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1

Sea MARC II Investigation of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 80,000 sq km of SeaMARC II imagery was obtained in the northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea during October and November, 1989. Regions insonified included the Bjorneya Fan, a transect at 73 deg N from the continental margin to the Mohns Ridge, an al...

C. De Moustier

1991-01-01

2

Sediment bacteria in the deep Norwegian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a joint French-Swedish expedition (NORBI) in July-August, 1975, in the deep Norwegian Sea, the density of aerobic, heterotrophic sediment bacteria was determined by viable counts at 9 stations. The numbers rarely exceeded 103 ml-1 wet sediment. ATP measurements, with a limit of detectability of 5 ng ml-1 wet sediment, gave constantly negative results. One third of the strains isolated

B. Norkrans; B. O. Stehn

1978-01-01

3

Morphotype patterns of Norwegian Sea deep-sea benthic foraminifera and ecological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-sea benthic foraminifera from Norwegian Sea surface sediments are classified into morphotypes on the basis of test shape and nature of test coiling and show distinct patterns with water depth. The morphotype data are used to determine microhabitat patterns of the foraminifera, which are suggested to be related to the organic-carbon content of the surficial deep-sea sediments.

Bruce H. Corliss; Christina Chen

1988-01-01

4

Carbon time series in the Norwegian sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depth profiles of carbon parameters were obtained monthly from 1991 to 1994 as the first time series from the weathership station M located in the Norwegian Sea at 66°N 2°E. CO 2 was extracted from acidified seawater by a flushing procedure, with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The pure CO 2 gas was measured using a manometric technique, and the gas was further used for 13C and 14C measurements. The precision of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was better than ±6‰. Satisfactory agreement was obtained with standard seawater from Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) was measured in the atmosphere and surface water, beginning in October 1991. The most visible seasonal variation in DIC, 13C and pCO 2 was due to the plankton bloom in the upper 50-100 m. Typical values for surface water in the winter were: 2.140±0.012 mmol kg -1 for DIC, 1.00±0.04‰ for ? 13C and 357±15 ?atm for pCO 2, and the corresponding values in the summer were as low as 2.04 mmol kg -1, greater than 2.1‰, and as low as 270-300 ?atm. The values for deep water are more constant during the year, with DIC values of about 2.17±0.01 mmol kg -1, and ? 13C values between 0.97 and 1.14‰. A simple one-dimensional biological model was applied in order to investigate possible short-term variability in DIC caused by the phytoplankton growth and depth variations of the wind-mixed layer. The simulated seasonal pattern was in reasonable agreement with the observed data, but there were significant temporal variations with shorter time interval than the monthly measurements. As a supplement to the measurements at station M, some representative profiles of DIC, ? 13C, ? 14C, salinity and temperature from other locations in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean are also presented. The results are also compared with some data obtained ( ? 14C) by the TTO expedition in 1981 and the GEOSECS expedition in 1972. The carbon profiles reflect the stable deep water in the Greenland and Norwegian Basins, and the relatively young bottom water just south of Iceland.

Gislefoss, Jorunn S.; Nydal, Reidar; Slagstad, Dag; Sonninen, Eloni; Holmén, Kim

1998-02-01

5

Permian of Norwegian-Greenland sea margins: future exploration target  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas exploration in the northern North Sea and the southern Norwegian shelf has mainy been concentrated on Jurassic and younger reservoirs with Late Jurassic black shale source rocks. New onshore investigations in Jameson Land, central East Greenland, suggest that the Permian of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins contains relatively thick sequences of potential oil source rocks interbedded with carbonate reefs. The East Greenland, Upper Permian marine basin is exposed over a length of 400 km (250 mi) from Jameson Land in the south to Wollaston Forland in the north, parallel with the continental margin. The Upper Permian black shale is relatively thick, widely distributed, has a high organic carbon content, and a favorable kerogen type. Consequently, the possibilities for a Permian play in the northern part of the Norwegian shelf and along parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins are worth evaluating.

Surlyk, F.; Hurst, J.M.; Piasecki, S.; Rolle, F.; Stemmerik, L.; Thomsen, E.; Wrang, P.

1984-09-01

6

Structural evolution and petroleum potential of the Norwegian Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tectonic history of the Norwegian Barents Sea has provided potential hydrocarbon traps in clastic reservoirs associated with rotated fault blocks, compressional anticlines and salt domes. Significant stratigraphic potential also resides in Paleozoic carbonates. Drilling in the Hammerfest Basin has yielded large gas discoveries in rotated fault blocks, but other trapping concepts remain relatively untested. The undrilled arm north of

1995-01-01

7

Estimation of sea surface topography in the Norwegian sea using gravimetry and Geosat altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the quasi-stationary sea surface topography (QSST) is carried out in the Norwegian Sea region (54°<ø<72°, -25°sea surface heights and gravity anomalies were tested. Spherical FFT techniques were applied in both procedures. The results show that QSST associated with wavelength shorter than 4000 km exists. Relative to the OSU89D model the QSST was found to have a variance of (0.219 m)2 and a correlation length of 1.105°. The circulation pattern recovered in this paper agree with results of oceanographic analysis.

Knudsen, Per

1992-03-01

8

Comparison of the atmospheric forcing and oceanographic responses between the Labrador Sea and the Norwegian and Barents seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the mean conditions and variability in the climate and physical oceanographic characteristics between the Labrador Sea and surrounding shelves and the Norwegian and Barents seas is presented. The two regions are strongly advective systems being influenced by both cold, low saline flows from the Arctic and warm, high saline flows from the Atlantic. However, Arctic flows are more dominant in the Labrador Sea region, especially on the shelves, while Atlantic flows dominate in the Norwegian and a large part of the Barents Seas. In spite of this, the study reveals a general latitudinal dependence for several climate and oceanographic variables, including air temperatures, eastward winds, heat fluxes, and seasonal sea surface temperature range, within each of the two regions but with regional varying rates of change with latitude. We also confirm the previously reported out-of-phase relationships on interannual to decadal time scales of air and sea temperatures and sea-ice conditions between the Labrador Sea and the Norwegian and Barents seas regions from the 1950s until the mid-1990s. This is owing to their opposite response to the variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, from the mid-1990s, air and sea temperatures in both regions generally have been in phase, showing strong warming and reduced ice coverage. The cause of this change is related to changes in the spatial structure of the atmospheric pressure patterns, resulting in a general reduction in the importance of NAO forcing over the North Atlantic.

Drinkwater, K.; Colbourne, E.; Loeng, H.; Sundby, S.; Kristiansen, T.

2013-07-01

9

A note on common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) diets in the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual observations and quantitative samples of forestomach contents were made of minke whales caught in the Norwegian Sea (15 visual observations in 1999, 8 in 2000 and 1 stomach sample) and North Sea (15 visual observations and 7 stomach samples, all from 199 9). Prey species were identified, and from the forestomach samples, each prey's relative contribution by weight to

Erik Olsen; Jens Christian Holst

10

@Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution's at-sea research expeditions and presents both current and archived expeditions from 1999 to the present. Each expedition is described in a feature story with background, definitions, research technology and sampling equipment, maps, photos, daily logs, some videos and virtual tours, researcher profiles, and related links. HBOI scientists have studied maritime history, pharmaceuticals from the sea, sharks, behavior and physiology of marine life, marine sanctuaries and submersible technology.

11

Oil and gas bearing in Norwegian Sea basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Norwegian passive continental margin is represented by an extensive gentle shelf and continental slope. On the continental slope, there are the isolated Vøring, Møre and Ras basins, the Halten Terrace is situated to the east of them at the shelf, then the Nordland submarine ridge and the Trondelag Platform at the seaboard. There are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in its sections. Two complex structures are clearly distinguished in the sedimentary section: the lower stage (up to the Upper Cretaceous), reflecting the rifting structure of the basins, broken by a system of dislocations to a series of horsts, grabens, and separated blocks; and the upper stage, poorly dislocated, like a mantle covering the lower stage, with erosion and sharp unconformity. The Halten Terrace is the principal oil and gas production basin. At present, there are more than 50 oil, gas, and condensate fields in it. The following particularities have been discovered: than the field lays in the deepwater, than the age of the hydrocarbon pay is younger. It is also interesting that all gas fields are situated in the Vøring and Møre basins and western part of the Halten Terrace; the oil and gas fields, mainly at the center of the Halten Terrace; but pure oil fields, in the north of the terrace. In conformity with discovering the particularities, it is possible to say that the prospects of oil and gas bearing in the Norwegian Sea are primarilyt related to the Halten Terrace and the Vøring and Møre basins, especially the territories situated at the boundary of the two basins, where it is possible to discover large hydrocarbon accumulations like the Ormen-Lange field, because the Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous productive turbidite thick at the boundary of these basins is on the continental slope, which is considered promising a priori.

Zabanbark, A.

2013-07-01

12

Formation of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent, the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a global study of microcontinents, which we define as crustal fragments with continental-like structure and composition, isolated in oceanic crust, with an extent of less than 10{6} km {2}. Microcontinents are formed in both extensional and transtensional tectonic regimes, and exhibit a range of distinct features such as (1) bathymetric highs, (2) positive free-air anomalies, (3) magnetic quiet zones, (4) prograding sedimentary sequences on the flanks, (5) older than surrounding crust, and (6) different heat flow signatures than the surrounding crust. They commonly also contain some amount of magmatic complexes. Only eight structures worldwide are true microcontinents by our definition, including the Jan Mayen microcontinent in the Norwegian Sea. The Jan Mayen microcontinent is a 500 km long and 160 km wide NNE-trending structure, comprising the bathymetric prominent Jan Mayen Ridge in the NE and a western and southern part with a more subdued bathymetric expression. Its crustal thickness reaches a maximum of 15 km with a lower crustal root displaced 10 km east of the axis of the ridge. The root has seismic velocities in the range from 6.7 to 7.0 km/s and is associated with a magnetic quiet zone, both suggesting a continental origin. A new continent-ocean boundary delimiting the microcontinent has been interpreted based on the extent of the magnetic quiet zone, the free-air gravity anomaly signature, seismic reflection data, and the velocity distribution. The Jan Mayen microcontinent separated from the volcanic rifted Voring and More margins off mid-Norway during Early Tertiary continental breakup and sea floor spreading. Close to the Eocene-Oligocene transition, the Kolbeinsey Ridge spreading axis started to propagate northwards from the Reykjanes Ridge into the East Greenland margin, thus constituting a prograding-retreating pair of axes with the Aegir Ridge. Sea floor spreading along the entire Kolbeinsey Ridge was obtained near the Oligocene-Miocene transition, leading to complete separation of the Jan Mayen microcontinent from the East Greenland continental margin. This event was concurrent with the extinction of the Aegir Ridge.

Rey, S. S.; Eldholm, O.; Planke, S.

2003-12-01

13

Distribution, migration and abundance of norwegian spring spawning herring in relation to the temperature and zooplankton biomass in the Norwegian sea as recorded by coordinated surveys in spring and summer 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and migration of Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Norwegian Sea in spring and summer 1996 were mapped during 13 coordinated surveys carried out by Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian and Russian research vessels.After spawning at the banks of the Norwegian Coast in February-March, most ofthe spent herring migrated out in the Norwegian Sea through a corridor between

Ole Arve Misund; Hjálmar Vilhjálmsson; Stein Hjalti í Jákupsstovu; Ingolf Røttingen; Sergei Belikov; Olafur Asthorsson; Johan Blindheim; Jón Jónsson; Alexander Krysov; Svend Aage Malmberg; Sveinn Sveinbjórnsson

1998-01-01

14

Eemian cooling in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic ocean preceding continental ice-sheet growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHANGING conditions in the North Atlantic region may drive global climate changes1,2. According to previous reconstructions of the last interglacial (the Eemian), North Atlantic sea surface tempera-tures (SSTs) were similar to present-day values3. In the Norwegian Sea, even warmer conditions appeared as a single pulse of short duration4,5, whereas the Greenland ice record suggests that the warm interglacial air temperatures

E. Cortijo; J. C. Duplessy; L. Labeyrie; H. Leclaire; J. Duprat; T. C. E. van Wearing

1994-01-01

15

Magnetostratigraphic calibration of Eocene–Oligocene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy from the Norwegian–Greenland Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of abundant age-diagnostic dinoflagellate cysts in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 913B (Leg 151), Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 338 (Leg 38) and ODP Hole 643A (Leg 104) has enabled the development of a new biostratigraphy for the Eocene–Oligocene interval in the Norwegian–Greenland Sea. This development is important because the calcareous microfossils usually used for biostratigraphy in this

James S. Eldrett; Ian C. Harding; John V. Firth; Andrew P. Roberts

2004-01-01

16

Annual Particle Flux and a Winter Outburst of Sedimentation in the Northern Norwegian Sea,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly samples were collected by a sediment trap deployed for one year at 473 m above sea floor in water 2123 m deep at a station located at 75 N, 11 E, southwest of Spitsbergen. This station was positioned at the northernmost extension of the Norwegian ...

S. Honjo S. J. Manganini G. Wefer

1988-01-01

17

A study of oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines oceanic surface heat fluxes in the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents seas using the gridded Navy Fleet Oceanography Central surface analysis and the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE) IIc cloudiness data bases. Monthly and annual means of net and turbulent heat fluxes are computed for the FGGE year 1979. The FGGE IIb data base consisting of individual observations

Sirpa Häkkinen; Donald J. Cavalieri

1989-01-01

18

United States Naval Oceanographic Office Marine Geophysical Survey Program 1965-1967 North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian Sea and Mediterranean Sea, Area 1 - Volume 5. Geology and Geophysics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of 9,000 miles of continuously recorded underway data including bathymetry, seismic reflection profiling, total magnetic intensity and sediment cores in the Norwegian Sea has delineated sediment and structural trends. The dominate structural tren...

1967-01-01

19

Surface sediment diatom distribution and Holocene paleotemperature variations in the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One hundred and four surface sediment samples and two piston cores from the Greenland, Iceland and the Norwegian (GIN) Sea (Hopkins, 1988) were analyzed. Diatoms were common to abundant in most surface sediment samples and throughout the Holocene. Q mode factor analysis allowed the definition of six significantly different floral assemblages which explained 91.7% of the total variance. Mapping of the six factors showed their close affinity to hydrographic regimes. These are the Norwegian-Atlantic Current assemblage (Thalassionema nitzschioides, Paralia sulcata, Proboscia alata), Arctic Water assemblage (Thalassiosira gravidaspores), Sea Ice assemblage (Nitzschia grunowii, Nitzschia cylindra, Thalassiosira hyalina), Arctic-Norwegian Waters Mixing assemblage (Rhizosolenia hebetata f. semispina, Rhizosolenia borealis), Atlantic assemblage (Thalassiosira oestrupii), and Norwegian-Arctic Waters Mixing assemblage (Thalassiosira gravida vegetative cells). Transfer functions (GINT2) relating factor distributions to winter (February) and summer (August) surface water temperatures were generated. The transfer functions have a standard error of estimate of ±1.5°C (August) and ±1.0°C (February). Downcore studies of core 52-43 from the Norwegian Basin and core 57-5 from the Iceland Plateau revealed diatom abundance and sea surface paleotemperature trends in the area during the Holocene. The first appearance of diatoms in cores 52-43 and 57-5 occurs within the Vedde ash layer (10,600 years B.P.) and the Saksunarvatn ash layer (9100 years B.P.), respectively. Diatom abundances increase steadily throughout the Pre-Boreal-Atlantic time to 25 and 35 million valves per gram dry sediment in the Norwegian Basin and Iceland Plateau cores, respectively. Application of the temperature transfer functions (GINT2) to the two Holocene records revealed higher than present sea surface temperatures during the Boreal-Atlantic chronozones for the Iceland Plateau and during the middle Younger Dryas-Sub Boreal chronozones for the Norwegian Basin core. Temperatures decreased steadily since then with a slight increase to the present values. Both the Iceland and the Norwegian seas experienced a strong influx of temperate Atlantic surface waters in the beginning of the Holocene. Sea surface temperatures dropped steadily in the latter part of the Holocene as the influx of the Atlantic surface waters diminished.

Koc Karpuz, NalâN.; Schrader, Hans

1990-08-01

20

The glacial North Sea Fan, southern Norwegian Margin: architecture and evolution from the upper continental slope to the deep-sea basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic data have been used to study the ice-stream-fed North Sea Fan, deposited from approximately Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 12 and onwards. Located at the outlet of the Norwegian Channel on the SE Nordic Seas continental slope, the 110,000km2 fan is dominated by glacigenic debris flows and slide debrites. The fan is divided in two provinces by the volcanic

Atle Nygård; Hans Petter Sejrup; Haflidi Haflidason; Petter Bryn

2005-01-01

21

Selective erosion by gravity flows in the deep-sea Lofoten Basin, Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposits from gravity flows form a substantial part of the Lofoten Basin stratigraphy, a deep-water basin offshore Norway. This includes glacigenic debris flows from the shelf edge/upper slope, sandy turbidites from canyon - channel systems and debris flow deposits from submarine landslides. Little is, however, known about the properties of the gravity flows and their interaction with the sea floor sediments. We present newly acquired deep-towed side-scan sonar data co-registered with sub-bottom profiles showing small and large-scale irregularities of the sea floor in two areas relatively recently affected by gravity flows. The first area is located at about 2700 m water depth and is part of the distal Andøya Slide. Here, three several km wide and about 25 m thick lensoid and acoustically transparent deposits with a slightly irregular relief are inferred to represent debris flow deposits from submarine landslides originating from the nearby continental slope. The seafloor both below the debris flows and between and not affected by the debris flows is irregular due to closed seafloor depressions. They occur randomly and with a variety of forms up to 1 km across, 500 m wide and some meters deep. The second area is the Lofoten Basin Channel near its termination at about 3200 m water depth, beyond which laterally extensive sheets of normal graded sand interbedded with thinner mud layers occur. Sea floor depressions appear in several morphological forms on the channel flanks. The largest is more than 1 km long, up to 250 m wide, some meters deep has its longest axis parallel to the flow direction. It becomes less distinct in the down-flow direction. Other features in this area include densely spaced longitudinal features. In both areas the irregular sea floor morphology is inferred to be flute marks (or scours) formed by erosive gravity flows. Erosion of channel flanks by turbidity currents is well known from other studies but is not commonly described from the most distal channel settings as shown here. In the deepest part of the Lofoten Basin at least some of the flows overtopped and were erosive to the termination of the channel implying that the transition from erosion to deposition forming the sheets of sand occurred over a very short distance. The occurrence of flute marks in the area of the distal Andøya Slide indicates passage of spatially extensive and unconfined turbidity currents possibly associated with the slide event. The flows were accelerating or steadily flowing resulting in erosion and little or no deposition in part of the eastern Lofoten Basin. Acknowledgement This work is a contribution to the UNESCO program Training Trough Research and the Democen project (http://www.ig.uit.no/Democen/). We acknowledge the Research Council of Norway and Statoil for financial support. The Captain and crew of the Russian research vessel Professor Logachev provided essential support for the acquisition of data.

Sverre Laberg, Jan; Forwick, Matthias; Johannessen, Hilde B.; Ivanov, Mikhail; Kenyon, Neil H.; Vorren, Tore O.

2010-05-01

22

Mid-1980s distribution of tritium, 3He, 14C and 39Ar in the Greenland/Norwegian seas and the Nansen basin of the Arctic ocean  

SciTech Connect

The distributions of tritium/3He, 14C and 39Ar observed in the period between 1985 and 1987 in the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are presented. The data are used to outline aspects of the large-scale circulation and the exchange of deep water between the Greenland/Norwegian Seas and the Nansen Basin. Additionally, semi-quantitative estimates of mean ages of the main water masses found in these regions are obtained. Apparent tritium/3He ages of the upper waters (depth <500m) vary from close to zero in the Norwegian Current to about 15 years at the lower boundary of the Arctic halocline. The deep waters (>1,500m depth) of the Greenland/ Norwegian Seas show apparent tritium/3He ages between about 17 years in the Greenland Sea and 30 years in the Norwegian Sea.

Schlosser, P.; Bonisch, G.; Kromer, B.; Loosli, H.H.; Buehler, R.

1995-12-31

23

Feeding, reproduction and seasonal development of Calanus finmarchicus in relation to water masses and phytoplankton in the southern Norwegian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern Norwegian Sea, two different water masses dominate in the upper layers: cold water from the East Icelandic Current in the western part and warmer Atlantic water in the eastern and southernmost part. In spring the stratification is stronger in the cold East Icelandic Current Water (EICW) than in the Atlantic Water (AW) and the phytoplankton biomass usually

Eilif Gaard; Karina Nattestad

2002-01-01

24

The distribution of Al in the IOC stations of the North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea between 52° and 65° North  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of dissolved and reactive aluminium was determined at nine stations in the eastern and western North Atlantic, the Norwegian Sea and on a surface water transect during the International Oceanographic Commission's second open ocean baseline survey. The profile results show that the distribution of dissolved Al is primarily the result of advective movement of the various water

I. R Hall; C. I Measures

1998-01-01

25

Distributions and carbon isotopic compositions of lipid biomarkers in authigenic carbonate crusts from the Nordic margin (Norwegian Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distributions and ?13C values of lipid biomarkers in authigenic carbonate crusts from the Nordic margin (Norwegian Sea). Abundant, highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial biomarkers revealed that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is associated with carbonate authigenesis at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) and the Nyegga pockmark field. No conclusive evidence for AOM was found in the

Nicolas Chevalier; Ioanna Bouloubassi; Alina Stadnitskaia; Marie-Hélène Taphanel; Anne Lorre; Jaap Sinninghe Damsté; Catherine Pierre

2010-01-01

26

Seasonal Skill Comparison between Operational Ocean Thermal Structure Products in the Northeast Atlantic/Norwegian Sea. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S Navy's Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center has several operational products available for thermal structure nowcasts in the northeast Atlantic/Norwegian Sea. These include regional nowcasts and short forecasts at 40 km resolution, global nowcasts ...

J. M. Harding P. May K. D. Pollak R. M. Clancy

1992-01-01

27

Water mass exchange between the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea during the past 28,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) seas are important regulators of heat transport in the Northern Hemisphere and of ocean-atmosphere CO2exchange1-5. Rapid changes in the circulation of surface and deep waters in this region may induce nonlinear climatic effects and climate instabilities2,3. Here we present carbon and oxygen isotope data that provide a record of circulation changes in the GIN

Terje Veum; Eystein Jansen; Maurice Arnold; Ida Beyer; Jean-Claude Duplessy

1992-01-01

28

24. ORIGIN OF AUTHIGENIC CARBONATES IN EOCENE TO QUATERNARY SEDIMENTS FROM THE ARCTIC OCEAN AND NORWEGIAN-GREENLAND SEA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authigenic carbonates occur in thin layers, nodules, and burrows in fine-grained siliciclastic sediments of middle Eocene to Quaternary age that were recovered from the Arctic Ocean and Norwegian-Greenland Sea during Leg 151. At Site 913 (East Greenland Margin), concentrically zoned microspherules and rhombohedrons of ferroan rhodochrosite and manganoan siderite, 20-600 µm in diameter, are the main authigenic carbonates in the

Nancy Chow; Sadoon Morad; Ihsan S. Al-Aasm

29

Ground truthing the Cd\\/Ca-carbon isotope relationship in foraminifera of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine whether the paleoceanographic nutrient proxies, ?13C and cadmium\\/calcium in foraminiferal calcite, are well coupled to nutrients in the region of North Atlantic Deep Water formation, we present data from two transects of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas. Along Transect A (74.3 °N, 18.3 °E to 75.0 °N, 12.5 °W, 15 stations), we measured phosphate and Cd concentrations of

K. McIntyre; A. C. Ravelo; M. L. Delaney; L. D. Anderson; T. Johannessen

1997-01-01

30

Benthic-pelagic coupling in the Greenland-Norwegian Sea and its effect on the geological record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentation pattern of organic material in the Greenland-Norwegian Sea is reflected in the surface sediments, although less than 0.5% of the organic matter is buried in the sediment. Maximum fluxes and benthic responses are observed during June and\\/or August\\/September, following the pattern of export production in the pelagial zone. The annual remineralization rate on the Vøring Plateau is 3.0

Gerhard Graf; Sebastian A. Gerlach; Peter Linke; Wolfgang Queisser; Will Ritzrau; Annette Scheltz; L. Thomsen; Ursula Witte

1995-01-01

31

Organic carbon and mineral nutrient limitation of oxygen consumption, bacterial growth and efficiency in the Norwegian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of bacteria in the transformation of organic matter in subarctic waters, we investigated the effect of\\u000a mineral nutrients (ammonia and phosphate) and organic carbon (glucose) enrichment on heterotrophic bacterial processes and\\u000a community structure. Eight experiments were done in the Norwegian Sea during May and June 2008. The growth-limiting factor\\u000a (carbon or mineral nutrient) for heterotrophic bacteria

L. Antonio Cuevas; Jorun K. Egge; T. Frede Thingstad; Birte Töpper

2011-01-01

32

Geology and Geophysics Program Summary for FY90. SEAMARC II Investigation of the Northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea: Program 1990 and Expansion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The high-latitude northern Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the adjacent part of the Arctic Ocean north of Spitsbergen comprise an unequaled natural laboratory for the study of several important processes involving the generation and/or modification of sea-flo...

A. N. Shor K. Crane C. de Moustier

1991-01-01

33

Evidence for a clustered spatial distribution of clupeid fish schools in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of southwest Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haugland, E. K., and Misund, O. A. 2004. Evidence for a clustered spatial distribution of clupeid fish schools in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of southwest Africa. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 61: 1088e1092. To quantify and characterize the spatial distribution of clupeid fish schools, sonar data were collected during surveys off the coast of Namibia in

Eli Kyrkjebø Haugland; Ole Arve Misund

2004-01-01

34

On the influence of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas upon the bottom waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottom waters of the North Pacific and North Indian Oceans have temperature and salinity distributions that suggest origins from the extreme waters of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas. We attempt to trace these waters from their sources to the abyssal Pacific and Indian oceans by examining distributions of temperature and salinity along a stratum defined by density parameters. We

JOSEPH L. REID; RONALD J. LYNN

1971-01-01

35

Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sea Education Association (SEA) in Woods Hole, MA provides undergraduates with an opportunity to participate in an academic study-abroad program called the SEA Semester. The program combines intensive research in the areas of oceanography, maritime studies, and nautical science with hands-on experience aboard a traditional sailing ship. Piloting, celestial navigation, and practical seamanship are learned together with oceanographic sampling techniques and marine laboratory procedures. Critical thinking, problem-solving, team-building and leadership skills are emphasized throughout the program. SEA Semester is appropriate for students in marine biology, geology and physical science, environmental studies, American studies, and most other areas within the liberal arts and sciences. Academic credit for SEA Semester is obtained through Boston University.

