; species profiles are presented by family and scientific name, and include classification, distribution, biological information and photo, plus links to messages concerning that species. General topics section covers anatomy, behavior, aquarium suitability, and more. Fairly technical.

125

Green Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed information on the biology, natural history, factors influencing the population, and protection measures of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Included are three in-class activities and one field activity all designed to raise awareness of the green sea turtle and what humans are doing to affect the population. The site is geared towards the Hawaiian sub-species, however, most of the facts and activities are applicable elsewhere.

126

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents ocean topography as measured by sea surface heights taken from space by NASA and CNES. Ocean heat circulation impacts weather and causes events such as Large El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami and La Nina. These events and the latest view of sea surface height are depicted with this 3D interactive viewer. Objectives of NASA missions TOPEX/Poseiden, Jason 1, and Jason 2/OSTM are charted. Closed Captioning is available.

127

Sea Urchin Embryology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advanced high school level laboratory activities using sea urchins to observe fertilization and early developmental stages. This is a comprehensive site complete with multiple labs, support lessons, background information, animated graphics illustrating lab techniques, printable overheads (also available in Spanish and French), and a glossary of terms. A one-stop site for sea urchin information, experiments, suppliers, and research. Links to additional resources are available.

128

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Only facility housing complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, obtain citations, abstracts and over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

129

Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from satellite altimetry and tide gauges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present-day sea level changes in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are studied using satellite altimetry. Analysis of altimetry data from Topex–Poseidon (T\\/P) between January 1993 and December 1998, and from ERS-1\\/2 between October 1992 and June 1996 shows that the mean rate of sea level rise is 7±1.5 mm\\/year over the Mediterranean Sea and 27±2.5 mm\\/year over the Black

A. Cazenave; P. Bonnefond; F. Mercier; K. Dominh; V. Toumazou

2002-01-01

130

Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas: current structure and volume fluxes from moored current meters, VM-ADCP and SeaSoar-CTD observations, 1995–1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic water to the Nordic Seas, an important factor for climate, ecology and biological production in Northern Europe. The investigations are carried out along the Svinøy standard hydrographic section, which cuts through the Atlantic inflow to the Norwegian Sea just to the north of the Faroe–Shetland Channel. In the Svinøy

Kjell Arild Orvik; Øystein Skagseth; Martin Mork

2001-01-01

131

The Dead Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

2006-01-01

132

The Lofoten Vortex of the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lofoten Basin is the largest reservoir of ocean heat in the Nordic Seas. A particular feature of the basin is 'the Lofoten Vortex', a most anomalous mesoscale structure in the Nordic Seas. The vortex resides in one of the major winter convection sites in the Norwegian Sea, and is likely to influence the dense water formation of the region. Here, we document this quasi-permanent anticyclonic vortex using hydrographic and satellite observations. The vortex' uniqueness in the Nordic Seas, its surface characteristics on seasonal, inter-annual, and climatological time-scales, are examined together with the main forcing mechanisms acting on it. The influence of the vortex on the hydrography of the Lofoten Basin is also shown. We show that the Atlantic Water in the Nordic Seas penetrate the deepest inside the Lofoten Vortex, and confirm the persistent existence of the vortex in the deepest part of the Lofoten Basin, its dominant cyclonic drift and reveal seasonality in its eddy intensity with maximum during late winter and minimum during late autumn. Eddy merging processes are studied in detail, and mergers by eddies from the slope current are found to provide anticyclonic vorticity to the Lofoten Vortex.

Raj, Roshin P.; Chafik, Léon; Nilsen, J. Even Ø.; Eldevik, Tor; Halo, Issufo

2015-02-01

133

Caribbean Sea Level Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

2012-12-01

134

Mountains in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-7 day investigation, learners begin with an introduction to seamounts that are present in the Gulf of Alaska. They learn how seamounts were formed and look at a bathymetric map of a seamount. In Activity 3A, learners explore sea floor mapping techniques as they participate in an activity to create a map of a sea feature they have molded out of clay. In Activity 3B, learners watch a short animated presentation, "Who cares about Sea Floor Mapping?" and create a model of a seamount found in Alaska. They use pre-sonar techniques to collect data and create a graph of their seamount using Excel. This detailed lesson plan includes learner hand-outs, evaluation questions, curricular connections, and tips.

Alaska Sea Grant

2011-01-01

135

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a nonprofit organization aimed at raising awareness of the ocean and marine life that play "a critical role in our everyday life and in the future of our planet." SeaWeb employs a team of professionals from biology, exploration, and various communication disciplines. The current campaigns include an effort to protect the declining Caspian Sea Sturgeon ("the source of most of the world's caviar"), an attempt to reduce overfishing of swordfish, and a report about the changes occurring in the world's oceans. This Web site is a robust source of information about many threats that are facing marine ecosystems, and an attempt to reduce the dangers by educating the public about the impacts of their behavior.

136

Long-term variability in Arctic sea surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we used 30 years of an operational sea surface temperature (SST) product, the NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST Version 2 dataset, to examine variations in Arctic SSTs during the period December 1981-October 2011. We computed annual SST anomalies and interannual trends in SST variations for the period 1982-2010; during this period, marginal (though statistically significant) increases in SSTs were observed in oceanic regions poleward of 60°N. A warming trend is evident over most of the Arctic region, the Beaufort Sea, the Chuckchi Sea, Hudson Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Iceland Sea, the Norwegian Sea, Bering Strait, etc.; Labrador Sea experienced higher temperature anomalies than those observed in other regions. However, cooling trends were observed in the central Arctic, some parts of Baffin Bay, the Kara Sea (south of Novaya Zemlya), the Laptev Sea, the Siberian Sea, and Fram Strait. The central Arctic region experienced a cooling trend only during 1992-2001; warming trends were observed during 1982-1991 and 2002-2010. We also examined a 30-yr (1982-2011) record of summer season (June-July-August) SST variations and a 29-yr (1982-2010) record of September SST variations, the results of which are discussed.

Singh, Rajkumar Kamaljit; Maheshwari, Megha; Oza, Sandip R.; Kumar, Raj

2013-09-01

137

A lithosphere-scale structural model of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea and Kara Sea region as part of the European Arctic shelf, is geologically situated between the Proterozoic East-European Craton in the south and early Cenozoic passive margins in the north and the west. Proven and inferred hydrocarbon resources encouraged numerous industrial and academic studies in the last decades which brought along a wide spectrum of geological and geophysical data. By evaluating all available interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3-D-models, we were able to develop a new lithosphere-scale 3-D-structural model for the greater Barents Sea and Kara Sea region. The sedimentary part of the model resolves four major megasequence boundaries (earliest Eocene, mid-Cretaceous, mid-Jurassic and mid-Permian). Downwards, the 3-D-structural model is complemented by the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a newly calculated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The thickness distribution of the main megasequences delineates five major subdomains differentiating the region (the northern Kara Sea, the southern Kara Sea, the eastern Barents Sea, the western Barents Sea and the oceanic domain comprising the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Eurasia Basin). The vertical resolution of five sedimentary megasequences allows comparing for the first time the subsidence history of these domains directly. Relating the sedimentary structures with the deeper crustal/lithospheric configuration sheds some light on possible causative basin forming mechanisms that we discuss. The newly calculated LAB deepens from the typically shallow oceanic domain in three major steps beneath the Barents and Kara shelves towards the West-Siberian Basin in the east. Thereby, we relate the shallow continental LAB and slow/hot mantle beneath the southwestern Barents Sea with the formation of deep Paleozoic/Mesozoic rift basins. Thinnest continental lithosphere is observed beneath Svalbard and the NW Barents Sea where no Mesozoic/early Cenozoic rifting has occurred but strongest Cenozoic uplift and volcanism since Miocene times. The East Barents Sea Basin is underlain by a LAB at moderate depths and a high-density anomaly in the lithospheric mantle which follows the basin geometry and a domain where the least amount of late Cenozoic uplift/erosion is observed. Strikingly, this high-density anomaly is not present beneath the adjacent southern Kara Sea. Both basins share a strong Mesozoic subsidence phase whereby the main subsidence phase is younger in the South Kara Sea Basin.

Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J. I.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.

2014-07-01

138

SEAS Safety Program SEAS SAFETY PROGRAM 2013-2014  

E-print Network

Support · Linn Eichler & Christie Gilliland Safety Inspection Support · Lab Safety Officers (~ 40 safety Provided to SEAS Research Labs · Annual Lab Safety Inspections · Report and Feedback from/after Lab to your lab group · Report incidents to SEAS safety committee · Attend annual lab inspection (SEAS + EHSEM

139

RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR AGES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA AND BLACK SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured apparent marine radiocarbon ages for the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, and Red Sea by accel- erator mass spectrometry radiocarbon analyses of 26 modern, pre-bomb mollusk shells collected living between AD 1837 and 1950. The marine reservoir (R(t)) ages were estimated at some 390 ± 85 yr BP, 415 ± 90 yr BP and 440 ± 40 yr BP,

Nadine Tisnerat; Franck Bassinot

140

Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead and on sea ice in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

141

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the website for the only facility housing a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, where users may obtain citations, abstracts and access to over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

142

Lighting Up the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Geographic lesson plan explores bioluminescent organisms in the sea. In this activity, students explore the benefits of bioluminescence by conducting a simulation and viewing pictures of bioluminescent marine animals on the Web. The conclusion of the activity entails students pretending to be deep-sea divers and writing journal entries about their impressions of a bioluminescent animal they have encountered. In addition to a detailed procedure, the lesson plan includes suggestions for assessment, ideas for extending the lesson, and links to related websites.

Xpeditions, National G.

143

Introduction Deep-sea deposits from submarine landslides, debris  

E-print Network

Introduction Deep-sea deposits from submarine landslides, debris flows, and turbidity currents have with submarine mass-wasting. An example is the Storegga landslide on the Norwegian margin, which occurred about 9, this landslide dwarfs the largest subaerial landslides. Because large landslides usually reach longer horizontal

144

On the seasonal variability of the eddy field in the eastern part of the Nordic Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian Atlantic current (NwAC) transports warm and saline Atlantic water northward toward the Arctic Ocean, as a poleward eastern boundary current. The Atlantic water occupies a wider and deeper domain in the Lofoten Basin than farther south and north. It comprises the major-heat reservoir in the Norwegian Sea with contact with the atmosphere and is an important area for

M. Andersson; K. O. Orvik; J. H. Lacasce; C. Mauritzen; I. Koszalka

2009-01-01

145

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

146

Chaotic dynamics of sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

rules for the underlying sea clutter dynamics, in contrast to the stochastic approach where sea clutter is viewed as a random process with a large number of degrees of freedom. In this paper, we demonstrate, convincingly for the first time, the chaotic dynamics of sea clutter. We say so on the basis of results obtained using radar data collected from

Simon Haykin; Sadasivan Puthusserypady

1997-01-01

147

3, 637669, 2006 Mediterranean Sea  

E-print Network

OSD 3, 637­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Mediterranean Sea forecast: effects of high-resolution atmospheric forcings S. Natale1 , R. Sorgente2 , S­669, 2006 Central Mediterranean Sea forecast S. Natale et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING: MICHIGAN STREAMS  

E-print Network

SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING: MICHIGAN STREAMS OF LAKE SUPERIOR Marine Bioiogical Laboratory MAY 2 3 1952 Service, Albert M. Day, Director SEA LAMPREY SPAWNING s MICHIGAN STREAMS OF LAKE SUPERIOR by Howard A decades since the capture of the first specimen in Lake Erie in 1921, the sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus

149

Tides & Currents: Sea Level Trends  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services has been measuring sea level for over 150 years. This resource illustrates regional trends in sea level, with arrows representing the direction and magnitude of change including national and global stations. Impacts on changing sea levels in relation to atmospheric and oceanic processes as well as other Earth systems are explained and supported with educations resources.

2010-01-01

150

Sinking cities. [Rising sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the rapid subsidence of the last 50 years now appears slowed or even arrested in many cities, there has been almost no recovery in ground elevation, and many of the world's great cities remain vulnerable to flooding from the sea. The continuing rise in sea level challenges the engineering efforts designed to keep out the sea. Over the past

R. Dolan; H. G. Goodell

2009-01-01

151

National Sea Grant Educators Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compilation of Sea Grant marine education resources. Site includes the latest news, a pdf file discussing Sea Grant education initiatives, links to all Sea Grant Education websites, several teaching and learning resources, and several interactive classroom activities. An excellent site to begin preparations for a marine science or oceanography course.

152

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A multimedia public education project designed to raise awareness of the world ocean and the life within it. Find articles on the latest ocean issues, links to resources and audio clips of the radio show Ocean Report. Also features information on SeaWeb programs, such as aquaculture initiatives for both fish and their eggs (caviar), and publications.

153

Solar Sea Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

Zener, Clarence

1976-01-01

154

Ships to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

155

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

156

Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-27

157

Sea Turtle Skeleton - Skull  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

158

Sea Turtle Skeleton - Nostrils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The carnivorous sea turtle's skull has two eye sockets for good vision on each side along with nostrils to detect prey. It does not have teeth, but has sharp edges on its jaw to rip and tear food. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

159

Classroom of the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Sea Program in which participant students were deaf and collaborated with a bioacoustician. Studies the underwater noise levels of the Gulf of Maine and the possible impacts on marine life. Explains implementing this project in the science curriculum. (YDS)

Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise; Scheifele, Peter

2000-01-01

160

Sea Turtles Coloring Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using excellent line drawings, this coloring book provides great background information about sea turtles in both English and Spanish. Species profiles, biology and life cycle, ecology, distribution, uses and threats, like fishing and habitat destruction, are covered. Measures for protection and conservation are introduced.

161

Redlands Institute: Salton Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea Database Program (SSDP) at the University of Redlands, Redlands Institute (RI) was a project administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Special Programs. The purpose behind the SSDP was to bring a wide range of data management and analysis tools and professionals "to support multi-disciplinary and coordinated decision-making across all the professional and scientific teams and stakeholders involved in the restoration of California's largest inland body of water, the Salton Sea." Part of their outreach work includes this fine website, which includes sections titled "Ecological Issues", "Data & Research", and "Exploring the Area". First-time visitors may want to start by clicking on the "Ecological Issues" area. Here they can learn about the science of the area, the contemporary issues facing the survival of the Salton Sea, and some of the proposed solutions to restore the Sea. Journalists and scientists will appreciate the "Data & Research" area, as it features digital maps of the area, GIS data, public policy documents, and an image database. The casual traveler will enjoy the "Exploring the Area" section, and here they will find information about current weather conditions, fishing reports, and California State park materials.

162

Black Sea Battle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Story of the invasion of jellyfish into the Black Sea and the resulting affects on the native fish population. An excellent introduction into introduced species and their effects on an ecosystem. Site features an abundance of information on alien species and the delicacy that goes into eradicating them. Also links to additional non-traditional science-related news events.

163

Solomon's Sea and [Pi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

164

Rising Sea Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

165

Sea Level Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive program focuses on the role of sea level in climate change. Sections include an overview and a list of relevant NASA satellite missions and their objectives. A third section, entitled Global View, covers the following 5 topics: Latest View, Large El Niño, Hurricane Katrina, Indian Ocean Tsunami, and La Niña.

2013-07-09

166

Egyptian Sea Cave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

167

A closing Ligurian Sea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two earthquakes occurred in the Ligurian Sea in December 1989 and April 1990. Both were widely felt along the French and Italian Rivieras, thus reminding us of the seismic risk in this region. The significant increase in the number of seismic stations in the area facilitated the study of these two shocks and their related aftershocks. Using different techniques (absolute

N. Bethoux; J. Fréchet; F. Guyoton; F. Thouvenot; M. Cattaneo; C. Eva; M. Nicolas; M. Granet

1992-01-01

168

Steller Sea Lion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive site featuring the threatened Steller Sea Lion. Site includes information on its critical habitat, protection measures, distribution information, and much more. Explore the Literature, Presentations, and Images section for an abundance of information from conferences, workshops, and research. Site features a wealth of photographs and video, as well as contact information for the program.

2011-01-10

169

The Sea Around Us  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list

Rachel L. Carson

1991-01-01

170

SeaWiFS analysis of the Japan and East China Sea air/sea environment.  

E-print Network

??Using visible wavelength radiance data obtained from the spaceborne Sea-viewing Wide Fieldof- view Sensor (SeaWiFS), during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia), an analysis of the… (more)

Rocha, James D.

2001-01-01

171

The Weddell Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several large, irregularly shaped icebergs are floating in the Weddell Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, in this true-color MODIS image from February 17, 2002. The location of several of the bergs has changed little over the last three months. Compared to an image acquired on November 13, 2001, the berg at the upper right of the image has spun around, but is still hanging around in the same general location. Similar slow-movers can be seen just to the east of the Larsen Ice Shelf, which hugs the eastern coast of the Peninsula. The northernmost of those two bergs is designated A38b; the southernmost one is A38a. These bergs were once part of an iceberg greater than 2,700 square miles that broke off the Ronne Ice Shelf (to the south) back in 1998. While the waters of the Weddell Sea in the area ought to be deep enough to float those bergs, it is possible that they have run aground on a topographic high, or ridge, in the sea floor. However, little is known about the underwater topography of that region, and it is also possible that the bergs are simply so massive that they resist being moved by surface wind or ocean currents. While four years might seem like a long time for an iceberg to hang around, these are certainly no record holders. A berg that broke off the Ross Ice Shelf (on the other side of Antarctica) drifted north and went aground south of Australia. That berg calved in 1987, and hasn't really moved in ten years. While the big bergs have not moved much in the span of time between these images, there is a big difference in the amount of sea ice present in the two images. In general, the rounder chunks of ice are more likely to be seasonal sea ice that forms from the freezing of sea water, while the larger, jagged-edged pieces of ice are more likely to be bergs that broke off an ice shelf at the margin of the continent. It's the height of summer in Antarctica in the February image, and much of the sea ice has melted or drifted away, leaving a relatively large expanse of clear ocean. Credit:

2002-01-01

172

Sea floor magnetic observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on the sea floor in order to get experimental data in geomagnetic coordinates frames. The analysis executed showed that first error source can not be avoided at shallow water experiments but can be easily taken into account. The special methodology and the developed software allowed to solve the second problem. It was shown that it is possible to reduce the magnetometer data collected in randomly oriented coordinate system at arbitrary position on the sea floor to the data in the frame system connected with geomagnetic coordinates. The parameters of LEMI-302 sea bed magnetometer are discussed and the experimental results of its application are presented. The research work in Ukraine was partly supported by INTAS grant 99-1102.

Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

2003-04-01

173

Northern Sand Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

174

Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

2014-05-01

175

Sea level Atlantic-to-Arctic: an examination of the altimeter record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore changes in the ocean circulation in the Atlantic, Nordic Seas, and Arctic during the past two decades through examination of the combined historical satellite altimeter sea level record. On seasonal timescales sea level variations have amplitudes of 1-5cm with a phase in shallow seas (e.g. Barents Sea) that lags the seasonal cycle in the open ocean by 2-3 months. The cause of this phase lag is related to the change in phase lag with depth of steric anomalies in this region. The difference in phase lag induces currents along regions of topographic gradient of a few cm/s. On interannual timescales the altimeter record reveals 4.5-5.5 cm anomalies in the sub-Arctic gyre and Norwegian Sea, and smaller 2.5 cm in the Barents and Greenland Seas. As in the case of the seasonal cycle, interannual variations in sea level are shown to be related to steric changes (determined from examination of the historical hydrographic archive), where salinity changes in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas in particular play an important role. In contrast, wind forcing plays an important role in the the northern Barents Sea. Finally we examine the trend over the full 18-year record. Everywhere in the Nordic Seas sea level has increased. The highest rate of rise is about 7 mm/yr which occurs in the Labrador Sea near the south-east coast of Greenland. In the center of Norwegian Sea maximum the rate is ~5 mm/yr, while in the Baltic Sea it changes from ~2.5 mm/yr on south to practically zero on north.

Chepurin, G.; Carton, J.

2012-04-01

176

Correcting infrared satellite estimates of sea surface temperature for atmospheric water vapor attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new satellite sea surface temperature (SST) algorithm is developed that uses nearly coincident measurements from the microwave special sensor microwave imager (SSM\\/I) to correct for atmospheric moisture attenuation of the infrared signal from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). This new SST algorithm is applied to AVHRR imagery from the South Pacific and Norwegian seas, which are then

William J. Emery; Yunyue Yu; Gary A. Wick; Peter Schluessel; Richard W. Reynolds

1994-01-01

177

Correcting infrared satellite estimates of sea surface temperature for atmospheric water vapor attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new satellite sea surface temperature (SST) algorithm is developed that uses nearly coincident measurements from the microwave special sensor microwave imager (SSM\\/I) to correct for atmospheric moisture attenuation of the infrared signal from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). This new SST algorithm is applied to AVHRR imagery from the South Pacific and Norwegian sea, which are then

William J. Emery; Yunyue Yu; Gary A. Wick; Peter Schluessel; Richard W. Reynolds

1994-01-01

178

The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to increased use of shelf sea space.

Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

2015-01-01

179

The Disappearing Aral Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In just 30 years, the Aral Sea has lost more than 60 percent of its water. Barring change, it may disappear entirely by 2020. In this visualization, satellite images dating from 1973 to 2000 show how water diverted from this inland lake for agriculture has caused it to shrink considerably over a short period of time. The feature can be run as an animation or as a series of slides. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

180

Changing Sea Levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

Pugh, David

2004-04-01

181

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

182

WINDandSEA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site was built in response to the many reference questions that are posed to the library and is meant to make internet searching more efficient for those concerned with oceanic and atmospheric issues, and the general public. Presently WINDandSEA has over 1,000 links to science and policy sites organized by topic and alphabetically within topic. All sites have been reviewed and annotated by NOAA staff.