36

The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Sea and Fram Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extant coccolithophores and their relation to the governing oceanographic features in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects of surface water sampling, both conducted during summer 2011 and fall 2007. The northern transects crossed Fram Strait and its two opposing boundary currents (West Spitsbergen Current and East Greenland Current), while the southern transects sampled the Norwegian and Iceland Seas (passing the island Jan Mayen) from the Lofoten Islands to the continental margin off Eastern Greenland. The distribution of the dominant coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus is discussed in view of both the surface hydrology at the time of sampling and the structure of the surface mixed layer. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles are used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water at the time of sampling. Both transects were characterized by strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks with maximum values of 53 × 103 cells L-1 for the northern transect and 72 × 103 cells L-1 for the southern transect in fall and summer, respectively. The highest recorded bulk cell densities are essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This species shows a zonal shift in peak abundance in the Norwegian-Iceland Seas from a summer maximum in the Lofoten gyre to peak cell densities around the island Jan Mayen in fall. Vertical mixing of Atlantic waters west of Lofoten Island, a phenomenom related to pervasive summer large scale atmospheric changes in the eastern Nordic Seas, on one hand, and strengthened influence of melt-water and related surface water stratification around the island Jan Mayen during fall, on the other hand, explains the observed seasonal migration of the E. huxleyi peak production area, as well as the seasonal change in dominating species within the Iceland Sea. In addition our datasets are indicative of a well-defined maximum boundary temperature of 6 °C for the production of C. pelagicus in the northern North Atlantic. The Fram Strait transects provides, to our knowledge, a first view of the zonal distribution of extant coccolithophores in this remote setting during summer and fall. Our datasets are indicative of a seasonal change in the species community from an E. huxleyi-dominated assemblage during summer to a C. pelagicus-rich population during fall. Here, higher irradiance and increased Atlantic water influence during summer favored the production of the opportunistic species E. huxleyi close to the Arctic Front, whereas the peak production area during fall, with high concentrations of C. pelagicus, lays in true Arctic/Polar waters.

Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

2013-09-01

37

Rock Physical study on an Upper-Palaeozoic Chert and Carbonate Interval in Wells from the Eastern Norwegian Barents Sea.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their general interest as hydrocarbon reservoir, the Upper Palaeozoic chert and carbonate interval in the Norwegian Barents Sea has been investigated from seismic data and well logs. We established a framework for geophysical well log analysis and reservoir characterization for the Finnmark Platform, an area situated in the South-Eastern part of the Norwegian Barents Sea. The interval is composed by approximately 600 m carbonate facies covered by a 60 m interval of spiculitic chert facies. The carbonate facies is characterized by lateral and vertical lithological variations including limestones, dolomites, evaporites and clastic material. The spiculitic interval exists in spiculitic chert and clay alternated with limestones. Data extends over an area with different palaeo environments from inner platform settings to continental slope and even basinal settings. Log curve data from four wells were processed through geophysical well log analysis using Powerlog and Matlab. Multi-well trend analysis was performed for a diagnostic modeling of the rock physical parameters. The examination of the variation of petrophysical properties, and how that variation transfers into the elastic domain is a key to the correlation of rock properties and the seismic attribute information. The final goal is to improve porosity and mineralogy predictions in pseudo-wells from 3D seismic data. The analyses of cross plots allow distinguishing several intervals which in certain cases correspond to individual stratigraphic units. The spiculite interval shows for example different rock types based on rock physics and these parameters can be linked with seismic. For the synthetic seismogram an s-wave velocity log has been modeled. We observed that for several lithological intervals such as the mixed limestone-dolomites and spiculites the Greenberg-Castagna model fitted the best, but for pure dolomite intervals the Krief model is more accurate. Furthermore, for the purest limestone the best fit was obtained for the differential effective medium equations. These intervals should be treated differently for obtaining the best fitting velocity-porosity relations.

Colpaert, A.; Mienert, J.; Fotland, B.

2004-12-01

38

Norwegian Testing of Emulsion Properties at Sea––The Importance of Oil Type and Release Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the major findings from laboratory studies and field trials conducted in Norway in recent years on the emulsification of oils spilled at sea. Controlled bench-scale and meso-scale basin experiments using a wide spectrum of oils have revealed that both the physico-chemical properties of the oils and the release conditions are fundamental determinants of the

Per S Daling; Merete Øverli Moldestad; Øistein Johansen; Alun Lewis; Jon Rødal

2003-01-01

39

Insights from the Jan Mayen system in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea—II. Architecture of a microcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the formation and evolution of the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC) in the framework of conjugate margin evolution in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The JMMC structural map and crustal architecture have been constrained by seismic mapping and potential field modelling, supplemented by published seismic refraction transects. The sedimentary and basement geometries have been further studied together with their conjugate to refine our knowledge on the less explored microcontinent. Structurally, the JMMC main ridge is characterized by a platform and/or terrace architecture flanked by sag type basins, similar to those described on the mid-Norwegian conjugate margin, while its southern part is marked by windows exposing crustal and/or mantle material that was exhumed during higher degrees of extension. The eastern side of the JMMC broke up in a magma-rich fashion, while the western side is magma poor. The limited amount of magma involved in the JMMC formation suggests that changes in far field forces were the driving mechanism to initiate the isolation process and that a mantle plume had a lesser influence, but might have helped the final mid-ocean ridge establishment between the western Jan Mayen and Greenland margin.

Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Gernigon, Laurent; Gaina, Carmen; Ball, Philip

2012-09-01

40

Structure of the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone: Implications for the tectono-magmatic processes of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen Fault Zone (JMFZ) is probably the most atypical expression of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and its complexity and profound nature are clearly mirrored in contrasting spreading configurations visible in the North Atlantic oceanic domain. In order to better constrain the structure and the tectonic evolution of the JMFZ and contiguous margins, a new aeromagnetic survey (JAS-05) was acquired in the eastern part of this structure. The difference between the new survey and the old grid is significant. The main faults, structure and magnetic anomalies have been re-interpreted using a systematic comparison between high-resolution bathymetry, gravity, magnetic patterns and seismic data. Magnetic chrons are now better identified, new anomalies have been detected and the fault pattern has been refined. Anomalous melt production started led to the formation of the Norwegian volcanic margin but surprisingly continued episodically along the trend of the JMFZ, as suggested by local overcrusting along the JMFZ. Plate reconstructions, suggests that a triple junction could have initiated during the breakup between the Vøring Marginal High and the Traill-igneous complex, a prominent magnetic anomaly, offshore Greenland. Active mantle upwelling under the early spreading ridge could have induced transtension and lithospheric thinning along the JMFZ. In places where a component of opening motion occurs across the transform, volcanic activity could have increased locally along this "leaky transform". This early tectono-magmatic process can be compared to the Azores Plateau, which can be use as a modern analogue to the early Norwegian spreading system initiated 55-54 Ma ago.

Gernigon, L.; Olesen, O.; Ebbing, J.; Wienecke, S.; Mogaard, J.; Pascal, C.

2006-12-01

41

Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the attempt to consider the relationship between sea surface anomalies of temperature (SST anomalies °C) in spawning area of the Norwegian Arctic cod off the Lofoten islands in coastal zone of the Norwegian Sea and modern cod total stock biomass including forecasting assessment of future cod generation success. Continuous long-term database of the sea surface temperature (SST) was created on the NOAA satellites data. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps for the period of 1998-2012. These maps were plotted with the satellite SST data, as well as information of vessels, byoies and coastal stations. All data were classified by spawning seasons (March-April) and years. The results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod (2001, 2006, 2007) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal or some more normal significances provide conditions for appearance strong or very strong generations of cod (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009). Temperature conditions in concrete years influence on different indexes of cod directly. So, the mean temperature in spawning seasons in years 1999-2005 was ?5,0°C and SST anomaly - +0,35°C, by the way average year significances indexes of cod were: total stock biomass - 1425,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 460,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 535,0 mln. units and landings - 530,0 th.t. In spawning seasons 2006-2012 years the average data were following: mean SST ?6,0°C, SST anomaly - +1,29°C, total stock biomass - 2185,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 1211,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 821,0 mln. units and landings - 600,0 th.t. The SST and SST anomalies (the NOAA satellite data) characterize increase of decrease in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the flows of the main warm currents thus creating favorable conditions for development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally, direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, Northeast Arctic cod, spawning area, maps of SST, prognosis.

Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

2013-04-01

42

Genetic evidence for three species within Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Ascaridida, Ascaridoidea) in the North Atlantic and Norwegian and Barents Seas.  

PubMed

Genetic variation of 1017 specimens of codworm, Pseudoterranova decipiens, collected from fish and seals at 23 sampling locations in the North Atlantic and Norwegian and Barents Seas, was analysed on the basis of 16 enzyme loci. Three reproductively isolated species, provisionally designated P. decipiens A, B and C, were detected, showing distinct alleles at the following loci: Mdh-1, 6Pgdh, Np, Pgm, Est-2 (between species A and B); Mdh-3, 6Pgdh, Np, Sod-1, Adk, Pgm, Est-2, Mpi (between A and C); Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Sod-1, Adk, Pgm, Est-2, Mpi (between B and C). One F1 hybrid was observed between P. decipiens A and B, but this apparently does not lead to any gene exchange between the two species, which do not show any evidence of introgression. No hybrids or introgressed individuals were observed between P. decipiens C and either A or B. Genetic distances among conspecific populations were low (average Nei's D 0.001-0.005), even though they were collected thousands of kilometres apart, indicating high levels of gene flow within each of the three species. The values of Nei's index D were 0.44 between P. decipiens A and B, 0.57 between B and C, and 0.79 between A and C. Estimated evolutionary divergence times, using Nei's formula, range from 2 to 4 million years. Differences between P. decipiens A, B and C were also found with respect to genetic variability, morphology, geographical distribution and hosts. Mean heterozygosity values of 0.08, 0.05 and 0.02 were obtained for P. decipiens A, B and C, respectively. Preliminary morphological examination of adult males, previously identified by multilocus electrophoresis, revealed differences in the relative size and pattern of caudal papillae. P. decipiens B is widespread in the study area, whereas P. decipiens A was found only in the North-East Atlantic and Norwegian Sea. In this area P. decipiens A is most common in the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, while the common seal, Phoca vitulina, is the main host for P. decipiens B. In Canadian Atlantic waters, where P. decipiens A is apparently absent, P. decipiens B infects both grey and common seals; a few specimens were also found in the hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. The only definitive host so far identified for P. decipiens C is the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus; P. decipiens C appears to be widespread, occurring in both the North-West Atlantic and Barents Sea. PMID:1869354

Paggi, L; Nascetti, G; Cianchi, R; Orecchia, P; Mattiucci, S; D'Amelio, S; Berland, B; Brattey, J; Smith, J W; Bullini, L

1991-04-01

43

Effects of bottom water warming and sea level rise on Holocene hydrate dissociation and mass wasting along the Norwegian-Barents Continental Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrate (GH) stability modeling results explain why some major Holocene submarine landslides along the Norwegian-Barents margin could have been triggered by GH dissociation during the early to middle Holocene, not during the lowest sea levels of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Our model results show that subbottom depths of 170–260 m below the pre-slide continental slope (ca. 350–475 m

Woo-Yeol Jung; Peter R. Vogt

2004-01-01

44

Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea — results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching

B. Salbu; A. I. Nikitin; P. Strand; G. C. Christensen; V. B. Chumichev; B. Lind; H. Fjelldal; T. D. S. Bergan; A. L. Rudjord; M. Sickel; N. K. Valetova; L. Føyn

1997-01-01

45

Diet, an independent determinant for plasma total homocysteine. A cross sectional study of Norwegian workers on platforms in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether diet is an independent determinant for total homocysteine (tHcy) levels.Design: Data on background variables was collected by questionnaire interviews, food intake by one 24 h recall and tHcy levels in a blood sample in 310 healthy men (mean age, 38 y).Setting: Two oil producing platforms in the Norwegian sector in the north sea.Results: The arithmetic mean

A Oshaug; KH Bugge; H Refsum

1998-01-01

46

Late syn-rift (65-55 Ma) uplift in the Voring Basin, Norwegian Sea - was it a 'hot' or a 'cold' event?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Voring Basin is a large sedimentary basin province in the Norwegian Sea and is commonly described as a volcanic end-member of rifted passive margins. A series of rifting events since Permian-Triassic times resulted in structurally complex basins. A striking feature of the Voering basin is a regional uplift event during the last rifting phase (65-55Ma). The geologic process responsible

Y. Podladchikov; L. H. Ruepke; S. Schmalholz; N. Simon

2006-01-01

47

A baseline study of metals in cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Sea and coastal Norwegian waters, with focus on mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead.  

PubMed

This study is one of several baseline studies that will provide basic and reliable information about the content of undesirable substances in important species of fish caught in Norwegian waters. Concentrations of metals in the muscle and livers of 516 cod caught at 22 positions in the North Sea were analysed. An additional 687 cod were caught from 13 fjords and coastal areas along the coast of Norway. Three out of 1203 samples of muscle exceeded the maximum limit of 0.5 mg Hg kg(-1) wet weight set by the EU for foodstuffs. The mercury concentration in cod muscle was higher and the cadmium concentration in the liver was lower in the North Sea and coastal areas in the southern part of Norway than in the Barents Sea and coastal areas in the northern part of Norway. These differences are perhaps caused by differences in the cod diet. PMID:23706615

Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Nilsen, Bente M; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

2013-05-22

48

Growth of normal faults in multilayer sequences: A 3D seismic case study from the Egersund Basin, Norwegian North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the structural style and evolution of a salt-influenced, extensional fault array in the Egersund Basin (Norwegian North Sea) through analysis of 3D reflection seismic and well data. Analysis of fault geometry/morphology, throw distribution and syn-kinematic strata reveal an intricate but systematic style of displacement and growth, suggesting an evolution of (1) initial syn-sedimentary fault growth contemporaneous with salt mobilization initiated during the Late Triassic, (2) cessation of fault activity and burial of the stagnant fault tips, and (3) subsequent nucleation of new faults in the cover above contemporaneous salt re-mobilization initiated during the Late Cretaceous, with downward propagation and linkage with faults. Stage 3 was apparently largely controlled by salt mobilization in response to basin inversion, as reactivated faults are located where the underlying salt is thick, while the non-reactivated faults are found where salt is depleted. Based on the 3D-throw analyses, we conclude that a combination of basement faulting and salt (re-) mobilization is the driving mechanisms behind fault activation and reactivation. Even though the sub- and supra-salt faults are mainly geometrically decoupled through the salt, a kinematic coupling must have existed as sub-salt faults still affected nucleation and localization of the cover faults.

Tvedt, Anette B. M.; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Fossen, Haakon; Gawthorpe, Robert L.

2013-10-01

49

Petroleum migration, alteration, and remigration within Troll field, Norwegian North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Troll field represents the largest petroleum discovery within the entire North Sea area in oil equivalents, with 74% of the accumulated petroleum present as dry gas and 26% as a heavy biodegraded oil leg. The field is divided into several provinces based on the distribution of gas and oil, and the gas and oil have been suggested to be cogenetic. The migration and filling model presented in this paper suggests that the oil and gas represent two different migration phases and that gas migration and filling predate oil emplacement. Two different oil populations have been characterized and mapped in Troll field applying conventional geochemical techniques. We suggest that the two oil populations migrated into the structure through two different migration systems. Oil and gas were subsequently biodegraded within the reservoir. The two oil populations have been found in neighboring oil and gas discoveries, and an oil-oil correlation with these discoveries has been used to determine the location of field filling points and regional migration routes. When oil biodegradation terminated, fresh oil continued to migrate into the reservoir and mixed with the residue of the biodegraded oil. The field was tilted downward to the west in the Neogene, and oil and gas remigrated within the field with a possible spillage of gas. Tilting resulted in a dominantly upward movement of the oil phase whereas gas migrated laterally. Residual oils in the water zone have been used to reconstruct the paleoconfiguration of the field that controlled the current distribution of oil populations within Troll field.

Horstad, I. [Saga Petroleum, Sandvika (Norway); Larter, S.R. [Univ. of Newcastle, Tyne (United Kingdom)

1997-02-01

50

Ice dynamics in the central Greenland Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently a tongue-shaped sea ice feature formed over the central Greenland Sea each winter. This tongue, known to generations of Norwegian sealers as “Odden,” sometimes protrudes several hundred kilometres in a northeast direction from the main East Greenland ice edge. Owing to the high wave energy in the Greenland Sea in winter, the formation of sea ice is restricted

J. P. Wilkinson

2006-01-01

51

Sea urchin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

52

The significance of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) for sea-salt episodes and acidification-related effects in Norwegian rivers.  

PubMed

Acidification of Norwegian surface waters, as indicated by elevated concentrations of sulfate and a corresponding reduction in acid neutralizing capacity and pH, is a result of emission and subsequent deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. Episodic sea-salt deposition during severe weather conditions may increase the effects of acidification by mobilizing more toxic aluminum during such episodes. Changes in climatic conditions may increase the frequency and strength of storms along the coast thus interacting with acidification effects on chemistry and biota. We found that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked to sea-salt deposition and sea-salt induced water chemistry effects in five rivers. Particularly, toxic levels of aluminum in all rivers were significantly correlated with higher NAO index values. Further, temporal trends were studied by comparing tendencies for selected statistical indices (i.e. frequency distributions) with time. The selected indices exhibited strong correlations between the NAO index, sea-salt deposition and river data such as chloride, pH and inorganic monomeric aluminum, pointing at the influence of North Atlantic climate variability on water chemistry and water toxicity. The potentially toxic effects of sea-salt deposition in rivers seem to be reduced as the acidification is reduced. This suggests that sea-salt episodes have to increase in strength in order to give the same potential negative biological effects in the future, if acid deposition is further reduced. More extreme winter precipitation events have been predicted in the northwest of Europe as a result of climate change. If this change will be associated with more severe sea-salt episodes is yet unknown. PMID:14740713

Hindar, Atle; Tørseth, Kjetil; Henriksen, Arne; Orsolini, Yvan

2004-01-01

53

Reconstruction and geochemical modelling of the diagenetic history of the middle Jurassic Oseberg sandstone reservoir, Oseberg Field, Norwegian North Sea  

SciTech Connect

A detailed multidisciplinary integrated study of the Middle Jurassic Oseberg reservoir in 13 wells of the Oseberg field, Norwegian North Sea, was carried out in order to (1) reconstruct precisely the timing, conditions and spatial variation of diagenetic transformations (2) characterize the nature and origin of the diagenetic fluids, and (3) develop a geochemical model of the observed diagenesis. The 20-60 in thick Oseberg Formation occurs at depths of 2.5 to 3.2 km, and at present temperatures ranging from 100 to 125{degrees}C. The detrital assemblage is mainly composed of quartz, K-feldspar, albrite, muscovite and lithic clay clasts, and is very homogeneous throughout the study area. The chronological sequence of diagenetic phases established from petrographic observations includes: minor siderite and pyrite, K-feldspar overgrowths, ankerite, feldspar dissolution, vermiform, kaolinite, quartz overgrowths, poikilotopic Fe-rich calcite, dickite. Diagenetic temperatures were determined from fluid inclusions in ankerite, quarts and calcite. Combination with modelled burial/thermal history permitted to constrain approximate ages and duration of major diagenetic events. Isotopic compositions of diagenetic cements indicate that meteoric water was (and still is) a major constituant of diagenetic fluids. Present formation waters are fairly similar chemically and isotopically at reservoir scale and represent mixing of three endmembers: seawater, meteoric water and primary evaporative brine. Stability diagrams and chemical geothermometers suggest that formation fluids are close to equilibrium with the host sandstone at present reservoir temperatures. Geochemical modelling of the diagenetic evolution of water-reservoir interactions was carried out using the EQ3/6 code and the Allan{sup TM}/Neptunix integrated simulator system. Results emphasize the importance of circulations of large volumes of fluid within the reservoir throughout the diagenetic history.

Girard, J.P.; Sanjuan, B.; Fouillac, C. [BRGM, Orleans (France)] [and others

1995-08-01

54

A Geophysical Study of a Pockmark in the Nyegga Region, Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pockmarks are seabed expressions of gas/fluid escape chimneys which are thought to be of global significance as they are pathways for the escape of methane from beneath continental margins to the atmosphere and provide habitats for chemosynthetic communities of biota. Their formation and dynamics are poorly constrained due to the lack of proper three dimensional imaging of their internal structure. Numerous fluid escape features provide evidence for an active fluid-flow system on the Norwegian Margin in the Nyegga region. In June-July 2006 a high-resolution seismic experiment using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) was carried out to investigate the detailed 3D structure of two pockmarks (named CN03 and G11) in the region. The G11 pockmark is ~220 m wide and has a rugged topography with irregular ridges divided by a central sediment basin and carbonate piles. An array of eight 4-component and six 2-component OBS was deployed across the pockmark with a spacing of ~100 m and 1 m location accuracy. The source consisted of 13/35 and 24/24 cubic inch mini GI guns and the data were acquired on a grid of lines of minimum length 5000 m at 50 m and 100 m line- spacing corresponding to shot intervals of 4s and 6s. A pattern of circular lines was also shot to cover a full range of offsets and azimuths for the OBS array. The shots were also recorded on a short near-surface hydrophone streamer. Several reflectors of high amplitude and reverse polarity are observed on the profiles indicating the presence of gas. A pipe ascends from a gas charged zone at ~300 m below the seabed, to where it terminates in the investigated G11 pockmark at the seabed. An initial 2D raytraced forward model of some of the P wave data along a line running NE-SW across the G11 pockmark shows, a gradual increase in velocity between the seafloor and the gas charged zone. The traveltime fit is improved if the pockmark is underlain by velocities lower than in the surrounding layer. Gas hydrates were recovered with gravity cores from less than a meter below the seafloor during the cruise. Indications of gas at shallow depths in the hydrate stability field show that methane is able to escape through the water-saturated sediments in the chimney without being entirely converted into gas hydrate. Different possible geological processes will be examined to explain this phenomenon.

Jose, T.; Minshull, T.; Westbrook, G.; Berndt, C.

2007-12-01

55

Pockmarks with Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonate in the Norwegian Trench, Northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pockmarks are ubiquitous in large parts of the Norwegian Trench with some areas containing more than 25 pockmarks per km2. While the presence of these pockmarks has been known for a couple of decades, the timing and mechanism of their formation is not fully understood. A detailed ROV survey of a 0.25 km2 area containing one clustered and four normal pockmarks was conducted in March 2005. The main aim of this survey was to detect and sample any recent or on-going seep activity within the pockmarks and to provide high quality seafloor data for further investigations. Within our study area, carbonate rock and soft sediment samples were recovered. Furthermore, the area was mapped in high resolution by the use of ROV-mounted multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler (Innomar parametric "pinger"). The high-resolution bathymetry image reveals that the clustered pockmark consists of a more than 10 m deep central depression with a diameter of about 100 m, surrounded by seven small pockmarks (5 m deep, 30 m in diameter). The four normal pockmarks are circular, with a typical depth of 5 m and diameter of 50 m. In addition, a number of very small unit pockmarks have been detected. These have diameters of about 1 m, and occur in clusters within the clustered pockmark and in long strings intersecting two of the normal pockmarks. The Innomar records reveal a high amplitude reflection at about 4 m depth indicating the presence of gas or a change in lithology. A carbonate rock was sampled from the central part of the clustered pockmark. The rock has a typical seep carbonate structure, which is documented by petrographical and x-ray diffraction analyses showing that the sample consists of fibrous and micritic aragonite, clay, a minor component of calcite and pyrite. The carbonate sample has a seep carbonate isotope signature (? 13C=-56.4; ? 18O=4.0) and therefore a composition characteristic of methane derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC). Finally, genetic analyses give a signature suggesting anaerobic methane oxidation. The results therefore imply methane seep activity in the pockmark. However, no present activity (e.g., bubbles) could be observed on the video record. The current activity level will be investigated during a cruise in October this year, during which cone penetration testing, extensive geological, geochemical and geotechnical sampling, and installation of multi-level piezometers for long term measurements of pore pressure and temperature will be performed.

Forsberg, C.; Hovland, M.; Planke, S.; Rike, A.; Strout, J.; Svano, G.; Svensen, H.; Tjelta, T.

2005-12-01

56

Velocity Modelling Results Of A Pockmark In The Nyegga Region, Norwegian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pockmarks are a common indicator of fluid flow through the seafloor at continental margins. They are thought to be of global significance as pathways for the escape of methane from the sediments to the water column beneath continental margins, and also as habitats for chemosynthetic communities of biota. Their mechanism of formation and internal dynamics remain poorly constrained, partly due to a lack of proper three dimensional imaging of their internal structure. Numerous fluid escape features provide evidence for an active fluid-flow system in the Nyegga region of the Norwegian continental margin. In June-July 2006 we conducted a high-resolution seismic experiment using ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) to investigate the detailed 3D structure of a 250-m-wide pockmark in this region, named G11 and hence to determine the distribution of gas and gas hydrate in and around the pockmark . An array of 14 OBS were deployed across the pockmark. Shots fired from two 35 cu. in. mini GI guns were recorded on these OBS and on a near surface hydrophone streamer. Shot and OBS locations were determined with c. 1 m uncertainty using water wave arrivals. The OBS and reflection data reveal many interesting features of the subsurface geology of the chimney. A group of bright reflectors underlies the pockmark at a travel time of c. 1.4 s and at deeper depths some of the reflectors show strong attenuation indicating the presence of gas in the sediments. A pipe ascends from this gas charged zone to where it terminates in the investigated G11 pockmark. We have analysed data from five OBS lying along a line running NE-SW across the pockmark, using both raytracing and reflection tomography. The raytraced forward model, which incorporates signals from six subsurface reflectors, shows, a gradual increase in velocity between the seafloor and the gas charged zone, lying c. 300 m depth below the seabed. The travel-time fit is improved significantly if velocities in the pipe beneath the pockmark are higher than those in the surrounding sediments. The maximum velocity anomaly is c. 6%. An initial tomographic inversion using signals from a single subsurface reflector at the top of the gas-charged zone also recovers a velocity anomaly of c. 6%. This velocity anomaly may be attributed to the presence of increased saturations of methane hydrate beneath the pockmark.