183

Sea Floor Spreading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea floor spreading is demonstrated using a model consisting of two classroom desks and an 8-foot strip of paper. Changes in polarity are indicated using a felt marker. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook Energy flow, part of the Global System Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

184

Sea & Ships: Explore online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in England notes that its goal is "working to illustrate for everyone the importance of the sea, ships, time and the stars and their relationship with people." There is so much to explore in the "Sea and Ships" portion of the NMM website, but a great way to see everything it has to offer is by using the "Sea and Ships Directory" at the bottom of the homepage. It divides the material up by "Subjects", "People", "Collections", "Online Galleries", and "Games and Interactives". Visitors interested in lessons about the ocean that come in the form of games, quizzes and stories, should definitely check out the "Your Ocean" link from the "Games and Interactives". The "Your Waste" lesson gives visitors the opportunity to test their skills at "managing an oil spill clean-up operation", in the game "Oil Crisis!" Keeping waste to a minimum is what the quiz "Pollution Solutions" addresses, and is also on the "Your Waste" page. Other lessons include "Your Energy", "Your Stuff" and "Your Climate".

185

Bering Sea in Bloom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface waters of the Bering Sea around the Pribilof Islands, off Alaska's west coast, exhibited a dark green color on May 15, 2002, in this SeaWiFS true-color image. The green color of the currents there suggests the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Careful inspection reveals some a reddish tinges of light reflected by this bloom, particularly in a long east to west band just south of the Pribilof Islands, and just north of the Aleutian Island chain (disappearing toward the lower righthand corner of this scene beneath the cloud bank). Some scientists speculate this could be another Phaeocystis bloom, similar to the bloom of this species that was observed in these waters roughly this time last year. Such blooms are typically accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor in the immediate vicinity. The light brown color of the surface waters along the Alaskan shoreline are probably due to suspended sediments washed off from the land. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

186

Aral Sea Evaporation (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aral Sea is actually not a sea at all, but an immense fresh water lake. In the last thirty years, more than sixty percent of the lake has disappeared because much of the river flow feeding the lake was diverted to irrigate cotton fields and rice paddies. Concentrations of salts and minerals began to rise in the shrinking body of water, leading to staggering alterations in the lakes ecology and precipitous drops in the Arals fish population. Powerful winds that blow across this part of Asia routinely pick up and deposit the now exposed lake bed soil. This has contributed to a significant reduction in breathable air quality, and crop yields have been appreciably affected due to heavily salt laden particles falling on arable land. This series of Landsat images taken in 1973, 1987 and 2000 show the profound reduction in overall area at the north end of the Aral, and a commensurate increase in land area as the floor of the sea now lies exposed.

Joycelyn Thomson

2005-02-15

187

Kara Sea radioactivity assessment.  

PubMed

Investigations following five international expeditions to the Kara Sea have shown that no radiologically significant contamination has occurred outside of the dumping sites in Novaya Zemlya bays. Increased levels of radionuclides in sediment have only been observed in Abrosimov and Stepovoy Bays very close to dumped containers. Evaluations of radionuclide inventories in water and sediment of the open Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya bays as well as soil from the shore of Abrosimov bay have shown that radionuclide contamination of the open Kara Sea is mainly due to global fallout, with smaller contributions from the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the Chernobyl accident run-off from the Ob and Yenisey rivers and local fallout. Computer modelling results have shown that maximum annual doses of approximately 1 mSv are expected for a hypothetical critical group subsisting on fish caught in the Novaya Zemlya bays whereas populations living on the mainland can be expected to receive doses at least three orders of magnitude lower. PMID:10568274

Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Baxter, M S

1999-09-30

188

Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle contributes significantly at most areas to sea level variability and can explain the sea level variance up to 78%. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges and allow us to identify some dominant sea level forcing parameters in the annual and semi-annual frequencies such as the Panama-Colombia gyre driven by the wind stress curl and the Caribbean Low Level Jet modulating the sea level in the northern coast of South America and linked to the local upwelling. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with large variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2012-07-01

189

Arctic Sea Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by strong interannual variability, with a low September ice extent in one year typically followed by recovery the next September. Having two extreme minimum years, such as what was observed in 2002 and 2003 is unusual. 2004 marks the third year in a row of substantially below normal sea ice cover in the Arctic. Early summer 2004 appeared unusual in terms of ice extent, with May a record low for the satellite period (1979-present) and June also exhibiting below normal ice extent. August 2004 extent is below that of 2003 and large reductions in ice cover are observed once again off the coasts of Siberia and Alaska and the Greenland Sea. Neither the 2002 or 2003 anomaly appeared to be strongly linked to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding winter. Similarly, the AO was negative during winter 2003/2004. In the previous AO framework of Rigor et al (2002), a positive winter AO implied preconditioning of the ice cover to extensive summer decay. In this hypothesis, the AO does not explain all aspects of the recent decline in Arctic ice cover, such as the extreme minima of 2002, 2003 and 2004. New analysis by Rigor and Wallace (2004) suggest that the very positive AO state from 1989-1995 can explain the recent sea ice minima in terms of changes in the Arctic surface wind field associated with the previous high AO state. However, it is also reasonable to expect that a general decrease in ice thickness accompanying warming would manifest itself as greater sensitivity of the ice pack to wind forcings and albedo feedbacks. The decrease in multiyear ice and attendant changes in ice thickness distribution could in turn precondition the Arctic ice cover to further reductions in the subsequent summer(s) regardless if the summer temperatures were anomalously warm. The NSIDC Sea Ice Index (http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/) can be used to view trends and anomalies from 1979 on.

Stroeve, J. C.; Fetterer, F.; Knowles, K.; Meier, W.; Serreze, M.; Arbetter, T.

2004-12-01

190

Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

1999-01-01

191

The USGS Salton Sea Science Office  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Salton Sea Science Office (SSSO) provides scientific information and evaluations to decisionmakers who are engaged in restoration planning and actions associated with the Salton Sea. The primary focus is the natural resources of the Salton Sea, including the sea?s ability to sustain biological resources and associated social and economic values.

Case, Harvey Lee, III; Barnum, Douglas A.

2007-01-01

192

Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

193

Aerosols Over Yellow Sea Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This SeaWiFS image shows complex phytoplankton distribution patterns in the Bohai and Yellow seas. A wide band of brownish water along the coast north and south of the mouth of the Yangtze River indicates a heavy load of suspended sediment. The air over eastern central China and the Yellow Sea is thick with aerosols. Farther north over the Manchurian Plain and Greater Khingan Range, the air is much clearer.

2002-01-01

194

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Handout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Shell Lab teacher's guide, students will examine sea scallop shells to figure out as much as possible about the scallops living on the sea floor in one three important fishery grounds, Hudson Canyon, off New Bedford, MA, and George's Bank. The activity emphasizes observation, measurements, and basic calculations. The teacher's guide is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

195

Sea Salt Source Function over the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of production and transport of aerosol over the sea are very important for many areas of knowledge. Marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clean the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. The emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore, marine aerosol has many features of rain i.e. the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. While many cruises conducted on board S/Y Oceania, we collected many data which were used to calculate sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. Our cruises held between 2009 and 2012. Measurements were carried out using gradient method. For this method we used Laser Particle Counter (PMS model CSASP-100_HV) placed on one oft the mast of S/Y Oceania. Measurements were performed on five different levels around sea level: 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20 meters. Based on the averaged vertical concentration, profiles were calculated, using Monin-Obuchow theory, vertical sea spray fluxes in the near water layer. Based on fluxes calculated from vertical concentration profiles was calculated sea salt source function over the Baltic Sea. This function gives emission for different particle size, depending on environmental parameters. Emission of sea spray depends of the size of energy lost by the wind waves in process of collapse. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBa?tyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09.

Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Markuszewski, Piotr; Jankowski, Andrzej; Zieli?ski, Tymon

2013-04-01

196

Regime shifts in North Sea and Baltic Sea: A comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ICES subdivisions in the North Sea (SD IIIa, SD IVa, and SD IVb) and the subdivisions in the Baltic Sea (SD 29, SD 27/28-2, and SD 25/26) are selected to compare the response in long term monitoring data (1970-2000) with respect to climate regime shifts. A modified AMOEBA model is applied to the data sets to identify the status and development of the North Sea and Baltic Sea system during two recent regime shifts. Biological regime shifts can be identified 1989/1990 in SD IIIa in the North Sea and in SD 25/26 in the Baltic Sea. A synchronous appearance of regime shifts could only be identified in the central and southern Baltic Sea for both regime shifts 1975/76 and 1989/90 where the AMOEBA model indicated a high similarity in ecosystem response. A clear difference was identified in the response of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Inter-annual and inter-decadal variability as well as regime shifts are driven in the Baltic Sea by direct atmospheric forcing only. In contrast, the changes in the North Sea are influenced by both the direct atmospheric forcing and the indirect forcing from the changes in North Atlantic. The fact that regime shifts as well as their synchronous appearance can be identified with the AMOEBA model might be of major interest for the management of sustainable use of ecosystem goods and services, the development of ecosystem approach to management and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) of the European Union (EU).

Dippner, Joachim W.; Möller, Caroline; Hänninen, Jari

2012-12-01

197

Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long  

E-print Network

Polar Sea Ice Mapping Using SeaWinds Data Hyrum S. Anderson and David G. Long Brigham Young for mapping polar sea ice extent. In this study, a new al- gorithm for polar sea ice mapping is developed of Bayes detection to produce sea ice extent maps. Statistical models for sea ice and ocean are represented

Long, David G.

198

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a project designed to raise awareness of the world's oceans and the lifeforms within them, and to encourage conservation efforts. Information provided here includes the latest news about ocean-related issues, audio files of the Ocean Report which provides a tour of the world's oceans, email updates, a bookstore, and an on-line book about issues facing our oceans. This includes habitats, fisheries and other issues. This site is searchable and provides links and resources for further information.

199

NOVA: Deep Sea Invasion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the companion Web site to "Deep Sea Invasion," a PBS NOVA documentary broadcast April 1, 2003. The program follows marine biologist Alexandre Meinesz and his scientific detective work to explain the rampant spread of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia through the Mediterranean and his struggle to instigate control efforts. The features of this Web site include a timeline chronicling the invasion, an article by Meinesz on the impact of invasive species, another article addressing strategies for controlling invasives, and an interactive quiz in which users match up species with their invasive characteristics. With interesting material covering a range of ecological topics, this Web site should be of interest to any reader.

2003-01-01

200

Science Nation: Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers at the University of North Carolina are studying how loggerhead and other sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field for a journey of thousands of miles around the Atlantic Ocean. The turtles react to the Earth's magnetic field as they navigate a five-to-10-year journey that takes them from the east coast of the United States to the coast of Portugal, south toward the west coast of Africa, then back toward the beach where they were born. A better understanding of this turtle ability could help in research of both animal and human navigation.

201

The Sea Around Us  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list for more than a year and a half and ultimately sold well over a million copies, has been translated into 28 languages, inspired an Academy Award-winning documentary, and won both the 1952 National Book Award and the John Burroughs Medal. This classic work remains as fresh today as when it first appeared. Carson's writing teems with stunning, memorable images--the newly formed Earth cooling beneath an endlessly overcast sky; the centuries of nonstop rain that created the oceans; giant squids battling sperm whales hundreds of fathoms below the surface; and incredibly powerful tides moving 100 billion tons of water daily in the Bay of Fundy. Quite simply, she captures the mystery and allure of the ocean with a compelling blend of imagination and expertise. Reintroducing a classic work to a whole new generation of readers, this Special Edition features a new chapter written by Jeffrey Levinton, a leading expert in marine ecology, that brings the scientific side of The Sea Around Us completely up to date. Levinton incorporates the most recent thinking on continental drift, coral reefs, the spread of the ocean floor, the deterioration of the oceans, mass extinction of sea life, and many other topics. In addition, acclaimed nature writer Ann Zwinger has contributed a brief foreword. Today, with the oceans endangered by the dumping of medical waste and ecological disasters such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, this illuminating volume provides a timely reminder of both the fragility and the importance of the ocean and the life that abounds within it. Anyone who loves the sea, or who is concerned about our natural environment, will want to read this classic work.

Carson, Rachel L.

1991-12-01

202

Sea and Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site contains information about both astronomy and the oceans. The Sky section contains astronomical resources, news links, an image gallery, games and general links for more information. The Cosmos contains details about stars, planets, moons, pulsars, galaxies, black holes, quasars, star clusters, nebulas, dark matter and constellations. There is also a section about astronomers and a timeline of space exploration. The Sea section contains news links, aquarium resources, an image gallery, games and links for more information about the oceans. The Ocean Realm highlights the many creatures that live in the oceans. There are also details about ocean exploration and an exploration timeline.

Knight, J.

203

Lessons from Sea Launch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks at the problems with space launch and what the United States can do to improve it. Specifically, the paper presents the argument that military space launch is not changing with the times and there are innovative ideas in the commercial launch sector, particularly the Sea Launch Program, from which the United States can learn. Primarily, the United States needs to make spacelift more affordable, reliable, and responsive because providing robust spacelift, that meets these standards, will support the US national security and economy. The research methodology included analysis of existing literature, congressional records, and interviews.

Cashin, Lina M.

2001-04-01

204

Two Sea-Level Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens. It would further clarify popular understanding if the term "actual sea level rise" were used in place of "eustatic sea level rise". (2)Geologists have approximated the the practice of paleontologists and biologists in establishing type examples of important geological features. This is a useful practice. A graduate geologist holds in mind clear conceptions of "beach cusps", "drumlin fields", "birdfoot deltas", and "igneous sills" based on seeing field examples accepted by professional geologists as representative of these features. However, although publications frequently report that sea level rise erodes a particular beach, no one identifies a type beach where that cause has been proven to produce the alleged effect. At the type beach, it is necessary to show that sea level is rising, and that the beach erodes primarily from this sea level rise, rather than from interrupted longshore transport. Thus, the second challenge is to identify a type ocean beach proven to erode because of sea level rise.

Galvin, C.

2008-12-01

205

Glacial sea surface temperature of the East Sea (Japan Sea) inferred from planktonic foraminiferal assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reconstruct the last glacial sea surface temperature (SST) of the East Sea, we investigated planktonic foraminiferal\\u000a assemblage in the marine sediments of a piston core recovered from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. For core top, the most dominant\\u000a species is right coiling Neogloboquadrina incompta, while left coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides clearly dominate the glacial assemblages.

Kyung Eun Lee; Katsunori Kimoto; Dae Hyun Kim

2010-01-01

206

Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea. ...

207

Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

208

Spectacled Eiders Wintering in Northern Bering Sea  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Large flock of Spectacled Eiders aggregated in a sea ice lead at sunset in the northern Bering Sea, south of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.  Aerial photograph from a helicopter deployed from the USCG Cutter Polar Sea....

209

Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

2012-12-01

210

Ice in Caspian Sea and Aral Sea, Kazakhstan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this MODIS image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 ft in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18o F, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

211

Sea modeling and rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

2010-10-01

212

Sea ice terminology  

SciTech Connect

A group of definitions of terms related to sea ice is presented, as well as a graphic representation of late winter ice zonation of the Beaufort Sea Coast. Terms included in the definition list are belt, bergy bit, bight, brash ice, calving, close pack ice, compacting, compact pack ice, concentration, consolidated pack ice, crack, diffuse ice edge, fast ice, fast-ice boundary, fast-ice edge, first-year ice, flaw, flaw lead, floe, flooded ice, fractured, fractured zone, fracturing, glacier, grey ice, grey-white ice, growler, hummock, iceberg, iceberg tongue, ice blink, ice boundary, ice cake, ice edge, ice foot, ice free, ice island, ice shelf, large fracture, lead, medium fracture, multiyear ice, nilas, old ice, open pack ice, open water, pack ice, polar ice, polynya, puddle, rafted ice, rafting, ram, ridge, rotten ice, second-year ice, shearing, shore lead, shore polynya, small fracture, strip, tabular berg, thaw holes, very close pack ice, very open pack ice, water sky, young coastal ice, and young ice.

Not Available

1980-09-01

213

Greenland Sea observations  

SciTech Connect

ERS-1 SAR data have been acquired over the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait during two periods, the Ice Phase of three-day repeat cycle from January to March 1992 and a one-month period in the 35-day repeat cycle from 16 July to 15 August 1992. Most data became available by way of the Broadband Data Dissemination System, i.e. with a spatial resolution of about 100 m. With these data various algorithms have been tested to derive sea ice parameters such as ice extent, ice concentration and ice displacement. In the latter period data were collected to support the activities of a research vessel in the area mainly related to the large polynyas that form east and north of Greenland. The formation of polynyas could clearly be outlined but also other phenomena were observed related to the influence of wind streets and gravity waves associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. The data will have to be studied further including full-resolution data to substantiate the conclusions arrived at.

Gudmandsen, P.; Mortensen, H.B.; Pedersen, L.T.; Skriver, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Electromagnetics; Minnett, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

214

Weibull-distributed sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weibull-distributed sea clutter was measured using a fixed antenna of an L-band air-route surveillance radar at low grazing angles between 0.50 and 0.72 deg. It is shown that the sea-clutter amplitude statistics obey a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter of 1.585.

Matsuo Sekine; Toshimitsu Musha; Yuichi Tomita; Toshihiko Hagisawa; Takeru Irabu; Eiichi Kiuchi

1983-01-01

215

Weibull-distributed sea clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weibull-distributed sea clutter was measured using a fixed antenna of an L-band air-route surveillance radar at low grazing angles between 0.50 and 0.72 deg. It is shown that the sea-clutter amplitude statistics obey a Weibull distribution with a shape parameter of 1.585.

Sekine, M.; Musha, T.; Tomita, Y.; Hagisawa, T.; Irabu, T.; Kiuchi, E.

1983-08-01

216

Probability of sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

J. G. Titus; V. K. Narayanan

1995-01-01

217

Probability of sea level rise  

SciTech Connect

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

1995-10-01

218

Evidence of Ice Free Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make a model sea floor sediment core using two types of buttons to represent fossil diatoms. They then compare the numbers of diatom fossils in the sediment at different depths to determine whether the seas were free of ice while the diatoms were alive.

LuAnn Dahlman

219

Connecting the Seas of Norden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nordic Seas are highly sensitive to environmental change and have been extensively monitored and studied across a broad range of marine disciplines. For these reasons, the Nordic seas may serve as a pilot area for integrated policy development in response to ongoing climate change.

Paasche, Øyvind; Österblom, Henrik; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Bonsdorff, Erik; Brander, Keith; Conley, Daniel J.; Durant, Joël M.; Eikeset, Anne M.; Goksøyr, Anders; Jónsson, Steingrímur; Kjesbu, Olav S.; Kuparinen, Anna; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2015-02-01

220

Gallery: Sound in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sound in the Sea offers a selection of audio recordings captured beneath the ocean surface. This page contains a selection of audio files of whales, ships, seismic disturbances, and unknown noises. There are also related video and animation products, and several spectrograms and other images of ocean sound. Students can click any image to listen and learn more about sound in the sea.

221

SEAS LABORATORY SAFETY OFFICER ORIENTATION  

E-print Network

/EH&S and lab · Communicate with lab members and PI · Get support from EH&S, ESCO and safety committees "The problems, and implement the safety program." SEAS Lab Safety Program Lab Safety Officer #12;· Attend monthly SEAS Safety Committee meetings · Assist in peer inspections and EH&S lab inspections · Inspect

222

SEA WATER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersal in time and sea of radioactive contamination produced by a ; deep underwater atomic blast was studied instrumentation methods obtained ; radiation intensity vs. depth information for several surface locations, and ; continuously monitored a sea-water intake line aboard ship. Surface ; contamination measuremerts were also made. (auth)

J. W. Duckworth; F. W. Chambers; W. H. Jr. Chapman; R. E. Severance

1958-01-01

223

TOC and satellite-sensed chlorophyll and primary production at the Arctic Front in the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Arctic Front region south of Jan Mayen, vertical profiles of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and hydrographic variables were measured during 3 weeks in June 2007. From time series of satellite-sensed chlorophyll, it was determined that the field studies took place in the aftermath of the culmination of the spring bloom, both on the Arctic (Icelandic Sea) and Atlantic (Norwegian Sea) sides of the Arctic Front. TOC in the upper 50 m was on average 60.9 ± 7.6 ?M C on the Arctic side and 62.3 ± 6.8 ?M C on the Atlantic side. Average in situ fluorescence was higher on the Atlantic side. Annual primary production calculated from satellite imagery showed no enhancement at the Front. To place the Frontal measurements in a larger perspective, satellite imagery over the entire Nordic (Greenland-Icelandic-Norwegian) Seas between 1998 and 2012 were studied. They showed that north of Jan Mayen the spring blooms normally last longer and culminate later with a higher concentration of chlorophyll at the peak in the colder water on the west side of the Front than in the Norwegian Sea. In the year of our expedition, the maximal concentration of satellite-sensed chlorophyll at spring bloom was three times higher in the central Greenland Sea than in the Norwegian Sea. Along the Arctic Front the maximal concentration of satellite sensed chlorophyll was always lower than in the central basins both west and east of the Front. The ordinal date of maximal spring bloom concentration of chlorophyll was negatively correlated with the maximal spring bloom chlorophyll concentration in the Norwegian and Icelandic Seas, but uncorrelated in the Greenland Sea. Interannual variation of primary production and maximal chlorophyll concentration was larger in the Greenland Sea then in the Icelandic and Norwegian Seas and we hypothesize that some of this variation is influenced by difference in energy efficiency between phototrophs and heterotrophs at low temperatures.

Børsheim, Knut Yngve; Milutinovi?, Svetlana; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.