Jose, T.; Minshull, T.; Westbrook, G.; Nouzé, H.; Ker, S.; Exley, R.; Gailler, A.; Berndt, C.

2008-12-01

57

Arctic Sea Level Since 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate sea level change and variability in the Arctic region over the 1950-2009 time span. Analysis of >60 long tide gauge records available since 1950 along the Norwegian and Russian sectors shows that coastal mean sea level was almost stable until about 1980 but since then displayed a clear increasing trend. In fact until the mid-1990s, the mean sea level closely followed the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index variations. However, since about 1995, the mea sea level curve departs from the AO influence and presents a large increasing trend of ~ 4 mm/yr. Using in situ ocean temperature data down to 700 m (from the WOD09 and JAMSTEC data bases), we estimated the thermosteric sea level at the tide gauge sites of the Norwegian sector and found that the recent increase in sea level has a dominant thermal origin. This suggests that inflow of warm North Atlantic waters may be responsible for the recent sea level changes observed along the Norwegian and Russian coasts. Comparison, over the altimetry era (since 1993), of altimetry-based and steric spatial trend patterns in sea level in the North Atlantic (>50°N) and Nordic Seas shows on the other hand that observed (altimetry-based) patterns essentially result from a combination of temperature and salinity effects, themselves driven by natural climate modes (AO and NAO).

Cazenave, A. A.; Henry, O.; Prandi, P.; Llovel, W.; Jevrejeva, S.

2011-12-01

58

Sea Chest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

59

Sea Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, arenât doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathanâs investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-10-06

60

Sea turtles  

Microsoft Academic Search

odern sea turtles are an important component of a wide range of tropical, temperate, and cold water marine ecosystems . Their inclusion on various lists of endangered specie s reflects past over-exploitation and the current need for better management . Today, seven or eight species of sea turtles are recognised, in two families and six genera. Adults typically migrate between

Catherine M. F. Lohmann; Kenneth J. Lohmann

2006-01-01

61

Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-03-29

62

Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.  

PubMed

Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv. PMID:9241886

Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

1997-08-25

63

POSSIBLE LUNAR TIDE EFFECTS ON CLIMATE AND ECOSYSTEM VARIABILITY IN THE NORDIC SEAS AND THE BARENTS SEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflow of North Atlantic Water to the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea has a major influence on northern Europe climate and ecosystem dynamics in the Nordic Seas and the Barents Sea. In the period from 1900 to 2005, the temperature variability of North Atlantic Water and the Barents Sea temperature was correlated with the 18.6 year amplitude tide

Harald Yndestad

64

The genesis of sea level variability in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional variability of sea level is an integral indicator of changing oceanographic conditions due to different processes of oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin. The present study explores the nature of sea level variability in the Barents Sea—a marginal shelf sea of the Arctic Ocean. A characteristic feature that distinguishes this sea from other Arctic shelf seas is that it is largely ice free throughout the year. This allows continuous monitoring of sea level by space-borne altimeters. In this work we combine satellite altimetry, ocean gravity measurements by GRACE satellites, available hydrography data, and a high-resolution ocean data synthesis product to estimate the steric and mass-related components of sea level in the Barents Sea. We present one of the first observational evidence of the local importance of the mass-related sea level changes. The observed 1–3 month phase lag between the annual cycles of sea level in the Barents Sea and in the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Iceland, Greenland seas) is explained by the annual mass-related changes. The analysis of the barotropic vorticity budget shows that the mass-related sea level variability in the central part of the Barents Sea is determined by the combined effect of wind stress, flow over the varying bottom topography, and dissipation, while the impact of vorticity fluxes is negligible. Overall, the steric sea level has smaller amplitudes and mainly varies on the seasonal time scale. The thermosteric sea level is the main contributor to the steric sea level along the pathways of the Atlantic inflow into the Barents Sea. The relative contribution of the halosteric sea level is dominant in the southeastern, eastern, and northern parts of the Barents Sea, modulated by the seasonal sea ice formation/melt as well as by continental runoff. The variability of the thermosteric sea level in the Barents Sea is mostly driven by variations in the net surface heat flux, whereas the contribution of heat advection becomes as important as the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange at interannual time scales.

Volkov, Denis L.; Landerer, Felix W.; Kirillov, Sergey A.

2013-09-01

65

Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

2008-01-01

66

Sea Legs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

Macdonald, Kenneth C.

67

Student Experiments at Sea (SEAS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interdisciplinary curriculum introduces the scientific process, experimental design and data analysis. Units on plate tectonics, hydrothermal vents, ridge visualization, surveying deep sea organisms. Students become the scientists, developing proposals for at-sea investigations, teacher coordinates submission to researchers studying the East Pacific Rise. Students retrieve, organize, analyze and report data from their experiment. Past experimental journals are posted. Free registration required to access curriculum and submit proposal.

68

Rising seas  

SciTech Connect

Predicting exactly how - or whether - sea level will shift in response to global warming remains a significant challenge. Scientists trained in many separate disciplines are attempting to glean answers using a variety of experimental approaches, ranging from drilling into the Antarctic ice cap to bouncing radar off the ocean from space. With such efforts, investigators have learned a great deal about how sea level has varied in the past and how it is currently changing. For example, most of these scientists agree that the ocean has been creeping upward by two millimeters a year for at least the past several decades. But determining whether a warmer climate will lead to a sudden acceleration in the rate of sea level rise remains an outstanding question. This article discusses the uncertainties, historical data, and possibilities regarding this issue.

Schneider, D.

1997-03-01

69

From Sea to Shining Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

Scott, Beverly

2005-01-01

70

Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will discover that there are notable differences between sea ice and fresh-water ice, such as density. In on segment, students learn that the first sign of freezing on the sea is an oily appearance of the water caused by the formation of needle-like crystals. The site explains the relationship between growth and the rate at which heat flows from the water and that the ice pack can alter its shape and dimension due to the movement of winds, currents, thermal expansion, and contraction of the ice. Types of ice described here include new ice, nilas, young ice, first-year ice, and old ice while the forms of ice covered include pancake ice, brash ice, ice cake, floe, and fast ice. The site also explains the meteorological and oceanographic factors that control the amount and movement of ice.

71

Sea World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excellent resource for information and teaching activities on marine life, designed primarily for elementary level. Teachers can sign up for a monthly e-newsletter (or access archived newsletters) filled with classroom activities, current information, and special links. Also features a searchable database of Sea World education materials and information on camps, marine science careers, and Shamu TV, an award-winning series broadcast around the country via satellite and cable.

72

Summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals in polar ecosystems: a comparison between the European Arctic seas and the Weddell Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summer at-sea distribution of seabirds and marine mammals was quantitatively established both in Antarctica (Weddell Sea) and in the European Arctic: Greenland, Norwegian and Barents seas. Data can directly be compared, since the same transect counts were applied by the same team from the same icebreaking ship in both regions. The main conclusion is that densities of seabirds and

Claude R Joiris

2000-01-01

73

Coccolithophore community composition and calcification rates in the Norwegian and Greenland seas as a function of carbonate chemistry and other environmental parameters.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial revolution and the subsequent increase in fossil fuel combustion has led to a dramatic increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. About a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2 released during the last few decades has been taken up by the ocean leading to a decrease in pH and CaCO3 saturation states (?). CaCO3 saturation states are lower in high latitude waters mainly due to the fact that cold water can hold more CO2 and that dissolved CO2 in most of the surface ocean is at near-equilibrium with the atmosphere. Current projections suggest that increasing uptake of CO2, combined with higher freshwater inputs from ice melt will lead to the entire water column of the arctic to become undersaturated with respect to aragonite by the end of this century. Although the effect of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers remains unclear, studies suggest that lower saturation states will have adverse consequences on several groups of calcifying organisms including some coccolithophore species. Coccolithophores play a major role in the ocean carbon cycle by contributing to both the biological and carbonate pumps. They are most prominent in high latitude waters although very little is known about what controls their distribution and abundance. The main goal of this study was to collect coccolithophore diversity, abundance and calcification rate data along transects of strong environmental and carbonate chemistry gradients. Here we present data collected in June 2009 along several transects between Norway, Greenland and Svalbard. Coccolithophore abundance, diversity and calcification rates were measured and compared with macronutrients, salinity, temperature, and carbonate chemistry parameters (i.e. TA, DIC, pH, pCO2 and ?). The strongest temperature gradients were observed along latitudinal transects with minimum SST values along the Greenland ice edge (T = 0-1 °C) and maximum values along the north Norwegian coast and the south-western coast of Spitsbergen Island (T = 5-8 °C). Surface salinity values were affected mainly by terrestrial freshwater inputs from Norway and Spitsbergen Island and ice melt along the Greenland ice edge. Saturation states of calcite and aragonite were highest along the eastern part of the study area (?cal = 3.4-3.9 ; ?arag = 2.1-2.5) and lowest along the Greenland ice edge (?cal = 2.9-3.3 ; ?arag = 1.8-2.1). Eleven coccolithophore species were identified during the cruise with Emiliania huxleyi and Calciopappus caudatus being the most abundant. Coccolithophore abundance, diversity and calcification rates decreased from southeast (Norwegian coast) northward (Spitsbergen) and westward (Greenland). Coccolithophores were nearly absent in the Greenland Sea with the exception of a small number of Coccolithus pelagicus. Multivariate analysis suggests that both temperature and carbonate chemistry are at least partly responsible for the distribution and abundance of coccolithophores in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas.

Loucaides, S.; Poulton, A.; Bellerby, R.; Tyrrell, T.

2012-04-01

74

Sea Cucumbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What reef animal comes in a rainbow of crazy colors, can throw out its innards to immobilize predators, then creep away and regrow a brand-new stomach? Itâs the sea cucumber, prized as a gastronomic delight by some cultures and beginning to yield some of its secrets to scientists. Follow host Ari Daniel Shapiro from a Chinatown market to the reefs of Fiji to learn more about this amazing creature. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

75

Mammals of the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)|

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

76

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS sea otter researcher Tim Tinker drives the boat on an expedition to track and observe sea otters in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

77

Modern processes controlling the sea bed sediment formation in Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barents Sea is one of the key regions for understanding of the postglacial history of the climate and circulation of the World Ocean. There are the limits of warm North Atlantic waters penetration to the Arctic and a zone of interaction between Atlantic and Arctic waters. The Barents Se's limits are the deep Norwegian Sea in the West, the

I. Balanyuk; A. Dmitrievsky; S. Shapovalov; O. Chaikina; T. Akivis

2009-01-01

78

Acoustic seabed classification using QTC IMPACT on single-beam echo sounder data from the Norwegian Channel, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment mapping is important for understanding the physical processes, the impact of human activity, and the conditions for marine life on the seabed. For this purpose, the seabed classification tool QTC IMPACT analyses statistical variations in single-beam echo sounder data. QTC was applied in a large and physically diverse area of the Norwegian Channel, between 59°30'N and 61°N, to produce a new sediment map and to verify the QTC algorithm. The results were interpreted using ground truth (grain size analyses of 40 gravity cores and five grab samples), multi-beam echo sounder bathymetry (MBES), and seismo-acoustic profiles. Surficial sediments were divided into five classes: (1) mud and silt, (2) a variety of clay, silt and sand, (3) sandy mud with gravel, (4) sand with gravel, and (5) clay and sandy clay. Along the Norwegian coast, where MBES imagery shows evidence of glacial erosion, the surficial sediment distribution is variable. The echo shape analysis of QTC did not produce a natural partition of the data, and statistical assumptions did not always hold. Sediment classification was therefore sensitive to the choice of cluster algorithm. However, QTC produced the most physically plausible results on a large scale compared to other cluster algorithms. Class boundaries were consistent with supporting data. One exception is a transition from muddy to sandy sediments not visible in seismo-acoustic data. A possible explanation is that seabed fluid seepage and water current erosion cause sand particle transport into the western part of the channel. The study confirms the capability of QTC in a complex environment, but there are some possible improvements.

Eidem, Ellen Johanne; Landmark, Knut

2013-10-01

79

Improved Resolution of Moho Geometry From Modelled Internal Crustal Load Variations via a Novel Analytical Solution (ASEP) -- Norwegian Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity and magnetic data allow one to image the entire crust from the surface down to the Moho. Seismic, geological and borehole information are generally used to constrain the model, but information about the Moho geometry is rather scarce. The interpretation of the Moho is often based on long wavelength undulations of the gravity field, which is not unique due to other deep sources of density contrast. Moho information, independent of the gravity field, is therefore useful to constrain the modelling. The flexural response of the Earth's crust due to loading can be estimated using a 4th order differential equation describing the flexure of a thin elastic plate. Until recently, the solution for this differential equation analytical for a real topography has been approximated by spectral methods with the disadvantage of low lateral resolution. The analytical solution of an elastic plate (ASEP) is a novel approach which overcomes the drawbacks of the spectral method. The ASEP method allows the analytical calculation of a flexural Moho geometry which directly uses the crustal load. Load is defined as product of density, thickness and gravity acceleration; the crustal load is the sum of basement load, sediment load and load of topography/water above a reference depth. The novel approach, to estimate the Moho geometry from these internal crustal load variations via ASEP, was applied to data from the south-western Barents Sea with emphasis on the southern Nordkapp Basin (NKB) (25-29°E and 71.7-72.7°N). An area of about 230.000 km2 was selected to avoid edge effects in the area of interest (14.000 km2). The factor of enlargement for the area to be calculated is defined by a flexural function that depends on the average rigidity of the Earth's crust. The NKB is a Permian rift basin of more than 10 km sedimentary depths with salt diapirism. Reflection seismic investigations for hydrocarbon exploration had considerable problems to define the base of the salt. In order to overcome this problem, the southern NKB was investigated using high resolution gravity, gravity gradiometry, magnetic and electro-magnetic data. The combination of these data types with 2D and 3D seismic allowed the construction of a full sedimentary model. The top basement was difficult to define due to lack of reflection seismic information as well as small density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts. The basement modelling is directly linked to the topography of the Moho. A few old deep seismic lines exist, but the information about the Moho was sparse and rather uncertain. This NKB density model was transferred into load in order to be used as input for the ASEP Moho estimations. This is superior to depth-density-functions as these would lead to overestimated densities in areas with salt diapirism. Outside of the NKB model, the sediment densities were approximated via absolute sediment thickness data (recent mapping) and a depth-density-function. This function was amended in such a way that the regional density variations roughly match the density distribution in the NKB model. On the poster, the determination of crustal load is described, the advantage of using the crustal load and combination of modelled and approximated sediment loads is demonstrated and the impact of the ASEP Moho on the basement modelling in the NKB is shown.

Stadtler, C.; Fichler, C.; Wienecke, S.

2008-12-01

80

Sea urchin granuloma.  

PubMed

Injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in humans. The phylum Echinoderma include more than 6000 species of starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers some of which have been found responsible for injuries to humans. Initial injuries by sea urchins are associated with trauma and envenomation, but later effects can be observed. Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration of sea urchin spines which have not been removed from wounds. The authors report a typical case of sea urchin granuloma in a fisherman and its therapeutic implications. PMID:17086323

Rossetto, André Luiz; de Macedo Mora, Jamesson; Haddad Junior, Vidal

81

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2010-01-01

82

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

2009-01-01

83

Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.  

PubMed

The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral. PMID:17626470

Glantz, Michael H

2007-06-01

84

Sea Base Utility Vessel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Navy's current Sea Base concept, significant amounts of cargo and personnel require transport over short distances between ships and between ships and shore. This places a heavy transport burden on the Sea Base's helicopters and LCACs, even though ...

D. Rigerink M. Newborn

2008-01-01

85

Monitoring Sea Level Rise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While introducing the GLOSS network and its various engineering applications, the report first briefly summarizes several causes of sea level rise. The authors then discuss several computing methods of monthly and annual mean sea level and their error sou...

X. Peiliang

1990-01-01

86

Sea Turtle Populations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will model how a sea turtle population changes over time, from eggs to adults, using puffed rice. Learners create a chart, calculate population fluctuation for each transitional stage of sea turtles' lives, and graph the population at each stage. Learners investigate different factors including migration and human fishing that affect the size of the sea turtle population. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Sea Turtles.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

87

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sea otter researchers Michelle Staedler, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Tim Tinker, USGS, work together to locate sea otters in their study project. USGS scientists and their partners study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

88

All That Unplowed Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)|

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

89

Sea level changes  

SciTech Connect

The paper develops an approach to the issues relating to sea level change that will assist the non-scientist and the applied scientist in making the most effective use of our existing and developing knowledge. The human perception of ''sea level'' and how that changes as societies change and develop are discussed. After some practical perspectives on the relationships between societies and sea levels are developed, an approach to developing the best available local prediction of sea level changes is outlined, and finally present knowledge and uncertainties about the future course of events that will influence ''sea level'' as defined in the practical sense is discussed.

Buddemeier, R.W.

1987-08-21

90

Focus on Sea Otters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Monterey Bay Aquarium website where you can learn about the biology and population recovery of sea otters. Features include the opportunity to "meet" the otters on exhibit at the aquarium and viewing them through the live otter cam. Many sea otter-related games, activities, and resources. Links to other fascinating exhibits at the Aquarium. Several downloadable videos available, each with their own enjoyable sea otter antics.

91

SeaWIFS Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWIFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), a NASA project using satellites to collect ocean color data to quantify phytoplankton abundance. Provides background information on SeaWIFS project, technology and data. Teacher Resource section has: online presentation on how and why scientists study ocean color; Living Ocean Teacher's Guide with brief information on ocean color, carbon cycle and greenhouse gas effect; and, links to other websites with ocean color activities.

92

MMAB Sea Ice Analysis Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the sea ice analysis page of the Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Users can access images of sea ice extent that can be animated to show the previous 30 days activity. Images are available for the entire globe, the Northern Hemisphere (Alsaka, Sea of Okhotsk, and Sea of Japan), and the Southern Hemisphere (Weddell Polynya Watch, Ross Sea and Amery Basin). Information on sea ice modelling and forecasts is also accessible.

93

Antarctica: Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, shows how sea ice forms in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and how its seasonal fluctuation dramatically changes the continent. The segment, two minutes thirty-five seconds in length, includes rare footage of the destruction of the British ship 'Endurance', trapped and crushed by sea ice in 1914.

2010-09-30

94

Sea Otter Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teacher's manual on sea otters with lesson plans on: using the web as a research tool; reading and developing writing skills; social studies with role playing activity in community conflict resolution. Includes a glossary, links to additional resources, and background materials on sea otter history, distribution, vital statistics, behavior, role in food web, threats and conservation measures. Suggests conservation activities for classroom or school.

95

Antarctica: Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment, adapted from a NOVA broadcast, shows how sea ice forms in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and how its seasonal fluctuation dramatically changes the continent. The segment, two minutes thirty-five seconds in length, includes rare footage of the destruction of the British ship 'Endurance', trapped and crushed by sea ice in 1914.

96

Bering Sea Expedition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation learners research the effects of melting sea ice in the Bering Sea Ecosystem. They create research proposals to earn a place on the scientific research vessel Healy and present their findings and proposals to a Research Board committee.

Curriculum, Alaska S.; Grant, Alaska S.

97

Tracking Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage holds out a VHF receiver, hoping to hear the tell-tale beep that helps her locate sea otters that are part of study to monitor and learn more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from nea...

98

Spotting Sea Otters  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS wildlife biologist Alisha Kage looks through a telescope to help her locate and identify tagged sea otters, then records the otter's location for a study aimed at learning more about the species. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from...

99

Melting Ice Rising Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA video presents animations, photos and footage of melting polar ice as a result of climate change, the resulting sea-level rise, and selected consequences of that rise. Excellent animations, interviews with scientists, and clear step-by-step explanations provide a solid introduction to one facet of sea level rise and its consequences.

Noaa

100

Getting Your Sea Legs  

PubMed Central

Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.

Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoit G.

2013-01-01

101

Red Sea Drillings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

David A. Ross; Robert B. Whitmarsh; Syed A. Ali; Joseph E. Boudreaux; Robert Coleman; Robert L. Fleisher; Ronald Girdler; Frank Manheim; Albert Matter; Catherine Nigrini; Peter Stoffers; Peter R. Supko

1973-01-01

102

Sea Anemone: Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)|

Hunt, John D.

1982-01-01

103

Clustering sea bottom texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea bottom in a region of the Marmara Sea was measured by a multi beam echo sounder, DGPS and a side scan sonar system; a map was produced using the amplitude and coordinate information. This map was later transformed into ten dimensional texture space by texture analysis. The iso-data (iteratively self organizing data) clustering technique was then employed to

E. Alparslan; S. Ergintav; C. Aydoner; R. Saatcilar; S. Canon; E. Gezgin; A. Unlu

2004-01-01

104

Laptev sea system discussed at Russian-German Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laptev Sea covers the central part of the vast Arctic shelf seas off northern Eurasia. It receives large volumes of fresh water from the Lena River and other big rivers that drain the central part of Siberia; peak runoff occurs in the early summer. Being tucked away between two groups of islands—Severnaya Zemlya in the west and the New Siberian Islands in the east—and connected to the Kara Sea in the west and the East Siberian Sea in the east only through relatively narrow straits, the Laptev Sea is an important area for sea-ice formation in the Arctic Ocean [Rigor and Colony, 1997; Kassens et al., 1999].Through sea ice formation, the Laptev Sea influences the ice cover of the central Arctic Ocean and its Transpolar Drift, which exports sea ice into the western Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The Laptev Sea is also the central segment of the Northern Sea Route. For this reason, commercial interests wish to gain valuable knowledge about the extremes of its modern environment, past variability and predictability on time scales of months and years. Both in the Laptev Sea and on the adjacent land regions, large tracts of subterraneous and submarine permafrost have been observed as a consequence of the extreme paleoclimate of the latest geological past.

Thiede, J.; Kassens, H.; Timokhov, L.

105

Impacts of sea level rise towards 2100 on buildings in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Downscaled (local) estimations indicate that, when including isostatic uplift, the sea level in Norway could rise from 16 to 116 cm by the year 2100, relative to the year 2000, depending on location and a variety of uncertainties. This estimated sea level rise could cause major damage to existing buildings along the Norwegian coastline. The impact of this anticipated sea

Anders-Johan Almås; Hans Olav Hygen

2012-01-01

106

The north Sulu Sea productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

Xiao, Z.

2009-12-01

107

Drag of the sea surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how the drag of the sea surface can be computed from the wind speed and the sea state. The approach, applicable both for fully developed and for developing seas, is based on conservation of momentum in the boundary layer above the sea, which allows one to relate the drag to the properties of the momentum exchange between

V. K. Makin; V. N. Kudryavtsev; C. Mastenbroek

1995-01-01

108

Dead Sea Scrolls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has pot...

1994-01-01

109

Purple sea urchin swarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea urchins live in low tide regions and eat seaweed. Urchins have no arms but have five rows of tube feet for movement. They are found in holes and use their spines for protection and to burrow into the rocks.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-04

110

Sea Floor Spreading I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory Excel tutorial (Activity I) students use Excel to explore the geodynamics model equation for ocean depth around a sea-floor spreading center. For students with no prior Excel experience.

Activity And Starting Point Page By R.m. Mackay. Clark College, Physics A.

111

Science at Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

Phillips, Mary Nied

2001-01-01

112

Stellar Sea Lion Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

113

Sea water activated battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This single cell, sea water activated battery has a plurality of alternately sequenced plates each positioned to extend radially outwardly of a central core. The plates are made of magnesium and of silver chloride.

R. H. Dreisbach; R. G. Bergstedt; D. W. Sieglin

1970-01-01

114

South China Sea.  

PubMed

The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South China Sea. What data are available, however, and if Hong Kong is used, as it is herein, as an indicator of what the perturbations of other regional cities upon the South China Sea are like, then it is impacted grossly and an ecological disaster has probably already, but unknowingly, happened. PMID:11827109

Morton, B; Blackmore, G

2001-12-01

115

All About Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site is an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expedition in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains a glossary of sea ice terms and references to additional information, which all serve as an excellent introduction. Data are also available from various collection methods for student interpretation.

116

Salton sea research well  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two University of California, Riverside, scientists propose to extend a planned 3.7-km-deep steam-production well in the Salton Sea geothermal field to 5.5 km for scientific study prior to the well's commercial use. The Salton Sea, a hydrothermal-magma system in the delta of the Colorado River, is one of the hottest, most saline geothermal fields known, and the proposed extension would

Wilfred A. Elders

1983-01-01

117

Global sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm\\/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise

Bruce C. Douglas

1991-01-01

118

Green Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed information on the biology, natural history, factors influencing the population, and protection measures of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Included are three in-class activities and one field activity all designed to raise awareness of the green sea turtle and what humans are doing to affect the population. The site is geared towards the Hawaiian sub-species, however, most of the facts and activities are applicable elsewhere.

119

North Sea estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the North Sea in the past two decades have shown that its estuaries and associated areas, such as the Wadden Sea,\\u000a are important as nursery grounds for young fish and as feeding grounds for seabirds. These same areas are also those most\\u000a likely to be affected by the highest inputs and concentrations of contaminants. The development of agriculture,

Donald S. McLusky

2001-01-01

120

Lipids in sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidified and filtered sea water samples which were extracted with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate have been shown to contain\\u000a a variety of lipid compounds in trace amounts. Concentrations of these solvent-soluble substances ranged from 0.5 to 6.0 mg\\/liter,\\u000a the lower concentrations being found in offshore waters. The solvent extracts of the sea water were separated into eight lipid\\u000a classes

Lela M. Jeffrey

1966-01-01

121

All About Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site is an introduction to sea ice: what it is, how it forms, how it is studied, how it affected historical expedition in the polar regions, and what role it plays in the global climate. The site contains a glossary of sea ice terms and references to additional information, which all serve as an excellent introduction. Data are also available from various collection methods for student interpretation.

2011-07-15

122

Tobacco smoking, an independent determinant for unhealthy diet? A cross-sectional study of Norwegian workers on platforms in the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to examine whether male tobacco smokers had a more unhealthy diet than non-smokers. Data on smoking and other variables were collected by questionnaire interviews and food intake by one 24 h recall. The setting was 2 oil platforms. The participants were 310 healthy men working on 2 platforms in the Norwegian sector of the

ARNE OSHAUG; CHRISTINE HELLE BJ; H. BUGGE

1996-01-01

123

North Sea development activity surges  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that operators in the North Sea have reported a burst of upstream activity. Off the U.K.: Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Co. installed three jackets in its North Everest and Lomond fields. It also completed laying the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline, which will carry the fields' gas to shore. BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd. installed the jacket for it Unity riser platform 5 {1/2} km from its Forties Charlie platform. Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. tested a successful appraisal well in Britannia field in Block 15/30, about 130 miles northeast of Aberdeen. In the Norwegian North Sea, Saga Petroleum AS placed Snorre oil and gas field on production 6 weeks ahead of schedule and 1.5 billion kroner under budget at a cost of 16.6 billion kroner; and downstream off the U.K., Phillips Petroleum Co. (U.K.) Ltd. awarded Allseas Marine Contractors SA, Essen, Belgium, a pipelay and trenching contract for its Ann field development project in Block 49/6a.

Not Available

1992-08-10

124

Influence of the White Sea on tides in adjacent marginal seas of the North European Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation into the interaction of surface M 2 tides in the system of marginal seas of the North European Basin is carried out using the three-dimensional finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. Three numerical experiments are performed for this purpose. In the first (control), the model equations are solved in the system of the Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and White seas; thereby the interaction of the tides in these seas is explicitly taken into account. In the second experiment, the White Sea is excluded from consideration and the no-flux condition is posed at the entrance to the sea. The third experiment uses an approach in which the observed tidal elevations that determine the existence of a finite horizontal transport of barotropic energy to the White Sea are specified at the open boundary of the White Sea. It is shown that changes in tidal dynamics represented by changes in the amplitudes and phases of tidal elevations and in the barotropic tidal velocity ellipse parameters are within the model noise in experiments 2 and 3 when compared with the control experiment. On the contrary, changes in energy characteristics (the horizontal wave transport, density, and dissipation rate of barotropic tidal energy) are equal to or greater (in order of magnitude) than the energy characteristics themselves.

Kagan, B. A.; Sofina, E. V.; Rashidi, E. H. A.

2013-01-01

125

Mountains in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-7 day investigation, learners begin with an introduction to seamounts that are present in the Gulf of Alaska. They learn how seamounts were formed and look at a bathymetric map of a seamount. In Activity 3A, learners explore sea floor mapping techniques as they participate in an activity to create a map of a sea feature they have molded out of clay. In Activity 3B, learners watch a short animated presentation, "Who cares about Sea Floor Mapping?" and create a model of a seamount found in Alaska. They use pre-sonar techniques to collect data and create a graph of their seamount using Excel. This detailed lesson plan includes learner hand-outs, evaluation questions, curricular connections, and tips.

Grant, Alaska S.

2011-01-01

126

Sea Ice Rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar oceans of Earth are covered by sea ice. On timescales much greater than a day, the motion and deformation of the sea ice cover (i.e., its dynamics) are primarily determined by atmospheric and oceanic tractions on its upper and lower surfaces and by internal ice forces that arise within the ice cover owing to its deformation. This review discusses the relationship between the internal ice forces and the deformation of the ice cover, focusing on representations suitable for inclusion within global climate models. I first draw attention to theories that treat the sea ice cover as an isotropic continuum and then to the recent development of anisotropic models that deal with the presence of oriented weaknesses in the ice cover, known as leads.

Feltham, Daniel L.

2008-01-01

127

New York Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant program was established in 1966, and a few years later, the state of New York sponsored the program's first outpost. Currently, the New York Sea Grant (NYSG) is a cooperative program of the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell University. On the homepage, visitors can look over sections that include "Extension", "Research", "Education", "Publications", and "Theme Areas". The "Theme Areas" is a good place to start, as it features topical material on coastal processes and hazards, fisheries, and aquatic invasive species. Their helpful publication "Currents" is also worth a look, and it contains materials on grant opportunities, research materials, fact sheets, and public awareness programs. Moving on, the "Related Sites" area contains links to "Hot Topics" (topical news items related to the sea and such) and affiliated organizations.

128

SeaWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWeb is a nonprofit organization aimed at raising awareness of the ocean and marine life that play "a critical role in our everyday life and in the future of our planet." SeaWeb employs a team of professionals from biology, exploration, and various communication disciplines. The current campaigns include an effort to protect the declining Caspian Sea Sturgeon ("the source of most of the world's caviar"), an attempt to reduce overfishing of swordfish, and a report about the changes occurring in the world's oceans. This Web site is a robust source of information about many threats that are facing marine ecosystems, and an attempt to reduce the dangers by educating the public about the impacts of their behavior.

1996-01-01

129

Last deglaciation of the North Sea region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive off shore data suggest that Pleistocene ice sheets reached the shelf edge on many occasions in the North Sea region. Even still fragmentary, a better understanding of the last glaciation and deglaciation of the North Sea region is starting to emerge from both marine and onshore data. During the time interval between 39 and 29 cal ka, periods with ameliorated climate (including the Ålesund, Sandnes and Tolsta interstadials) alternated with periods of restricted glaciation in Scotland and western Norway. Between 29 and 25 cal ka maximum Weichselian glaciation of the region occurred, with the Fennoscandian and British ice sheets coalescing in the central North Sea. Decoupling of the ice sheets had most likely occurred at 25 cal ka, with development of a marine embayment in the northern North Sea. Between 21 and 18 cal ka glacial ice expanded westwards from Scandinavia onto the North Sea Plateau, in the Tampen readvance. The last major expansion of glacial ice into the offshore areas was between 17.5 and 15.5 cal ka. At this time ice expanded from Norway onto the Måløy Plateau and across Caithness and Orkney to east of Shetland. The Norwegian Channel Ice Stream, one of the major paleo icestreams draining into the eastern Atlantic, was periodically active between 29 and 18 cal ka BP. Some of the key sites used for the reconstruction of the last deglaciation will be presented, and the implication of this history for possible ice dammed lakes and influence on ocean circulation will be discussed.

Sejrup, H. P.; Nygård, A.; Haflidason, H.; Hjelstuen, B.; Zuhlsdorff, C.; Bigg, G. R.; Hall, A.; Clark, C. D.

2009-12-01

130

Fabrication of a NAVMAP, A Deep-Sea Mapping System. Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through summer 1994, SEAMAP has been successfully used in eight survey operations by NAVOCEANO totalling approximately 200 days of operation in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and Norwegian Sea. SEAMAP system development included design and fabrication o...

A. Shor

1994-01-01

131

Petroleum generation and migration in North Sea, an experimental and numerical approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation focuses first on laboratory simulation of hydrocarbon and inorganic gas generation from marine claystone source rocks and coals of different types and ages in the Norwegian North Sea. The second approach in numerical which considers petro...

W. He

1994-01-01

132

Melting Sea Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses a mix of multimedia resources and hands-on activities to support a storyline of investigation into melting sea ice. The lesson begins with a group viewing of a video designed to get students to consider both the local and global effects of climate change. The class then divides into small groups for inquiry activities on related topics followed by a presentation of the findings to the entire class. A final class discussion reveals a more complex understanding of both the local and global impacts of melting sea ice.

Domain, Wgbh E.

133

Sea Surface Temperature Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weekly mean Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature (MCSST) data set was used to study\\u000a seasonal and interannual variability of SSTs averaged over four regions of the Caspian Sea individually\\u000a (Northern, Middle, and Southern Caspian, and Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay) and SST trends during 1982--2000.\\u000a The SST fields averaged for individual months of four hydrological seasons (February, April, August,\\u000a and October) were calculated and

Anna I. Ginzburg; Andrey G. Kostianoy; Nickolay A. Sheremet

134

National Sea Grant Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the website for the only facility housing a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. An archive and lending library for reprints, books, reports, maps, newsletters, handbooks, videos, CD-roms and computer programs regarding: oceanography; marine education; aquaculture; fisheries; limnology; coastal zone management; marine recreation and law. Lends documents worldwide, aiding scientists, teachers, students, fishermen and others in research and study. Bibliographic database is searchable from the website, where users may obtain citations, abstracts and access to over 20,000 downloadable texts of Sea Grant publications.

2011-05-05

135

Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011  

NASA Video Gallery

AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began collecting the data in 1979.

Holly Zell

2011-03-29

136

Sea ice microbial communities (SIMCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice microbial communities (SIMCO) grow luxuriantly within several microhabitats of sea ice, indicating that the microorganisms comprising these communities are well adapted to the physicochemical gradients which characterize sea ice. We used SIMCO obtained from the bottom of congelation ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, to test the hypothesis that low temperature limits microbial productivity in polar oceans and also

Steven T. Kottmeier; Cornelius W. Sullivan

1988-01-01

137

The National Sea Grant Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is the National Sea Grant College Program which supports education and training, research, and advisory extension services through the National Office of Sea Grant and the Sea Grant Network of 30 programs in coastal and Great Lake states. Water-related topics include water's relationship to nature, society, and human expression.…

Spector, Barbara S.

1980-01-01

138

The Sea Level Rise Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on sea level rise suggests that sea level rise by the end of this century may well be significantly larger than those identified in the IPCC AR4 (2007). Whereas in the past, sea level rise was ascribed equally to thermal expansion of a warming ocean and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers, the recent acceleration in

W. Abdalati; S. C. Moser; R. W. Schmitt

2010-01-01

139

Barents Sea crustal architecture and basin development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea continental shelf is characterized by a complex tectonic history and thus comprises a wide range of crustal and basin architectures that formed in response to different geological processes. Overlapping Paleozoic orogenies (Timanian, Caledonian, Uralian) preceded multiple rift episodes mainly affecting the western Barents Sea and eventual breakup with Greenland to the west and Lomonosov Ridge to the north. Recent work related to the PETROBAR and BarMod projects has provided new details on basin architecture, tectonic and thermal histories, stratigraphy, paleogeography, paleo-water depths and the role of the basement grain in the structuring of the Barents Sea basins. The eastern Barents Sea comprises a wide and deep sag basin that formed by rapid subsidence in Late Permian-Early Triassic times, most likely in response to basin-forming mechanisms other than rifting. The deep East Barents Sea Basin was filled by thick uppermost Permian and Triassic sediments prograding westwards from uplifted source areas mainly in the SE (Urals). In the western Barents Sea we find more typical rift basins formed in response to at least three major post-Caledonian rift phases: Carboniferous, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene. The rifting activity migrated westwards through successive tectonic phases. Carboniferous rifting affected the entire western Barents Sea and gave rise to NE-SW to N-S trending horst and graben structures following a Caledonian basement grain. These structures were covered by a regional carbonate platform before renewed faulting affected the SW Barents Sea in Late Permian time. The major prograding system reached the western Barents Sea in earliest Triassic time gradually filling in a regional basin of considerable waterdepths. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous oblique extension and formation of the deep SW Barents Sea basins was linked to the North Atlantic-Arctic plate tectonic evolution. Regional uplift associated with the Early Cretaceous High Arctic Large Igneous Province gave rise to a depositional system characterized by north to south progradation covering most of the Barents Sea. Volcanic extrusives are preserved in the northern Barents Sea, mainly on Franz Josef Land and eastern Svalbard, while intrusives are found widespread, particularly in the deep East Barents Sea Basin. A Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene mega-shear system along the western Barents Sea-Svalbard margin (De Geer Zone) linked rifting, breakup and initial opening of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea and the Arctic Eurasia Basin. Narrow pull-apart basins formed within this dominantly shear system, in particular at a releasing bend in the margin SW of Bjørnøya. A restraining bend SW of Svalbard gave rise to the transpressional Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt. Compressional structures of different styles are found widespread in the Barents Sea region. The nature and timing of these are difficult to constrain in many areas due to later uplift and erosion, but we expect that there are different causes and timing involved. At the western margin we see evidence of compressional deformation as young as Miocene in age. The entire Barents Shelf was uplifted and eroded during Neogene time and thick fans of Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediments were formed in front of bathymetric troughs characteristic of both the western and northern Barents Sea. Most of the uplift is closely linked to the glacial erosion, but tectonic uplift occurred prior to the glaciations.

Faleide, J. I.

2012-04-01

140

Space Invaders at Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast discusses the recent issue of the increase and spread of tunicates (or 'sea squirts'), who have suddenly proliferated off the Atlantic Coast of the United States and Canada. The creatures, an invasive species likely from Asia or Europe, have carpeted the ocean floor and are smothering valuable shellfish.

Hoops, Richard

2010-10-13

141

Ships to the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

142

The Sea Around Us  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published in 1951, The Sea Around Us is one of the most remarkably successful books ever written about the natural world. Rachel Carson's rare ability to combine scientific insight with moving, poetic prose catapulted her book to first place on The New York Times best-seller list, where it enjoyed wide attention for thirty-one consecutive weeks. It remained on the list

Rachel L. Carson

1991-01-01

143

Harvesting the Sea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information on commercial fishing is provided, and a board game is described which requires students to watch for ocean signs of good fishing, choose equipment to catch specific types of fish, and consider effects of weather on working at sea. A reproducible copy of the game, with instructions, is included. (IAH)|

Markle, Sandra

1989-01-01

144

Redlands Institute: Salton Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Salton Sea Database Program (SSDP) at the University of Redlands, Redlands Institute (RI) was a project administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Special Programs. The purpose behind the SSDP was to bring a wide range of data management and analysis tools and professionals "to support multi-disciplinary and coordinated decision-making across all the professional and scientific teams and stakeholders involved in the restoration of California's largest inland body of water, the Salton Sea." Part of their outreach work includes this fine website, which includes sections titled "Ecological Issues", "Data & Research", and "Exploring the Area". First-time visitors may want to start by clicking on the "Ecological Issues" area. Here they can learn about the science of the area, the contemporary issues facing the survival of the Salton Sea, and some of the proposed solutions to restore the Sea. Journalists and scientists will appreciate the "Data & Research" area, as it features digital maps of the area, GIS data, public policy documents, and an image database. The casual traveler will enjoy the "Exploring the Area" section, and here they will find information about current weather conditions, fishing reports, and California State park materials.

145

Classroom of the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most students do not have the opportunity to conduct in situ research projects until college, the Classroom of the Sea program at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) provides an unusual opportunity for students to work directly with scientists

Monte, Denise; Hupper, Mary L.; Scheifele, Peter

2000-03-01

146

SeaDiscovery.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaDiscovery.com is an online source for "underwater tech and ocean science news." The site presents not only news, but information about maritime technology employment which includes featured jobs and resumes. It also allows access to the Maritime Technology Reporter magazine and provides links to a number of important directories.

2013-07-05

147

Dead Sea Scrolls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's society, many people are critical about the validity of the Bible. Archaeological excavations have unearthed many artifacts of the biblical time period, such as pottery, archives, and settlement remains, but Palestine had not produced virtually anything of extremely significant biblical evidence until 1947. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has clearly been \\

Janet Bull

1991-01-01

148

Rising Sea Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past century, as the climate has warmed, sea level rise has accelerated. Scientists predict it will only increase, and they're studying changes in the ocean and land to better understand how and why the water is rising. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

149

Western Tasman Sea Floor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The western Tasman Sea floor is characterised by physiographic units that tend to parallel the coastline of south-eastern Australia. The margin has a narrow continental shelf and a steep continental slope. Sediment derived mainly from northern New South Wales and Queensland in the north, and from Tasmania and Victoria in the south, has built a system of fans forming the

John R. Conolly

1969-01-01

150

Sea Grant's Education Mission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the status of the education agenda of the Sea Grant Program as it turns 30. Projects described include Operation Pathfinder, which aims to educate minority teachers and/or teachers of minority students. Also described are a program in which seafood processors and resellers are trained in safety and health areas, and programs to train…

Sherman, Douglas

1998-01-01

151

Solar Sea Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)|

Zener, Clarence

1976-01-01

152

The Provident Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

Cushing, David H.

1988-09-01

153

Modern sea power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides discussions of political, technical and military aspects of nuclear power. The contents include naval warfare in the nuclear age; politics, money, law and technology; a technological change; implications of technology; sea control; strategic deterrents; amphibious operations, maritime interdiction; inshore operations, naval diplomacy and conclusion.

Till

1987-01-01

154

Fire in the Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one

Walter L. Friedrich

2000-01-01

155

Egyptian Sea Cave  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

156

Farming the Sea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)|

Morgan, William

1971-01-01

157

Arctic Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by

J. C. Stroeve; F. Fetterer; K. Knowles; W. Meier; M. Serreze; T. Arbetter

2004-01-01

158

Sea water rope batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrated the feasibility of supplying approximately 1 watt of electrical power for one year on the sea bed with a novel battery, the rope battery. The proposed battery would look very much like a small diameter wire rope, possibly hundreds of feet long. This unusual shape permits the rope battery to take full advantage of the vastness of

M. Walsh

1984-01-01

159

Barents Sea Geology, Petroleum Resources and Commercial Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologically, the Barents Sea is a complex mosaic of basins and platforms. It underwent intracontinental sedimentation from about 240 million years ago to the early Cenozoic, about 60 million years ago, after which it bordered the developing Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Geophysical investigations began during the 1970s, and the first offshore drilling occurred in the early 1980s. In Norwegian waters,

A. G. DORÉ

1995-01-01

160

Weathering of Oils at Sea: Model\\/Field Data Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SINTEF Oil Weathering Model (OWM) has been extensively tested with results from full-scale field trials with experimental oil slicks in the Norwegian NOFO Sea trials in 1994 and 1995 and the AEA 1997 trials in UK. The comparisons between oil weathering values predicted by the model and ground-truth obtained from the field trials are presented and discussed. Good laboratory

Per S Daling; Tove StrØm

1999-01-01

161

Sea clutter contamination test with log-cumulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In maritime applications involving estimation of radar sea clutter properties, non-sea-clutter targets and transitions between statistically different oceanographic conditions in the estimation window may lead to inaccurate modeling. Referring to mixtures in the estimation window as contamination, this work introduces a novel sea clutter contamination test based on log-cumulants from Mellin kind statistics [1]. It measures the significant deviation in log-cumulant space due to the contamination, and appears to be an effective tool for improving the sea clutter estimation or to be a direct first-stage target detector. The proposed contamination test is examined with real single look complex (SLC) fine resolution quad-polarimetric Radarsat-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements, from the Norwegian Sea, under various oceanographic conditions.

Tao, Ding; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Brekke, Camilla

2012-09-01

162

THE OCTAS PROJECT, THE GEOID, THE MEAN SEA SURFACE AND AND THEMEAN DYNAMIC TOPOGRAPHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OCTAS project, Ocean Circulation and Transport Between North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, funded by the Norwegian Research Council, is a multidisci- plinary project combining geodesy, satellite altimetry and oceanography. The main objective is to enhance the Norwegian capacity in Earth observation technolo- gies through determining the ocean circulation and trans- port by using satellite techniques in combination with

Dag Solheim; Ove C. D. Omang; Addisu Hunegnaw; Helge Drange; Johnny Johannessen; Frank Siegismund; Hossein Nahavandchi; Kourosh Ghazavi; Bjørn Ragnvald Pettersen; Dagny I. Lysaker; Arne Gidskehaug; Hans-Peter Plag

2007-01-01

163

Some thoughts on the freezing and melting of sea ice and their effects on the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-latitude freezing and melting cycle can variously result in haline convection, freshwater capping or freshwater injection into the interior ocean. An example of the latter process is a secondary salinity minimum near 800 m-depth within the Arctic Ocean that results from the transformation on the Barents Sea shelf of Atlantic water from the Norwegian Sea and its subsequent intrusion

K. Aagaard; R. A. Woodgate

2001-01-01

164

Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr fluxes in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual balance of radionuclides inflow/outflow was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr isotopes in the Barents Sea, taking into account the atmospheric precipitation, inflow from the Norwegian and the White seas, as well as riverine discharge, liquid radioactive waste disposal (LRWD), and outflow to the adjacent seas. The original and published data for the period of 1950-2009 were analyzed. According to the multiyear dynamics (1960-2009), the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr into the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by the Norwegian Sea currents; and precipitation played a major role in the 1950s, 1960s, and in 1986. Currently, the trans-border redeposition of 90Sr prevails over 137Cs redeposition in the Barents Sea, and constitutes about 99% of inflow of each element.

Matishov, G. G.; Matishov, D. G.; Usyagina, I. S.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Pavel'Skaya, E. V.

2011-08-01

165

Sea Ice 2000 - 2008  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a video that illustrates both seasonal patterns and long-term changes in sea ice distribution across the Arctic Ocean. It draws data from two satellite instruments that measure emitted microwave radiation, which helps distinguish open ocean from ice. It shows that during the winter months, a layer of ice forms across vast expanses of the Arctic Ocean and each summer, more than half of that ice vanishes. Students discover that this natural cycle of freezing and thawing is influenced both by seasonal temperature variations and long-term climate change and that scientists are using satellite images to measure the distribution of Arctic sea ice in order to gain a better understanding of how it is linked to Earth's climate system.

166

WINDandSEA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site was built in response to the many reference questions that are posed to the library and is meant to make internet searching more efficient for those concerned with oceanic and atmospheric issues, and the general public. Presently WINDandSEA has over 1,000 links to science and policy sites organized by topic and alphabetically within topic. All sites have been reviewed and annotated by NOAA staff.

167

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

168

Deep Sea Diver  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2005 to 2009, Danny Lyon made several visits to Shanxi Province in northeast China, making pictures of locals that reveal the daily lives of industrial China. The images that follow are excerpted from Deep Sea Diver, a facsimile travel journal and photo book that showcases the black-and-white silver gelatin images Lyon shot with his vintage Leica cameras.Lyon's photo exhibition,

Danny Lyon

2012-01-01

169

Salish Sea Expeditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At-sea education program combines classroom study with shipboard science studies in Puget Sound, Washington. Offers spring programs for schools and home schoolers, summer programs for families and youngsters; expeditions of 1 to 5 days involve oceanographic sampling activities, navigation and sailing responsibilities aboard a 61-foot sailing vessel. Teachers can join a preview sail to evaluate; site provides details on water quality, plankton and other studies and equipment used.

170

Variability modes of sea level in the Sea of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability of sea level in the Sea of Japan is studied using multivariate analysis of weekly altimetry fields spanning from October 1992 through October 2009. Interacting (non-orthogonal) modes of variability are revealed on seasonal time scale, representing synchronous oscillations in the entire Sea and meridional sea level gradient, respectively. The highest sea level and sharpest gradient occur in October and the strongest opposite phase occurs in March. Intra-seasonal and quasi-biennial synchronous oscillations also occur. The fluctuations of the level gradients are not statistically significant on these time scales. The 180-degree-out-of-phase oscillations occur in the western and eastern parts of the Sea on semiannual, annual, quasi-biennial, and longer interannual time scales, manifesting substantial changes in the regional circulation patterns. No secular trends related to the revealed modes were detected.

Trusenkova, O. O.; Kaplunenko, D. D.

2013-05-01

171

Sea & Ships: Explore online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in England notes that its goal is "working to illustrate for everyone the importance of the sea, ships, time and the stars and their relationship with people." There is so much to explore in the "Sea and Ships" portion of the NMM website, but a great way to see everything it has to offer is by using the "Sea and Ships Directory" at the bottom of the homepage. It divides the material up by "Subjects", "People", "Collections", "Online Galleries", and "Games and Interactives". Visitors interested in lessons about the ocean that come in the form of games, quizzes and stories, should definitely check out the "Your Ocean" link from the "Games and Interactives". The "Your Waste" lesson gives visitors the opportunity to test their skills at "managing an oil spill clean-up operation", in the game "Oil Crisis!" Keeping waste to a minimum is what the quiz "Pollution Solutions" addresses, and is also on the "Your Waste" page. Other lessons include "Your Energy", "Your Stuff" and "Your Climate".

172

3D seismic studies of unconventional reservoirs, Badger Basin Wyoming; and Viking Group Turbidite systems, Norwegian Block 35/11, northern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By integrating geologic and geophysical interpretations it is possible to form an accurate, high resolution, 3D model of the subsurface. The primary purpose of this model is to characterize heterogeneities within a potential reservoir and locate anomalous zones that correspond to potential high-quality reservoir intervals. Individual techniques used to create the final reservoir model include 3D seismic fault and horizon mapping, continuity analysis, and detailed velocity modeling from seismic stacking velocity analysis. The final model is centered around geologic interpretations from well log and core analysis. The methodology described above for Badger Basin was successful in identifying a regional abnormal underpressured compartment and locating a "sweet spot" corresponding to the best know production in the field. Integrating all of these interpretations confirmed previous analysis and has significantly reduced the uncertainty of the reservoir model for the Frontier Formation in Badger Basin. If this model was available prior to drilling the field it could have been more efficiently and cost effectively produced. The final proposed model for the Upper Jurassic Turbidites systems in Norwegian Block 35/11 suggests the presence of both axially and transversely transported turbidite systems within the elongated, fault-controlled sub-basins that developed during Late Jurassic extension. These systems appear to be sourced from the same updip depositional system, most likely from an Upper Jurassic Sognefjord Formation equivalent system. Detailed descriptions of these systems show that the architecture and shape of the turbidite systems vary greatly with respect to local tectonic setting. Comparison of the axial and transverse systems shows that although the two systems have the same transport and depositional elements, and were sourced from the same system, each has a different architecture. The axial turbidite system is represented by thinner, low width/length ratio geometry versus the more isolated, high width/length ratio geometry of the transverse system. This appears to correspond to the shape of the individual half-grabens within the sub-basin and the orientation of feeder systems associated with each fan. A major question that is left unanswered is the influence of bottom currents on the formation and preservation of these systems. This problem can only be answered by drilling new wells designed to test the present model.