2014-11-01

224

The Barbados Sea Level Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

2013-12-01

225

Diversity of the arctic deep-sea benthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benthic species inventory of 1,125 taxa was compiled from various sources for the central Arctic deeper than 500 m, and\\u000a bounded to the Atlantic by Fram Strait. The inventory was dominated by arthropods (366 taxa), foraminiferans (197), annelids\\u000a (194), and nematodes (140). An additional 115 taxa were added from the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian Seas (GIN). Approximately\\u000a half of all taxa were recorded

Bluhm A. Bodil; William G. Ambrose Jr; Melanie Bergmann; Lisa M. Clough; Andrey V. Gebruk; Christiane Hasemann; Katrin Iken; Michael Klages; Ian R. MacDonald; Paul E. Renaud; Ingo Schewe; Thomas Soltwedel; Maria W?odarska-Kowalczuk

2011-01-01

226

ICESat measurements of sea ice freeboard and estimates of sea ice thickness in the Weddell Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice freeboard heights in the Weddell Sea of Antarctica are derived from the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter measurements, which have a unique range precision to flat surfaces of 2 cm within 70 m footprints spaced at 172 m along track. Although elevations of flat surfaces can be obtained to an accuracy of ?10 cm

H. Jay Zwally; Donghui Yi; Ron Kwok; Yunhe Zhao

2008-01-01

227

Climate Projections of Sea state for the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KLIWAS is a research program of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development to study the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation and to provide options for adaptations. One aspect of the Research task is to analyse climate scenarios for the sea state, eg. Sea wave height (SWH), wave direction and wave periods for the North Sea. In addition, the prospective development of periods with wave heights below a certain threshold (periods of beneficial weather conditions) is discussed. Such periods of low sea state are important for offshore industry. The scenarios together with the wave climate of the recent years will give an approximation of projected changes of the sea state in coastal and open sea areas. Here we show the results for projected changes of sea state in the North Sea for the period 2000-2100 in comparison to 1961-2000, based on the wave model WAM4.5. The wave model is driven with wind data from two different regional atmosphere-ocean-models (DMI-HIRHAM and MPI-REMO) in the scenario A1B. The wind data are delivered in a horizontal resolution of about 20 km and a time resolution of one hour, while the wave model provides data of the calculated sea state with a horizontal grid of 5 km and the time resolution of one hour. It is seen, that in the eastern part of the North Sea and especially in the German Bight there is a trend to a increasing of the 99th percentile of SWH, in particular for the DMI wind data. In accordance with this increasing, there is a rotation of strongwind events from mainly north-west to mainly south-west directions for both regional models (DMI and REMO). As a consequence of this rotation, a decreasing of the 99th percentile of SWH is found in the western part of the North Sea. While there is a clear trend of SWH (positive in the eastern part, negative in the western part of the North Sea), there is not found any significant change of beneficial weather conditions.

Möller, Jens; Groll, Nikolaus; Heinrich, Hartmut; Rosenhagen, Gudrun

2013-04-01

228

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-02

229

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Android app for the Illuminations online game Deep Sea Duel card game helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-29

230

Medicines for sea lice.  

PubMed

Sea louse (Family Caligidae: genera Caligus and Lepeophtheirus) infection of farmed salmonids represents a significant threat to animal welfare and undermines profitability. Lice may also act as vectors for the transmission of viral and bacterial pathogens. Pest-control programmes parallel those deployed in terrestrial livestock farming and include the use of parasiticides. The authorisation process for fish medicines varies widely between salmon farming countries and undue regulatory constraint may place farmers in one country at a competitive disadvantage. In many jurisdictions, fish are a 'minor' species and mounting demands for environmental assessment increase registration costs. A successful integrated louse-management strategy requires free access to a range of effective, chemically unrelated active ingredients deployed according to current best practice. Over-reliance on a limited number of products will lead, inevitably, to resistance, which is difficult to counter. PMID:12138618

Grant, Andrew N

2002-06-01

231

Kliwas - Climate Projections of Sea state for Coastal and Open Sea in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KLIWAS is a research program of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development to study the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation and to provide options for adaptations. One specific aim of the project is to investigate potential changes in the wave fields in the North Sea. We have therefor analysed climate scenarios for the sea state, eg. significant wave height (SWH), wave direction and wave periods, for the North Sea. These scenarios together with the wave climate of the recent years will give an approximation of projected changes of the sea state in coastal and open sea areas. Here we show first results for projected changes of sea state in the North Sea for the period 2000-2100 in comparison to 1961-2000, based on the wave model WAM4.5. The wave model is forced with wind data from two different regional atmosphere-ocean-models (DMI-HIRHAM and MPI-REMO ) in the scenario A1B. The wind data have a horizontal resolution of about 20 km and a time resolution of one hour, while the wave model provides data of the calculated sea state with a horizontal grid of 5 km and the time resolution of one hour. We analysed the annual mean SWH as well as the 90- 95 and 99-percentile of SWH. It can be seen, that there is a trend to a slightly increasing SWH in the North Sea ,especially in the German Bight, in particular for the DMI wind data. While the increase is with the natural variability for the time period 2000-2050, it exceeds the variabiality in the second half of the century and shows a significant increase of SWH. The comparison with wave model runs for the scenarios A1 and B1 shows a similar increase of SWH, but a run with the scenario B2 displays no significant increase in the area of the German Bight and North Sea.

Möller, J.; Weisse, R.; Groll, N.; Heinrich, H.; Rosenhagen, G.

2012-04-01

232

Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean Sea  

E-print Network

Late Glacial to Holocene benthic foraminifera in the Marmara Sea: implications for Black Sea^Mediterranean by the Mediterranean at V12 ka, allowing saline waters to penetrate the Marmara Sea. These saline waters reached Sea connections following the last deglaciation Michael A. Kaminski a;b;Ã? , Ali Aksu c , Matthew Box a

Kaminski, Michael A.

233

Sea surface temperatures and ice rafting in the Holocene North Atlantic: climate influences on northern Europe and Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oceanographic conditions in the high-latitude North Atlantic ocean during the Holocene were reconstructed through analyses of sea surface temperature (SST; alkenone unsaturation ratios) and ice rafting (mineralogy and grain size) from two sediment sequences, one recovered from the Reykjanes Ridge at 59°N and the other from the Norwegian Sea at 68°N. Comparison of our records to published ice core

Matthias Moros; Kay Emeis; Bjørg Risebrobakken; Ian Snowball; Antoon Kuijpers; Jerry McManus; Eystein Jansen

2004-01-01

234

Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

1993-08-01

235

Sea Star Succumbing to Sea Star Wasting Disease  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Unlike their smiling cartoon brethren on television, since 2013, real-life sea stars have been suffering from a wasting disease epidemic in which they lose limbs and literally disintegrate in a matter of days. ...

236

The Sea Ice Board Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board Game, described here, is one of 183 ACMP hands-on lessons designed to help students around the nation understand weather and climate. In addition, the game illuminates 14 of the most common types of sea ice and introduces the four stages of the sea ice cycle (formation, growth, deformation, and disintegration).

Bertram, Kathryn B.

2008-10-01

237

Salton, A Sea of Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea is an “accidental” lake that receives used irrigation water from the Colorado River. Humans have profoundly altered the area’s ecosystems. The Salton Sea is important for wildlife and recreation, but is now saltier than the ocean. How might it be saved? This case examines the Salton Sea’s problems and uncertain future. The case would be suitable for introductory environmental, biology, geography and geology classes, and courses dealing with land use, water resources, agriculture, birds or fish, ecosystems, and government policy.

Vessey, Kristin B.

1999-01-01

238

North Atlantic Sea Level Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea Level trends are often studied as a direct effect of climate change, and considered an indicator of the global warming. Although a global Sea Level rise over the last decades is a well established fact, when we come to study regional variations some effort has to be paid in order to understand whether such trends are part of a longer cycle. In particular, relatively short time-span available from altimetry, combined with regional phenomenon influence, could lead to misleading conclusions. In order to illustrate this idea we have studied the North Atlantic sea level variations and how these are influenced by regional fenomena.

Vigo, I.; Belda, S.; Sanchez-Reales, J. M.

2013-12-01

239

Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs  

E-print Network

Structural Degradation in Mediterranean Sea Food Webs: Testing Ecological Hypotheses Using-Central Adriatic and South Catalan Sea) and two time periods (mid-late 1970s and 1990s) in the Mediterranean Sea to species removal; Niche model; Ecopath model; Mediterranean Sea. INTRODUCTION Degradation of marine

Myers, Ransom A.

240

Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

2014-12-01

241

Variability and trends in sea ice extent and ice production in the Ross Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas.

Josefino C. Comiso; Ronald Kwok; Seelye Martin; Arnold L. Gordon

2011-01-01

242

SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE February 2014 National Sea Grant Office's  

E-print Network

:40pm ­ 11:10am Lake Champlain Sea Grant (Garber) #12;SEA GRANT AT A GLANCE ­ February 2014 3 11:10am at a glance USC Sea Grant at a glance TEXAS Sea Grant at a glance LAKE CHAMPLAIN Sea Grant at a glance

243

Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea ice  

E-print Network

Consistent and contrasting decadal Arctic sea ice thickness predictions from a highly optimized sea of Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness made by a modern dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model and forced comprehensive data sets of observations made between 1979 and 2001 of sea ice thickness, draft, extent

Feltham, Daniel

244

INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL SEA-ICE THICKNESS VARIABILITY IN THE ROSS SEA Beth A. Schellenberg  

E-print Network

and others). The fact that sea ice covers about 7% of the earth's surface at any one time and varies seaINVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL SEA-ICE THICKNESS VARIABILITY IN THE ROSS SEA Beth A. Schellenberg P1.23 1. INTRODUCTION A number of studies suggest a connections between sea-ice variability

Geiger, Cathleen

245

Nonseasonal sea level variations in the Japan//East Sea from satellite altimeter data  

E-print Network

Nonseasonal sea level variations in the Japan//East Sea from satellite altimeter data Byoung surface height (SSH) in the Japan/East Sea (JES) from October 1992 through February 2002. The altimeter Oceanography: Physical: Upper ocean processes; KEYWORDS: sea level, nonseasonal variations, Japan/East Sea

246

Orographic effects during winter cold air outbreaks over the Sea of Japan (East Sea): Results  

E-print Network

Orographic effects during winter cold air outbreaks over the Sea of Japan (East Sea): Results from over the Sea of Japan (East Sea) [JES] has been the object of a number of investigations (Dorman et al 27599 Abstract We study the effects of the coastal topography on the western shore of the Sea of Japan

Scotti, Alberto

247

Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the Spitsbergen Island and the Franz Josef Land and the deep Nansen trough in the North, the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the East and the North shore of Europe in the South. An analysis of Eurasian-Arctic continental margin shows correspondence between the rift systems of the shelf with those of the ocean. This relation can be observed in the central Arctic region. All the rift systems underlying the sediment basin are expressed in the sea bed relief as spacious and extensive graben valleys burnished by lobes. Two transverse trenches cross both shelf and continental slope, namely the Medvezhinsky trench between Norway and Spitsbergen in the West and the Franz Victoria trench between Spitsbergen and the Franz Josef Land in the North. The Barents and the Kara Seas are connected by the Kara Gate Strait and wide transverse trough of Saint Anna in the North-West. The recent assessment of the eolian solid sediment supply to the Barents Sea is about 0.904 tons. The Barents Sea as a whole should be considered as "starving" in terms of its feeding with solid sediment matter. Observations show the considerable part of the sea bottom to be free of Holocene sediment cover. The more ancient Quaternary units or bedrock can be seen at the bottom surface. This phenomenon is the most typical for arches of relatively shallow elevations. Thick accumulations of new sediments are connected with fjords. The amount of sea ice delivered from the Barents Sea to the Arctic Ocean is 35 km3 a year. This value should be added by iceberg delivery from the North island of Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Spitsbergen Island and North Norway but most of terrigenous matter settles in natural sediment traps of fjords. The Barents Sea bottom has rather dissected relief. A number of isometric or, rarer, elongated underwater elevations (Perseus, Central, the Admiralty Bar, the Goose shoal) and separation trenches and troughs (South and North Barents Sea troughs, Perseus, Aldanov, Medvezhinsky, Franz Victoria, West and South Novozemelsky trenches) can be distinguished. The major processes that control a structure of the friable sedimentary cover of Arctic shelves appear on the seismic acoustic records as chaotic effect of cryolithogenesis (permafrost, themokarst, thawed patches, paleoriverbeds, etc.) and hydrocarbons migration (gas hydrates, gas saturated sediments, gas seeping, porkmarks, etc). Such phenomena are the main components of geo-risks for oil and gas fields development in Arctic Seas and are, together with the gas hydrates deposits, the top priority objects of seismic acoustic measurements. The shelf of the Barents Sea is one of the most extensively studied with high resolution acoustic methods because of large-scale engineering and geological problems solved in process of its industrial development. Mainly, it is related to exploring and development of oil and gas fields, oil terminals and submarine pipelines construction, and building up the whole infrastructure for their exploitation.

Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Shapovalov, S.; Chaikina, O.; Akivis, T.

2009-04-01

248

QuikSCAT Antarctic Sea Ice (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea ice around Antarctica grows dramatically from late February, when large parts of the coast are ice-free, to October, when the amount of sea ice effectively doubles the size of the continent. The SeaWinds Scatterometer instrument on the QuikSCAT satellite captures this dramatic ebb and flow and shows the sea ice as dynamic and always moving, even in areas that are ice-bound. This animation shows the sea ice around Antarctica from SeaWinds during 2004. SeaWinds can see individual icebergs if they are large enough, and a large iceberg can be seen for most of the year south of South America as it moves from the Antarctic Peninsula to the South Sandwich Islands. Also visible are the very convoluted and dynamic border between the sea ice and the open sea and holes in the sea ice created by the movement around fixed land features such as islands.

Kekesi, Alex; Mitchell, Horace

2005-03-28

249

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

250

Arctic Sea Ice Satellite Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity produced for Teachers' Domain, learn how Arctic sea ice has changed over the past 25 years in terms of maximum winter extent, concentration, and the timing of breakup each spring.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2008-01-17

251

The Kemps Ridley Sea Turtle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department describes how humans are helping restore safe nesting grounds for the critically endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle to ensure its successful repopulation.

2007-08-09

252

Salton sea project, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

253

SeaWIFS: Teacher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The SeaWIFS project uses space technology to study phytoplankton. Site contains: The Living Ocean Teacher's Guide, a guide for grades 9-10 that discusses satellites, ocean color, phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and greenhouse effect; Classic CZCS Scenes, a tutorial about ocean color using some of the more interesting CZCS images; and Monitoring the Earth from Space with SeaWiFS, an presentation about ocean color; and several other remote sensing resources.

254

Arctic Sea Ice Model Sensitivities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and, due to feedback effects, the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice state to internal model parameters. A new sea ice model that holds some promise for improving sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of this MPM sea ice code and compare it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness,and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94-AL85000.

Peterson, K. J.; Bochev, P.; Paskaleva, B.

2010-12-01

255

From Shore to Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

256

Salton sea minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-held notion that precious metals, minerals, and other useful substances can be extracted from natural waters is starting to become realized at several locations of geothermal brines. In a recent study by A. Maimoni of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory it was determined that there is a high potential for minerals recovery from the hot brines of a 1000-MWe geothermal power station at the Salton Sea geothermal field in southern California. The study estimated that the revenue from the minerals could substantially exceed that from the power station (Geothermics, 11, 239-258, 1982).According to the study, ‘A 1000-MWe power plant could recover 14-31% of the U.S. demand for manganese.’ In the example of lithium production, such a geothermal plant could produce 5-10 times the annual world output of lithium. Large quantities of lead and zinc could be extracted, as well as significant amounts of gold, platinum, and silver. The chemical composition of the brines is incredibly complex, however, for reasons not currently understood.

Bell, Peter M.

257

Polar Sea Ice Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Polar Sea Ice Processes module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic lecture viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Smith, Elizabeth; Alfultus, Michael

2000-06-01

258

50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...request any vessel holding a permit for Atlantic sea scallops, NE multispecies, monkfish, skates, Atlantic mackerel, squid, butterfish, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish, Atlantic herring, tilefish, or Atlantic deep-sea red...

2012-10-01

259

50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...request any vessel holding a permit for Atlantic sea scallops, NE multispecies, monkfish, skates, Atlantic mackerel, squid, butterfish, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish, Atlantic herring, tilefish, or Atlantic deep-sea red...

2011-10-01

260

50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...request any vessel holding a permit for Atlantic sea scallops, NE multispecies, monkfish, skates, Atlantic mackerel, squid, butterfish, scup, black sea bass, bluefish, spiny dogfish, Atlantic herring, tilefish, or Atlantic deep-sea red...

2013-10-01

261

Ground-Truthing 11- to 12kHz side-scan sonar imagery in the Norwegian–Greenland Sea: Part II: Probable diapirs on the Bear Island fan slide valley margins and the Vøring Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaMARC II (11- to 12-kHz) side-scan sonar revealed hundreds of small strong-backscatter spots, tens to 500?m in diameter,\\u000a along the lips of the Bear Island fan slide valley. New bathymetry, deep-tow side-scan, deep-tow profiles, heatflow, and gravity\\u000a cores were collected for ground-truth. These mounds are probably mud diapirs (or mud-built mounds) typically 10–75?m high,\\u000a formed by glacial sediment mobilized by

P. R. Vogt; K. Crane; E. Sundvor; B. O. Hjelstuen; J. Gardner; F. Bowles; G. Cherkashev

1999-01-01

262

Caribbean Conservation Corporation & Sea Turtle Survival League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

2008-01-22

263

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-12-31

264

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-01-01

265

SeaWinds - Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The frequent coverage provided by NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite provides unprecedented capability to monitor daily and seasonal changes in the key melt zones of Greenland, which is covered with a thick ice sheet that resulted from snow accumulating over tens of thousands of years. The thickness of the snow layers reveals details about the past global climate, and comparing snow accumulation and snow melting can provide insight into climate change and global warming. In particular, the extent of summer melting of snow in Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global change.

Earlier scatterometer data has suggested that Greenland has experienced significantly more melting in recent years. This figure compares the melting observed over 15 days during July 1999 in Greenland. The red areas around the central blue and white areas are the main melt zones and have lower radar back scatter because of water on the surface that saturates the surface snow. As the days warm up, the melt extent dramatically increases. Comparing this data with computer models and past scatterometer data will help scientists evaluate the inter-annual variability of the melting as a step toward understanding potential climate change.

The world's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica act as vast storehouses of freshwater. Summer season melting releases large quantities of freshwater into the ocean, and year-to-year variations can have a significant impact on global sea level. Furthermore, long-term changes in the patterns and extent of melting on the large ice sheets reflect the effects of climate variability; thus Greenland is considered a sensitive indicator of global warming.

Satellite microwave radars are extremely sensitive to melting and can provide the only effective means of accurately measuring the year-round picture of the extent and variability in ice sheet melting. Daily mean images were produced from QuikScat data collected over the Greenland ice sheet at the height of the present summer melt period. In the top row, four images are shown at intervals of 5 days, for (a) day 203, (b) 208,(c) 213, and (d) 218 in 1999. Blue and white colors indicate surfaces which are cold and dry, while read and black indicate wet snow surfaces experiencing melting. The coastal regions are lower in elevation and begin to melt first. As summer progresses, the area of melting expands inland and northwards along the western coast of Greenland as air temperatures warm. A large pale and dark blue region in the central, high-elevation part of the ice sheet survives each summer without experiencing any melting. This is known as the dry snow region, and its area is a measure of the stability of the central part of the ice sheet. The line dividing the melt area and the dry snow is very sensitive to climate conditions and monitoring this line will help scientists determine whether the Earth's climate is changing.

The lower series of four images shows the daily variability in the radar data within each image. White patches in these images identify regions where the most rapid changes are taking place. Air temperature and precipitation variations are responsible for the patterns, with the greatest impact over the southern tip of Greenland occurring from storms originating over the Atlantic. Note that the red areas of central and northern Greenland experience much smaller or slower changes, with the central ice sheet showing little change during this summer period.

With its frequent coverage, the SeaWinds instrument is a power and unique tool for monitoring the health of the large ice sheets. The continuing time-series of data is a valuable contribution to assessments of the effects and impact of global change in the polar regions.

NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

1999-01-01

266

Thermally-forced Circulation I: Sea Breezes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the phenomena of the sea breeze. It examines factors that lead to the formation of a sea breeze, modifying effects on sea breeze development, how mesoscale NWP models handle sea breezes, and sea breeze forecast parameters. The module places instruction in the context of a sea breeze case from Florida and compares surface and satellite observations to a model simulation using the AFWA MM5. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

Comet

2002-12-12

267

Sea Ice, an Antarctic Habitat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A 'click-and-learn' sub site hosted by the Alfred Wegener Institute Foundation for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), this is a succinct, educational tour of sea-ice and its associated ecological communities. Short synopses introduce the dynamics of sea-ice formation, the microstructure of sea-ice (including crystal structure, brine channels, and ice algae), the effects of ice melt on resident organisms, the logistics of sea-ice research, and _land fast-ice_ and platelet ice habitats. Introductions also exist for the following organisms: krill; whales (i.e., Orcas, southern bottlenosesd dolphins, minke whales); sea birds (i.e., skuas and snow petrals), penguins (i.e., emperor, adelie, and chinstraps), and seals (i.e., weddell, crabeater, leopard, and ross.) Enlargeable thumbnail images accompany the habitat and inhabitant descriptions. Further investigations (at an accelerated level) are prompted with the inclusion of bibliographic references and scientific research presentations (in PDF format) on fast-ice and platelet ice, as well as links to the main site for the AWI.