Buggenhagen, John Edmund

173

Arctic Sea Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of all the recent observed changes in the Arctic environment, the reduction of sea ice cover stands out most prominantly. Several independent analysis have established a trend in Arctic ice extent of -3% per decade from the late 1970s to the late 1990s, with a more pronounced trend in summer. The overall downward trend in ice cover is characterized by strong interannual variability, with a low September ice extent in one year typically followed by recovery the next September. Having two extreme minimum years, such as what was observed in 2002 and 2003 is unusual. 2004 marks the third year in a row of substantially below normal sea ice cover in the Arctic. Early summer 2004 appeared unusual in terms of ice extent, with May a record low for the satellite period (1979-present) and June also exhibiting below normal ice extent. August 2004 extent is below that of 2003 and large reductions in ice cover are observed once again off the coasts of Siberia and Alaska and the Greenland Sea. Neither the 2002 or 2003 anomaly appeared to be strongly linked to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during the preceding winter. Similarly, the AO was negative during winter 2003/2004. In the previous AO framework of Rigor et al (2002), a positive winter AO implied preconditioning of the ice cover to extensive summer decay. In this hypothesis, the AO does not explain all aspects of the recent decline in Arctic ice cover, such as the extreme minima of 2002, 2003 and 2004. New analysis by Rigor and Wallace (2004) suggest that the very positive AO state from 1989-1995 can explain the recent sea ice minima in terms of changes in the Arctic surface wind field associated with the previous high AO state. However, it is also reasonable to expect that a general decrease in ice thickness accompanying warming would manifest itself as greater sensitivity of the ice pack to wind forcings and albedo feedbacks. The decrease in multiyear ice and attendant changes in ice thickness distribution could in turn precondition the Arctic ice cover to further reductions in the subsequent summer(s) regardless if the summer temperatures were anomalously warm. The NSIDC Sea Ice Index (http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/) can be used to view trends and anomalies from 1979 on.

Stroeve, J. C.; Fetterer, F.; Knowles, K.; Meier, W.; Serreze, M.; Arbetter, T.

2004-12-01

174

Seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal sea level cycle has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 27 stations and is characterized by large spatial variability. The coastal annual harmonic has amplitudes that range from 2 cm to 9 cm, peaking between August and October and semi-annual harmonic with maximum amplitude of 6 cm, with most stations peaking in April and October. The coastal seasonal sea level cycle accounts for up to 76% of the monthly sea level variance. The barometric effect on the coastal sea level seasonal cycles is insignificant in the annual component but dominant at 9 stations in the semi-annual cycle. The seasonal sea level cycle from 18 years of altimetry confirm the results obtained from the tide-gauges. In addition it illustrates areas where particularities in the seasonal cycle exist. The seasonal sea level cycle in the Caribbean Sea is unsteady in time, with significant variations in amplitude and phase lag at most of the stations, where the 5-year amplitude in the coastal annual cycle can change over 6 cm in a 24 year period. The seasonal sea level cycle has a larger range than the range from the annual and semi-annual components, and peaks about October when the probability of coastal impacts increases, especially in the northern coast of South America where the range is larger. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

2012-04-01

175

Long Term Variability of Sea Surface Temperature in Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term variability of the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Mediterranean basin and its sub-basins for the period 1869-2006 (138 years) is investigated using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (I-COADS). Analysis of the SST time-series revealed a positive trend in both basin and sub-basin scale. During the last century, the highest positive SST trend is found in the Adriatic Sea (0.0141° C/y) and the lowest one in the Aegean sea (0.0011° C/y). This difference in the SST evolution in the two sub-basins can be related to the shift of the Eastern Mediterranean deep water formation site during the 90s, known as Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). The SST variations of the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea) are highly correlated to each other, in contrast to the poor correlation of the SST variations between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Sea. Harmonic analysis has shown that a dominant period of the Mediterranean variability is similar to the deep water turnover time of the basin. Comparison with climatic indices points out a high correlation of the Western Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea SST with the NAO index, while the Eastern Mediterranean SST variations are highly correlated to the Indian Summer Monsoon Index.

Axaopoulos, P.; Sofianos, S.

2010-01-01

176

Discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As discussed in this document, there are 108 discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf which so far have not been approved for development. The oil and gas resources of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are mostly found in discoveries containing ...

1997-01-01

177

Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

178

Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

179

Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanographic and isotopic investigations in the Caspian Sea and the analyses of the available data on the discharge to the sea and the observed sea level changes suggest that climatically caused changes of river inflow are the major cause of the sea level fluctuations over the last century. Hydrogen-3 and 3H–3He data indicate that the deep basins of the sea

K. Froehlich; K. Rozanski; P. Povinec; B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud

1999-01-01

180

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Handout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Shell Lab teacher's guide, students will examine sea scallop shells to figure out as much as possible about the scallops living on the sea floor in one three important fishery grounds, Hudson Canyon, off New Bedford, MA, and George's Bank. The activity emphasizes observation, measurements, and basic calculations. The teacher's guide is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

181

What Causes the North Sea Level to Rise Faster over the Last Decade ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined tide gauge records (PSMSL) and satellite altimetry data (TOPEX/POSEIDON-JASON 1-2) to reconstruct the mean level of the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea Shelf (NS-NSS) over 1950-2012. The reconstructed NS-NSS mean sea level fluctuations reveal a pronounced interannual variability and a strong sea level acceleration since the mid-1990's. In order to understand the causes of this acceleration, the NS-NSS mean sea level was cross-correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation indices. While the interannual variability of the mean sea level correlates well with the NAO/AO indices, the observed acceleration in the NS-NSS mean level is not linked linearly to the NAO/AO fluctuations. On the other hand, the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis of steric sea level variations in the eastern North Atlantic gives a dominant EOF pattern (55% of variance explained) that varies on a decadal scale very closely to the NS-NSS mean level flcutuations. Also, the amplification in the temporal amplitude of the dominant steric sea level EOF corresponds to the acceleration observed in the NS-NSS mean sea level signal. This suggests that decadal variations in the mean level of the North Sea - the Norwegian Sea Shelf reflect changes in the Subpolar Front currents (Rossby, 1996).

Karpytchev, Mikhail; Letetrel, Camille

2013-04-01

182

Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although their experience at SEA may be their only hands-on exposure to scientific research, they take away an understanding of the process and an ability to think critically about scientific problems.

Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

2003-12-01

183

Creating the College of the Sea: The Origin of the Sea Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Creating the college of the sea: the origin of the sea grant program; Rediscovering the ocean; Rhode Island nurtures the sea grant concept; Congress acts; Sea Grant: The first 10 years; National Sea Grant College and Program Act of 1966; Sea Gra...

J. Miloy B. Crowder

1983-01-01

184

Ambient noise measurements in the Sea of Japan (East Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient noise signals were extracted during a pilot experiment in the Sea of Japan (also called East Sea) from September 11 to October 23, 1999, to assess the possibility of using acoustic tomographic techniques for the monitoring of water mass structure and dynamics. The measurement system consisted of a vertical line array with 10 elements (spaced 10 m apart) distributed

Youngshin Kim; Hyoungsul La; Jungyul Na; Suntaek Oh

185

Macronutrients in the Summer Sea ice of the Ross Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and production of sea ice microbial communities is often linked to limitations imposed by light, temperature and salinity. Nutrients also impose a limitation upon biomass development and production. Nutrient constraints on biomass development was readily evident in surface habitats of the pack ice of the Ross Sea during the summer of 1999. The spatial extent of nutrient depletions,

C. H. Fritsen; D. L. Garrison; D. R. Neenan; S. L. Coale; A. H. Gibson

2004-01-01

186

Glacial sea surface temperature of the East Sea (Japan Sea) inferred from planktonic foraminiferal assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reconstruct the last glacial sea surface temperature (SST) of the East Sea, we investigated planktonic foraminiferal\\u000a assemblage in the marine sediments of a piston core recovered from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. For core top, the most dominant\\u000a species is right coiling Neogloboquadrina incompta, while left coiling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and Globigerina bulloides clearly dominate the glacial assemblages.

Kyung Eun Lee; Katsunori Kimoto; Dae Hyun Kim

2010-01-01

187

Science Nation: Sea Turtles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers at the University of North Carolina are studying how loggerhead and other sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field for a journey of thousands of miles around the Atlantic Ocean. The turtles react to the Earth's magnetic field as they navigate a five-to-10-year journey that takes them from the east coast of the United States to the coast of Portugal, south toward the west coast of Africa, then back toward the beach where they were born. A better understanding of this turtle ability could help in research of both animal and human navigation.

188

Sea Level Rise: A Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Causes of climatic change; Causes of temperature change; Relation between temperature rise and sea level rise; Sea level changes in the past; Future sea level rise; and Conclusions and recommendations.

G. H. P. O. Essink

1992-01-01

189

Sea Grant Publications Index 1975. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sea Grant Publications Index lists all materials received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD) in 1975, with the exception of newsletters which appear in the Sea Grant Newsletters Index. It supplements the earlier publications covering the peri...

P. K. Weedman

1976-01-01

190

Sea modeling and rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

2010-10-01

191

Greenland Sea observations  

SciTech Connect

ERS-1 SAR data have been acquired over the Greenland Sea and Fram Strait during two periods, the Ice Phase of three-day repeat cycle from January to March 1992 and a one-month period in the 35-day repeat cycle from 16 July to 15 August 1992. Most data became available by way of the Broadband Data Dissemination System, i.e. with a spatial resolution of about 100 m. With these data various algorithms have been tested to derive sea ice parameters such as ice extent, ice concentration and ice displacement. In the latter period data were collected to support the activities of a research vessel in the area mainly related to the large polynyas that form east and north of Greenland. The formation of polynyas could clearly be outlined but also other phenomena were observed related to the influence of wind streets and gravity waves associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. The data will have to be studied further including full-resolution data to substantiate the conclusions arrived at.

Gudmandsen, P.; Mortensen, H.B.; Pedersen, L.T.; Skriver, H. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. of Electromagnetics; Minnett, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

192

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are studying fully polarimetric scattering of electromagnetic waves from snow and sea ice with a three-layer random medium model which can account for snow covered sea ice. The snow layer is modeled as an isotropic random medium characterized by a scal...

J. A. Kong R. T. Shin M. Borgeaud S. V. Nghiem

1989-01-01

193

Gallery: Sound in the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sound in the Sea offers a selection of audio recordings captured beneath the ocean surface. This page contains a selection of audio files of whales, ships, seismic disturbances, and unknown noises. There are also related video and animation products, and several spectrograms and other images of ocean sound. Students can click any image to listen and learn more about sound in the sea.

194

Yeasts from the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeasts were isolated from twelve established sites in the North Sea from 1964 to 1966. A percentage frequency of 99% with populations varying from 3000 viable cells\\/L was observed. This mycota was characterized by considerable spatial and temporal fluctuation, with the dominant yeast present being the ascosporogenous species, Debaryomyces hansenii. This taxon, as well as other common North Sea yeasts,

S. P. Meyers; D. G. Ahearn; W. Gunkel; F. J. Roth

1967-01-01

195

Adriatic Sea Seasonal Circulation Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general circulation of the Adriatic Sea is studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with climatological forcing. The seasonal variability in the Adriatic Sea is established and affected by atmospheric forcing, river runoff, and exchanges with the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. In addition, the circulation is affected by the complex bathymetry in the basin. Several simulations are carried

H. G. Arango; J. Chiggiato

2003-01-01

196

How SeaBirds Dine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As I have ascertained that the following fact is not well known, I send you this account in the hope that it may be of interest to naturalists and to the general public. Anyone who lives in the Western Hebrides will have often watched on a calm day the sea-birds feeding with noisy clamour in the sea-lochs and about the

1888-01-01

197

Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea

Nissenbaum

1978-01-01

198

Probability of sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

J. G. Titus; V. K. Narayanan

1995-01-01

199

GLOBAL SEA RISE: A REDETERMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that sea level trends obtained from tide gauge records shorter than about 50-60 years are corrupted by interdecadal sea level variation. However, only a fraction (<25%) of even the long records exhibit globally consistent trends, because of vertical crustal movements. The coherent trends are from tide gauges not at collisional plate boundaries, and not located in

Bruce C. Douglas

1997-01-01

200

Glass Munchers Under the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute article documents recent findings of bacterial life beneath the sea floor. These newly discovered bacteria are thought to live as far down as 500 meters beneath the sea floor and eat through volcanic rock, leaving behind burrows. The article contains hyperlinks to websites explaining some key vocabulary, related websites, and color photos and maps.

Mullen, Leslie; Institute, Nasa A.

201

Country Analysis Briefs: Caspian Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Caspian Sea region has become a central focal point for untapped oil and natural gas resources from the southern portion of the former Soviet Union. Beginning in May 2005, oil from the southern sections of the Caspian Sea began pumping through a new p...

2007-01-01

202

At Sea Personnel Transfer Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At sea personnel transfer on any level is an operation that poses a problem for the modern Navy. Current operations are high risk, slow, inefficient, costly, and can only be accomplished in low sea states. As a result of this apparent gap in capability, O...

D. Jurkiewicz J. Gardner S. Marikle

2006-01-01

203

Heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas computed from atmospheric reanalysis and ocean observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat and freshwater budgets of the Nordic seas are computed from atmospheric reanalysis data and ocean observations, mainly taken during the period 1990-1999. The total heat loss is 198 TW and the freshwater gain 52 mSv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), with residuals equal to 1 TW and 3 mSv, respectively. Budgets are also computed for three subregions within the Nordic seas: the Norwegian Sea, the Barents Sea and the Greenland/Iceland Sea. Without accounting for transfer of heat and freshwater across the Arctic Front, which separates the Greenland/Iceland Sea from the Norwegian Sea, the residuals of the heat and freshwater budgets range from -36 TW to 34 TW and from -16 mSv to 19 mSv, respectively. To close the budgets of all subregions cross-frontal fluxes of -35 TW and 17 mSv, caused either by eddy shedding along the Arctic Front or ocean currents not accounted for, must be included. Combined with observations of the average temperature and salinity on both sides of the Arctic Front these values indicate a rate of cross-frontal water exchange of approximately 4 Sv. The most intense water mass modifications occur in the Norwegian Sea, where ocean heat loss and freshwater input are equal to 119 TW and 41 mSv, respectively.

Segtnan, O. H.; Furevik, T.; Jenkins, A. D.

2011-11-01

204

Baltic Sea Ice Regional Indices and their relationship with atmospheric circulation patterns and maritime navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baltic navigation and urban activities of the coastal communities around the Baltic Sea depended always very much on the ice conditions in the sea. The sea ice occurs different in form and amount, depending on the sea area and the winter season. The aim of the work was the investigation of influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on sea ice condition of Baltic Sea (by the sea ice regional indices). The atmospheric circulation patterns were represented by the German Weather Service's - Grosswetterlagen. The relationship between the ice severity indices and icebreakers activities (number of cases, in which the Swedish and Finnish icebreakers assisted the ships) were investigated. The work was done under the Seaman project (Norwegian Financial Mechanism)

Sztobryn, M.; Kowalska, B.

2009-04-01

205

Fishing effects in northeast Atlantic shelf seas: patterns in fishing effort, diversity and community structure. III. International trawling effort in the North Sea: an analysis of spatial and temporal trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes trends in beam and otter trawling effort in the North Sea from 1977 to 1995. Data are presented as total hours fishing by English, German, Norwegian, Scottish and Welsh vessels for the period 1977–1995, and by Danish, Dutch, English, German, Norwegian, Scottish and Welsh vessels for the period 1990–1995. Analyses of temporal trends indicated that total international

S. Jennings; J. Alvsvag; A. J. R. Cotter; S. Ehrich; S. P. R. Greenstreet; A. Jarre-Teichmann; N. Mergardt; A. D. Rijnsdorp; O. Smedstad

1999-01-01

206

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Android app for the Illuminations online game Deep Sea Duel card game helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-29

207

Deep Sea Duel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app for the Illuminations online card game Deep Sea Duel (cataloged separately) helps users develop mental computation skills by finding sums of 3 or 4 numbers. A student and the opponent, Okta the octopus take turns selecting cards. The first one to reach the target sum with 3 cards (in the 9-card game) or 4 cards (in the 16-card game) wins the game. You can choose how many cards are presented (9 or 16), what types of numbers they display (small integers through tricky decimals), and Okta's level of strategy. The game is not timed but depends on strategic planning in order to defend against Okta's moves while trying to collect a winning group of cards.

2012-08-02

208

Contrasts in Arctic shelf sea-ice regimes and some implications: Beaufort Sea versus Laptev Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The winter ice-regime of the 500 km) from the mainland than in the Beaufort Sea. As a result, the annual freeze-up does not incorporate old, deep-draft ice, and with a lack of compression, such deep-draft ice is not generated in situ, as on the Beaufort Sea shelf. The Laptev Sea has as much as 1000 km of fetch at the end of summer, when freezing storms move in and large (6 m) waves can form. Also, for the first three winter months, the polynya lies inshore at a water depth of only 10 m. Turbulence and freezing are excellent conditions for sediment entrainment by frazil and anchor ice, when compared to conditions in the short-fetched Beaufort Sea. We expect entrainment to occur yearly. Different from the intensely ice-gouged Beaufort Sea shelf, hydraulic bedforms probably dominate in the Laptev Sea. Corresponding with the large volume of ice produced, more dense water is generated in the Laptev Sea, possibly accompanied by downslope sediment transport. Thermohaline convection at the midshelf polynya, together with the reduced rate of bottom disruption by ice keels, may enhance benthic productivity and permit establishment of open-shelf benthic communities which in the Beaufort Sea can thrive only in the protection of barrier islands. Indirect evidence for high benthic productivity is found in the presence of walrus, who also require year-round open water. By contrast, lack of a suitable environment restricts walrus from the Beaufort Sea, although over 700 km farther to the south. We could speculate on other consequences of the different ice regimes in the Beaufort and Laptev Seas, but these few examples serve to point out the dangers of exptrapolating from knowledge gained in the North American Arctic to other shallow Arctic shelf settings. ?? 1994.

Reimnitz, E.; Dethleff, D.; Nurnberg, D.

1994-01-01

209

Bindin from a sea star.  

PubMed

The genetic basis for the evolution of development includes genes that encode proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs. Previous studies of the sperm acrosomal protein bindin have helped to characterize the adaptive evolution of gamete compatibility and speciation in sea urchins. The absence of evidence for bindin expression in taxa other than the Echinoidea has limited such studies to sea urchins, and led to the suggestion that bindin might be a sea urchin-specific molecule. Here we characterize the gene that encodes bindin in a broadcast-spawning asterinid sea star (Patiria miniata). We describe the sequence and domain structure of a full-length bindin cDNA and its single intron. In comparison with sea urchins, P. miniata bindin is larger but the two molecules share several general features of their domain structure and some sequence features of two domains. Our results extend the known evolutionary history of bindin from the Mesozoic (among the crown group sea urchins) into the early Paleozoic (and the common ancestor of eleutherozoans), and present new opportunities for understanding the role of bindin molecular evolution in sexual selection, life history evolution, and speciation among sea stars. PMID:19601971

Patiño, Susana; Aagaard, Jan E; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J; Hart, Michael W

210

Numerical simulations of sea and land breezes at high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few investigations of sea\\/land breezes (SB\\/LB) at high latitudes have been reported in the meteorological literature. However, internal reports at some Norwegian institutions, summarised recently by Grønås and Sandvik, show that SB\\/LBs, in combination with terrain-driven circulations, are frequent along the coast of Norway and Spitsbergen. In this paper, numerical simulations of SB\\/LBs for latitudes between 50° and 80°N have

Sigbjørn Grønås; Anne Dagrun Sandvik

1998-01-01

211

Diversity of the arctic deep-sea benthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benthic species inventory of 1,125 taxa was compiled from various sources for the central Arctic deeper than 500 m, and\\u000a bounded to the Atlantic by Fram Strait. The inventory was dominated by arthropods (366 taxa), foraminiferans (197), annelids\\u000a (194), and nematodes (140). An additional 115 taxa were added from the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian Seas (GIN). Approximately\\u000a half of all taxa were recorded

Bluhm A. Bodil; William G. Ambrose Jr; Melanie Bergmann; Lisa M. Clough; Andrey V. Gebruk; Christiane Hasemann; Katrin Iken; Michael Klages; Ian R. MacDonald; Paul E. Renaud; Ingo Schewe; Thomas Soltwedel; Maria W?odarska-Kowalczuk

2011-01-01

212

The Sea Ice Board Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board Game, described here, is one of 183 ACMP hands-on lessons designed to help students around the nation understand weather and climate. In addition, the game illuminates 14 of the most common types of sea ice and introduces the four stages of the sea ice cycle (formation, growth, deformation, and disintegration).

Bertram, Kathryn B.

2008-10-01

213

Dreams of the Sea Shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 'Tis many years ago, Since we, love, roam'd together,\\u000aAnd faces that we used to see, Are hidden now forever,\\u000aBut all the haunts we lov'd so well, When we were young and free,\\u000aIn quiet beauty still remain Down by the sounding sea.\\u000aCHORUS: Down by the sea, down by the sea\\u000aO! will you e'er forget\\u000aThe

Edward A. Niven; W. E. Chandler

1868-01-01

214

Deep Sea Vents Reading List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has a list of references that cover a wide range of information about the sea floor. From the discovery of the Titanic to the undersea riches of black smokers, the list includes a number of magazine articles that have taken a close look at deep sea vents. The list contains articles in publications that range from Boys Life to Science World. The magazine articles look at: the challenges of collecting black smokers; why both ecologists and big business are interested in the discovery of black smokers; the discoveries of Robert Ballard of the Titanic, Lusitania and deep sea vents; and the exciting work of a geochemist and a marine geologist.

215

Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996–2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8kg km?2, and low in

Dae-In Lee; Hyeon-Seo Cho; Sun-Beom Jeong

2006-01-01

216

Sea Spray Impacts on Intensifying Midlatitude Cyclones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air-sea transfer processes over the ocean strongly affect how hurricanes develop. High winds generate large amounts of sea spray, which can modify the transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture across the air-sea interface. However, the extent to which sea spray can modify extratropical or midlatitude hurricanes and intense cyclones has not been resolved. This paper reports simulations of extratropical Hurricanes

Will Perrie; Edgar L. Andreas; Weiqing Zhang; Weibiao Li; John Gyakum; Ron McTaggart-Cowan

2005-01-01

217

Radiometric method for measuring the sea state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for determining sea state from the frequency of the maximum in the brightness temperature fluctuations of the thermal radiation from the sea surface. We also calculate these spectra as a function of sea state using measurements taken from aircraft. We obtain estimates of the minimum sea states resolvable by the measurement technique used here as a

A. P. Barabanov; A. N. Reznik; K. S. Stankyevich

1986-01-01

218

sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (Sparus aurata) analyzed by ICP-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate composition and mineral contents of aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata )o f Aegean Sea were investigated. There were significant differences between moisture, fat and ash contents of the two species. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc and iodine values for sea bass and sea bream were significantly different (p < 0.05).

Nuray Erkan; Ozkan Ozden

219

Sea Level Variaton in the Java Sea Derived from Topex\\/Poseidon and Tide Gauge Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding and coastal erosion in the big cities like Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya are easily affected by the sea level changes of the Java Sea. Past sea level changes in the Java Sea are investigated using satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from TOPEX\\/Poseidon (T\\/P) and tide gauges between January 1993 and December 1999 are used.

Ibnu Sofian; Kozai Kozai

2004-01-01

220

Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.

Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Schwarting, E.M.

1993-08-01

221

Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.  

SciTech Connect

Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

2010-06-01

222

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

223

Salton sea project, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe plant. The Solar Pond concept would be an environmental benefit to the Salton Sea by reversing the increasing salinity trend. The greatest cost drivers are the lake dike construction and pond sealing. Problems to be resolved include method of brine production from Salton Sea water for the first unit (which requires evaporation pond area and time), the high turbidity and color content of the Salton Sea water (which requires pretreatment), and other questions related to pond permeability, bio-activity and soil/brine chemical reactions. All technical and environmental problems appear solvable and/or manageable if care is taken in mitigating impacts.

Peelgren, M. L.

1982-01-01

224

Atlas of the Beaufort Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a reference document on oceanography, meteorology, ice and climatology. The oceanography section contains information for circulation, tides, riverine input, ice conditions, storm surges and bathymetry of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. From review of i...

I. M. Lissauer L. E. Hachmeister B. J. Morson

1984-01-01

225

Undersea Detection of Sea Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the authors tried to analyse the features of possible undersea threats, such as sea mines, available countermeasures and other activities. Detection, approach, inspection and destruction of an unidentified sunken object by a remotely operate...

D. Matika V. Koroman

2001-01-01

226

Sea Turtle Protection and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site describes the population status of each U.S. sea turtle species and how they are protected by law. Each species' scientific name, biology, threatened or endangered status, description, human impacts, population trends, distribution, and photos are documented. Read the downloadable Recovery Plans for each species, as well as learn about turtle legislation. Site also features reports and proceedings from various sea turtle symposia and conferences.

227

Impacts into oceans and seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of cosmic bodies into oceans and seas lead to the formation of very high waves. Numerical simulations of 3-km and 1-km comets impacting into a 4 km depth ocean with a velocity of 20 km\\/sec have been conducted. For a 1-km body, depth of the interim crater in the sea bed is about 8 km below ocean level, and

I. V. Nemtchinov; T. V. Loseva; A. V. Teterev

1996-01-01

228

Deep-Sea Pleistocene Biostratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first detailed paleontological analysis of a deep-sea pistoncore from the Caribbean Sea has been completed. The core, P6304-8, was raised from 3927 meters, east of Beata Ridge at 14 degrees 59'N, 69 degrees 20'W. Formerly, stratigraphic works in this area were based on studies of paleotemperature, measured by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method, or on micropaleontological analysis by

Louis Lidz

1966-01-01

229

Earthwatch Radio: Sea Lamprey Resurgence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast describes efforts to control the population of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes. Sea lampreys, an invasive species from the Atlantic Ocean, have populated the lakes for years, but have recently increased in numbers despite efforts to control them. A hole in a dam on the Manistique River on the northern edge of Lake Michigan is thought to have caused the problem. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.