268

A fast sea-level line extraction and object detection method for infrared sea image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Usually, there is a distinguishable sea-level line in the infrared sea image, where many possible objects can be found. While relative to varies kinds of objects, the sea-level line can be more easily detected, which makes the sea-level line detection a important step in object detection and recognition in infrared sea images. This paper proposed a fast sea-level line detection method, which estimated pixels of sea-level line through the gray characteristic of neighborhood of them, performed a preliminary sea-level line positioning by line fitting, and verified the results by the linear feature of sea surface edges. Based on the results of sea-level line detection, a fast object candidate detection method was introduced. Experimental results proved that the existing and position of sea-level line can be determined and preliminary object detection can be performed by the proposed method.

Hong, Pu; Lei, Bo; Ren, Tingting; Cai, Yufei

2014-11-01

269

Sea Grant Nonindigeneous Species Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant College Program, in conjunction with the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network, has recently launched the Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Site (SGNIS). Intended to serve as a national information center, SGNIS is structured as a database and provides "a comprehensive collection of research publications and education materials ... on zebra mussels and other aquatic nuisance species." The database is searchable by Title, Authors, Organization, Date of publication, or Keywords (subject), and typical returns provide hyperlinks to abstracts, and in come cases, the full text (.pdf format) of published articles. In addition to the publications listed here, a selection of external links points users to additional sites. This is an excellent resource, well conceived and up to date.

270

Fluctuation of dominant mesozooplankton species in the Black Sea, North Sea and the Baltic Sea: Is a general trend recognisable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and fluctation of dominant pelagic species>300µ(Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Scyhozoa, Ctenophora and ichthyoplankton) of the southern Black Sea were compared with that of dominant species of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in relation to oceanographic and environmental features. In all three seas, similar changes in the zooplankton composition took place at the end of the 1980's, and the

Ulrich NIERMANN; Güner ERGÜN

271

ICESat measurements of sea ice freeboard and estimates of sea ice thickness in the Weddell Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice freeboard heights in the Weddell Sea of Antarctica are derived from the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter measurements, which have a unique range precision to flat surfaces of 2 cm within 70 m footprints spaced at 172 m along track. Although elevations of flat surfaces can be obtained to an accuracy of ˜10 cm (1?) per footprint, direct determination of freeboard heights is precluded by errors in knowledge of the geoid and temporal variability of the ocean surface. Therefore freeboards are determined relative to an ocean reference level detected over areas of open water and very thin ice within the sea ice pack using an along-track filtering method. The open water/thin ice selections show good agreement in the combined analysis of ICESat segments and Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The average residual between the ICESat-measured ocean level and the EGM96 geoid is 1.4 m. Estimates of snow depth on the sea ice from AMSR-E passive microwave data along with nominal densities of snow, water, and sea ice are used to estimate sea ice thickness. Four periods of ICESat data in May-June (fall) and October-November (late winter) of 2004 and 2005 between longitudes 298°E and 360°E are analyzed. In the fall the mean freeboards are 0.28 m in 2004 and 0.29 m in 2005, and the mean thicknesses are 1.33 m in 2004 and 1.52 m in 2005. In late winter the freeboards grew to 0.37 m in 2004 and 0.35 in 2005, and the thicknesses grew to 2.23 m in 2004 and 2.31 m in 2005. The interannual differences in freeboard are small, and the larger interannual change in estimated thickness mainly represents differences in the snow depth estimates. Seasonal changes in the spatial patterns of freeboard and thickness over the 4 months correlate with the expected circulation of sea ice in the Weddell Sea, as indicated by sea ice velocity fields.

Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Kwok, Ron; Zhao, Yunhe

2008-02-01

272

ConcepTest: Effect of Rain on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A majority of Earth's water is in the oceans. Predict what would happen to sea level if rain fell continuously all over the world's oceans. a. Sea level would rise b. Sea level would fall c. Sea level ...

273

34 CFR 300.149 - SEA responsibility for general supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false SEA responsibility for general supervision. 300.149 Section 300.149 ...Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision and Implementation of Procedural Safeguards...149 SEA responsibility for general supervision. (a) The SEA is responsible for...

2010-07-01

274

34 CFR 300.149 - SEA responsibility for general supervision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...true SEA responsibility for general supervision. 300.149 Section 300.149 ...Eligibility Sea Responsibility for General Supervision and Implementation of Procedural Safeguards...149 SEA responsibility for general supervision. (a) The SEA is responsible for...

2011-07-01

275

Black Sea coastal forecasting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system) project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

Kubryakov, A. I.; Korotaev, G. K.; Dorofeev, V. L.; Ratner, Y. B.; Palazov, A.; Valchev, N.; Malciu, V.; Matescu, R.; Oguz, T.

2012-03-01

276

The electrolysis of sea water  

E-print Network

contained in sea water have been calculated from this analysis. T. ls Literature From published accounts of studies concerned with t, hs electrolux? sis of sea water it appears that present da. , k:uwledge of this sub- ject has resulted frees the sffort...Ioyed in this ?ork+ k copper oxide rectifier supplied with 115 volt 60 cycle al- ternating current, The direct current output of this unit was about 12 amperes at 10 volts 9 k current control unit wss built to provide three outputs Two of these had a aster range...

Stoddard, William Bull

1952-01-01

277

A brief history of climate the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming  

E-print Network

with reconstructed ocean temperatures. It is found that maritime climate and the strength of the Norwegian Atlantic climate. This interaction between a variable ocean circulation and climate is therefore central to current1 A brief history of climate ­ the northern seas from the Last Glacial Maximum to global warming

Drange, Helge

278

Mapping and imaging deep-sea coral reefs off Norway, 1982–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survey and mapping group (SMG) of Statoil is responsible for all seafloor mapping for pipelines and field development in Statoil. During numerous reconnaissance and pipeline route surveys over large portions of our contintental shelf, in the North, Norwegian and Barents Seas, we have only detected deep-water coral reefs in a few specific areas. The first reef we found was

Martin Hovland; Steinar Vasshus; Arne Indreeide; Leslie Austdal; Øivind Nilsen

2002-01-01

279

Future sea-level rise in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secular sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea are the result of a number of processes characterized by distinct time scales and spatial patterns. Here we predict the future sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea to year 2050 combining the contributions from terrestrial ice melt (TIM), glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), and the ocean response (OR) that includes the thermal expansion and the ocean circulation contributions. The three contributions are characterized by comparable magnitudes but distinctly different sea-level fingerprints across the Mediterranean basin. The TIM component of future sea-level rise is taken from Spada et al. (2013) and it is mainly driven by the melt of small glaciers and ice caps and by the dynamic ice loss from Antarctica. The sea-level fingerprint associated with GIA is studied using two distinct models available from the literature: ICE-5G(VM2) (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model progressively developed at the Research School of Earth Sciences (RSES) of the National Australian University (KL05) (see Fleming and Lambeck, 2004 and references therein). Both the GIA and the TIM sea-level predictions have been obtained with the aid of the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007). The spatially-averaged OR component, which includes thermosteric and halosteric sea-level variations, recently obtained using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (Carillo et al., 2012), vary between 2 and 7 cm according to scenarios adopted (EA1B and EA1B2, see Meehl at al., 2007). Since the sea-level variations associated with TIM mainly result from the gravitational interactions between the cryosphere components, the oceans and the solid Earth, and long-wavelength rotational variations, they are characterized by a very smooth global pattern and by a marked zonal symmetry reflecting the dipole geometry of the ice sources. Since the Mediterranean Sea is located in the intermediate far-field of major ice sources, TIM sea-level changes have sub-eustatic values (i.e. they do not exceed the global average) and show little (but still significant) variations across the basin associated with the subsidence driven by the meltwater load. For year 2050, TIM calculations predict a sea-level rise of ~10 and ~30 cm for the mid range and the high end scenarios, respectively. Mainly because of the distinct mantle viscosity profiles adopted in ICE-5G(VM2) and KL05, the GIA patterns differ significantly and, in contrast with the TIM fingerprint, are both characterized by strong variations across the Mediterranean Sea, showing maximum values in the bulk of the basin. For the OR component, a significant geographical variation is observed across the Mediterranean sub-basins, corresponding to different Atlantic boundary conditionsAccording to this study, the total future sea-level rise for year 2050 will reach maximum values for the extreme scenario (hig-hend prediction for TIM, KL05 for GIA and EA1B2 for OR) of ˜ 27 cm in average with peak of ˜ 30 cm in the central sub-basins. Our results show that when these three components of future sea-level rise are simultaneously considered, the spatial variability is enhanced because of the neatly distinct geometry of the three fingerprints. References: Carillo, A., Sannino, G., Artale, V., Ruti, P., Calmanti, S., DellAquila, A., 2012, Clim. Dyn. 39 (9-10), 2167-2184; Fleming, K. and Lambeck, K., 2004, Quat. Sci. Rev. 23 (9-10), 1053-1077; Meehl, G.A., and 11 others, 2007, in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press; Peltier W.R., 2004, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 32, 111-149; Spada, G. and Stocchi, P., 2007, Comput. and Geosci., 33(4), 538-562; Spada G., Bamber J. L., Hurkmans R. T. W. L., 2013, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1-5, 40.

Galassi, Gaia; Spada, Giorgio

2014-05-01

280

SeaWorld Snack Shop - SeaWorld Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-solving activity, challenges students to take on the role of a Food Services Manager placing orders for a snack shop at Sea World. To solve the problem they will use data and proportional reasoning to make predictions and communicate findings.

Sea World - Just for Teachers

2012-05-06

281

In Brief. ... Sea Lampreys, Chitosan, and an  

E-print Network

In Brief. ... Sea Lampreys, Chitosan, and an Experimental Oyster Harvester · ...Sea lamprey control in several New York streams according to that state's Department of Environmental Con- servation. Lampreys

282

Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

1978-01-01

283

Sea Otter Pup Wants the Worm  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sea otter pup watches eagerly as its mother eats a fat innkeeper worm in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

284

Pollock Conservation Cooperative High Seas Catchers' Cooperative  

E-print Network

Pollock Conservation Cooperative and High Seas Catchers' Cooperative Final Joint Annual Report 2012%of%Tables%..........................................................................................................................................%2% Pollock%Conservation%Cooperative%Annual%Report*and*Enforcement*.......................................................................................................................................*17* High%Seas%Catchers'%Cooperative%Annual%Report

285

Pollock Conservation Cooperative High Seas Catchers' Cooperative  

E-print Network

Pollock Conservation Cooperative and High Seas Catchers' Cooperative Final Joint Annual Report 2013%of%Tables%.........................................................................................................................................................%2! Pollock%Conservation%Cooperative%Annual%Report!and!Enforcement!.......................................................................................................................................!19! High%Seas%Catchers'%Cooperative%Annual%Report

286

SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee.  

E-print Network

SEAS Lab Safety Officer Orientation Welcome to the SEAS Safety Committee. We appreciate your Officer list · SEAS/EHS Safety Tools ­ How often do I update ... ? · Lab Inspection Schedule, and Peer Review Lab Inspection Form · SEAS Laboratory Safety Orientation Checklist · PPE Assessment Report sample

287

Water masses and decadal variability in the East Sea (Sea of Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water masses in the East Sea are newly defined based upon vertical structure and analysis of CTD data collected in 1993–1999 during Circulation Research of the East Asian Marginal Seas (CREAMS). A distinct salinity minimum layer was found at 1500 m for the first time in the East Sea, which divides the East Sea Central Water (ESCW) above the minimum

Kuh Kim; Kyung-Ryul Kim; Young-Gyu Kim; Yang-Ki Cho; Dong-Jin Kang; Masaki Takematsu; Yuri Volkov

2004-01-01

288

Why is the southwest the most productive region of the East Sea\\/Sea of Japan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East Sea\\/Sea of Japan is a moderately productive sea that supports a wealth of living marine resources. Of the East Sea subregions, the southwest has the highest productivity. Various authors have proposed coastal upwelling, the Tsushima Current, the Changjiang Dilute Water, eddies, or discharge from the Nagdong River as potential sources of additional nutrients. In this paper, we propose,

Sinjae Yoo; Jisoo Park

2009-01-01

289

Isotopic Composition and Origin of the Red Sea and Salton Sea Geothermal Brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls

H. Craig

1966-01-01

290

Short Term Variability of Sea Ice Thickness in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationship between variability of sea ice thickness and ice dynamics, helicopter borne electromagnetic sea ice thickness sounding was performed at the APLIS ice camp in the Beaufort sea in April 2007. The field campaign includes sea ice thickness observations close to the camp with repeated flight tracks of different length scales and a transect ranging from 75°N

S. Hendricks; J. Hutchings

2007-01-01

291

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2011-10-01

292

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2012-10-01

293

Mean sea level variability in the North Sea: Processes and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

sea level (MSL) variations across a range of time scales are examined for the North Sea under the consideration of different forcing factors since the late 19th century. We use multiple linear regression models, which are validated for the second half of the 20th century against the output of a tide+surge model, to determine the barotropic response of the ocean to fluctuations in atmospheric forcing. We find that local atmospheric forcing mainly initiates MSL variability on time scales up to a few years, with the inverted barometric effect dominating the variability along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind controlling the MSL variability in the south from Belgium up to Denmark. On decadal time scales, MSL variability mainly reflects steric changes, which are largely forced remotely. A spatial correlation analysis of altimetry observations and gridded steric heights suggests evidence for a coherent signal extending from the Norwegian shelf down to the Canary Islands. This fits with the theory of longshore wind forcing along the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic causing coastally trapped waves to propagate over thousands of kilometers along the continental slope. Implications of these findings are assessed with statistical Monte-Carlo experiments. It is demonstrated that the removal of known variability increases the signal to noise ratio with the result that: (i) linear trends can be estimated more accurately; (ii) possible accelerations (as expected, e.g., due to anthropogenic climate change) can be detected much earlier. Such information is of crucial importance for anticipatory coastal management, engineering, and planning.

Dangendorf, Sönke; Calafat, Francisco M.; Arns, Arne; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

2014-10-01

294

Isotopic composition and origin of the red sea and salton sea geothermal brines.  

PubMed

Abstract. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements show that the Red Sea and Salton Sea brines are the results of a single process, the leaching of sediments by surface water circulating downward to a geothermal reservoir. The Salton Sea brine is derived from local precipitation but the Red Sea brine originates 1000 kilometers south of its basin, on the shallow sill which controls the circulation of the Red Sea. On this sill sea water penetrates a thick evaporite sequence to a depth of 2000 meters, and, driven by its increased density relative to sea water, flows northward to emerge in the brine-filled deeps. PMID:17807292

Craig, H

1966-12-23

295

Arctic sea ice volume changes and its consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite measurements of Arctic sea ice freeboard and observations of other sea ice properties related to sea ice thickness indicate a sizable loss of sea ice volume in the Arctic Ocean in recent years. What are the causes for these losses and how is the sea ice volume decline related to long-term changes in the Arctic? What consequences for sea

Rüdiger Gerdes; Cornelia Köberle; Frank Kauker

2010-01-01

296

Predictability of Japan / East Sea (JES) System to Uncertain Initial /  

E-print Network

Predictability of Japan / East Sea (JES) System to Uncertain Initial / Lateral Boundary Conditions and Surface Winds Predictability of Japan / East SeaPredictability of Japan / East Sea (JES) System (connects with the Okhotsk Sea) Tatar StraitTatar Strait (connects with the Okhotsk SeaOkhotsk Sea) Soya

Chu, Peter C.

297

Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

298

50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section...species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except as provided in §...

2012-10-01

299

7, 1324313269, 2007 EC fluxes of sea  

E-print Network

/ Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract Most estimates of sea spray aerosol the literature. 1 Introduction Sea spray particles are salt water droplets ejected from the ocean. The aerosols15 Interactive Discussion EGU Sea spray aerosol droplets are produced by different mechanisms. Jet and film

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section...species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except as provided in §...

2013-10-01

301

50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section...species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except as provided in §...

2011-10-01

302

Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham  

E-print Network

Sea Ice Rheology Daniel L. Feltham Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, Department of Earth-4189/08/0115-0091$20.00 Key Words Arctic, Antarctic, climate model Abstract The polar oceans of Earth are covered by sea ice. On timescales much greater than a day, the motion and deformation of the sea ice cover (i.e., its dynamics

Feltham, Daniel

303

3, 9991020, 2007 Summer sea ice  

E-print Network

CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page Abstract on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century H. Goosse, E #12;CPD 3, 999­1020, 2007 Summer sea ice during the early Holocene H. Goosse et al. Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

304

The humble sea urchin is helping biologists  

E-print Network

The humble sea urchin is helping biologists understand how life gets built. By Marcus Woo #12;19S PR I NG 2012 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE t's spawning season for the purple sea urchin. A female has process of development that will not only result in a long-lived, seafloor-dwelling adult sea urchin

305

FEATURE ARTICLE Biomineralization of sea urchin teeth  

E-print Network

FEATURE ARTICLE Biomineralization of sea urchin teeth Yurong MA () and Limin QI Beijing National Species, College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China The sea urchin tooth, which process, the crystal composition and orientation, and the mechanical properties of sea urchin tooth

Qi, Limin

306

Divide and Conquer (Fertilization of Sea Urchins)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity engages students in direct observation and inquiry-based experiments using sea urchins. First, they observe normal fertilization and division/cleavage in the sea urchin zygote. Next, they develop hypotheses and design and carry out experiments to test factors that can affect the fertilization of sea urchin eggs.

Ms. Mary Elizabeth Kelley (Bethel High School)

1998-07-01

307

Sea Ice Yearly Minimum in the Arctic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of visualizations show the annual Arctic sea ice minimum from 1979 to 2010. The decrease in Arctic sea ice over time is shown in an animation and a graph plotted simultaneously, but can be parsed so that the change in sea ice area can be shown without the graph.

GSFC/Science Visualization Studio

308

THE RATIONAL EXPLOITATION OF THE SEA FISHERIES  

E-print Network

THE RATIONAL EXPLOITATION OF THE SEA FISHERIES with Particular Reference to the Fish Stock Special Scientific Report = Fisheries Noo 13 THE RATIONAL EXPLOI lA. TION OF THE SEA FISHERIESXOn aooeoooooooooooooooooae* 2- Ao The principle of a rational exploitation of the sea eooeoooooooooooooooooeo* b Bo

309

The Impact of Sea Surface Temperature Front on Stratus-Sea Fog over the Yellow and East China Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stratus-sea fog event occurred on 3 June 2011 over the Yellow and East China Seas (as shown in figure) is investigated observationally and numerically. Emphasis is put on the influences of the sea surface temperature front (SSTF) and of the synoptic circulations on the transition of stratus to sea fog. The southerly winds from a synoptic high pressure transport water vapor from the East China Sea to the Yellow Sea, while the subsidence induced by the high contributes to the formation of the temperature inversion on the top of the stratus or stratocumulus that appears mainly over the warm flank of a sea surface temperature front in the East China Sea. Forced by the SSTF, there is a secondary cell within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), with a sinking branch on the cold flank and a rising one on the warm flank of the SSTF. This sinking branch, in phase with the synoptic subsidence, forces the stratus or stratocumulus to lower in the elevation getting close to the sea surface as these clouds move northward driven by the southerly winds. The cloud droplets can either reach to the sea surface directly or evaporate into water vapor that may condense again when coming close to the cold sea surface to form fog. In this later case, the stratus and fog may separate. The cooling effect of cold sea surface counteracts the adiabatic heating induced by the subsidence and thus helps the transition of stratus to sea fog in the southern Yellow Sea. By smoothing the SSTF in the numerical experiment, the secondary cell weakens and the sea fog patches shrink obviously over the cold flank of the SSTF though the synoptic subsidence and moist advection still exist. A conceptual model is suggested for the transition of stratus to sea fog in the Yellow and East China Seas, which is helpful for the forecast of sea fog over these areas. The satellite visible image of the stratus-fog event. The fog appears in the Yellow Sea and the stratocumulus in the East China Sea.

Zhang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, F.

2013-12-01

310

Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, B)

2007-07-14

311

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish.  It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Com...

312

Sea Lamprey, an Invasive Fish  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Invasive sea lamprey prey on commercially important fish species such as lake trout, living off of the blood and body fluids of adult fish. It is one of many fish species that USGS scientists study from the USGS Research Vessel Muskie. These lamprey belong to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commissio...

313

Antenna for Imaging Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antenna for imaging of polar regions has terrestrial applications. Antenna consists of four horizontally-polarized 19.0 by 0.6-m planar waveguide arrays and appropriate feed networks mounted on single aluminum supporting structure. Antenna suitable for high quality imaging of sea ice in polar regions above 60 degrees latitude.

Barath, F. T.; Jordan, R. L.

1984-01-01

314

A Deep-Sea Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

Montes, Georgia E.

1997-01-01

315

The Sea Ice Board Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board Game, described…

Bertram, Kathryn Berry

2008-01-01

316

Global Sea SurfaceTemperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustration of Earth's sea surface temperature was obtained from two weeks of infrared observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), an instrument on board NOAA-7, during July 1984. Temperatures are color coded with red being warmest and decreasing through oranges, yellows, greens, and blues. The caption provides a brief description of the features seen in the image.

317

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. It provides information on the GLSG's priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and wildlife.

2010-12-30

318

TROPICAL ATLANTIC/ Warmer sea surface  

E-print Network

in atmospheric pressure and its associated impacts are known as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). #12;-south contrast in sea level pressure over the North Atlantic Ocean, with low pressure in the north near Iceland and high pressure in the south near the Azores. The pressure contrast drives surface winds and wintertime

319

Alaska SeaLife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

320

Why is the Sea Salty?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines science and art to provide an understanding about why the sea is salty. Students will obseve how salt concentration increases in water and how the salt remains after the water evaporates. They will do a salt painting using water, salt, and food coloring to observe the evaporation process.

1998-01-01

321

Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients  

E-print Network

Tuna Sea Shell Pasta Ingredients: 8 ounces pasta shells 12 ounces tuna in water, canned 1 onion 2. Cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one

Liskiewicz, Maciej

322

SEA K-12 Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Award-winning ideas from SEA Semester's educators. This collection of over 25 lesson plans covers topics in marine biology, coastal ecology, chemical and physical oceanography, seafloor geology and nautical science. Each plan includes target grades, keywords, introduction and background, advice on how to best integrate the activities into classroom curriculum, instructions and tips, materials list, procedures, suggestions for evaluation, extensions.

323

Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

324

Searching the Sea of Galilee  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied the inverse linear interpolation method to process a bottom sounding survey data set from the Sea of Galilee in Israel. Non-Gaussian behavior of the noise led us to employ a version of the iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) technique. The IRLS enhancement of the method was able to remove the image artifacts caused by the noise at the

Sergey Fomel; Jon F. Claerbout

325

Past and present Aral Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedy of disappearing of Aral Sea is well known to the World. Before and after collapse of Soviet Union, a huge quantity of scientific and popular editions described with grief the situation around the Aral Sea. After the NIS states became independent, World Bank, UNDP, UNEP in proper competition with each other had provided some assessment of the situation through presentation of some small and medium grants, but after 2000, the local population remained alone with own problems. Although on the eyes of the present generation a unique transformation of great water body into deserts took place, the global scientific community did not find forces and financing for real and detail investigation of the processes accompanying the Sea shrinking and land formation. We should acknowledge and give big respect to NATO, later to German Government that through GTZ (now GIZ) - German International Collaboration Agency - and GFZ (Potzdam) paid attention to this area of environment crisis and organized scientific and protective design in the so-called Priaralie - the territory around the drying Sea and delta of the two rivers - Amudarya and Syrdarya. Thank to this assistance, the local specialists in collaboration with limited a number of foreign scientists (N.Aladin, P.Zavialov, Joop de Schutter, Hans Wilps, Hedi Oberhansli) organized significant works for detail socioeconomic, ecological and hydrological assessment situation in Priaralie and on the Aral sea coast. On this base, Ministry of Agriculture and Water resources of Uzbekistan and State Committee of Water resources of Kazakhstan developed a plan of rehabilitation of Amudarya and Syrdarya deltas and started implementation of these projects. If Kazakh water authority moved ahead in wetland restoration faster, a forestation of delta and drying bed of Aral Sea got big success in Uzbek territory. 244 thousands hectares of saxsaul and tamarix were planted for protection of the Priaralie. By request of GTZ SIC, ICWC organized in 2005-2009 sixth expeditions for complex remote sensing and ground investigations Aral Sea former bottom that were complemented in 2010 -2011 by two expeditions with GFZ. As a result, the landscape, soils and environment mapping was done with determination of ecologically unstable zones and assessment total change of lands situation compared with the pre-independence time. Moreover - methodic of monitoring water, environment and hydro geological indicators on the all deltas area was elaborated, organized its testing and combined with remote sensing data on Amudarya delta for 2009-2012. It permits to SIC ICWC to organize systematic permanent (decadal) monitoring and recording of size, volume and level of water in Aral Sea. Since the beginning of regular observations over the Aral Sea level, 2 periods can be emphasized: 1. Conditionally natural period - 1911-1960 - characterized by a relatively stable hydrological regime, with fluctuations in the level around 53 m and the range of inter-annual fluctuations at no more than 1 m., when the sea received annually about a half of the run-off in the Syrdarya and Amudarya Rivers, i.e. 50-60 km3/yr. 2. Intensive anthropogenic impact period - since the 1960s, a vast extension of irrigable land was carried out in Central Asia that resulted in intensive diversion of river run-off. Since then, the sea level has been falling steadily, causing a dramatic reduction in the water surface area, a decrease in water volume and depths, great changes in shoreline configuration and an expansion of the desert areas adjacent to the Aral Sea. From 1960-1985, when the sea was an integral water body, slight lowering in the sea level took place until the 1970s, when the sea-level decreased with the mean level lowering 1 m. The desiccation process accelerated visibly from the mid 1970s. In 1975-1980, the level decreased by 0.65 m a year on average. Moreover, the level dropped greatly, when the run-off of the Amudarya did not reach the Aral Sea any more (1980-1990). Kokaral was the first of the large islands becoming a peninsula, separa

Dukhovniy, Viktor; Stulina, Galina; Eshchanov, Odylbek

2013-04-01

326

Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species (SGNIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Grant's award winning, comprehensive exotic species resource center with everything from educational materials to research findings on a variety of exotic species. Site features peer-reviewed literature, unreviewed publications, and the outreach section includes a searchable database of reference material covering all aspects of nonindigenous species, including individual exotic species. Also features an outstanding kid's section containing games and information on exotics.

327

RNA viruses in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine

Andrew S. Lang; Matthew L. Rise; Alexander I. Culley; Grieg F. Steward

2009-01-01

328

Westward intensification in marginal seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An idealized model was used to examine why the strong western boundary current (WBC) is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) but not in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and Japan/East Sea (JES). Results suggested that the stronger WBC in the SCS is mainly attributed to the direct contribution of the inflow and the strong monsoon. Although the Gulf Stream transports a large amount of water into the GOM, the passage in the southeast corner guides the inflow out of the gulf and inhibits the inflow from intensifying the WBC. Meanwhile, the wind stress in the GOM is weakest among the three marginal seas. The meridional ocean ridge and the particular layout of the continental slope of JES prevent the whole basin from participating in the westward intensification. Besides, the throughflow has adverse effects on the formulation of WBC in JES. The variation of Coriolis parameter with latitude leads to the westward intensification in marginal seas. However, a strong WBC cannot be observed in the absence of reasonable collocation of wind, inflow, and topography.

Chen, Gengxin; Xue, Huijie

2014-03-01

329

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

330

Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 16711683 Response of the southwestern Japan/East Sea  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 1671­1683 Response of the southwestern Japan/East Sea to atmospheric of the southwestern Japan/East Sea (JES) to atmospheric pressure ðPatm� and wind-stress ð~t� forcing is investigated mass within the basin on a broad range of frequencies. The Japan/East Sea (JES) is a semi-enclosed sea

Rhode Island, University of

331

Estimating sea floor dynamics in the Southern North Sea to improve bathymetric survey planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe nautical charts require a carefully designed bathymetric survey policy,\\u000aespecially in shallow sandy seas that potentially have dynamic sea floor patterns.\\u000aBathymetric resurveying at sea is a costly process with limited resources,\\u000athough. A pattern on the sea floor known as tidal sand waves is clearly present\\u000ain bathymetric surveys, endangering navigation in the Southern North Sea because\\u000aof

Leendert Louis Dorst

2009-01-01

332

Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996-2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km -2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km -2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42-72% and 37-62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

2006-10-01

333

Management of the Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wadden Sea situated along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany and The Netherlands represents one of the world's largest bar-built type of estuaries. The area is a typical sedimentation and mineralization basin, with a large influx of organic matter from the adjoining North Sea, consequently a delicate oxygen balance and a rich benthic macrofauna, poor in species, which serves as food for juveniles of some commercially important North Sea fishes and for large numbers of migrating and wintering waders and waterfowl. Past and present activities of the human society in the area include fisheries (mainly for shrimp and mussels, semi-culture), shipping, land reclamation, recreation, dredging for sand and shells, and waste discharge from industries and human communities. Until the present these activities, although sometimes conflicting, did not fundamentally affect the area and its biota (pollution excluded), but future claims, including the construction of large deep-sea harbours, drilling for natural gas and oil, large-scale land reclamation and increased industrialization etc., might gradually induce degradation. For instance, area reduction by continued land reclamation could lead to irreversible losses of specific biotopes (e. g. salt-marshes, mud-flats), which could affect the size of bird and fish populations in a much wider region. Increased pollution, which has already inflicted damage on bird and seal populations, could reduce the fauna and hence the value of the area as a natural sanctuary. In the event of a proposal for a new human activity in the area, the present standing practice in the countries concerned requires an evaluation of its safety and economic aspects and its environmental impact. However, the various plans are considered separately and there is a general need for integrated management of the area.

Wolff, W. J.; Zijlstra, J. J.

1980-03-01

334

Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.  

PubMed

Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

2012-08-01

335

Sea Ice Thickness Variability in Fram Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On this poster, we show results from airborne electromagnetic (EM) sea ice thickness measurements demonstrating the temporal and spatial complexity of the ice thickness distribution in Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard. Knowledge about the spatial and temporal sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean is necessary to assess the state of the sea-ice cover, and to understand relevant processes and changes. Since 2003, the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) has been conducting systematic in situ monitoring of sea ice thickness in the western Fram Strait, using both ground and airborne techniques. Fram Strait is a key region for large-scale ice dynamics in the Arctic. It represents the main export route for sea ice from the Arctic and the only deep strait connecting the interior Arctic Ocean and the rest of the world oceans. The ice thickness distribution in this region is the result of a combination of dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice processes. Transects for airborne EM observations were flown by NPI in spring 2005, 2008, and late summer 2010, and by the Alfred Wegener Institute in spring 2009. The regional ice thickness distributions are supplemented with ground measurements including snow thickness observations taken on ice stations during ship expeditions in spring 2005, 2007, and 2008 and annually in late summer from 2003 to 2011. From all these observations, we can show the differing characteristics of the thickness distributions in spring (2005, 2008, 2009) and late summer (2010) when the ice thickness is at its annual maximum (end of the freezing period) and minimum (end of the melting period), respectively. The ice thickness distribution can also vary spatially over short distances in north-south direction. Features such as the East Greenland Polynya, which varies in size for a given time from year to year, contribute to the spatial and temporal variability on the Greenlandic Shelf. In spring 2005, a gradient is visible across Fram Strait from thinner pack ice at the eastern ice edge towards thicker pack ice on the Greenland shelf in the western part of Fram Strait with thick multiyear ice. The spring modal thickness ranged from about 2 m to 3.5 m. In contrast, the spatial variability of the modal thickness in 2008 is larger than observed in the previous campaigns with a wider range of modal ice thicknesses, predominantly due to thinner ice than in 2005. Finally, during late summer 2010 modal thicknesses in the central and eastern part of Fram Strait ranged from about 1 to 2 m. At the same time distributions were in general narrower than observed in previous years, showing a decrease of the fraction of thick pressure ridges. Thick ice was measured only in the westernmost part of Fram Strait. These observations are in agreement with a reported trend towards a generally larger amount of first-year ice versus multiyear ice in the Arctic.

Gerland, S.; Renner, A.; Haas, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M.; Hansen, E.; Hendricks, S.; Hudson, S. R.; Beckers, J.; Goodwin, H.

2011-12-01

336

Primary Production in Antarctic Sea Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model shows that in Antarctic sea ice, increased flooding in regions with thick snow cover enhances primary production in the infiltration (surface) layer. Productivity in the freeboard (sea level) layer is also determined by sea ice porosity, which varies with temperature. Spatial and temporal variation in snow thickness and the proportion of first-year ice thus determine regional differences in sea ice primary production. Model results show that of the 40 tera-grams of carbon produced annually in the Antarctic ice pack, 75 percent was associated with first-year ice and nearly 50 percent was produced in the Weddell Sea.

Arrigo, Kevin R.; Worthen, Denise L.; Lizotte, Michael P.; Dixon, Paul; Dieckmann, Gerhard

1997-01-01

337

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

E-print Network

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

338

Compaction of North-sea chalk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ekofisk field is the largest petroleum field in the Norwegian North Sea territory where oil is produced from chalk formations. Early stage of oil production caused considerable changes in pore fluid pressure which led to a reservoir compaction. Pore collapse mechanism caused by the dramatic increase of effective stress, which in turn was caused by the pressure reduction by hydrocarbon depletion, was early identified as a principal reason for the reservoir compaction (Sulak et al. 1991). There have been several attempts to model this compaction. They performed with variable success on predicting the Ekofisk subsidence. However, the most of these models are based on empirical relations and do not investigate in detail the phenomena involved in the compaction. In sake of predicting the Ekofisk subsidence while using only independently measurable variables we used a chalk compaction model valid on geological time-scales (Japsen et al. 2011) assuming plastic pore-collapse mechanism at a threshold effective stress level. We identified the phenomena involved in the pore collapse. By putting them in a sequential order we created a simple statistical analytical model. We also investigated the time-dependence of the phenomena involved and by assuming that one of the phenomena is rate-limiting we could make estimations of the compaction rate at smaller length-scales. By carefully investigating the nature of pressure propagation we could upscale our model to reservoir scale. We found that the predicted compaction rates are close enough to the measured rates. We believe that we could further increase accuracy by refining our model. Sulak, R. M., Thomas, L. K., Boade R. R. (1991) 3D reservoir simulation of Ekofisk compaction drive. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 43(10):1272-1278, 1991. Japsen, P., Dysthe, D. K., Hartz, E. H., Stipp, S. L. S., Yarushina, V. M., Jamtveit. (2011) A compaction front in North Sea chalk. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 116(B11)

Keszthelyi, Dániel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn

2014-05-01

339

Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: anomalies from the mean  

E-print Network

Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A fine-resolution (1/10°) ocean/sea ice model to determine the basin-scale and local balances controlling the variability of sea ice anomalies from the mean

Eisenman, Ian

340

The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

2013-11-01

341

Lithosphere-scale 3D gravity modelling of the Barents Sea and Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents - Kara Sea region covers the major part of the European Arctic shelf. Its northern and western boundaries are young passive margins which originate from early Paleocene-Eocene opening of the Eurasia Basin and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. In contrast, the basement of the Barents and Kara shelves has been consolidated much earlier, during three major late Precambrian to Permian orogenies. Additionally, the shelf experienced multiple episodes of localised subsidence which resulted in the formation of ultra-deep sedimentary basins varying strongly in their geometry between different subregions. Consequently, the preserved sedimentary record is interrupted by major megasequence boundaries that are well-described in the western Barents Sea. Using this subdivision for the sedimentary record, we traced four major megasequence boundaries across the Barents and Kara shelves by analysing interpreted seismic refraction and reflection data, geological maps and previously published 3D-models. We integrate this shallow information into a 3D geological model and complement the latter downward with the top crystalline crust, the Moho and a new lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The sedimentary units have been assigned physical properties considering the respective lithology to calculate a depth-dependent density distribution. Thereby, the obtained bulk densities also account for late Cenozoic uplift/erosion and the maximum Pleistocene ice sheet thickness. For the lithospheric mantle, the density distribution is constrained by an earlier published velocity model (Levshin et al., 2007). On the base of isostatic calculations and 3D gravity modelling the density configuration of the crystalline crust and the geometry of potential high-density bodies is investigated. Finally, we correlate preserved sediment maxima and reconstructed erosion maps with subsedimentary velocity and density variations to gain new insights into the development of Barents and Kara Sea basins. Levshin, A. L., Schweitzer, J., Weidle, C., Shapiro, N. M., & Ritzwoller, M. H. (2007). Surface wave tomography of the Barents Sea and surrounding regions. Geophysical Journal International, 170(1), 441-459. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03285.x

Klitzke, P.; Faleide, J.; Sippel, J.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.

2013-12-01

342

Alkenone production in the East Sea/Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the applicability of alkenones as a proxy for past sea surface temperature (SST) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), this study investigated the season and depth of alkenone production in the area. Surface and subsurface seawater samples were collected from the East Sea during cruises carried out by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute of Korea in 2008-2010. Surface samples were filtered for suspended material at two-month intervals. Subsurface samples were collected at water depths of 20, 50, 70 and 100 m by CTD bottle casts at two stations, one a coastal station and the other an offshore station. The results of alkenone analysis show that the concentration of total C37 alkenones was generally high in the surface mixed layer and decreased with depth, indicating that alkenones were most likely produced in or close to the surface mixed layer. Alkenone concentration varied seasonally: high in spring to fall and significantly reduced in winter. Comparisons of alkenone-based temperatures with in situ seawater temperatures show that alkenone temperatures measured from suspended particles in the surface waters were close to in situ SST in summer but were lower in winter. During winter, when alkenone production is significantly reduced, alkenones may be suspended for relatively long times and are likely to be advected from the north by eddies from Subpolar Front meanders. In summer when new production of alkenones increases, the settling velocity of alkenones appears to increase and residence time becomes shorter than in winter, suggesting that particles are less likely to be significantly advected at that time. Importantly, at the offshore station, coretop alkenone temperature corresponds to annual-averaged SST, while at the coastal station it corresponds to summer-to-fall averaged SST.

Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Sunghye; Park, Yonggi; Lee, Ho Jin; Harada, Naomi

2014-02-01

343

Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before the 1990s, 137Cs inflow exceeded outflow in the annual balance, but the opposite pattern is observed nowadays. This tendency of prevailing of 137Cs outflow processes in the Barents Sea may be explained by natural decay and ecosystem self-cleaning of the radioactivity, which has penetrated previously. According to our assumptions, in total, 37400 TBq of 137Cs penetrated, and 26300 TBq of 137Cs were output from the Barents Sea during the period 1950-2010, i.e., 70.2% of this isotope was removed. From the 1960s through the present, the inflow of 90Sr exceeded the outflow. In total, 24800 TBq of 90Sr penetrated, and 19600 TBq of 90Sr were output through the northern and northeastern margins of the Barents Sea, i.e., 79.1% of this isotope was removed. From 1960 through the 1980s, the income/outcome ratio in the Barents Sea was quite stable and constituted 1.4-1.5 for 137Cs and 1.1-1.2 for 90Sr. The increase of the impact of atmospheric precipitation on 137Cs income was up to 42% in 1986 due to the Chernobyl disaster, and the income/outcome ratio increased to 2.6. The atmospheric income of 90Sr in 1986 was minor, and the ratio stayed the same for this isotope.

Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

2014-05-01

344

Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

2012-07-01

345

Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

2011-01-01

346

Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 1. Satellite algorithm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the fact that sea ice reflectance drops significantly in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths, black pixel assumption is assessed for three SWIR bands for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-at 1240, 1640, and 2130 nm—over the sea ice in the Bohai Sea in order to carry out atmospheric correction for deriving sea ice reflectance spectra. For the SWIR 1240 nm band, there is usually a small (but non-negligible) reflectance contribution over sea ice. Although there is a slight sea ice reflectance contribution at the MODIS 1640 nm band over sporadic land-fast or hummock ice, the black pixel assumption is generally valid with the MODIS bands 1640 and 2130 nm in the Bohai Sea. Thus, the SWIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm using MODIS bands at 1640 and 2130 nm can be conducted to derive sea ice optical properties in the region. Based on spectral features of the sea ice reflectance, a regionally optimized ice-detection algorithm is proposed. This regional algorithm shows considerable improvements in detecting sea ice over the Bohai Sea region, compared with a previous MODIS global sea ice detection algorithm. The sea ice coverage as identified in the new algorithm matches very well with the sea ice coverage from both the MODIS true color image and the imagery from the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS).

Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

2012-07-01

347

Sea ice optical properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the winter in later 2009 and early 2010, the Bohai Sea experienced its worst sea ice event in four decades. Sea ice optical properties are derived from MODIS-Aqua measurements using the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm. The radiance feature of the sea ice in the Bohai Sea shows a strong dependence on ice types. For months of December, January, and February during the winter of 2009-2010, the average sea ice albedo in the Bohai Sea reached about 9.3%, 13.4%, and 12.6%, respectively. A regional sea ice detection algorithm has been developed for monitoring sea ice in the Bohai Sea. During the 2009- 2010 winter, the sea ice covered about 5427, 27414, and 21156 km2 for the three winter months, while average values of sea ice coverage between 2002-2010 are about 2735, 11119, and 10287 km2, respectively. Anomalously large sea ice event in the Bohai Sea during 2009-2010 winter is attributed to the dominance of a high air pressure system in the northern China and widespread air temperature drops in January and early February of 2010.

Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

2010-10-01

348

Weyl's Theory of Glaciation Supported by Isotopic Study of Norwegian Core K 11.  

PubMed

Oxygen-18 analyses of pelagic and benthic foraminifera from core K 11 indicate that during the last glaciation Norwegian Sea bottom waters were warmer than in modern times and had the same physical parameters (temperature, oxygen isotope ratio, and salinity) as the North Atlantic deep water. This result indicates that the glacial Norwegian Sea was not a sink for dense surface water, as it is now, and that during glacial times North Atlantic deep water invaded the deep Norwegian basin. PMID:17818162

Duplessy, J C; Chenouard, L; Vila, F

1975-06-20

349

Sea level/ODP workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-six scientists from academia, government, and industry met recently for a 3-day Joint Oceanographic Institutions/U.S. Science Advisory Committee workshop in El Paso, Tex. Their purpose was to consolidate strategies for the study of sea level change within the Ocean Drilling Program. A document summarizing their findings will be available this spring from JOI, Inc., while the following is a report outlining preliminary workshop conclusions.Three facts provided the incentive to convene this workshop: an international array of marine scientists [COSOD II, 1987] determined that a major goal of ocean drilling in the next decade should be to improve understanding of the timing, magnitude, and causal mechanisms of sea level change; the complexity of deriving a eustatic signal from the rock record underscores the importance o f a carefully organized approach; and acquiring adequate survey data and developing critically important technologies requires a lead time of several years ahead of ODP drilling.

Mountain, Gregory; Watkins, Joel

350

Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines  

PubMed Central

The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine’s unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine’s architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material. PMID:22984468

Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

2012-01-01

351

Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research described in this poster presentation is to develop technologies to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. The Medusa Isosampler (isobaric sampler), for sampling fluids eminating from deep sea hydrothermal vents and cold seep sites analogous to extraterrestrial environments, is described by the presentation. The following instruments are integrated with the isosampler, and also described: in situ flow-through chemical sensor, intrinsic fluorescent-based microbial detector, isotope ratio spectral detector.