Kalinowski, Laura

2012-09-17

230

Intermittent sea-level acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820–2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

2013-10-01

231

[Red sea bream iridoviral disease].  

PubMed

The first outbreak of red sea bream iridoviral disease caused by red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) was recorded in cultured red sea bream Pagrus major in Shikoku Island, Japan in 1990. Since 1991, the disease has caused mass mortalities of cultured marine fishes not only red sea bream but also many other species. The affected fish were lethargic and exhibited severe anemia, petechiae of the gills, and enlargement of the spleen. The causative agent was a large, icosahedral, cytoplasmic DNA virus classified as a member of the family Iridoviridae and was designated as red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV). The genome of RSIV is liner dsDNA and considered to be circularly permitted and terminally redundant like other iridoviruses. The length of physical map of RSIV genome is 112,415bp. An indirect immunofluorescence test with a monoclonal antibody and PCR are commonly used for the rapid diagnosis of RSIV infected fish in the field. For the control of this disease, a formalin-killed vaccine against red sea bream iridoviral disease was developed and now commercially available. PMID:16308538

Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Kunita, Jun

2005-06-01

232

Applied Sea Ice Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s oil and gas development became an issue in the northern coastal areas of Alaska and Canada. More lately this has also become an issue in the Euroasian Arctic with the Barents and Kara Seas as example on where offshore hydrocarbon production now is being planned. In such waters the key questions prior to a development are related to water depths at the site and in case of ice, how frequent and what type of ice features will be met. Especially the ice conditions and knowledge about them are very decisive for the field development solutions to be chosen. The paper will highlight examples on development solutions where the ice conditions have played a paramount role in the field development plans. An example is the consequences of iceberg threaten in an area and the effect sudden changes in ice drift directions may have on the exploration and drilling solutions chosen. The paper will also discuss how to derive design ice actions values for such waters including scaling from nature to model ice basins.

Løset, S.

2009-04-01

233

From Shore to Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the dog days of summer begin to set in, humans tend to flock like seagulls to the sun and sand of the shore and sea. This Topic in Depth examines several topics of interest from food chain on a beach to coral reefs.The first site (1), from the National Park Service, offers a look at the exceptionally beautiful Canaveral National Seashore. The site gives information about the flora and fauna found at the seashore as well a great photo gallery. The second link(2) leads to a white paper by Peter Entnoyer, Chad Nelson, and Kevin Ranker of the Surfider Foundation on the value of beach sand in the food chain. At the third site (3) from Mother Jones, visitors will find an article about the status of coral reefs. The fourth site, (4) from Ask a Scientist provides several questions and answers about plants and algae. The next link leads to the Online Marine Picture Book (5), a great resource for great photos from everything from crabs to starfish. The last site, from SUNY Stony Brook(6), provides a great glossary of marine biology related terms from Abyssal Plain to Zooxanthellae.

234

Polar Sea Ice Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Polar Sea Ice Processes module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic lecture viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Smith, Elizabeth; Alfultus, Michael

2000-06-01

235

Global and Regional Sea Level And Sea Surface Temperature changes during the last decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOPEX\\/POSEIDON (T\\/P) and JASON-1 sea level observations and Reynolds AVHRR sea surface temperature observations for the last decade have been used to study regional changes and regional correlations between long-term changes in sea level and sea surface temperature taking into account sea level changes due to ice mass fluctuations. The effect of the recent recalculated sea state bias correction for

O. B. Andersen; P. Knudsen; B. Beckley

2003-01-01

236

Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source of the EUC, variations of its characteristics are expected to play a role in the equatorial thermocline features and more generally on decadal climate variability. Therefore, the study of the Solomon Sea is a key issue of the SPICE program. In this study, we focus on the variability of the Solomon Sea in term of sea level. The Solomon Sea is semi closed with a complex topography and numerous islands. Thus, the use of classical gridded altimetric products is inadequate. Consequently, this work is based on original along track Topex/Poseidon data. New data processing (CTOH/LEGOS) has been applied to recover proper data and to gain more information on the altimetric signal in this region. A track-by-track specific and customized post processing has been used to finalize the dataset. These new altimetric data have been assessed against tide gauge data. The analysis of the resulting sea level anomalies exhibits the highest variability observed in the tropical Pacific in an area centred near 8°S and expanding from each side of the Solomon Islands, outside of the WBC. Sea level variability presents a wide temporal spectrum, from intraseasonal to interannual ranges with the notable influence of the monsoon and of ENSO. In the Solomon Sea, three frequencies emerge : 60, 365 and 2000 days. The 60-days frequency seems particularly important in the Solomon Sea compared with the surrounding waters and an EOF analysis is used to understand its features. We also depict the signature of the New Guinea Coastal Current (NGCC), the western boundary current flowing north along the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea, which is particularly important for the connection to the equator. In parallel to this study, a hierarchy of high resolution (1/4°, 1/12°) regional models is also being built. The altimetric dataset will be used to perform a realistic simulation of the region circulations through data assimilation.

Melet, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kessler, W.; Verron, J.

2007-12-01

237

Caribbean Conservation Corporation & Sea Turtle Survival League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

2008-01-22

238

Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

1991-01-01

239

Satellite views of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study of water properties for the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) has been carried out with 8-year observations between 2002 and 2009 from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua platform. Normalized water-leaving radiance spectra (nLw(?)), chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)), total suspended matter (TSM), and sea surface temperature (SST) are used to quantify and characterize the physical, optical, biological, and biogeochemical properties and their seasonal and interannual variability in the BS, YS, and ECS regions.The BS, YS, and ECS feature highly turbid waters in the coastal regions and river estuaries with high Kd(490) over ˜3 m-1 and TSM concentrations reach over ˜50 g m-3. The optical, biological, and biogeochemical property features in these three seas show considerable seasonal variability. The dominant empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode for Kd(490) and TSM variability in the BS, YS, and ECS regions is the seasonal mode, which accounts for about two-thirds of the total variance. Phytoplankton dynamics in open oceans of the BS, YS, and ECS is also found to play an important role in the Kd(490) variation, while its impact on the ocean turbidity (Kd(490)) is much less than that of seasonal winds and sea surface thermodynamics in coastal regions. The first EOF mode in SST for the regions is seasonal and accounts for nearly 90% of the total SST variance. The major mechanisms that drive ocean color property variations in the BS, YS, and ECS are the seasonal winds, ocean stratification, and sea surface thermodynamics due to the seasonal climate change, as well as coastal bathymetry, seasonal phytoplankton blooms, and river discharges.

Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

2012-10-01

240

Sea Grant Nonindigeneous Species Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Sea Grant College Program, in conjunction with the Great Lakes Sea Grant Network, has recently launched the Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species Site (SGNIS). Intended to serve as a national information center, SGNIS is structured as a database and provides "a comprehensive collection of research publications and education materials ... on zebra mussels and other aquatic nuisance species." The database is searchable by Title, Authors, Organization, Date of publication, or Keywords (subject), and typical returns provide hyperlinks to abstracts, and in come cases, the full text (.pdf format) of published articles. In addition to the publications listed here, a selection of external links points users to additional sites. This is an excellent resource, well conceived and up to date.

241

Effects of sea spray geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate warming is leading to consideration of options for geoengineering to offset rising carbon dioxide levels. One potential technique involves injecting artificial sea spray into the atmosphere. The sea salt particles would affect Earth's radiation budget directly, by scattering incoming solar radiation, and indirectly, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, which could lead to whiter clouds that reflect more radiation. However, the potential effects of this method, especially the direct effects, are not fully known. Partanen et al. studied the effects of artificial sea spray using climate model simulations. They found that outside of the most heavily clouded regions the direct effect of scattering of radiation was an important part of the total effect. They also examined the effect of particle size and found that decreasing the size of injected particles could improve the efficiency of the geoengineering technique.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

242

Sea Otter Biosampling and Winter Mortality Survey 2004-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sea Otter Biosampling Program and Sea Otter Winter Mortality Survey monitor biological aspects of sea otter health both on an individual animal and sub-population basis in Alaska. The Sea Otter Biosampling Program currently focuses on sampling biologi...

C. Kava

2005-01-01

243

ConcepTest: Effect of Rain on Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A majority of Earth's water is in the oceans. Predict what would happen to sea level if rain fell continuously all over the world's oceans. a. Sea level would rise b. Sea level would fall c. Sea level ...

244

Sea ice concentration temporal variability over the Weddell Sea and its relationship with tropical sea surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in S-Mode (correlation between temporal series) was performed on sea ice monthly anomalies, in order to investigate which are the main temporal patterns, where are the homogenous areas located and how are they related to the sea surface temperature (SST). This analysis provides 9 patterns (4 in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and 5 in the

S. Barreira; R. Compagnucci

2007-01-01

245

Clutter flooding with sea clutter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the statistics of flooded clutter in a sea environment. Clutter flooding occurs when a pulse compression waveform encounters extended clutter causing samples of the clutter to fold over into a given range cell and add vectorially. The statistics of the received radar clutter cross-section is needed to specify the dynamic range requirements of the system. In this paper, a model is presented for sea clutter and the probability distribution of the flooded clutter as a function of the average clutter cross-section.

Parnell, John W.; Stevens, G. H.

246

Beaufort Sea Mesoscale Circulation Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Beaufort Sea Mesoscale Project was undertaken to provide a quantitative understanding of the circulation over the Beaufort Sea shelf and of its atmospheric and oceanic forcing. Major emphasis has been placed on providing extensive synoptic oceanograph...

K. Aagaard C. H. Pease A. T. Roach S. A. Salo

1989-01-01

247

Operation IceBridge: Sea Ice Interlude  

NASA Video Gallery

Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targets.

Holly Zell

2012-11-05

248

Lysosomes and Intracellular Digestion in Sea Stars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of lysosomes and intracellular digestion in sea stars seemed ideal. Echinoderms occupy an intermediate position in the phylogenetic progression from protozoan to mammal. A single sea star can cleanly provide a large amount of relatively homogeno...

G. S. Araki

1969-01-01

249

Microbial Diversity in Baltic Sea Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on microbial community structures and their functions in Baltic Sea sediments. First we investigated the distribution of archaea and bacteria in Baltic Sea sediments along a eutrophication gradient. Community profile analysis of 16S rR...

A. Edlund

2007-01-01

250

Sea Otter Pup Wants the Worm  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sea otter pup watches eagerly as its mother eats a fat innkeeper worm in Monterey Bay, California. USGS scientists study sea otters in efforts to help the threatened species continue to recover from near extinction....

251

The Role of Sea Grant in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article details the role of Sea Grant in education. This program is involved with bringing the ocean into the mainstream of national education. Colleges and universities are included in the Sea Grant network. (MA)|

Bjur, Dorothy M.

1976-01-01

252

Orientation Ability in the Green Sea Turtle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of Modification 9 of this contract was to investigate the ability of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) to (a) maintain heading orientation after being displaced at sea, and (b) to investigate whether seismic vibrations along the nesting ...

H. A. Baldwin

1970-01-01

253

Possible Logistical Implications of 'From the Sea'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilizing the Navy white paper 'From the Sea' as the basis, Navy Logistics and the Joint Logistics Over the Sea System were examined to highlight logistical difficulties in carrying out littoral warfare as envisioned. Port accessibility to prepositioned s...

C. G. Deitchman

1993-01-01

254

Structure of the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of six two-ship seismic refraction profiles are presented in a schematic structure section between Palawan Island and the northern arm of Celebes Island. Along the line of section the northwest part of the Sulu Sea basin has seismic structure typical of submarine ridges and is believed to have been a part of the Palawan-Calamianes archipelago ridge that has

S. Murauchi; W. J. Ludwig; N. den; H. Hotta; T. Asanuma; T. Yoshii; A. Kubotera; K. Hagiwara

1973-01-01

255

Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source

A. Melet; L. Gourdeau; W. Kessler; J. Verron

2007-01-01

256

Teleconnections and Sea Ice Variability in the Greenland Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine and test the hypothesis that the multiyear sea ice variability in the East Greenland Current is related to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation via atmospheric teleconnec...

W. A. Wilson

1986-01-01

257

Decadal sea level variations in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decadal and longer term variations in the North Atlantic and Arctic sea level reflect the global sea level changes as well as regional oceanic and atmospheric variations. In the light of future sea level rise, it is important to assess the magnitude and origin of the regional variations. We investigate how the warming of the 1940s and of recent decades and the intervening cool period in the North Atlantic are reflected in observed sea level variations in the region. We have put together a sea level curve for the Norwegian and Russian coast based on available tide gauge measurements. It shows a distinct increase for the 1940s as well as a general increase in recent decades. These results are compared with observations from the dense network of tide gauges with long records from the North Sea and Baltic Sea, as well as the long record from New York. It is seen that the signal for the 1940s is distinct, whereas there is a high correlation between the Norwegian/Russian composit record and more southern stations for the sea level rise of recent decades. These results are compared with model runs performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. Two different experiments have been made, first a 600 year long control run with constant external forcing from greenhouse gases, tropospheric man-made aerosols, stratospheric aerosols from volcanic eruptions and variations in solar irradiance. This allows investigating low-frequency steric sea level natural variations generated by internal dynamics. Secondly, an ensemble of runs forced with historical external forcing from 1850 to present simulates steric sea level variations arising from changes in the radiative forcing during that period. Based on observations and model results, we will discuss the importance of variations in the thermohaline overturning index for the North Atlantic relative to changes forced by external variability in shaping the North Atlantic sea level curve.

Madsen, K. S.; Schmith, T.

2012-04-01

258

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along

Roger G. Barry

2008-01-01

259

Rapid switch-like sea ice growth and land ice–sea ice hysteresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and extensive growth of sea ice cover was suggested to play a major role in the sea ice switch mechanism for the glacial cycles as well as on shorter millennial scales [Gildor and Tziperman, 2000]. This mechanism also predicts a hysteresis between sea ice and land ice, such that land ice grows when sea ice cover is small and

Roiy Sayag; Eli Tziperman; Michael Ghil

2004-01-01

260

Sea level in the Mediterranean Sea: The contribution of temperature and salinity changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steric sea level variability in the Mediterranean Sea is estimated from the Medar climatology. Temperature variations cause most of the overall steric sea level change in the upper 400 m. Between 1960 and the 1990s cooling of the upper waters of the Eastern Mediterranean caused reduction in the steric heights while after 1993 warming caused sea level to rise.

Michael N. Tsimplis; Michel Rixen

2002-01-01

261

Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last 7.8 years. The ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea surface temperature as these satellites are equipped with an

Ole B Andersen; Per Knudsen; Brian Beckley

2002-01-01

262

Red Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum: Implications for sea level reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Sea is connected to the Indian Ocean via a narrow and shallow strait and exhibits a high sensitivity to atmospheric changes and a reduced sea level. We used an ocean general circulation model to investigate the hydrography and circulation in the Red Sea in response to reduced sea level and modified atmospheric conditions occurring during the Last Glacial

E. Biton; H. Gildor; W. R. Peltier

2008-01-01

263

Development and properties of sea ice in the coastal regime of the southeastern Weddell Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

From October to December 1986 a program consisting of sea ice core analysis in combination with sea ice observations was carried out from the icebreaker R\\/V Polarstern as part of the Winter Weddel Sea Project. The ship operated in the central and southeastern Weddell Sea with interests focusing on the ice shelf front between 70°S and 77°S where a system

Hajo Eicken; Manfred A. Lange

1989-01-01

264

Vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has been providing daily global imagery of the world's oceans since September 1997. SeaWiFS is an eight-band, visible and near-infrared satellite radiometer with a spatial resolution of 1.1 km at nadir. The goal of the SeaWiFS Project is to produce a five-year ocean color data set with a 5% absolute and 1% relative radiometric

R. E. Eplee; W. D. Robinson; B. D. Schieber; C. R. McClain; M. Darzi

1998-01-01

265

Geophysical Aspects of Sea-ice Nomenclatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference discusses the evolution of nomenclature for sea ice, originally developed for polar travel, and how it is seen from a geophysical perspective, particularly ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction or remote sensing. The site includes links to a number of student papers on sea-ice geophysics that provide background and material for discussion on the geophysical aspects of sea-ice nomenclatures. There is also a link to a pictorial glossary of sea ice terms and evolution.

2010-12-29

266

Coastal Consequences of Sea Level Rise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ocean's surface is not level, and sea levels change in response to changes in chemistry and temperature. Sophisticated satellite measurements are required for scientists to document current sea level rise. This module explores the evidence for sea level rise related to global climate change and the consequences for humanity, especially coastal-dwelling populations. Students will have the opportunity to analyze interactive data to understand the potential consequences of climate change on sea level in different parts of the world.

2010-01-01

267

Is Baltic Sea level rise accelerating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have attempted to identify a possible acceleration of the global sea-level rise in the 20th century. The impacts of sea-level rise on the coast in the future will, however, occur at regional scales. Coastal engineers and planing authorities require projections of future sea-level rise at these local and regional scales. The Baltic Sea is a region strongly influenced

Birgit Hünicke; Eduardo Zorita

2010-01-01

268

[Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].  

PubMed

The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background. PMID:24159849

Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

2013-08-01

269

Glider Surveys of Philippine Archipelago Seas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gliders carried out four surveys in three regions of the archipelago. During JuneJuly 2007, one glider surveyed the Bohol Sea and the other the northeastern Sulu Sea. The Bohol Sea survey extended from the Surigao Strait opening at the northeastern end of...

C. M. Lee J. I. Gobat J. P. Martin

2011-01-01

270

Recent State of Arctic Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the recent state of Arctic sea ice including observations from 2008 in a context of a multi-decadal perspective. A new record has been set in the reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice extent this winter. As of 1 March 2008, the extent of perennial sea ice was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same

S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; P. Clemente-Colón; D. K. Perovich; J. A. Richter-Menge; Y. Chao; G. Neumann; M. Ortmeyer

2008-01-01

271

Manganese Nodule Resource Data, Sea Scope Expedition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New information on possible resource value of sea floor manganese nodule deposits in the eastern North Pacific has been obtained by a study of records and collections of the 1972 Sea Scope Expedition. Nodule abundance (percent of sea floor covered) varies...

R. H. Fewkes W. D. McFarland R. K. Sorem

1981-01-01

272

Amundsen Sea ice production and transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drift and variability of sea ice in the Amundsen Sea are investigated with ice buoys deployed in March 2000 and a coupled ice-ocean model. The Bremerhaven Regional Ice Ocean Simulations (BRIOS) model results are compared with in situ ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice measurements; satellite observations; and 8–19 months of buoy drift data. We identify a zone of coastal westward

Karen M. Assmann; Hartmut H. Hellmer; Stanley S. Jacobs

2005-01-01

273

Sea Grant: Enhancing K-12 Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sea Grant is a major contributor to marine and aquatic education in K-12 classrooms through curriculum development, teacher education, school programs at field sites, and educational research. Describes Sea Grant's efforts in these areas. Specific programs outlined include Operation Pathfinder, Ohio Sea Grant Partnerships for Great Lakes…

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

274

BERING SEA ICE DYNAMICS AND PRIMARY PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea ice communities in multi-year ice can accumulate a high algal biomass and develop a complex food web, and most higher trophic level biota of the regions north of 70 to 80° depend on this for food. Further to the south, even within the seasonal sea ice zone, processes associated with the sea ice influence the biological regimes in important

Vera ALEXANDER; Susan M. HENRICHS; H. J. NIEBAUER

1996-01-01

275

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic sea ice declined rapidly to unprecedented low extents in the summer of 2007, raising concern that the Arctic may be on the verge of a fundamental transition toward a seasonal ice cover. Arctic sea ice extent typically attains a seasonal maximum in March and minimum in September. Over the course of the modern satellite record (1979 to present), sea

Julienne Stroeve; Mark Serreze; Sheldon Drobot; Shari Gearheard; Marika Holland; James Maslanik; Walt Meier; Ted Scambos

2008-01-01

276

Seasonal Reversal in Red Sea Circulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monsoon reversal in the Red Sea circulation is analyzed by presenting a monthly mean description of variations that occur in the oceanic structure and circulation in the upper 250 m of the Sea and how they are related to the winds acting at the sea su...

W. C. Patzert

1974-01-01

277

Java Sea sinking may change rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased regulation of mobile offshore rigs may result as federal authorities continue their investigation of the sinking of the Java Sea offshore China last October. The ship was lost with a crew of 81 during a storm with 75-knot winds and seas of 26 to 44 ft. It sailed to the South China Sea in late 1982 to begin work

Redden

1984-01-01

278

A Deep-Sea Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)|

Montes, Georgia E.

1997-01-01

279

Great Lakes Region Sea Grant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site dedicated to the Great Lakes Sea Grant program. Information on GLSG priorities and initiatives. Topics of increased importance to the Great Lakes include fisheries and invasive species. Links to sites featuring publications and photos of Great Lakes storms and seiches and wildlife.

280

Sea Grant Nonindigenous Species (SGNIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea Grant's award winning, comprehensive exotic species resource center with everything from educational materials to research findings on a variety of exotic species. Site features peer-reviewed literature, unreviewed publications, and the outreach section includes a searchable database of reference material covering all aspects of nonindigenous species, including individual exotic species. Also features an outstanding kid's section containing games and information on exotics.

281

SEA K-12 Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Award-winning ideas from SEA Semester's educators. This collection of over 25 lesson plans covers topics in marine biology, coastal ecology, chemical and physical oceanography, seafloor geology and nautical science. Each plan includes target grades, keywords, introduction and background, advice on how to best integrate the activities into classroom curriculum, instructions and tips, materials list, procedures, suggestions for evaluation, extensions.

282

Alaska SeaLife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Seward, Alaska, the Alaska SeaLife Center is a non-profit marine science facility dedicated to understanding and maintaining the integrity of the marine ecosystem of Alaska through research, rehabilitation and public education. The Center's research and rehabilitation facilities and naturalistic exhibits immerse visitors in the dynamic marine ecosystems of Alaska. Includes links to additional resources for students and teachers.

283

Synoptic Observation of Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to keep navigation safe and to prevent marine accidents, prompt reports of sea ice, which contain maps of ice made from the observation data by ships, airplanes, satellites, etc. are published. In this experiment, whether MOS-1 (Marine Observatio...

T. Hattori H. Ura S. Sato

1990-01-01

284

Phytoplankton Grass of the Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nearly everything that lives in the sea and much that lives on the land depends for its existence on phytoplankton, the most abundant plants in the world. From carbon dioxide and water, by photosynthesis, they produce more organic matter than any other pl...

H. Curl

1973-01-01

285

Plastic in north sea fish.  

PubMed

To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, whiting, horse mackerel, haddock, atlantic mackerel, and cod. Plastic particles were found in 2.6% of the examined fish and in five of the seven species. No plastics were found in gray gurnard and mackerel. In most cases, only one particle was found per fish, ranging in size from 0.04 to 4.8 mm. Only particles larger than 0.2 mm, being the diameter of the sieve used, were considered for the data analyses, resulting in a median particle size of 0.8 mm. The frequency of fish with plastic was significantly higher (5.4%) in the southern North Sea, than in the northern North Sea above 55°N (1.2%). The highest frequency (>33%) was found in cod from the English Channel. In addition, small fibers were initially detected in most of the samples, but their abundance sharply decreased when working under special clean air conditions. Therefore, these fibers were considered to be artifacts related to air born contamination and were excluded from the analyses. No relationship was found between the condition factor (size-weight relationship) of the fish and the presence of ingested plastic particles. PMID:23777286

Foekema, Edwin M; De Gruijter, Corine; Mergia, Mekuria T; van Franeker, Jan Andries; Murk, Albertinka J; Koelmans, Albert A

2013-07-11

286

Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

287

Navigating the Seas of Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the sun, moon, and stars helped sea captains to navigate, policy (defined as a formalized idea to encourage change) indicates general direction and speed but does not establish a specific approach to achieve implementation. Formal and informal policies have advantages and disadvantages. These are steps in navigating policy formation: identify…

Cunningham, Stephanie; Kennedy, Steve; McAlonan, Susan; Hotchkiss, Heather

288

Arabian Marginal Seas and Gulfs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The region of the Arabian Marginal Seas and Gulfs (AMSG) continues to be of paramount importance to the world community for a variety of economic and political reasons. The immense petroleum resources and their maritime export from the region and the comp...

W. E. Johns G. A. Jacobs J. C. Kindle S. P. Murray M. Carron

1999-01-01

289

Density of Dead Sea Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIR ROBERT ROBERTSON has recorded in NATURE the results of some determinations of the density of water from the Dead Sea1. We had also determined independently the density of two samples from different places by (a) the use of a 25 c.c. pyknometer, and (b) a differential method employing two sinkers of nearly the same dimensions. The uncertainty in either

R. J. Clark; F. L. Warren

1934-01-01

290

[Medical emergencies and sea rescue].  

PubMed

Military nurses and doctors are on permanent standby to respond to any medical emergency which may arise at sea. This atypical form of practice is part of a specific organisation, in order to provide optimal, high-quality care in the most remote places of the oceans. PMID:23951619

Lefebvre, Fabien; Albert, Christophe; Gunepin, David; Pondaven, Eric; Querellou, Emgan

291

Hawaii and the Sea - 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report updates the 1969 publication, 'Hawaii and the Sea, A Plan for State Action'. It reviews the important actions taken by the state in response to recommendations made in 1969, emphasizes areas of urgent concern such as the environment and populat...

1974-01-01

292

Method of Controlling Sea Lamprey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and more particularly, to chemical treatment of aquatic habitats in which the larval stage of the lamprey lives and grows. It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a la...

J. H. Howell E. L. King

1966-01-01

293

Sea Buckthorn: New Crop Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) is a winter hardy, deciduous shrub with yel-low or orange berries (Bailey and Bailey 1978). It develops an extensive root system rapidly and is therefore an ideal plant for preventing soil erosion and land reclamation. It can withstand temperatures from-43? to 40?C (Lu 1992). It is considered to be drought resistant (Heinze and Fiedler

Thomas S. C. Li

1999-01-01

294

Emergence of Iranian Sea Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the intent of Iran's sea power strategy, and finds that it is a definitive component of a coherent national security strategy of strategic deterrence designed to protect its strategic center of gravity--its oil. Furthermore, as the ope...