Flynn, Michael

2004-01-01

352

Dsp in Moroccan Mediterranean Sea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At sea temperate, there is usually a sole major floraison of the phytoplancton (in the spring) that exhausts the available stock of nutritious salt. This phenomenon is natural. It's more known under the name of "red tide or colored waters", it brings about a danger, with hazardous consequences on the wildlife water wildlife. The toxins emitted by certain seaweeds, of this phytoplancton, are transmitted through the trophic chain to man. Sometimes the contamination of these sea fruits provokes empoisoning to the consumers. Sometimes phytoplanctonics efflorescences do not present any significant coloring but can generate an increased liberation of toxins in sea water. The relative concentration of the one here then is detected in the shellfishes. These organisms concentrate the phocotoxines in their hepatopancreas. These are therefore bio potential indicators of the sea environment. We studied, in parallel, the variation of the characteristic abiotics of the Mediterranean sites previously choosen (physico-chimicals parameters and oceanographics parameters) and the variation of the relative toxicity of the bio indicators in every site. It in springs that the zones navies, subjected to important water provisions coming from a river, undergo several excessive floraisons during the spring and the summer, thanks to their continuous supplying in nutriments. We noted that the arrival new water masses. We draw from this that the coastal areas, due to the precipitations of the winter, translates itself at the level of the embouchure of the estuary Oued Laou by the maximum concentration of contained toxins in the shellfishes and that these waters were loaded with drifts of the olive waste, liquid loss abandoned to himself after extraction of the oil of the renowned olives of this region.

Rachid, Fadel

353

Swimming with Sea Cows: Manatees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When manatees were first seen by Columbus, he thought they were mermaids..but he had been at sea for a long time! Today these gentle marine mammals are threatened by loss of habitat and collisions with boats. This video segment explores the endangered manatees of Florida and their struggle to survive, as well as some of the people who are working to save them. Please see the accompanying lesson plan for educational objectives, discussion points and classroom activities.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

354

Danish North Sea crude assayed  

SciTech Connect

Danish North Sea blend was assayed earlier this year. The light, sweet crude comprises crude oil from 10 fields. The crude is piped from offshore production facilities to the A/S Dansk Shell refinery at Fredericia, Denmark. Fig. 1 shows the boiling point curve for the crude, and Fig. 2 illustrates the metals content (vanadium, nickel, and iron), as a function of distillation temperature. The table lists properties of the crude and its fractions.

Rhodes, A.K.

1994-09-12

355

Allergy to sea fishing baits.  

PubMed

We report a new case of rhinitis and asthma caused by sea fishing baits. The results showed exposure to Sipunculus nudus (Phylum Sipuncula; order Sipunculida: Sipunculidae) to be the main cause of the allergic symptoms. The intervention of IgE was demonstrated, with the presence of cross-reactions with allergenic extracts from other worm species used as baits, belonging to different orders of Annelida. PMID:16261959

Félix-Toledo, R; Pagán, J A; Hernández, J; Cardona, G; Postigo, I; Martínez, J

2005-01-01

356

NOAA Teacher At Sea Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

357

MODIS Global Sea Surface Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every day the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measures sea surface temperature over the entire globe with high accuracy. This false-color image shows a one-month composite for May 2001. Red and yellow indicates warmer temperatures, green is an intermediate value, while blues and then purples are progressively colder values. The new MODIS sea surface temperature product will be particularly useful in studies of temperature anomalies, such as El Nino, as well as research into how air-sea interactions drive changes in weather and climate patterns. In the high resolution image, notice the amazing detail in some of the regional current patterns. For instance, notice the cold water currents that move from Antarctica northward along South America's west coast. These cold, deep waters upwell along an equatorial swath around and to the west of the Galapagos Islands. Note the warm, wide currents of the Gulf Stream moving up the United States' east coast, carrying Caribbean warmth toward Newfoundland and across the Atlantic toward Western Europe. Note the warm tongue of water extending from Africa's east coast to well south of the Cape of Good Hope. MODIS was launched in December 1999 aboard NASA's Terra satellite. For more details on this and other MODIS data products, please see NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Ocean Group, NASA GSFC, and the University of Miami

2002-01-01

358

Satellite observations of sea ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of Antarctic and Arctic sea ice studies using data from the Nimbus-5 ESMR and the Nimbus-7 SMMR passive microwave radiometers. Four years (1973-1976) of ESMR data for the Antarctic Ocean define the characteristics of the seasonal cycle including regional contrasts and interannual variations. Major advances include the discovery of the Weddell polynya and the presence of substantial areas of open water in the Antarctic winter pack ice. Regional differences in sea ice extent on time-scales of about a month are shown to be associated with variations in surface-wind fields. In the Arctic, the computation of sea ice concentration is complicated by the presence of multiyear ice, but the amount of multiyear ice becomes an important measurable quantity with dual-polarized, multifrequency passive microwave sensors. Analysis of SMMR data demonstrates its advantage for studying the spatial and temporal variability of the Arctic ice cover. Large observed interannual variations in the distribution of the multiyear pack ice and the presence of significant divergent areas in the central Arctic during winter contrast markedly with the classical view of the Arctic pack ice.

Cavalieri, D. J.; Zwally, H. J.

1985-01-01

359

Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea, isolated from the neighboring ocean below 570 m, is nearly isothermal below 1250 m but with a marked salinity increase with depth. The source of the deep Sulu Sea water has been attributed to South China Sea water overflowing the 570 m topographic sill of Panay Strait. However, the Panay overflow (estimated as 0.32 × 106 m3/sec) is an unlikely source for the saltier water Sulu Sea deep water. We propose that deep Sulu Sea ventilation is derived from the south, from the Sulawesi Sea through Sibutu Passage. Sulawesi Sea water between 245 to 527 m, is mixed and heaved over the Sibutu Passage 234 m sill by the energetic tidal environment. Oxygen concentrations within the deep Sulu Sea suggest that the Sulawesi overflow is 0.15 × 106 m3/sec, with a residence time of Sulu Sea deep water of 60 years. The deep tropical Sulu Sea has the unique distinction of being ventilated from two separate sources, whose ratio may fluctuate across a range of temporal scales, associated with regional thermocline depth changes.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Tessler, Zachary D.; Villanoy, Cesar

2011-09-01

360

Wavenumber correlation analysis of Topex\\/Poseidon and tide-gauge sea surface heights in the East Sea (Japan Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface height (SSH) was extracted from the Topex\\/Poseidon MGDR radar altimeter data in the East Sea (Japan Sea) and compared with the SSH estimated from in-situ tide-gauges at Ulleungdo, Pohang, and Sockcho\\/Mucko sites. Selection criteria such as wet\\/dry troposphere, ionosphere, and ocean tide were used to enhance the accuracy of SSH. For time series analysis, the one-hour interval tide-gauge

Jeong Woo Kim; Joon Woo Lee; Kyung Duk Min; Joong-Sun Won; Jong-Sun Hwang; Sung-Chul Kang

2001-01-01

361

Holocene sea level change along the coasts of China and South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reconstructed the Holocene sea-level history in China and South China Sea (between the equator and 40°N) by reviewing published relative sea-level and sediment records. The collected 14C dates of sea-level indicators were calibrated to calendar years before present. Details of the lithostratigraphy, micro-fossil evidence and sedimentary characteristics of the sediment records were used for quantifying the vertical relationship to local reference tidal level for each of the sea-level indicators. The corrected data were plotted to produce sea-level curves. The reconstructed sea-level curves uniformly confirm a phase of rapid sea-level rise before 8000 cal. yr BP and show marked spatial differences between latitudes. In the southern sector (southern South China Sea), relative sea level reached a highstand of c. 2 m around 5800 cal. yr BP. In the northern sector (Bohai Bay and the Yellow Sea), however, relative sea level continued to rise over the past 6000 years at a slow rate. This series of sea-level curves provide an opportunity to evaluate the effects of hydro-isostatic processes along this coast. In addition, localized tectonic movements can also be identified.

Sun, Yiying; Zong, Yongqiang

2014-05-01

362

The suspended sediment concentration distribution in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) is studied based on the observed turbidity data and model simulation results. The observed turbidity results show that (i) the highest SSC is found in the coastal areas while in the outer shelf sea areas turbid water is much more difficult to observe, (ii) the surface layer SSC is much lower than the bottom layer SSC and (iii) the winter SSC is higher than the summer SSC. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to simulate the SSC distribution in the BYECS. A comparison between the modeled SSC and the observed SSC in the BYECS shows that the modeled SSC can reproduce the principal features of the SSC distribution in the BYECS. The dynamic mechanisms of the sediment erosion and transport processes are studied based on the modeled results. The horizontal distribution of the SSC in the BYECS is mainly determined by the current-wave induced bottom stress and the fine-grain sediment distribution. The current-induced bottom stress is much higher than the wave-induced bottom stress, which means the tidal currents play a more significant role in the sediment resuspension than the wind waves. The vertical mixing strength is studied based on the mixed layer depth and the turbulent kinetic energy distribution in the BYECS. The strong winter time vertical mixing, which is mainly caused by the strong wind stress and surface cooling, leads to high surface layer SSC in winter. High surface layer SSC in summer is restricted in the coastal areas.

Bian, Changwei; Jiang, Wensheng; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Ding, Hui

2013-09-01

363

Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions  

SciTech Connect

Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

Vogt, R.

2000-03-10

364

A sea level equation for seismic perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large earthquakes are a potentially important source of relative sea level variations, since they can drive global deformation and simultaneously perturb the gravity field of the Earth. For the first time, we formalize a gravitationally self-consistent, integral sea level equation suitable for earthquakes, in which we account both for direct effects by the seismic dislocation and for the feedback from water loading associated with sea level changes. Our approach builds upon the well-established theory first proposed in the realm of glacio-isostatic adjustment modelling. The seismic sea level equation is numerically implemented to model sea level signals following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, showing that surface loading from ocean water redistribution (so far ignored in post-seismic deformation modelling) may account for a significant fraction of the total computed post-seismic sea level variation.

Melini, D.; Spada, G.; Piersanti, A.

2010-01-01

365

National Sea Grant College What Does the National Sea Grant College Program Do for the Nation?  

E-print Network

of Southern California Sea Grant worked with the former Public Works Commissioner and the Bureau of Sanitation workers supported by Sea Grant funds and two full time equivalents supported with funds from other NOAA

366

Historical Antarctic mean sea ice area, sea ice trends, and winds in CMIP5 simulations  

E-print Network

In contrast to Arctic sea ice, average Antarctic sea ice area is not retreating but has slowly increased since satellite measurements began in 1979. While most climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project ...

Mahlstein, Irina

367

50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

...must notify the appropriate Regional or Science and Research Administrator, as specified...sampler/observer of any sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken by...sampler/observer with sea turtles, marine mammals, or other specimens taken...

2014-10-01

368

An empirical sea clutter model for low grazing angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most fundamental characteristic of sea clutter, as used in radar performance evaluation, is its apparent reflectivity defined as sigma0 (m2\\/m2). The word apparent is used here as a reminder that any measurement of sea clutter reflectivity inevitably includes the effects of propagation close to the sea surface. Sea clutter reflectivity depends on many factors including sea state, wind velocity,

Vilhelm Gregers-Hansen; Rashmi Mital

2009-01-01

369

Monitoring of sea ice in Far East Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Far East Russia, the Sea of Okhotsk is covered by sea ice in winter every year. The Amur River plays an important role of generating sea ice. Sea ice goes south by the monsoon. In this paper, we present a four-dimensional histogram method and a threshold method for detecting the sea ice pixels of NOAA AVHRR images. We used

Koichi KAWANO; Jun-ichi KUDOH

2004-01-01

370

Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the

S. Stanichny; A. Davidov; S. Djenidi; U. Horstmann; R. Stanichnaya; D. Soloviev

2004-01-01

371

Case Study 1 Monitoring Green Tides in Chinese Marginal Seas  

E-print Network

are delivered to the ocean. In Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and Bohai Sea as Enteromorpha prolifera, see Hayden et al., 2003) occurred in coastal and offshore waters in the Yellow Sea (YS of macroalgae Ulva prolifera in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea near Qingdao, China. (a) and (b) Macroalgae

Meyers, Steven D.

372

Relative sea level rise in China and its socioeconomic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global sea level rise over the past 100 years is 1 to 2 mm\\/yr, and the best estimate of sea level rise is 18 cm in 2030. In Chinese major deltas, owing to large land subsidence, relative sea level rise reaches 10 to 20 mm\\/yr. Therefore, potential coastal risks from further sea level rise is great. Impact of sea level

1994-01-01

373

Introduction to the petroleum geology of the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on North Sea oil and gas deposits. Topics considered include North Sea exploration from 1964-1983, the structural framework and the pre-Permian history of the North Sea area, the late Permian period, the Triassic period, the Jurasic period, the Cretaceous period, the Cenozoic era, source rocks of the North Sea, and North Sea hydrocarbon plays.

Glennie

1984-01-01

374

[Mycobacteriosis in sea mammals and birds].  

PubMed

Different diagnostic techniques for mycobacteria were studied in sea lions, sea elephants, fur seals, dolphins, killer whales and penguins from a sea aquarium. Three strains were isolated from fur seals. Two were classified as Mycobacterium chelonae and one as Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. There was good correlation between the results given by the intradermal tuberculin test and ELISA, but the former is recommended as a screening test on the basis of its practicality. Results and methodology of the different techniques are described. PMID:2132708

Bernardelli, A; Nader, A J; Loureiro, J; Michelis, H; Debenedetti, R

1990-12-01

375

4, 107128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift  

E-print Network

OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel et al. Title Page Abstract aspects of the sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture A. Chmel 1 , V. N. Smirnov 2 , and L. V. Panov 2 1 to: A. Chmel (chmel@mail.ioffe.ru) 107 #12;OSD 4, 107­128, 2007 Sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Focus Issue: Spiky Signalers from the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week’s issue of Science’s STKE complements the special issue of Science featuring the Sea Urchin Genome. With new insights gleaned from the 814-Mb genome of the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and its estimated 23,000 genes, this organism holds many secrets to help us understand cell signaling and the evolution of regulatory systems in biology. Two STKE Perspectives discuss signal transduction during early development in the sea urchin.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science's STKE and Science REV)

2006-11-14

377

South China Sea WWW Virtual Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South China Sea WWW Virtual Library is a new subsection of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library edited by David Rosenberg, professor of political science at Middlebury College (Vermont). This site will serve as a centralized resource for students, researchers, and policymakers interested in South China Sea regional development, environment, and security issues. The South China Sea WWW VL links to online publications, databases, maps, images, related institutions, and a print bibliography.

Rosenburg, David

378

Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Research Institute's use of science in developing solutions for conservation challenges facing marine ecosystems and species. Overviews of research projects in ecology, physiology, bioacoustics and aquaculture. Species studied include: marine mammals, sea turtles, whale shark, white sea bass and others. Explains how satellite tracking technology is used to study survival needs of endangered species (leatherback sea turtle, Hawaiian monk seal). Outlines educational objectives and contributions, news and events. Appropriate for grades 8 and up.

379

Caribbean Conservation Corporation/ Sea Turtle Survival League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains sources of information on sea turtles, tropical birds, and other species in the Caribbean basin and the Costa Rica rainforests. Site includes information on satellite telemetry, satellite-tracked sea turtles data and maps, and sea turtle legislation. Directions, data, and other materials available allow you to create your own maps. Free printable publications available. Also information on grants, workshops, donations, and volunteer opportunities.

380

Arctic sea ice as a granular plastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important consideration in understanding sea ice mechanics is the integration of observed sea ice behavior on a floe neighborhood scale (1-10 km) into ice dynamics on a regional scale O(50km). We investigate sea ice kinematics from October 1993 through April 1994 using relative motions from 13 drifting buoys with Global Positioning System navigation in a 20-km array centered on

James E. Overland; S. Lyn McNutt; Sigrid Salo; Joanne Groves; Shusun Li

1998-01-01

381

A new model for sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-order (small roughness amplitude) scattering theory is applied to obtain sea clutter cross sections in terms of mean-squared height spectrum of the sea surface. The results are in remarkably good agreement with observations for vertical polarization atP-, L-, C-, andX-bands. Modification of the calculation to take into account the larger scale structure of the sea surface yields reasonable agreement for

J. Wright

1968-01-01

382

Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming  

PubMed Central

Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009–2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids. PMID:22319130

Jansen, Peder A.; Kristoffersen, Anja B.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

2012-01-01

383

Predicting the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Caribbean Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Th ep rojected rise in sea level is likely to increase the vulnerability of coastal zones in the Caribbean, which,are already under,pressure from,a combination,of anthropogenic,activities and,natural processes. One of the major effects will be a loss of beach habitat, which provides nesting sites for endangered sea turtles. To assess the potential impacts of sea-level rise on sea turtle nesting

MARIANNE R. FISH; ISABELLE M. COTE; JENNIFER A. GILL; ANDREW P. JONES; SASKIA RENSHOFF; ANDREW R. WATKINSON

2005-01-01

384

Sinking fluxes of particulate U-Th radionuclides in the East Sea (Sea of Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A record of radionuclide fluxes at a deep marginal sea of the Northwest Pacific Ocean (39°40?N 132°24? E, Japan Basin, East\\u000a Sea\\/Sea of Japan) was obtained from analysis of a 1-year continuous collection of sediment-trap samples. The trap was placed\\u000a at a depth of 2800 m, 500 m above the sea floor, and the samples were recovered at the end

Gi-Hoon Hong; Mark Baskaran; Hyun-Kyung Lee; Suk-Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

385

Correlating the shallow and the deep 3D-structure of the Barents Sea/ Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea and Kara Sea continental shelf region is located in the northern European Arctic. The crustal configuration of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region exhibits a complex architecture of the sedimentary cover which implies the influence of diverse causative geological processes. The narrow and deep basins of the southwestern Barents Sea characterise rift basins which have been filled with thick sediments predominantly Mesozoic in age. In contrast, the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea are marked by a wide and deep basin architecture which indicates basin formation mechanisms apart from rifting. There, the sedimentary succession yields Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Cenozoic deposits are restricted to the southwesternmost parts of the Barents Sea and the oceanic domain. The lack of sediments on the shelf is attributed to strong Pleistocene uplift, subsequent erosion and recurring ice sheet coverage of the Barents Sea/Kara Sea region. The modelled area covers about 5 million km² with a maximum longitudinal and latitudinal extent of 2180 and 2400 km, respectively, and comprises regions beyond the Barents Sea and Kara Sea such as parts of Greenland, Fennoscandia and western Siberia. This study presents the lithospheric density configuration below the greater Barents Sea/ Kara Sea region. Thereby, five sedimentary megasequences are differentiated across the entire study area. Each unit is modelled with matrix densities and depth dependent porosities to calculate the bulk densities. The respective compaction curves reflect that strong late Cenozoic erosion and ice sheet coverage removed particularly less dense sediments on Svalbard and Novaya Zemlya, while in the eastern Barents Sea and the southern Kara Sea erosion was less effective. Thus, the obtained sedimentary bulk densities vary laterally distinctively. The density setup of the subsedimentary lithosphere beneath the Barents shelf is defined by a high-resolution, velocity-converted density grid. This dataset is tested the first time against gravity to further constrain the 3D density model. Interestingly, region that experienced weaker Cenozoic erosion are underlain by a heavier mantle density composition.

Klitzke, Peter; Faleide, Jan Inge; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

2013-04-01

386

Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation  

SciTech Connect

The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija [EIA Centre, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: tuija.hilding-rydevik@sol.slu.se; Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur [SKI - Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SE-106 58 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: holmfridur.bjarnadottir@ski.se

2007-10-15

387

Changes in Sea Ice: Antarctic vs. Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice in summer 2007, the summer extent of the Arctic sea ice cover has been at the lowest levels on record, with a new record minimum seen in 2012. The steep decline occurred after years of shrinking and thinning of the ice cover not only in summer but also in other seasons. Meanwhile, satellite passive microwave images show that there has been a modest net increase in the Antarctic sea ice extent since 1979. This upward trend is caused by a significant increase in ice concentration in most of the Indian sector and parts of the Atlantic and Pacific sectors including areas in the Weddell and Ross seas, as shown by satellite ice concentration data. However, satellite data also show that ice concentration has decreased considerably in some areas in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors, particularly around the Antarctic Peninsula. This highlights the complex variability and trend patterns of the Antarctic sea ice cover. In an effort to shed light on the behavior of the Antarctic sea ice cover, a comparative model study is conducted to examine its variability and trends relative to the behavior of the Arctic sea ice cover over 1979-2012, using the Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (GIOMAS). We compare changes in sea ice extent, volume, motion, deformation, internal interaction, ridging, growth, and melt in both polar regions. We also explore the differences in sea ice response to changes in atmospheric and oceanic forcing in the polar regions.

Zhang, J.

2013-12-01

388

Coastal Consequences of Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced tutorial explores the evidence for sea level rise related to global climate change and the consequences for humanity, especially for coastal-dwelling populations. Learners explore how a warming climate contributes to sea level rise, examine how satellites collect sea level data, and analyze interactive data to understand the potential consequences of climate change on sea level in different parts of the world. Multimedia educational resources including video clips and glossary links to vocabulary are included. This is the seventh of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

389

Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), hosted by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), is the global data bank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. The PSMSL data set is the main source of information on long term changes in global sea level during the last two centuries. This site contains data sets, and information on other services such as vertical land movements and air pressure. There are answers to frequently asked questions about sea level changes, packets on data use available, annual reports, and other contacts for more information.

390

Population status of California sea otters  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

Not Available

1988-11-30

391

Sea level rise and its coastal impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming in response to accumulation of human-induced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere has already caused several visible consequences, among them increase of the Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content, melting of glaciers, and loss of ice from the Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets. Ocean warming and land ice melt in turn are causing sea level to rise. Sea level rise and its impacts on coastal zones have become a question of growing interest in the scientific community, as well as in the media and public. In this review paper, we summarize the most up-to-date knowledge about sea level rise and its causes, highlighting the regional variability that superimposes the global mean rise. We also present sea level projections for the 21st century under different warming scenarios. We next address the issue of the sea level rise impacts. We question whether there is already observational evidence of coastal impacts of sea level rise and highlight the fact that results differ from one location to another. This suggests that the response of coastal systems to sea level rise is highly dependent on local natural and human settings. We finally show that in spite of remaining uncertainties about future sea levels and related impacts, it becomes possible to provide preliminary assessment of regional impacts of sea level rise.

Cazenave, Anny; Cozannet, Gonéri Le

2014-02-01

392

Sea Sources. Bibliographic and Resource Material of Children's Literature of the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Writers have often used the sea as background or as a theme in writing for children since it is a natural setting for adventure or exploration and has an attractiveness for all of us. Included in this bibliography is a representative listing of books related to the seas and inland waters, individual stories and poems which have a bearing on sea

Bagnall, Norma

393

Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the lower marine atmospheric boundary layer to sharp changes in sea surface temperature was studied in the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) with aircraft and ships measuring mean and turbulence quantities, sea surface temperature, and wave state. Changing synoptic weather on 3 successive days provided cases of wind direction both approximately parallel and perpendicular to a surface

C. A. Friehe; W. J. Shaw; D. P. Rogers; K. L. Davidson; W. G. Large; S. A. Stage; G. H. Crescenti; S. J. S. Khalsa; G. K. Greenhut; F. Li

1991-01-01

394

Sea Turtles: Navigating with Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source of  

E-print Network

Sea Turtles: Navigating with Magnetism Young sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field as a source satellite telemetry has now demonstrated for the first time that adult turtles also navigate using the Earth's magnetic field. Kenneth J. Lohmann The ability of sea turtles to navigate across vast expanses of seemingly

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

395

A seismic experiment in the Ulleung basin (Tsuhima basin), Southwestern Japan sea (East sea of Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the crustal structure of the Ulleung basin (Tsushima basin) in the southwestern Japan sea (East sea of Korea) is important for reconstructing the opening tectonics of the Japan sea. A Korea and Russia collaborative seismic experiment was carried out in 1991 to investigate the crustal structure of this basin using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and large capacity air guns.

Han Joon Kim; Chan Hong Park; Jong Kuk Hong; Hyeong Tae Jou; Tae Woong Chung; V. Zhigulef; G. I. Anosov

1994-01-01

396

A seismic experiment in the Ulleung Basin (Tsushima Basin), southwestern Japan Sea (East Sea of Korea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the crustal structure of the Ulleung basin (Tsushima basin) in the southwestern Japan sea (East sea of Korea) is important for reconstructing the opening tectonics of the Japan sea. A Korea and Russia collaborative seismic experiment was carried out in 1991 to investigate the crustal structure of this basin using ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and large capacity air guns.

Han Joon Kim; Chan Hong Park; Jong Kuk Hong; Hyeong Tae Jou; Tae Woong Chung; V. Zhigulef; G. I. Anosov

1994-01-01

397

Temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperature in the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature of the East China Sea (ECS) were analyzed using the NOAA\\/AVHRR SST images. These satellite images reveal surface features of ECS including mainly the Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Branch Current, Taiwan Warm Current, China coastal water, Changjiang diluted water and Yellow Sea mixed cold water. The SST of ECS ranges from 27 to 29°C in summer; some cold

Chente Tseng; Chiyuan Lin; Shihchin Chen; Chungzen Shyu

2000-01-01

398

A numerical experiment on the sedimentation processes in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentation processes of suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe (Yellow River) and the Changjiang are investigated with the use of a three-dimensional numerical model of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea which includes the tidal current, residual flow and wind waves. Suspended matter supplied from the Huanghe mainly deposits in the Bohai Sea and that from the old

Tetsuo Yanagi; Koh-ichi Inoue

1995-01-01

399

Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA  

E-print Network

Tides in the Weddell Sea Robertson et al., 1998 TIDES IN THE WEDDELL SEA Robin Robertson, Laurie of baroclinic tides. Model results indicate that tides play a significant role in the circulation and heat flux in the Weddell Sea. We discuss the influence of tides on mean flow through the modified effective bot- tom drag

Robertson, Robin

400

Sea Grant Draft Resilience Toolbox/Portal Sea Grant Program Title Summary website POC  

E-print Network

Sea Grant Draft Resilience Toolbox/Portal 1 of 27 Sea Grant Program Title Summary website POC climate action and resiliency plans and to act on those plans. Connecticut Sea Grant and the UConn Center professionals to work with municipalities and relevant professionals on climate resiliency through the Climate

401

SEA TURTLE RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center  

E-print Network

AND REHABILITATION CENTER MISSION STATEMENT · The conservation and protection of all species of marine turtles, bothSEA TURTLE RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS Karen Beasley Sea Turtle Rescue and Rehabilitation Center Sponsors of North Carolina Wilmington North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences KAREN BEASLEY SEA TURTLE RESCUE

Southwood Williard, Amanda

402

Artificial Radionuclides in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) Proper and Peter the Great Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade there has been growing concern over dumping of radioactive waste in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) proper and adjacent coastal waters. Here we show that the evolution of activity concentrations of 137Cs and 239+240Pu in the East Sea, and existing levels of radioactive contamination in waters, sediments and biota from Peter the Great Bay (Russia)

Gi-Hoon Hong; Suk-Hyun Kim; Sang-Han Lee; Chang-Soo Chung; Alexander V. Tkalin; Emilia L. Chaykovskay; Terry F. Hamilton

1999-01-01

403

Biogeochemical cycles of Fe and Mn in the southwestern East Sea (Sea of Japan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeochemical cycles of Fe and Mn were studied for the southwestern East Sea (Sea of Japan) with a particular emphasis on the early diagenetic processes occurring in the upper part of sediments. In a cruise on October, 1995, we obtained 6 box core sediments from the southwestern part of the East Sea. The sampling sites cover continental slope areas and

H. Cha; C. Lee; B. Kim

2003-01-01

404

Bayesian Hierarchical Air-Sea Interaction Modeling: Application to the Labrador Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to: 1) Organize data from 26 MINIMET drifters in the Labrador Sea, including sensor calibration and error checking of ARGOS transmissions. 2) Produce wind direction, barometer, and sea surface temperature time series. In addition, provide data from historical file of 150 SHARP drifters in the Labrador Sea. 3) Work with data interpretation and data-modeling assimilation issues.

Niiler, Pearn P.

2002-01-01

405

Coincident 3D mapping of sea ice surface elevation and ice draft in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-incident measurements of sea ice freeboard, thickness and draft were made during the Applied Physics Laboratory Ice Station (APLIS), in April 2007. The campaign was the first time that full three-dimensional mapping of sea ice freeboard and sea ice draft have been achieved simultaneously. Freeboard was measured across a swath width of 300 m at 1 m spatial resolution, using

M. J. Doble; R. Forsberg; C. Haas; S. Hanson; S. Hendriks; T. Martin; H. Skourup; P. Wadhams

2007-01-01

406

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 120 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea/East China Sea  

E-print Network

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 22, NO. 1, 2005, 1­20 Seasonal Variability of the Yellow Sea Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) for the Yellow Sea/East China Sea (YES) to investigate and water mass properties, we divide YES into five regions: East China Sea (ECS) shelf, Yellow Sea (YS

Chu, Peter C.

407

New heat flow measurements in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (Sea of Japan): relationship to local BSR depth,  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL New heat flow measurements in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (Sea of Japan): relationship and southwestern sectors of the Ulleung Basin (East Sea or Sea of Japan) as part of regional gas hydrate research sea level, respectively. Introduction Seafloor heat flow measurements have made important

408

ANALYSES OF SEA SURFACE HEIGHT, BOTTOM PRESSURE AND ACOUSTIC TRAVEL TIME IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA  

E-print Network

ANALYSES OF SEA SURFACE HEIGHT, BOTTOM PRESSURE AND ACOUSTIC TRAVEL TIME IN THE JAPAN/EAST SEA ISLAND 2006 #12;ABSTRACT The observed water motions in the Japan/East Sea (JES) and the associ- ated sea in the Japan/East Sea by using coastal tide gauge data to infer the common mode. #12;High frequency

Rhode Island, University of

409

Rulers of the Jurassic Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available free from Scientific American's Website, this article takes a thorough and fascinating look at the marine reptiles known as Ichthyosaurs that lived during the Mesozoic Era. The text covers recent discoveries about the evolution of Ichthyosaurs from land dwelling reptiles, including limb adaptations. Highlights of the article are special sections about ichthyosaur eyes and diet, and color illustrations and diagrams. The text contains hyperlinks to related pages (Britannica.com, Tree of Life, American Cetacean Society, etc.). "Rulers of the Jurassic Seas" is a good read for students of paleontology or marine science.

Motani, Ryosuke.

2000-01-01

410

Black Sea coastal forecasting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the North-Western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

Kubryakov, A. I.; Korotaev, G. K.; Dorofeyev, V. L.; Ratner, Yu. B.; Palazov, A.; Valchev, N.; Malciu, V.; Matescu, R.; Oguz, T.

2011-05-01

411

Unlocking a Sea Ice Secret  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Rachel Obbard and her research group from Dartmouth College traveled to the Antarctic to collect samples of sea ice. Next stop: the GeoSoilEnviroCARS x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois. This U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science synchrotron x-ray research facility gave the Obbard team the frontier scientific tools they needed to study the path bromide takes as it travels from the ocean to the atmosphere.

Dr. Rachel Obbard

2013-04-22

412

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

413

Diffraction from the Deep Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on soft and hard diffractive processes obtained by the CDF Collaboration in bar pp interactions are examined with emphasis on regularities that point to QCD aspects of hadronic diffraction. Data are interpreted in a phenomenological approach in which diffractive cross sections are related to the underlying inclusive parton distribution functions of the nucleon. In this approach, diffraction appears to be mediated by the exchange of low-x partons from the quark/gluon sea of the interacting nucleons subject to color constraints.

Goulianos, K.

2005-02-01

414

Rogue holes in shallow seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spontaneous emission and formation of rogue hole states in shallow water ocean waves. Long wave components in the sea state, normally generated by shoaling effects as waves propagate in from deep water, can spontaneously disintegrate into negatively displaced holes in the wave field. Although apparently rare, these negative states form due to the presence of a cubic term in the polynomial, shallow water expansion for the surface wave field. These waves are related to the negatively displaced solitons in the modified Korteweg-deVries equation.

Osborne, A. R.; Onorato, M.; Serio, M.

2003-04-01

415

Monostatic Coherent Radar Sea Clutter Doppler Analysis Matthew Ritchie  

E-print Network

covering grazing angles from 7° to Monostatic Coherent Radar Sea Clutter Doppler Analysis Matthew Ritchie University College London & Thales Aerospace UK Abstract: Sea clutter is the backscatter returned to a radar system from the sea

Haddadi, Hamed

416

Melting Ice, Rising Seas - Duration: 4:32.  

NASA Video Gallery

Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

417

Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic patterns occur in the model, but with typically smaller magnitudes and with season-specific geographical and directional differences.

Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

2014-12-01

418

Observation evidences of the deep convection temporal variability in the Greenland Sea and its impact on ocean climate of the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All available hydrographical data within the Greenland Sea Gyre (GSG) since captain Amundsen's 1901 measurements have been reanalysed with respect to water column stratification and contribution to the deep-water formation. Resent chimney-like events have been compared with profiles measured during active convection phase. Vertical mixing in the GSG is very sensitive to the local salinity variations coupled with interannual and decadal fluctuations in Atlantic Water (AW) spreading in the Nordic Seas associated with freshwater anomalies propagation. Low winter NAO index during 1965-1971 coincides with active deep-water formation stage in the GSG accompanied by extremely high upper layer density in the Nordic Seas. It caused both cold and fresh water overturning in the GSG and warm and salty water sinking along AW trajectory. Simultaneously the oceanographic parameters gradients increased between Arctic and Atlantic Domains of the Nordic Seas. Reduction of the deep-water formation rate in GSG leads to the Greenland Sea Deep Water (GSDW) temperature increase of 0.25oC since late 1960s, density decline and changing of Norwegian Sea Deep Water (NSDW) properties that is an important component of overflow to the North Atlantic.

Korablev, A. A.; Alekseev, G. V.; Johannessen, O. M.

2003-04-01

419

Sea ice concentration temporal variability over the Weddell Sea and its relationship with tropical sea surface temperature  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in S-Mode (correlation between temporal series) was performed on sea ice monthly anomalies, in order to investigate which are the main temporal patterns, where are the homogenous areas located and how are they related to the sea surface temperature (SST). This analysis provides 9 patterns (4 in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and 5 in the Weddell Sea) that represent the most important temporal features that dominated sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) variability in the Weddell, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas over the 1979-2000 period. Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations data set derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm and acquired from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) were used. Monthly means SST are provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis. The first temporal pattern series obtained by PCA has its homogeneous area located at the external region of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas and Drake Passage, mostly north of 60°S. The second region is centered in 30°W and located at the southeast of the Weddell. The third area is localized east of 30°W and north of 60°S. South of the first area, the fourth PC series has its homogenous region, between 30° and 60°W. The last area is centered at 0° W and south of 60°S. Correlation charts between the five Principal Components series and SST were performed. Positive correlations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean were found for the five PCs when SST series preceded SICA PC series. The sign of the correlation could relate the occurrence of an El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm (cold) event with posterior positive (negative) anomalies of sea ice concentration over the Weddell Sea.

Barreira, S.; Compagnucci, R.

2007-01-01

420

4, 47374776, 2004 Sea salt in snow on  

E-print Network

ACPD 4, 4737­4776, 2004 Sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions F. Domine et al and Physics Discussions The origin of sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions F. Domine 1, 4737­4776, 2004 Sea salt in snow on Arctic sea ice and in coastal regions F. Domine et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

Deep-sea pleistocene biostratigraphy.  

PubMed

The first detailed paleontological analysis of a deep-sea pistoncore from the Caribbean Sea has been completed. The core, P6304-8, was raised from 3927 meters, east of Beata Ridge at 14 degrees 59'N, 69 degrees 20'W. Formerly, stratigraphic works in this area were based on studies of paleotemperature, measured by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method, or on micropaleontological analysis by means of rapid or cursory examinations. For core P6304-8, samples for foraminiferal analysis were taken at 10-centimeter intervals and split into smaller samples containing an average of 710 individuals (smallest sample, 517 individuals); all individuals were then identified and counted. By use of data derived from populations of this size, a statistical reliability was insured within a 5 percent limnit. Temperature oscillations, the best method of portraying Pleistocene stratigraphy, were shown by using ratios of the relative abundances of tropical and subtropical planktonic foraminifera to those found in temperate and cooler waters. These ratios correlate well with existing paleotemperature measurements for the same core, obtained by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method. PMID:17821563

Lidz, L

1966-12-16

422

Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activities enabled the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. The SSSDP exceeded its target depth of 10,000 feet, and a comprehensive set of cuttings, cores, and downhole logs was obtained. Two flow tests at different depths were successfully completed. Hydrologic connection between the different producing horizons, however, made the data from the deeper test difficult to interpret. Temperature logging by the Geological Survey and Sandia National Laboratories to establish the equilibrium profile continued until August of 1987. The SSSDP provides a model for scientific cooperation among government agencies, universities, and private industry.

Sass, J.H.

1988-01-01

423

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

424

CO2 and sea level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

Bell, Peter M.

425

Studies on sea snake venom  

PubMed Central

Erabutoxins a and b are neurotoxins isolated from venom of a sea snake Laticauda semifasciata (erabu-umihebi). Amino acid sequences of the toxins indicated that the toxins are members of a superfamily consisting of short and long neurotoxins and cytotoxins found in sea snakes and terrestrial snakes. The short neurotoxins to which erabutoxins belong act by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the post synaptic membrane in a manner similar to that of curare. X-ray crystallography and NMR analyses showed that the toxins have a three-finger structure, in which three fingers made of three loops emerging from a dense core make a gently concave surface of the protein. The sequence comparison and the location of essential residues on the protein suggested the mechanism of binding of the toxin to the acetylcholine receptor. Classification of snakes by means of sequence comparison and that based on different morphological features were inconsistent, which led the authors to propose a hypothesis “Evolution without divergence.” PMID:21422738

TAMIYA, Nobuo; YAGI, Tatsuhiko

2011-01-01

426

Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the North Sea Fan: glacially-fed gravity flow aprons, hemipelagic sediments, and large submarine slides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1000 km of high resolution sleeve-gun array transects on the North Sea Fan, located at the mouth of the Norwegian Channel, reveal three dominant styles of sedimentation within a thick (> 900 m) Quaternary sediment wedge comprising numerous sequences. These are interpreted as: terrigenous hemipelagic sedimentation, large scale translational slides, and aprons of glaciogenic debris flow deposits contributing to

Edward L. King; Hans Petter Sejrup; Haflidi Haflidason; Anders Elverhøi; Inge Aarseth

1996-01-01

427

Recreational water quality in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-based monitoring of the Caspian Sea in Turkmenistan and Iran suggests that bathers are intermittently subject to increased levels of faecal pollution which may lead to gastrointestinal illness. This is the first co-ordinated monitoring programme of recreational waters in the Caspian region and highlights the need to extend such a programme to all countries bordering the Caspian Sea. The novel

Katherine R. Pond; Aidan A. Cronin; Steve Pedley

428

Evaporation duct effects on sea clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing sea clutter models are in general agreement on the trends and magnitudes of sea reflectivity at low (1°-10°) grazing angles. However, at extremely low grazing angles (<1°), models, theory, and measurements show considerable differences. The effects of the oceanic evaporation duct on grazing angle are investigated. Significant changes in grazing angle due to the evaporation duct are found and

RICHARD A. PAULUS

1990-01-01

429

Sea Level Changes: Determination and Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of sea level is of fundamental importance to a wide range of research in climatology, oceanography, geology and geodesy. This volume attempts to cover many aspects of the field. The volume opens with a description by Bolduc and Murty of one of the products stemming from the development of tide gauge networks in the northern and tropical Atlantic. This work is relevant to the growth of the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS), the main goal of which is to provide the world with an efficient, coherent sea level monitoring system for océanographie and climatological research. The subsequent four papers present results from the analysis of existing tide gauge data, including those datasets available from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level and the TOGA Sea Level Center. Two of the four, by Wroblewski and by Pasaric and Orlic, are concerned with European sea level changes, while Yu Jiye et al. discuss inter-annual changes in the Pacific, and Wang Baocan et al. describe variability in the Changjiang estuary in China. The papers by El- Abd and A wad, on Red Sea levels, are the only contributions to the volume from the large research community of geologists concerned with sea level changes.

Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.; DeRonde, J. G.; Warrick, R. G.; Hannah, J.

430

Oceanography: Detecting sea-level rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over short periods of time, it can be difficult to isolate sea-level increase in observations as it is hidden by natural shifts in rainfall quantities over ocean and land, which cause temporary drops in the global sea-level curve. Now research shows how to detect the signal, even in short records, by estimating these variations.

Boening, Carmen

2014-05-01

431

The Achaemenid empire and the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the conquest of the sea as a way of projecting world rule during the Achaemenid period. It starts by tracing the ancient Near Eastern tradition whereby successive rulers had to prove themselves by conquering the sea, from mythical kings such as Gilgameš and Sargon of Akkad down to Cyrus the Great and his successors. It then

Johannes Haubold

2012-01-01

432

Teaching Wide Sargasso Sea in New Jersey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher Susan Arpajian Jolley emphasizes experience and understanding by using the related novels "Wide Sargasso Sea" and "Jane Eyre" to help her students travel into unfamiliar cultural territory. "Wide Sargasso Sea" relates to Caribbean history and culture, feminism, race relations, colonialism, and personal identity.

Jolley, Susan Arpajian

2005-01-01

433

California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan  

E-print Network

2014­2017 California Sea Grant College Program Strategic Plan 1 #12;The National Sea Grant College://nsgl.gso.uri.edu. University of California CASG College Program 9500 Gilman Dr., Dept. 0232 La Jolla, CA 92093-0232 (858) 534-4440 http://www.csgc.ucsd.edu Report No. P­010 Design: www.SharonBelknapDesign.com San Diego, California

Jaffe, Jules

434

A singular photograph: Olive Cotton's Sea's awakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1937 Australian photographer Olive Cotton photographed the sea from the headland at Newport Beach, producing Sea's awakening, one of the most sublime images of her career. This essay considers the photograph in depth as part of an ongoing search for developing alternative means of analysing and interpreting photographs. It is premised on the conviction that photographic history is limited

Helen Ennis

2011-01-01

435

Instability growth rates of crossing sea states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossing sea states can occur during adverse weather conditions. The instability of such wave trains has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of rogue (freak or extreme) waves. One model for crossing sea states is weakly nonlinear and finite-amplitude short-crested waves (SCWs) on deep water. SCWs are the resonant interaction of two wave systems each with a

F. E. Laine-Pearson

2010-01-01

436

6, 1105111066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers  

E-print Network

ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation W. R. Simpson et al. Title than potential frost flower contact W. R. Simpson 1 , D. Carlson 1 , G. Hoenninger 1,2, , T. A. Douglas. Simpson (ffwrs@uaf.edu) 11051 #12;ACPD 6, 11051­11066, 2006 Sea ice, frost flowers and halogen activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present Cenozoic era is an icehouse episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year

R. Leinfelder; H. Seyfried

1993-01-01

438

The Risk of Sea Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The United Nations Framework ,Convention ,on Climate ,Change ,requires nations to implement,measures for adapting to rising sea level and other effects of changing climate. To decide upon an appropriate response, coastal planners and engineers must weigh the cost of these measures against the likely cost of failing to prepare, which depends on the probability of the sea rising a

J. G. Titus; V. Narayanan

1996-01-01

439

Scientific reticence and sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

I suggest that a ‘scientific reticence’ is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report

J. E. Hansen

2007-01-01

440

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the

A. G. Robinson; J. H. Rudat; C. J. Banks; R. L. F. Wiles

1996-01-01

441

2004 LEPTOSPIROSIS OUTBREAK AMONGST CALIFORNIAN SEA LIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Leptospirosis outbreaks among marine mammals, and specifically California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), have resulted in large scale, cyclic epizootics since the early 1970s, with a distinct 3-4 year periodicity. During 2004 over 300 sea lions died along the central California coas...