P. G. Laquinta

1998-01-01

295

SEA modelling of ship structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been used to get analytical estimates, as an alternative method to the empirical one, of the the transmission losses of structure-borne noise along the ship hull, which is one of the most important procedures in predicting cabin noise. Major members such as decks, shell plates, and bulkheads were modeled as subsystems representing flexural and/or in-plane wave groups. The modeling process was relatively simple because only structural members of a cross section were considered. However, when one wishes to obtain more theroetical predictions by using SEA, modeling must include a much larger number of subsystems including air spaces, which is no longer simple, even for the aft-part of a ship. The ship structures are so complicated that it is a difficult job to define subsystems themselves. And the number of subsystems in general is so large that preparing the input data will require enormous efforts. More importantly, numerous empirical factors accumulated in past experience and on-board measurements should be appropriately considered in the SEA modeling. Moreover, taking every detail of the multi-connected structures as subsystems does not necessarily yield more accurate results. In this paper, we discuss various aspects of the SEA modeling of the ship. In particular, we are concerned with the simplifying of complex structures and inclusion of the empirical factors. We suggest some practical techniques, which might be useful in noise analysis of commercial ships.

Kang, Hyun J.; Kim, Hyun S.; Kim, Jae S.; Lee, Young C.

296

A Deep-Sea Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that simulates exploration techniques used in deep-sea explorations and teaches students how this technology can be used to take a closer look inside volcanoes, inspect hazardous waste sites such as nuclear reactors, and explore other environments dangerous to humans. (DDR)

Montes, Georgia E.

1997-01-01

297

The Sea Ice Board Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board Game, described…

Bertram, Kathryn Berry

2008-01-01

298

Salton Sea Project, Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study was made for a salt gradient solar pond power plant in or near the Salton Sea of California. The conclusions support continuance 5-MWe proof-of-concept experiment, and ultimate construction by an electric utility company of a 600-MWe p...

M. L. Peelgren

1982-01-01

299

Masada: View Toward Dead Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This photograph looks east from Masada towards the Dead Sea. Masada is a natural fortress that was most invested in by King Herod, who in the first century BC constructed a intricate palace atop this isolated horst. Masada was the site of a mass suicide by Jewish rebels and a massive siege by the Roman Army. Some of the Dead

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

300

Millimeter Radar Sea Return Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A site selection process was performed for a planned field exercise to measure radar sea clutter reflectivity at low grazing angles using several radar frequencies between 9.5 and 95 GHz. A detailed test plan was developed to collect calibrated radar cros...

R. N. Trebits

1979-01-01

301

Interannual variability of sea?ice cover in Hudson bay, Baffin bay and the Labrador sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal relationships between subarctic Canadian sea?ice cover and atmospheric forcing are investigated by analysing sea?ice concentration, sea?level pressure and surface air temperature data from 1953 to 1988. The sea?ice anomalies in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea are found to be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Southern Oscillation (SO). Through a

Jia Wang; Lawrence A. Mysak; R. Grant Ingram

1994-01-01

302

Southern Hemisphere Circulation and Relations with Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships on the seasonal timescale between Southern Hemisphere 500-hPa height, sea surface temperature, and Antarctic sea ice variability have been investigated using NCEP-NCAR reanalyses, NCEP sea surface temperatures, and Met Office sea surface temperature and sea ice data. The dominant region of interannual variability in the Southern Hemisphere circulation, over the southeast Pacific Ocean, is found to be related to

James A. Renwick

2002-01-01

303

Biogeographic zonation of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea basin based on Mysid fauna (Crustacea: Mysidacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biogeographic analysis of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea basin and adjacent Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara was conducted\\u000a based on the distribution of 55 mysid species. The Black and Caspian Sea basin proper is inhabited by 35 mysid species belonging\\u000a to 12 genera, among them 26 species and 3 genera are endemic to the region. Ponto-Caspian

M. E. Daneliya; V. V. Petryashev

2011-01-01

304

Practical application of a sea-water battery in deep-sea basin and its performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable power supply is essential for various long-term sea floor geophysical observations. Due to a simple structure and a large energy capacity, sea-water batteries have been developed and used for such observations. However, the characteristics of sea-water batteries have not been well known in the case of installations at depths more than 5000m in deep-sea basin. In 2000, a sea

Masanao Shinohara; Eiichiro Araki; Masashi Mochizuki; Toshihiko Kanazawa; Kiyoshi Suyehiro

2009-01-01

305

Diversity and Distribution of Marine Microbial Eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August

C. Lovejoy; R. Massana; C. Pedros-Alio

2006-01-01

306

Vision in the deep sea.  

PubMed

The deep sea is the largest habitat on earth. Its three great faunal environments--the twilight mesopelagic zone, the dark bathypelagic zone and the vast flat expanses of the benthic habitat--are home to a rich fauna of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the mesopelagic zone (150-1000 m), the down-welling daylight creates an extended scene that becomes increasingly dimmer and bluer with depth. The available daylight also originates increasingly from vertically above, and bioluminescent point-source flashes, well contrasted against the dim background daylight, become increasingly visible. In the bathypelagic zone below 1000 m no daylight remains, and the scene becomes entirely dominated by point-like bioluminescence. This changing nature of visual scenes with depth--from extended source to point source--has had a profound effect on the designs of deep-sea eyes, both optically and neurally, a fact that until recently was not fully appreciated. Recent measurements of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of deep-sea eyes--particularly from the camera eyes of fishes and cephalopods and the compound eyes of crustaceans--reveal that ocular designs are well matched to the nature of the visual scene at any given depth. This match between eye design and visual scene is the subject of this review. The greatest variation in eye design is found in the mesopelagic zone, where dim down-welling daylight and bio-luminescent point sources may be visible simultaneously. Some mesopelagic eyes rely on spatial and temporal summation to increase sensitivity to a dim extended scene, while others sacrifice this sensitivity to localise pinpoints of bright bioluminescence. Yet other eyes have retinal regions separately specialised for each type of light. In the bathypelagic zone, eyes generally get smaller and therefore less sensitive to point sources with increasing depth. In fishes, this insensitivity, combined with surprisingly high spatial resolution, is very well adapted to the detection and localisation of point-source bioluminescence at ecologically meaningful distances. At all depths, the eyes of animals active on and over the nutrient-rich sea floor are generally larger than the eyes of pelagic species. In fishes, the retinal ganglion cells are also frequently arranged in a horizontal visual streak, an adaptation for viewing the wide flat horizon of the sea floor, and all animals living there. These and many other aspects of light and vision in the deep sea are reviewed in support of the following conclusion: it is not only the intensity of light at different depths, but also its distribution in space, which has been a major force in the evolution of deep-sea vision. PMID:15366767

Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

2004-08-01

307

Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea are surveyed. Surveys were evaluated using bottom trawl nets during 1996 2005 cruises. Mean distribution densities were high in coastal seas, especially in the South Sea of Korea offshore from Yeosu, with 109.8 kg km-2, and low in the East China Sea, with densities of 30.6 kg km-2. Fishing gear, such as pots, nets, octopus jars, and fishing lines, accounted for about 42 72% and 37 62% of litter items in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea, respectively, whereas the contributions of rubber, vinyl, metal, plastic, glass, wood, and clothing were below 30% mainly. Rope and drum composition fluctuated greatly, between 54% and 0%. Eel and net pots dominated the marine debris of the South Sea of Korea, and some vinyl, plastics, and fishing gear made in Korea, China, and Japan were collected in abundance in the East China Sea. Fishing gear was probably discarded into the sea, deliberately or inadvertently, by fishing operations. A comprehensive joint approach by Korea, China, and Japan is needed for the continuous monitoring of input sources, the actual conditions, and the behavior of marine litter for protection against litter pollution and fisheries resource management in this area.

Lee, Dae-In; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Jeong, Sun-Beom

2006-10-01

308

Interannual variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice and air-sea interaction is used to study climatic circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. The water budget of the landlocked Caspian Sea is extremely sensitive to climatic variability in the surrounding areas, its surface level dynamics is characterized by strong seasonal and decadal variations, which reflect processes occurring in regional climate system. In order to explore these links as well as the climate of the Caspian Sea we develop a numerical model of enclosed sea dynamics, capable to simulate large, up to 10 meters, interannual sea level variations. One of the specific features of the model is that it allows for flooding and drying of coastal area. It is the coastline movement that determines the response of the Caspian Sea level to nonzero water budget. Due to the shallowness and flatness of the Caspian Sea bottom this response is nontrivial and its prediction requires as accurate description of coastal dynamics as possible. Using this model we reconstruct the evolution of the Caspian Sea level and other physical characteristics in the second half of the 20th century. The results of this study suggest that it is crucial for the model to adequately describe processes occurring in the surface and bottom boundary layers, as well as in the coastal region of the sea, in order to predict its level change.

Dyakonov, Gleb; Ibrayev, Rashit

2013-04-01

309

The Sea Level Rise Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on sea level rise suggests that sea level rise by the end of this century may well be significantly larger than those identified in the IPCC AR4 (2007). Whereas in the past, sea level rise was ascribed equally to thermal expansion of a warming ocean and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers, the recent acceleration in rise rate is largely due to increased loss of land-based ice. Increased Greenland melt has raised important questions about the role moulins, which lubricate the base of the ice sheet and increase its flow to the sea, will play in ice sheet evolution. However, new data indicate that rising ocean temperatures have contributed most significantly to the rapid wastage of glaciers in deep fjords, as calving fronts and grounding lines retreat. Our limited observations, and the fact that models are still catching up to incorporate some of these substantial and fast-acting processes, result in large uncertainties in sea level rise projections. Despite these limitations, we do expect continued sea level rise to be inevitable with progressively increasing temperatures. While it is not clear whether the rate of rise will increase, decrease or remain the same, the current behavior of land-ice, and the fact that sea level rise since 2003 has been nearly twice that of the preceding half century, which itself was significantly larger than that of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, suggests that rates equal to or greater than those of today are a real possibility. Moreover, sea level rise will not be uniform around the globe as mass is redistributed from the polar ice sheets and ocean circulation changes. Some portions of the coasts of the US may see rises 20% larger than the global average, while others may see lower than average rates. This renders some areas of the U.S. much more vulnerable to storm surges than others, with the consequences for coastal states potentially being quite severe. Given the large uncertainty in projections, the magnitude of the potential impacts, and the costs and planning challenges associated with different mitigation and adaptation strategies, improvements of sea level predictions are of great importance. In particular, there is a tremendous need for improvements in models of ice/ocean interactions and ice dynamic and thermodynamic processes. Additionally, sustained observations are needed of ice changes and the ocean and atmospheric processes that control them, as well as the global and regional rates of sea level rise and the associated geodetic and oceanographic processes. Such model advances and sustained observations will enable more credible predictions. In addition, significant progress is needed in interdisciplinary vulnerability assessments of coupled coastal human-environment systems and in efforts to turn scientific results into decision-relevant variables (e.g. erosion rates, changes in flood elevation and frequency, saltwater intrusion rates into coastal aquifers) that can help decision-makers develop cost-effective and socially feasible adaptation strategies.

Abdalati, W.; Moser, S. C.; Schmitt, R. W.

2010-12-01

310

Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.  

PubMed

Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and failure to orient. Acclimation does not seem to be in this species' repertoire. In the water column, marine snakes track water temperature; on land, sea kraits can thermoregulate by basking, selecting favorable locations, and by kleptothermy. Laticauda colubrina adjusts its reproductive cycle geographically in ways that avoid breeding in the coldest months. Mean voluntary diving time is not temperature-dependent within the normal range of temperatures experienced by marine snakes in the field, but is reduced in water colder than 20°C. On land, much as while diving in the sea, sea kraits maintain long periods of apnea; intervals between breaths are inversely related to temperature. PMID:22669175

Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

2012-06-04

311

Revisiting sea level and energy budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various factors contribute to sea level rise, including changing groundwater storage, thermal expansion of the oceans, and melting glaciers and ice sheets. However, studies that add up the observed contributions from these effects have not been able to account for the entire observed sea level rise over the past several decades. To help resolve the discrepancy, Church et al. revisited sea level budgets and considered sea level and Earth's energy budgets together using new and updated estimates of all contributing factors for the past several decades, including a new estimate of groundwater depletion. They were able to account for the entire observed sea level change from 1972 to the present.

Balcerak, Ernie

2011-12-01

312

On the cloudiness and cloud types around the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten years (2000-2010) of cloud ground observations from 332 synoptic stations (with 3h time resolution) for the regions around the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea were analyzed. The considered variables were: total cloud cover (TCLD), cloud cover from low or middle clouds (LMCLD), low cloud type (LCLD), middle cloud type (MCLD) and high cloud type (HCLD). Data analyses were carried out for the whole dataset and several subsets: cloudless observations, 1-layer observations, and multi-layer observations. For the whole dataset, the analyses included frequency of cloudy observations, frequency of multilayer observations, and mean TCLD. We studied also frequency of 1-layer of clouds only, and frequency of each type of clouds (low, middle, high). Results show a large spatial and seasonal variability with respect to TCLD, cloud types and the frequency of multilayer cloud observations. Moreover, over the ten-year period, the evolution of the annual mean TCLD is investigated, showing a positive trend in the northern region of the Black Sea. Acknowledgements: This work has been undertaken within the frame and support of the CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512).

Badosa, J.; Dmitrieva, L. R.; Shatunova, M.; Chumako, M.; Khan, V.; Calbó, J.; González, J.-A.

2012-04-01

313

Sea ice and iceberg dynamic interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of iceberg motion has been implemented in the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE). Individual bergs are tracked under the influence of winds, currents, sea surface tilt, Coriolis, and sea ice forcing. In turn, sea ice is affected by the presence of icebergs, primarily as obstacles that cause the sea ice to ridge on the upstream side or create open water on the downstream side of the bergs. Open water formed near icebergs due to sea ice ridging and blocking of sea ice advection increases level and ridged ice downstream of the bergs through increased frazil ice formation. Resulting anomalies in sea ice area and thickness (compared with a simulation without icebergs) are transported with the sea ice flow, expanding over time. Although local changes in the sea ice distribution may be important for smaller-scale studies, these anomalies are small compared with the total volume of sea ice and their effect on climate-scale variables appears to be insignificant.

Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Comeau, Darin

2011-05-01

314

Sea Ice Thickness Variability in Fram Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On this poster, we show results from airborne electromagnetic (EM) sea ice thickness measurements demonstrating the temporal and spatial complexity of the ice thickness distribution in Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard. Knowledge about the spatial and temporal sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean is necessary to assess the state of the sea-ice cover, and to understand relevant processes and changes. Since 2003, the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) has been conducting systematic in situ monitoring of sea ice thickness in the western Fram Strait, using both ground and airborne techniques. Fram Strait is a key region for large-scale ice dynamics in the Arctic. It represents the main export route for sea ice from the Arctic and the only deep strait connecting the interior Arctic Ocean and the rest of the world oceans. The ice thickness distribution in this region is the result of a combination of dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice processes. Transects for airborne EM observations were flown by NPI in spring 2005, 2008, and late summer 2010, and by the Alfred Wegener Institute in spring 2009. The regional ice thickness distributions are supplemented with ground measurements including snow thickness observations taken on ice stations during ship expeditions in spring 2005, 2007, and 2008 and annually in late summer from 2003 to 2011. From all these observations, we can show the differing characteristics of the thickness distributions in spring (2005, 2008, 2009) and late summer (2010) when the ice thickness is at its annual maximum (end of the freezing period) and minimum (end of the melting period), respectively. The ice thickness distribution can also vary spatially over short distances in north-south direction. Features such as the East Greenland Polynya, which varies in size for a given time from year to year, contribute to the spatial and temporal variability on the Greenlandic Shelf. In spring 2005, a gradient is visible across Fram Strait from thinner pack ice at the eastern ice edge towards thicker pack ice on the Greenland shelf in the western part of Fram Strait with thick multiyear ice. The spring modal thickness ranged from about 2 m to 3.5 m. In contrast, the spatial variability of the modal thickness in 2008 is larger than observed in the previous campaigns with a wider range of modal ice thicknesses, predominantly due to thinner ice than in 2005. Finally, during late summer 2010 modal thicknesses in the central and eastern part of Fram Strait ranged from about 1 to 2 m. At the same time distributions were in general narrower than observed in previous years, showing a decrease of the fraction of thick pressure ridges. Thick ice was measured only in the westernmost part of Fram Strait. These observations are in agreement with a reported trend towards a generally larger amount of first-year ice versus multiyear ice in the Arctic.

Gerland, S.; Renner, A.; Haas, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M.; Hansen, E.; Hendricks, S.; Hudson, S. R.; Beckers, J.; Goodwin, H.

2011-12-01

315

International program investigates the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concern over the environmental condition of the Black Sea has increased markedly since the recent political changes in eastern Europe, as the extent of degradation has become clearer. This concern has led to the creation of the Cooperative Marine Science Program for the Black Sea (CoMSBlack) (Figure la), an interdisciplinary, international marine science program that provides the highest quality of oceanographic science for effective and integrated management of the Black Sea.A complex program of investigation has been outlined by the major marine research organizations of the Black Sea riparian countries, as well as the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and other western research laboratories. A series of meetings is being held to clarify the role of CoMSBlack in Black Sea research as well as the sea's role in major international research efforts. Changes in the Black Sea riparian countries have simplified integrated science

Ünlüata, Ü.; Aubrey, D. G.; Belberov, Z.; Bologa, A.; Eremeev, V.; Vinogradov, M.

316

A North Sea and Baltic Sea model ensemble eutrophication assessment.  

PubMed

A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models is suggested to produce a eutrophication assessment. Using threshold values and methodology from the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM), four models are combined to assess eutrophication for the Baltic and North Seas for the year 2006. The assessment indicates that the entire southeastern part of the North Sea, the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, and the Gulf of Riga as well as parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The Bothnian Bay and parts of the Baltic proper, the Bornholm Basin, and the Arkona Basin are classified as potential problem areas. This method is a useful tool for the classification of eutrophication; however, the results depend on the threshold values, and further work is needed within both OSPAR and HELCOM to harmonize these values. PMID:20496653

Almroth, Elin; Skogen, Morten D

2010-02-01

317

Sea level trends and interannual variability in the Caribbean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level trends and interannual variability has been investigated in the Caribbean Sea using altimetry and tide gauge time series from 19 stations. Relative sea level trends range between -2.0 and 10.7 mm/y depending on the length of the available record. Records from stations longer than 40 years converge toward values between 1.2 - 5.2 mm/yr, still a significant range which in some stations is less and in some other significantly larger than the global average. The longest station, Cristobal (102 years) shows a trend of 1.9 mm/yr and, in addition a significant acceleration of 1.6±0.3 mm/y/cy. The observed sea level trends are not affected by the atmospheric pressure effect, within the levels of significance. They are also the same (within the levels of significance) at all seasons. Altimetry shows trends (over 18 years of data) with values up to 5.2 mm/y. In some areas the values are statistically insignificant, but at no areas statistically significant negative values are found. Steric trends from the top 800 m (over the period of altimetric observations) have a basin average trend of 1 mm/y, but it shows large spatial variability with negative trends of -7 mm/y in the Yucatan Basin and positive trends up to 4.9 mm/y in the Venezuela Basin. Decadal trends were found to vary significantly at tide-gauge records as well as altimetric and steric measurements. We further explore the residual interannual variability by comparison with surface wind and climatic indices. This analysis is supported by the Lloyd's Register Trust Fund project Marine Extremes.

Torres, R.; Tsimplis, M.

2012-04-01

318

Intermediate water ventilation in the Nordic seas during MIS 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution marine record from the northern Norwegian continental margin off Lofoten is used to reconstruct changes in the oceanography of the Nordic seas during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2 including the Last Glacial Maximum and early deglaciation circa 25 to 16 ka. The period was characterized by generally warm subsurface water temperatures >2°C and inflow of Atlantic surface water. Several events were characterized by decrease in ventilation of the intermediate water and low subsurface temperature and salinity. They correlate with colder atmospheric temperatures as seen in ice cores. The events terminated with gradual strengthening of the intermediate water ventilation and increase in subsurface temperature. The generation of intermediate water was unstable and experienced climate and ventilation changes on millennial and centennial timescales. The changes appear consistent with modeling experiments that predict short-lasting circulation stops during MIS 2 due to release of meltwater in the Nordic seas.

RøRvik, Kari-Lise; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Hald, Morten; Husum, Katrine

2013-05-01

319

Norway eclipses U. K. in North Sea oil flow  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that despite new internal rankings, the North Sea has maintained its position as the world's fourth largest oil producing province behind the Middle East, the Soviet Union, and the U.S. Average production remains 3.7-4 million b/d. During 1991, however, sources of production within the total have shifted significantly. Britain no longer tops the North Sea production table. Early this year, major offshore shutdowns required for installation of mandatory safety equipment slashed production. At the same time, Norwegian output remained just below 1.95 million b/d, exceeding flow from neighboring U.K. waters for the first time since the mid- 1970s.

Not Available

1991-09-02

320

Inter-annual and decadal sea level variations in the north-western Pacific marginal seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term sea level changes in the Okhotsk, Japan/East, East China and Yellow Seas have been explored based on mean monthly values of sea level from tide gauge and altimetry measurements. The analysis of low frequency sea level variability reveals clearly differentiated areas: the Okhotsk Sea and the northern sector of the Japan/East Sea display lower sea level variances and no sea level rise. The southern Japan/East Sea presents larger sea level variability associated with the circulation regime of the warm current entering through the Tsushima Strait and inter-annual sea level variations that are driven by steric and atmospheric changes. The largest sea level variances are found in the Yellow Sea due to the effect of atmospheric forcing over the continental shelf. Inter-annual variability is spatially varying within the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea and is mainly related to the steric sea level changes. Regional mean sea level indices have been synthesized for each area using the longest tide gauge records and have revealed correlations between the southern Japan/East and Yellow Seas with PDO and NP climatic indices. Linear trends at coastal sites in the Japan/East, East China and Yellow Seas show a rather heterogeneous pattern, with values between -1.5 and 5.5 mm/yr for the period 1960-2000. During the period 1993-2008 linear trends derived from coastal tide gauges and from altimetry observations are coherent and reveal a southwards increasing pattern with maximum averaged values reached at the Yellow Sea (4.9 ± 1.9 mm/yr) followed by the Japan/East Sea (3.8 ± 0.9 mm/yr). Decadal rates of sea level change show distinct behaviour among basins as well as with the global average. The southern Japan/East Sea, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea display decadal variability which is out of phase with respect to the global values.

Marcos, Marta; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Calafat, Francesc M.

2012-10-01

321

Cabled ocean observatories in Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ocean observatory—consisting of a real-time, cabled array in the Sea of Oman and an internally recording, autonomous mooring array recently upgraded to a cabled array in the northern Arabian Sea—celebrated more than 2500 days of continuous operation in July 2012. The observatory, which measures a range of properties, such as water current velocities, temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, is part of the Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative (LORI) project [du Vall et al., 2011], which was designed as a pilot project and installed in 2005 in the region off Abu Bakara (Figures 1a and 1b). The initial goal of the project was to prove that an in situ, cabled ocean observatory can return high-quality scientific data on a real-time basis over longer time periods than conventional moored systems. That same year, an autonomous array was deployed off Ras al Hadd and on Murray Ridge in the Arabian Sea (Figure 1a).

DiMarco, Steven F.; Wang, Zhankun; Jochens, Ann; Stoessel, Marion; Howard, Matthew K.; Belabbassi, Leila; Ingle, Stephanie; du Vall, Ken

2012-07-01

322

Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 1. Satellite algorithm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the fact that sea ice reflectance drops significantly in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths, black pixel assumption is assessed for three SWIR bands for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-at 1240, 1640, and 2130 nm—over the sea ice in the Bohai Sea in order to carry out atmospheric correction for deriving sea ice reflectance spectra. For the SWIR 1240 nm band, there is usually a small (but non-negligible) reflectance contribution over sea ice. Although there is a slight sea ice reflectance contribution at the MODIS 1640 nm band over sporadic land-fast or hummock ice, the black pixel assumption is generally valid with the MODIS bands 1640 and 2130 nm in the Bohai Sea. Thus, the SWIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm using MODIS bands at 1640 and 2130 nm can be conducted to derive sea ice optical properties in the region. Based on spectral features of the sea ice reflectance, a regionally optimized ice-detection algorithm is proposed. This regional algorithm shows considerable improvements in detecting sea ice over the Bohai Sea region, compared with a previous MODIS global sea ice detection algorithm. The sea ice coverage as identified in the new algorithm matches very well with the sea ice coverage from both the MODIS true color image and the imagery from the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS).

Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

2012-07-01

323

North SEa pipelines: a survey of technology, regulation and use conflicts in oil and gas pipeline operation. Final report, Aug-Dec 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to provide information on North Sea offshore pipelines and the processes used in route selection decision-making. It is designed to be used by persons involved in offshore oil and gas pipeline planning, including pipeline corridors and landfalls. A brief overview of offshore activity in both the United Kingdom and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea is

Nothdurft

1980-01-01

324

Laboratory on sea urchin fertilization.  

PubMed

Since about 1880, the eggs and sperm of sea urchins have been used for the study of fertilization, the metabolic activation of development and gene regulatory mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Sea urchin gametes are a favorite material for observations of the process of fertilization in advanced high school, community college, and university biology laboratory courses. This article is a laboratory handout, designed for the student to follow in learning about fertilization. In addition to observations of sperm-egg interaction, simple experiments are described that demonstrate some mechanisms involved in the process. The hope is that by making simple observations of fertilization, the student will gain an appreciation for the fact that successive generations of higher organisms are bridged by the fusion of egg and sperm, two very different single cells. PMID:21805525

Vacquier, Victor D

2011-07-29

325

Sea level/ODP workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty-six scientists from academia, government, and industry met recently for a 3-day Joint Oceanographic Institutions/U.S. Science Advisory Committee workshop in El Paso, Tex. Their purpose was to consolidate strategies for the study of sea level change within the Ocean Drilling Program. A document summarizing their findings will be available this spring from JOI, Inc., while the following is a report outlining preliminary workshop conclusions.Three facts provided the incentive to convene this workshop: an international array of marine scientists [COSOD II, 1987] determined that a major goal of ocean drilling in the next decade should be to improve understanding of the timing, magnitude, and causal mechanisms of sea level change; the complexity of deriving a eustatic signal from the rock record underscores the importance o f a carefully organized approach; and acquiring adequate survey data and developing critically important technologies requires a lead time of several years ahead of ODP drilling.