442

SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES  

E-print Network

: Sea lamprey Silver lamprey American br»ok igtmpiE£ Bowfin Rainbow trout Brown trout Lake trout Brook of streams and related problems 21 Literature cited 26 #12;SEA LAMPREY CONTROL ON THE GREAT LAKES 1953 trout Round whitefish Smelt White sucker Longnose sucker Hog sucker Silver redhorse Petromyzon marinus

443

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El NiÃo and La NiÃa are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

444

Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

1999-01-01

445

Potential collapse of North Sea cod stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common with many fish stocks in the North Sea, cod are heavily exploited with as much as 60% of the fishable stock being removed annually1. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), which advises fishery managers on the state of fish stocks in the northeast Atlantic, has recommended that exploitation rates be reduced considerably and immediately,

R. M. Cook; A. Sinclair; G. Stefánsson

1997-01-01

446

8, 7194, 2008 Sea salt aerosol  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 71­94, 2008 Sea salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Laboratory measurements of the optical properties of sea salt aerosol R. Irshad 1 , R. G. Grainger salt aerosol refractive indices R. Irshad et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Do Embedded Roadway Lights Protect Sea Turtles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Street lighting on coastal roadways is often visible at sea turtle nesting beaches, and disrupts the nocturnal orientation of hatchlings as they crawl toward the sea. Our objective was to determine whether an alternative lighting system (light-emitting diodes, embedded in the roadway pavement) prevented orientation disruption. Hatchlings at the beach oriented normally when only the embedded lights were on, or

Lesley Bertolotti; Michael Salmon

2005-01-01

448

Metagenomic Sequencing of Two Salton Sea Microbiomes  

PubMed Central

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R.; Schackwitz, Wendy

2014-01-01

449

Metagenomic sequencing of two salton sea microbiomes.  

PubMed

The Salton Sea is the largest inland body of water in California, with salinities ranging from brackish freshwater to hypersaline. The lake experiences high nutrient input, and its surface water is exposed to temperatures up to 40°C. Here, we report the community profiles associated with surface water from the Salton Sea. PMID:24459270

Hawley, Erik R; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hess, Matthias

2014-01-01

450

Sea Change Part 1: In the Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the first of a three-video series from the Sea Change project. It features the field work of scientists from the US and Australia looking for evidence of sea level rise during the Pliocene era when Earth was (on average) about 2 to 3 degrees Celsius hotter than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Pliomax, Sea C.

451

Sea Change Part 2: In the Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the second of a three-video series in the Sea Change project, which follows the work of Dr. Maureen Raymo, paleogeologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, who travels with fellow researchers to Australia in search of evidence of sea level that was once higher than it is today.

Grossman, Daniel; Change, Sea

452

Sea Change Part III: Interpreting the Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is the third in a three-part series by the Sea Change project, about scientists' search for Pleiocene beaches in Australia and elsewhere to establish sea level height during Earth's most recent previous warm period. This segment features the research of Jerry Mitrovica, Harvard geophysicist.

Grossman, Daniel

453

The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

Barnes, J. C. (principal investigator); Bowley, C. J.

1974-01-01

454

Sea Level: On the Rise Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Sea Level: On the Rise" is designed to teach middle-school students about the relationship between climate change and sea-level rise. It is a lesson plan created for the Environmental Protection Agency's Student's Guide to Global Climate Change.

Agency, Environmental P.

455

Sea level variations in eastern Canadian waterbodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea level records from nine stations in eastern Canada have been analyzed in order to investigate the seasonal trends and other long?term changes that have occurred since the beginning of this century. The four stations situated in riverine or estuarine regions are significantly affected by freshwater flow in their annual cycle of sea level changes and exhibit a definite maximum

T. S. Murty

1993-01-01

456

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Teacher's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Lab handout, students will examine sea scallop shells to determine their size, approximate age, and meat yield. This lab activity is complete with objectives, math and science standards, materials list, procedure, and extensions. The handout is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

457

Chilean Sea Bass: Off the Menu  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data analysis activity, learners use data collected by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to study Chilean sea bass populations. Learners formulate catch and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of Dissostichus eleginoides and analyze the trends in these values. Learners also assess the Chilean sea bass population and determine if the population is being overfished.

2012-08-01

458

Sea Stars Underwater Offshore Northern California  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Three sea stars on a rock, surrounded by a sandy seafloor littered with broken shells. Each sea star is approx. 10 - 15 cm (4-6 inches) across. Image acquired 4.5 km (3 miles) offshore Pigeon Point, southern San Mateo County, California at a depth of 52 meters....

459

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

460

Optical properties of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was motivated by the need to understand dispersion processes which affect the redistribution of nuclear wastes in the Arctic from dump sites in the Kara Sea and in the rivers which flow into the Kara Sea. We focus on vertical profiles of light beam transmission and fluorometry made over the delta region fronting the Ob and Yenisey Rivers

Donald R. Johnson; Vernon Asper; Thomas McClimans; Alan Weidemann

2000-01-01

461

Sea Surface Height 1993-2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation of the Pacific Ocean sea surface height from 1993-2011. Data gathered by multiple NASA satellite missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason 2). Animation shows view of Pacific Ocean and simultaneously graphs global average sea surface height data.

462

Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional naviga- tion skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. Here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution of genetic diversity in sea turtles. Natal

B. W. BOWEN; S. A. KARL

2007-01-01

463

Direct solar energy conversion at sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production and delivery from direct solar energy conversion facilities located at sea is treated, assuming the use of a heat engine\\/electricity generation\\/water electrolysis system. The concept of ocean energy is discussed, noting the distinction between direct and indirect solar energy conversion at sea, and direct solar energy conversion is considered within the framework of the seaward advancement of industrial

W. J. D. Escher; T. Ohta

1979-01-01

464

South China Sea Circulation and Thermohaline Structure  

E-print Network

.H. Wang, 2003: Seasonal variability of thermohaline front in the central South China Sea. JournalSouth China Sea Circulation and Thermohaline Structure Peter C Chu Naval Postgraduate School Chu Strait Taiwan Strait #12;References ­ SCS Thermohaline Variability (Basin-Scale) · Chu, P.C., and G

Chu, Peter C.

465

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

466

Caspian Sea surface circulation variability inferred from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(1993-2007) satellite-derived Sea Level Anomaly (SLA), Sea Surface Temperature (SST), and model-derived mean dynamic topography were used together to analyze climatological and interannual variations of the Caspian Sea surface circulation. Constructed geostrophic currents are in good agreement with the known circulation features of the Caspian Sea, obtained from models and verified by some drifter observations. It is shown that the climatological surface circulation of the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS) is dominated by a basin-wide cyclonic circulation in winter, switching to an anticyclonic circulation in summer. A dipole pattern (an anticyclonic eddy near 39.5°N and a cyclonic one near 38°N) exist in the Southern Caspian Sea (SCS) (stronger from September to January). Evaluation of the multiyear geostrophic velocities shows that the Caspian Sea surface circulation exhibits strong interannual variations, with the location and intensity of the circulation patterns changing from one year to another.

Gunduz, Murat

2014-02-01

467

Sea level rise and submarine mass failures on open continental margins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mass failures (which include submarine slides or submarine landslides) occur widely on open continental margins. Understanding their cause is of great importance in view of the danger that they can pose both to coastal populations through tsunamis and to the exploitation of ocean floor resources through mass movement of the sea floor. Present knowledge of the causes of submarine mass failures is briefly reviewed, focussing on the role of sea level rise, a process which has previously only infrequently been cited as a cause. It is argued that sea level rise could easily have been involved in at least some of these events by contributing to increased overpressure in sediments of the continental margin whilst causing seismic activity. The Holocene Storegga Slide off South West Norway may have been partly caused by the early Holocene sea level rise in the area, accentuated by meltwater flux from the discharges of Lake Agassiz-Ojibway in North America. Relative sea level rise increased water loading on the Norwegian continental margin, increasing overpressure in the sediments and also causing seismic activity, triggering the Holocene Storegga Slide. Given that some forecasts of future sea level rise are not greatly different from rises which obtained during the early Holocene, the implications of rising sea levels for submarine mass failures in a global warming world are considered.

Smith, D. E.; Harrison, S.; Jordan, J. T.

2013-12-01

468

Potential for rapid transport of contaminants from the Kara Sea.  

PubMed

Export of sea ice from the Kara Sea may redistribute contaminants entrained from atmospheric, marine and riverine sources. Ice exiting the Kara Sea ice to the north, will influence the Fram Strait, Svalbard and Barents Sea regions. Kara Sea ice may also be exported to the Barents Sea through straits north and south of Novaya Zemlya. Some ice from the Kara Sea makes its way into the Laptev Sea to the north and south of Severnaya Zemlya. Data on ice exchange and contaminant levels are not adequate to assess contaminant flux. PMID:9241881

Pfirman, S L; Kögeler, J W; Rigor, I

1997-08-25

469

Thermocline of the Flores and Banda Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 1991, 30 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations to 1000 dbar were obtained from the R/V Baruna Jaya I in the Flores Sea, Banda Sea, and Alor-Wetar passage of the Indonesian sea. A salinity maximum within the interval 100-150 dbar and a salinity minimum within the interval 300-350 dbar mark water mass core layers derived from the North Pacific. They are drawn into the Flores Sea from the Makassar Strait, with subsequent flow into the Banda Sea, and are weakened en route by strong vertical mixing characteristic of the Indonesian seas. In the Flores Sea, water below 300 dbar becomes saltier with increased distance from the Makassar Strait, suggesting that an advective process may be drawing relatively salty water into the Flores Sea lower thermocline from the Banda Sea. The Banda-to-Flores Sea flow may be a consequence of vertical transfer of horizontal momentum produced by the same turbulent processes that are responsible for enhanced vertical mixing. The interocean transport profile may not correspond exactly with the Pacific-to-Indian Ocean pressure gradient profile, as deeper water is carried along with the through flow by the effects of eddy viscosity. The 550-m sill at the southern end of the Makassar Strait creates a situation where downward flux of momentum entrains deeper water that must be compensated by lower thermocline water drawn from the Banda Sea. Geostrophic transport relative to 1000 dbar in the Banda Sea shows not only a strong through flow transport in the upper 300 dbar (6.3×106 m3 s-1) but also a deeper flow toward the Flores Sea (1.5×106 m3 s-1 from 300 to 500 dbar and an additional 2.4×106 m3 s-1 from 500 to 1000 dbar). A simple model suggests that the magnitude of the deeper westward flow is proportional to the vertical eddy viscosity coefficient. Water mass analysis shows that either the South Pacific or Indian Ocean can provide the lower thermocline Banda Sea water.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Ffield, Amy; Ilahude, A. Gani

1994-09-01

470

Volga River Delta and Caspian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color MODIS image from May 10, 2002, captures Russia's Volga River (running south through the center) emptying into the northern portion of the Caspian Sea. The waters of the Caspian Sea are quite murky in this image, highlighting the water quality problems plaguing the sea. The sea is inundated with sewage and industrial and agricultural waste, which is having measurable impact on human health and wildlife. According reports from the Department of Energy, in less than a decade the sturgeon catch dropped from 30,000 tons to just over 2,000 tons. National and international groups are currently joining together to find strategies of dealing with the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

471

Sea Level Rise in Tampa Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding relative sea level (RSL) rise during periods of rapid climatic change is critical for evaluating modern sea level rise given the vulnerability of Antarctic ice shelves to collapse, the retreat of the world's glaciers, and mass balance trends of the Greenland ice sheet. The first-order pattern of global sea level rise following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~21,000 years ago) is well established from coral, continental shelf, and other records and has been integrated into a global ICE-5G model of glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA). However, uncertainty introduced by paleo water depth of sea level indicators, radiocarbon chronology (i.e., reservoir corrections for marine shell dates), postglacial isostatic adjustment, and other processes affecting vertical position of former shorelines produces scatter in RSL curves, limiting our knowledge of sea level rise during periods of rapid glacial decay.

Cronin, Thomas; Edgar, N. Terence; Brooks, Gregg; Hastings, David; Larson, Rebekka; Hine, Albert; Locker, Stanley; Suthard, Beau; Flower, Benjamin; Hollander, David; Wehmiller, John; Willard, Debra; Smith, Shannon

2007-03-01

472

Flavor structure of the nucleon sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the current status and future prospects on the subject of flavor structure of the nucleon sea. The flavor structure of the nucleon sea provides unique information on the non-perturbative aspects of strong interactions allowing stringent tests of various models on the partonic structures of the nucleons as well as lattice QCD calculations. The scope of this review covers the unpolarized, polarized, and the transverse-momentum dependent sea-quark distributions of the nucleons. While the main focus of this review is on the physics motivation and recent progress on the subject of the nucleon sea, we also discuss future prospects of addressing some outstanding issues on the flavor structure of the nucleon sea.

Chang, Wen-Chen; Peng, Jen-Chieh

2014-11-01

473

Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

2005-01-01

474

Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

2014-07-01

475

Comparing proxies for the reconstruction of LGM sea-surface conditions in the northern North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the multiproxy approach for the reconstruction of the glacial ocean (MARGO) project, sea-surface conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 23-19 ka) were reconstructed using different proxies, which were calibrated to a standardized modern hydrography. In the North Atlantic, the revised LGM MARGO data set provides a comprehensive coverage, including the Nordic Seas. The data set includes reconstruction based on planktonic foraminifer assemblages, dinocyst assemblages, alkenone coccolithophorid biomarkers and Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifers. Several hydrological features of the LGM North Atlantic can be identified, that are supported by all four proxies. They include an extensive perennial sea-ice cover along the eastern Canadian and Greenland margins, seasonally ice-free central North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea, and the winter sea-ice limit being located at about 55°N. All proxies also suggest significantly colder than modern sea-surface conditions in the southeastern part of the North Atlantic and a more zonal temperature pattern than at present, with a steep SST gradient of the order of 10 °C between 40°N and 45°N. However, in the Nordic Seas large discrepancies remain, well above the level of uncertainty of the SST reconstructions. These discrepancies might be related to stratification of the upper water mass linked to large annual amplitude of temperature with contrasting winter and summer conditions, high interannual-interdecadal variability, or taphonomic processes affecting some of the proxies. The average LGM SST in the Nordic Seas cannot at present be assessed with confidence. However, the existing evidence suggests that highly variable sea-surface conditions and at least occasional advection of North Atlantic waters may have characterised the glacial Nordic Seas.

de Vernal, A.; Rosell-Melé, A.; Kucera, M.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Eynaud, F.; Weinelt, M.; Dokken, T.; Kageyama, M.

2006-11-01

476

Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers  

PubMed Central

Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

2014-01-01

477

The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

2014-05-01

478

Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea (56°29.90' N, 2°59.80' E, Norwegian Block 1\\/9, 75 m water depth). Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots

H. Niemann; M. Elvert; M. Hovland; B. Orcutt; A. Judd; I. Suck; J. Gutt; S. Joye; E. Damm; K. Finster; A. Boetius

2005-01-01

479

Sea-Salt Aerosol Forecasts Compared with Wave and Sea-Salt Measurements in the Open Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) could influence the Earth's climate acting as cloud condensation nuclei. However, there were no regular measurements of SSA in the open sea. At Tel-Aviv University, the DREAM-Salt prediction system has been producing daily forecasts of 3-D distribution of sea-salt aerosol concentrations over the Mediterranean Sea (http://wind.tau.ac.il/salt ina/salt.html). In order to evaluate the model performance in the open sea, daily modeled concentrations were compared directly with SSA measurements taken at the tiny island of Lampedusa, in the Central Mediterranean. In order to further test the robustness of the model, the model performance over the open sea was indirectly verified by comparing modeled SSA concentrations with wave height measurements collected by the ODAS Italia 1 buoy and the Llobregat buoy. Model-vs.-measurement comparisons show that the model is capable of producing realistic SSA concentrations and their day-to- day variations over the open sea, in accordance with observed wave height and wind speed.

Kishcha, P.; Starobinets, B.; Bozzano, R.; Pensieri, S.; Canepa, E.; Nicovic, S.; di Sarra, A.; Udisti, R.; Becagli, S.; Alpert, P.

2012-03-01

480

Organic iodine in Antarctic sea ice: A comparison between winter in the Weddell Sea and summer in the Amundsen Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies have recognized sea ice as a source of reactive iodine to the Antarctic boundary layer. Volatile iodinated compounds (iodocarbons) are released from sea ice, and they have been suggested to contribute to the formation of iodine oxide (IO), which takes part in tropospheric ozone destruction in the polar spring. We measured iodocarbons (CH3I, CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2) in sea ice, snow, brine, and air during two expeditions to Antarctica, OSO 10/11 to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer and ANT XXIX/6 to the Weddell Sea in austral winter. These are the first reported measurements of iodocarbons from the Antarctic winter. Iodocarbons were enriched in sea ice in relation to seawater in both summer and winter. During summer, the positive relationship to chlorophyll a biomass indicated a biological origin. We suggest that CH3I is formed biotically in sea ice during both summer and winter. For CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2, an additional abiotic source at the snow/ice interface in winter is suggested. Elevated air concentrations of CH3I and CH2ClI during winter indicate that they are enriched in lower troposphere and may take part in the formation of IO at polar sunrise.

Granfors, Anna; Ahnoff, Martin; Mills, Matthew M.; Abrahamsson, Katarina

2014-12-01

481

Geomagnetic Navigation in Sea Turtles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Florida undertake a transoceanic migration in which they gradually circle the north Atlantic Ocean before returning to the North American coast. Newly hatched turtles (hatchlings) begin the migration with a 'magnetic map' in which regional magnetic fields function as navigational markers and elicit changes in swimming direction at crucial geographic boundaries. In laboratory experiments, young turtles that had never before been in the ocean were exposed to fields like those that exist at various, widely separated locations along their transoceanic migratory route. Turtles responded by swimming in directions that would, in each case, help them remain within the North Atlantic gyre currents and advance along the migratory pathway. The results demonstrate that turtles can derive both longitudinal and latitudinal information from the Earth's field, and provide strong evidence that hatchling loggerheads inherit a remarkably elaborate set of responses that function in guiding them along their open-sea migratory route. For young sea turtles, couplings of oriented swimming to regional magnetic fields appear to provide the fundamental building blocks from which natural selection can sculpt a sequence of responses capable of guiding first-time ocean migrants along complex migratory routes. The results imply that hatchlings from different populations in different parts of the world are likely to have magnetic navigational responses uniquely suited for the migratory routes that each group follows. Thus, from a conservation perspective, turtles from different populations are not interchangeable. From an evolutionary perspective, the responses are not incompatible with either secular variation or magnetic polarity reversals. As Earth's field gradually changes, strong selective pressure presumably acts to maintain an approximate match between the responses of hatchlings and the fields that exist at critical points along the migratory pathway at any point in time. Although responses to regional fields might be rendered useless during occasional periods of rapid field change associated with magnetic polarity reversals or excursions, these sporadic events do not preclude the evolution of magnetic responses during the intervening and usually much longer intervals when Earth's field changes more slowly and is relatively stable.

Lohmann, K.; Putman, N.; Lohmann, C.

2011-12-01

482

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere, land vegetation and carbonate platforms are major CO2 buffers which may both take up and release CO2. CO2 can be released from the ocean due to changes in the pCO2 caused by growth of coral reefs and by uptake of CO2-rich freshwater from karst provinces. Efficient sinks of CO2 are the weathering products of silicate rocks; long-term sinks are organic deposits caused by regional anoxic events which preferrably develop during sea level rises and highstands; and coal-bearing strata. Deposition of limestone also removes CO2 from the atmospheric-hydrospheric cycle at a long term. Biotic crises are often related to either sea-level lows or sea-level highs. Long-term sea-level lows, characteristic of glacial periods, indicate cooling as major cause of extinction. During verly long-lasting greenhouse episodes the sea level is very high, climate and circulation systems are stable and biotic crises often develop as a consequence of oxygen depletion. On land, niche-splitting, complex food web structures and general overspecialization of biota will occur. Whether the crisis is caused by a single anoxic event (e.g. in the Late Devonian) or a disturbance by an asteroid impact (e.g. the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary), it will only trigger total collapse of an ecosystem if a large part of it was already in decline. The regulatory mechanisms and buffers are thermodynamically extremely efficient if they are given sufficient time in which to deploy their power. However, after major catastrophes the re-establishment of successful ecosystems will take millions of years. The present rate of sea level and associated temperature rise is much too fast to be compensated and buffered by the network of natural controls. It is likely that the transitional time towards a new steady state will be an extremely variable and chaotic episode of unpredictable duration.