Mountain, Gregory; Watkins, Joel

326

NOAA Teacher At Sea Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a teacher who is interested in oceanographic research? Does the idea of living aboard an ocean-going research vessel intrigue you? Would you like to work as a crew member on a one to three week scientific cruise? NOAA is looking for motivated teachers (K-16) with a desire to do scientific research at sea and share that experience with students and colleagues.

327

Primary productivity in the sea  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in primary productivity is discussed in the book based on 27 symposia texts and 19 poster abstracts. Most papers deal with particular cellular processes in pelagic phytoplankton and their relationship to whole plant photosynthesis and growth. In addition, presentations on the productivity of the seaweed, Laminaria, zooxanthellae and whole corals are included. Other articles discuss predictive modeling, new developments in remote sensing, nutrient regeneration within the sea, grazing effects, and carbon cycling. (JMT)

Falkowski, P.G.

1980-01-01

328

Battery activated by sea water  

SciTech Connect

Batteries activated by immersion in the sea comprise a case containing battery elements separated by tightly sealed partitions. These elements are electrically connected in series. Tubes leading to the elements are used for filling and for discharging gases. These tubes are connected to first connecting tubes, coaxial to second connecting tubes issuing to the outside by means of openings. Application to long-life batteries for sonic buoys which can be dropped from an aircraft.

Rouge, J.

1982-07-06

329

Hydrobiology of the Aral Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ecological crisis of the Aral Sea has been widely discussed during recent years in both the scientific and popular literature.\\u000a However, only the consequences of anthropogenic desiccation and increased salinitywere usually discussed with little note\\u000a of the role played by introduced species in this ecosystem (Micklin, 1991; Williams, Aladin, 1991; Keyser, Aladin, 1991). Here, we review the role of

N. V. Aladin; I. S. Plotnikov; R. Letolle

330

Black Sea coastal forecasting systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the North-Western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system

A. I. Kubryakov; G. K. Korotaev; V. L. Dorofeyev; Yu. B. Ratner; A. Palazov; N. Valchev; V. Malciu; R. Matescu; T. Oguz

2011-01-01

331

Chemistry in Titan's Hydrocarbon Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple lines of evidence from the Cassini-Huygens mission demonstrate that Titan's large lakes and seas are composed of liquid ethane and methane. In addition to the aforementioned constituents, recent work on solubility indicates that propane, dissolved acetylene and nitriles will be significant components (Cordier, D. et al., ApJ v. 707, 128, 2009). Here we make a preliminary examination of the kinds of chemistry that might occur in such a multicomponent organic solution at temperatures of 90 K subject to various energy sources including modulations of solar heating on seasonal and longer timescales (Aharonson et al., Nature Geoscience v. 2 851, 2009), cosmic rays, and (more speculatively) regional cryovolcanism. It is known that carbon cations (C+) can form in methane, and thus these cations might be found in the liquid methane and ethane comprising the polar seas of Titan. As a result, the methane would become a weak protic solvent, which opens the possibility of methane and its sister alkanes participating in more vigorous organic reactions and erosional processes with the surrounding bedrock than previously thought. We apply these considerations to several problems: (a) We calculate rates of chemical erosion of geological features surrounding the large seas, assuming the surrounding country rock to be (i) water, (ii) water-ammonia, (iii) solid organics. (b) We recompute the solubility of minor polar constituents in the seas, which should be enhanced thanks to the protic behavior of the methane. (c) Non-aqueous biochemistries in hydrocarbon liquids such as those proposed by Benner et al. (Current Opinions in Chem. Bio. v. 8, 672-689) will be aided by the potential for enhanced polarity of the liquid. This work was supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, and the program "Incentivazione alla mobilita' di studiosi straineri e italiani residenti all'estero."

Lunine, Jonathan I.; Jacobs, Norman; Cordier, Daniel; Mousis, Olivier

2010-05-01

332

Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall functioning of the Mediterranean Sea, which transforms Atlantic Water (AW) into\\u000a Mediterranean Waters (MWs), has been comprehended for a while, and the process of dense water\\u000a \\u000a formation, which leads AW to sink offshore in specific northern zones of the Western and the Eastern\\u000a Basins, has been studied in the world ocean. However, the circulation of the various waters from\\/to

Claude Millot; Isabelle Taupier-Letage

333

Modelling past sea ice changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dominant characteristic of the available simulations of past sea ice changes is the strong link between the model results for modern and past climates. Nearly all the models have similar extent for pre-industrial conditions and for the mid-Holocene. The models with the largest extent at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are also characterized by large pre-industrial values. As a consequence, the causes of model biases and of the spread of model responses identified for present-day conditions appear relevant when simulating the past sea ice changes. Nevertheless, the models that display a relatively realistic sea-ice cover for present-day conditions often display contrasted response for some past periods. The difference appears particularly large for the LGM in the Southern Ocean and for the summer ice extent in the Arctic for the early Holocene (and to a smaller extent for the mid-Holocene). Those periods are thus key ones to evaluate model behaviour and model physics in conditions different from those of the last decades. Paleoclimate modelling is also an invaluable tool to test hypotheses that could explain the signal recorded by proxies and thus to improve our understanding of climate dynamics. Model analyses have been focused on specific processes, such as the role of atmospheric and ocean heat transport in sea ice changes or the relative magnitude of the model response to different forcings. The studies devoted to the early Holocene provide an interesting example in this framework as both radiative forcing and freshwater discharge from the ice sheets were very different compared to now. This is thus a good target to identify the dominant processes ruling the system behaviour and to evaluate the way models represent them.

Goosse, H.; Roche, D. M.; Mairesse, A.; Berger, M.

2013-11-01

334

Creating Arctic Sea Ice Protected Areas?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Arctic sea ice retreats and the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route open, the Arctic will experience more extensive human activity than it has ever encountered before. New development will put pressure on a system already struggling to adapt to a changing environment. In this analysis, locations are identified within the Arctic that could be protected from resource extraction, transportation and other development in order to create refuges and protect remnants of sea ice habitat, as the Arctic transitions to ice-free summer conditions. Arctic sea ice forms largely along the Siberian and Alaskan coasts and is advected across the North Pole towards Fram Strait, the Canadian Archipelago and the Barents Sea. In addition to the future loss of ice itself, contaminants entrained in sea ice in one part of the ocean can affect other regions as the ice drifts. Using observations and models of sea ice origins, trajectories and ages, we track sea ice from its origins towards marginal ice zones, mapping pathways and termination locations. Critical sea ice source areas and collection regions are identified with the goal of aiding in the protection of the remaining Arctic sea ice habitat for as long as possible.

Pfirman, S.; Hoff, K.; Temblay, B.; Fowler, C.

2008-12-01

335

Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

2010-12-01

336

Dual overflows into the deep Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea, isolated from the neighboring ocean below 570 m, is nearly isothermal below 1250 m but with a marked salinity increase with depth. The source of the deep Sulu Sea water has been attributed to South China Sea water overflowing the 570 m topographic sill of Panay Strait. However, the Panay overflow (estimated as 0.32 × 106 m3/sec) is an unlikely source for the saltier water Sulu Sea deep water. We propose that deep Sulu Sea ventilation is derived from the south, from the Sulawesi Sea through Sibutu Passage. Sulawesi Sea water between 245 to 527 m, is mixed and heaved over the Sibutu Passage 234 m sill by the energetic tidal environment. Oxygen concentrations within the deep Sulu Sea suggest that the Sulawesi overflow is 0.15 × 106 m3/sec, with a residence time of Sulu Sea deep water of 60 years. The deep tropical Sulu Sea has the unique distinction of being ventilated from two separate sources, whose ratio may fluctuate across a range of temporal scales, associated with regional thermocline depth changes.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Tessler, Zachary D.; Villanoy, Cesar

2011-09-01

337

Sea level drop in the Mediterranean Sea: An indicator of deep water salinity and temperature changes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal sea level data from seven tide gauges in the Western Mediterranean and the Adriatic show decreasing sea levels after 1960. Control stations in the Black Sea and in the northeastern Atlantic indicate sea levels still rising after 1960. The sea level trend in the Mediterranean before 1960 was between 1.2 and 1.5 mm yr-1, while in the Atlantic and the Black Sea stations it was between 1.8 and 2.2 mm yr-1. After 1960 the sea level in the Mediterranean is decreasing with rates up to -1.3 mm yr-1, while in the Black Sea the sea level trend remains unaltered and at the Atlantic stations sea level keeps rising with reduced rates of 1.0-1.2 mm yr-1. The change of the Mediterranean sea level trends, which is in excess of the sea level trend reduction at the Atlantic sites, is consistent with increases in temperature and salinity of the Mediterranean Deep Water. The reduction of sea level trends at the Atlantic sites is probably related to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

Tsimplis, Michael N.; Baker, Trevor F.

338

[Distribution and air-sea fluxes of methane in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring].  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from March 17 to April 06 of 2011. Dissolved CH4 in various depths were measured and sea-to-air fluxes were estimated. Methane concentrations in surface and bottom waters ranged between 2.39-29.67 nmol x L(-1) and 2.63-30.63 nmol x L(-1), respectively. Methane concentrations in bottom waters were slightly higher than those in surface waters, suggesting the existence of methane source in bottom waters or sediments. The horizontal distribution of dissolved CH4 showed a decrease from the river mouth to the open sea, and was influenced by the freshwater discharge and the Kuroshio intrusion. Surface methane saturations ranged from 93%-1 038%. Sea to air CH4 fluxes were (2.85 +/- 5.11) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) (5.18 +/- 9.99) micromol x (m2 x d)(-1) respectively, calculated using the Liss and Merlivat (LM86), the Wanninkhof (W92) relationships and in situ wind speeds, and estimated emission rates of methane from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea range from 7.05 x 10(-2) - 12.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) and 1.17 x 10(-2) - 2.20 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1), respectively. The Yellow Sea and East China Sea are the net sources of atmospheric methane in the spring. PMID:24027984

Cao, Xing-Peng; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

2013-07-01

339

Physics of the nucleon sea quark distributions  

SciTech Connect

Sea quark distributions in the nucleon have naively been expected to be generated perturbatively by gluon splitting. In this case, there is no reason for the light quark and anti-quark sea distributions to be different. No asymmetries in the strange or heavy quark sea distributions are predicted in the improved parton model. However,recent experiments have called these naive expectations into question. A violation of the Gottfried sum rule has been measured in several experiments, suggesting that (bar u) < (bar d) in the proton. Additionally, other measurements, while not definitive, show that there may be an asymmetry in the strange and anti-strange quark sea distributions. These effects may require nonperturbative explanations. In this review we first discuss the perturbative aspects of the sea quark distributions. We then describe the experiments that could point to nonperturbative contributions to the nucleon sea. Current phenomenological models that could explain some of these effects are reviewed.

Vogt, R.

2000-03-10

340

Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments.  

PubMed

Microplastics are small plastic particles (<1 mm) originating from the degradation of larger plastic debris. These microplastics have been accumulating in the marine environment for decades and have been detected throughout the water column and in sublittoral and beach sediments worldwide. However, up to now, it has never been established whether microplastic presence in sediments is limited to accumulation hot spots such as the continental shelf, or whether they are also present in deep-sea sediments. Here we show, for the first time ever, that microplastics have indeed reached the most remote of marine environments: the deep sea. We found plastic particles sized in the micrometre range in deep-sea sediments collected at four locations representing different deep-sea habitats ranging in depth from 1100 to 5000 m. Our results demonstrate that microplastic pollution has spread throughout the world's seas and oceans, into the remote and largely unknown deep sea. PMID:24035457

Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

2013-09-12

341

Eemian and Early Weichselian (140-60 ka) Paleoceanography and paleoclimate in the Nordic Seas with comparisons to Holocene conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic time series were extracted from Norwegian, Iceland, and Greenland Sea (the Nordic seas) sediment sequences covering the time intervals 60-140 ka and 0-15 ka on the basis of stable isotope stratigraphy, planktonic foraminiferal faunas, and sedimentological methods. The proxy temperature records from the Norwegian-Iceland Sea display a number of high-frequency and high-amplitude variations within the last interglacial (the Eemian) indicating marked changes in heat flux at high northern latitudes. Eemian-Holocene comparisons document that the climate of the Norwegian-Iceland Sea in the last interglacial was less stable than that of the present interglacial and that the distribution of surface water masses in the Eemian differed from that of the Holocene. Within the Greenland Sea, uniform cold conditions prevailed throughout both interglacials. Cooling of the Nordic seas, as well as the initial growth of the surrounding ice sheets, began within the Eemian interval, before the main increase in global ice volume. Heat flux to the Nordic seas was significantly higher during the interglacials than at any time during the early Weichselian (60-113 ka), and no marked stadial-interstadial changes in sea surface temperature and deep water ventilation are documented in the early Weichselian records, contrary to the pattern found in North Atlantic sediment records. However, fluctuations in planktonic foraminiferal content, planktonic ?13C, and ice rafting on suborbital timescales, mostly comparable in number and age to the stadial-interstadial fluctuations in the Greenland ice cores, are demonstrated in our records. The ice-rafted detritus records provide a more detailed account of ice sheet variability than previously known for the early Weichselian period and demonstrate that glaciers advanced to sea level somewhere around the Nordic seas several times during this interval.

Fronval, Torben; Jansen, Eystein

1997-06-01

342

Sea Breeze Circulation during the Land Sea Breeze Experiment (LASBEX) in Central California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sea breeze circulation was investigated using a combination of acoustic doppler sodar, doppler lidar and conventional observations in central California on the coast of Monterey Bay. The study was called LASBEX (Land Sea Breeze EXperiment). A monostat...

M. Fagan

1988-01-01

343

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.  

PubMed

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited. PMID:24091830

Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

2013-10-03

344

First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea  

PubMed Central

It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with ‘deep-sea’ and ‘cold-water’ corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

Roder, C.; Berumen, M. L.; Bouwmeester, J.; Papathanassiou, E.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Voolstra, C. R.

2013-01-01

345

Sea surface temperature cooling mode in the Pacific cold tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term variability in sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial Pacific and its relationship with global warming were investigated using three SST data sets (Hadley Center Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature, extended reconstruction sea surface temperature, and Kaplan), atmospheric fields from National Centers for Environmental Prediction\\/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, and subsurface sea temperature from the Simple

Wenjun Zhang; Jianping Li; Xia Zhao

2010-01-01

346

Relative sea level rise in China and its socioeconomic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global sea level rise over the past 100 years is 1 to 2 mm\\/yr, and the best estimate of sea level rise is 18 cm in 2030. In Chinese major deltas, owing to large land subsidence, relative sea level rise reaches 10 to 20 mm\\/yr. Therefore, potential coastal risks from further sea level rise is great. Impact of sea level

1994-01-01

347

Mass balance of trace metals in the Adriatic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first order mass balance of six different trace metals (Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni) was presented for a 1-year period for the different compartments of the Adriatic Sea: compartment 1 (northern Adriatic Sea), compartment 2 (central Adriatic Sea and surface layer of the southern Adriatic Sea) and compartment 3 (deep water of the southern Adriatic Sea). The Adriatic

S. P. C Tankéré; N. B Price; P. J Statham

2000-01-01

348

Recent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the

S. Stanichny; A. Davidov; S. Djenidi; U. Horstmann; R. Stanichnaya; D. Soloviev

2004-01-01

349

The secret of the Svalbard sea ice barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elongated sea ice feature called the Svalbard sea ice barrier rapidly formed over an area in the Barents Sea to the east of Svalbard posing a significant navigational hazard. The secret of this sea ice formation lies in the bottom bathymetry, which governs the distribution of cold Arctic waters masses and sea ice growth

S. V. Nghiem; M. L. Van Woert; G. Neumann

2004-01-01

350

Sea salt generation and transport validations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following work with several sea salt generation functions, we compare results from a 3D transport and chemistry model to a broad spectrum of data sets, including AERONET sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, surface data from coastal measurement sites, lidar profile data, and data from the PEM-Tropics A and B field campaigns. We examine the wavelength dependence of the sea salt aerosol optical depth to distinguish the sea salt aerosol from sulfate and other naturally occurring small particles.

Madry, W.; Toon, B.; Colarco, P.

2003-04-01

351

Networking offshore with HiSeasNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than 6 years of operations, the HiSeasNet satellite communications network continues to provide continuous internet connectivity for oceanographic research ships and platforms throughout the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. With additional bandwidth and ships brought online in 2008, HiSeasNet now supports 15 ships at sea as well as a seismic observatory on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean.

S. Foley; J. Berger; J. Orcutt; F. Vernon

2008-01-01

352

Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977, the deep sea was perceived as a cold, dark, high-pressure and nutrient-poor environment inhabited by psychrophilic, oligotrophic and barotolerant-to-barophilic microbial communities. By contrast, deep-sea-vent areas are warm-to-hot and inhabited by animal communities whose density may reach 50 kg m?2. Invertebrates living in these warm biotopes are in endosymbiotic relationships with autotrophic

Daniel Prieur

1997-01-01

353

Hyaluronidase in Sea-Urchin Sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SUBSTANCE liquefying the jelly-coat of sea-urchin eggs was first recovered from the sperm of sea-urchins by Hartmann and Schartau1, who called it `Androgamone II'. The enzyme nature of this substance was, however, denied2; moreover, it was pointed out that hyaluronidase from bull testis does not dissolve the jelly-coat of sea-urchin eggs3. On the otber hand, an enzyme preparation from

A. Monroy; A. Ruffo

1947-01-01

354

Caribbean Conservation Corporation/ Sea Turtle Survival League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Contains sources of information on sea turtles, tropical birds, and other species in the Caribbean basin and the Costa Rica rainforests. Site includes information on satellite telemetry, satellite-tracked sea turtles data and maps, and sea turtle legislation. Directions, data, and other materials available allow you to create your own maps. Free printable publications available. Also information on grants, workshops, donations, and volunteer opportunities.

355

Rapid reduction of Arctic perennial sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of Arctic perennial sea ice, the year-round ice cover, was significantly reduced between March 2005 and March 2007 by 1.08 × 106 km2, a 23% loss from 4.69 × 106 km2 to 3.61 × 106 km2, as observed by the QuikSCAT\\/SeaWinds satellite scatterometer (QSCAT). Moreover, the buoy-based Drift-Age Model (DM) provided long-term trends in Arctic sea-ice age since

S. V. Nghiem; I. G. Rigor; D. K. Perovich; P. Clemente-Colón; J. W. Weatherly; G. Neumann

2007-01-01

356

Sea ice's effect on oceanic deepwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A coupled sea ice-ocean model of the Southern Ocean was used to analyze the effects of sea ice on dense, cold deepwater formation. It was found that this model can more accurately project the amount of freshwater entering the oceans from sea ice, which may help researchers better estimate ocean circulation patterns and produce more accurate climate estimates based on the ocean's salinity.

Komuro, Yoshiki; Hasumi, Hiroyasu; Agu

357

Arctic sea ice as a granular plastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important consideration in understanding sea ice mechanics is the integration of observed sea ice behavior on a floe neighborhood scale (1-10 km) into ice dynamics on a regional scale O(50km). We investigate sea ice kinematics from October 1993 through April 1994 using relative motions from 13 drifting buoys with Global Positioning System navigation in a 20-km array centered on

James E. Overland; S. Lyn McNutt; Sigrid Salo; Joanne Groves; Shusun Li

1998-01-01

358

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

J. L. Schramm; J. A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1995-01-01

359

Sea Ice-Albedo Climate Feedback Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature,

Judith A. Curry; Julie L. Schramm; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1995-01-01

360

Sea Ice Index Monitors Polar Ice Extent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002, Arctic sea ice extent reached a minimum unprecedented in 24 years of satellite passive microwave observations, and almost certainly unmatched in 50 years of charting Arctic ice. Again, in September 2003, ice retreated to an unusually low extent, almost equaling the previous year's minimum. The Sea Ice Index (http:\\/\\/nsidc.org\\/data\\/seaice_index\\/), an easy-to-use source of information on sea ice

Florence Fetterer; Kenneth Knowles

2004-01-01

361

Focus Issue: Spiky Signalers from the Sea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week’s issue of Science’s STKE complements the special issue of Science featuring the Sea Urchin Genome. With new insights gleaned from the 814-Mb genome of the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and its estimated 23,000 genes, this organism holds many secrets to help us understand cell signaling and the evolution of regulatory systems in biology. Two STKE Perspectives discuss signal transduction during early development in the sea urchin.

L. Bryan Ray (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Science's STKE and Science REV)

2006-11-14

362

Marine archaeological exploration of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through funding from NOAA's Ocean Exploration Initiative and elsewhere, the Institute for Exploration (IFE) has conducted multiple expeditions to the Black Sea for marine archaeological research. Oceanographically, the Black Sea is a unique body of water, and archaeologically, the region has a rich ancient maritime history. Using a suite of deep sea vehicle systems, including a deep-towed side-scan sonar\\/subbottom profiler,

Dwight F. Coleman; Robert D. Ballard; Todd Gregory

2003-01-01

363

Intermediate results of the radar backscatter study of sea ice in the Beaufort Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the Beaufort Sea segment of the Surveillance Satellite Project (SURSAT), a team of investigators from the University of Kansas conducted experiments to obtain quantitative measurements of radar backscatter from sea ice during the month of March 1979. Thick first-year sea ice, thin first-year sea ice, and an inland fresh water lake were studied using a surface-based

C. V. Delker; R. G. Onstott; R. K. Moore

1980-01-01

364

ENSO effect on the sea surface wind and sea surface temperature in the Taiwan Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERS scatterometer and NOAA\\/AVHRR data during 1996\\/4–2000\\/12 are used to examine the variations of the sea surface wind and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Taiwan Strait (TS) through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. It is found that the sea surface wind in the TS is southwesterly in summer but northeasterly in the other seasons. Meanwhile, the sea surface

Nan-Jung Kuo; Chung-Ru Ho

2004-01-01

365

ENSO effect on the sea surface wind and sea surface temperature in the Taiwan Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERS scatterometer and NOAA\\/AVHRR data during 1996\\/4-2000\\/12 are used to examine the variations of the sea surface wind and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Taiwan Strait (TS) through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. It is found that the sea surface wind in the TS is southwesterly in summer but northeasterly in the other seasons. Meanwhile, the sea surface

Nan-Jung Kuo; Chung-Ru Ho

2004-01-01

366

On the deep sea demersal fish communities of the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster analysis of data on the species similarity index of fish samples taken at various sampling stations of different depths by the R/V “Dongfang” of the East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Science, during the deep sea demersal fish resources survey in May November, 1981, showed deep sea demersal fish fauna of the western part of the East China Sea can be grouped into the following communities: 1) The outer continental shelf community,

Shen, Jinao; Cheng, Yanhong

1989-06-01

367

Predicting the Impact of Sea-Level Rise on Caribbean Sea Turtle Nesting Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Th ep rojected rise in sea level is likely to increase the vulnerability of coastal zones in the Caribbean, which,are already under,pressure from,a combination,of anthropogenic,activities and,natural processes. One of the major effects will be a loss of beach habitat, which provides nesting sites for endangered sea turtles. To assess the potential impacts of sea-level rise on sea turtle nesting

MARIANNE R. FISH; ISABELLE M. COTE; JENNIFER A. GILL; ANDREW P. JONES; SASKIA RENSHOFF; ANDREW R. WATKINSON

2005-01-01

368

Ocean color variability in the Indonesian Seas during the SeaWiFS era  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 6 years of satellite-derived ocean color (SeaWiFS) and 7 years of sea surface temperature (AVHRR) and sea surface wind (ERS1\\/2, NSCAT, and QuikSCAT) are investigated for the Indonesian Seas. Harmonic analysis and monthly means in ocean color indicate that during the southeast Asia-Australia monsoon southeasterly wind from Australia generates upwelling and brings cooler and nutrient-rich water near the

R. Dwi Susanto; Thomas S. Moore II; John Marra

2006-01-01

369

A Multi-Disciplinary Sea Ice Ontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea ice is a central element of the Arctic system and a strong indicator of high-latitude climate change. In addition to the many scientific disciplines in which sea ice is of importance, the domains of transportation, defense, natural resources and human settlements all have interests in and contribute to the body of knowledge regarding sea ice. To help advance the interdisciplinary understanding and usability of sea ice data we have developed a preliminary sea ice ontology. This effort began with a workshop in which sea ice modelers, field researchers, remote sensing scientists and operational forecasters described the facets of sea ice from the perspective of their respective disciplines. We will describe the features of this ontology and highlight some of the challenges we encountered in building it. We will also describe our plans to incorporate indigenous sea ice knowledge, map some existing sea ice data sets using the ontology, and to link the ontology to relevant marine, polar, atmospheric, and global ontologies and semantic services.

Khalsa, S. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Duerr, R. E.; Pulsifer, P. L.; McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P. A.; McCusker, J.

2011-12-01

370

Population status of California sea otters  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the study was to develop a simulation model to facilitate analysis of the risk of oil spills to the threatened California sea otter population. Existing data on the dynamics and demography of the population were synthesized. The additional data needed for model development were collected through radiotelemetry studies of sea otters in Alaska and California. The simulation model contains four interrelated stochastic submodels: a short-term population model, a long-term population model, a sea otter distribution model, and a sea otter movement model. The report includes a detailed description of the model, the data on which it is based, and an operating manual.

Not Available

1988-11-30

371

Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation  

SciTech Connect

The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija [EIA Centre, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: tuija.hilding-rydevik@sol.slu.se; Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur [SKI - Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SE-106 58 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: holmfridur.bjarnadottir@ski.se

2007-10-15

372

Biogeochemistry of the Salton Sea, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Salton Sea is a saline, closed basin lake 70 meters below MSL in the southern desert of California. It is the largest lake in California with a surface area of 945 km2 and an annual inflow of 1,600 million m3. The Sea is hypereutrophic due to nutrient inputs from farm runoff, and anaerobic conditions in the bottom water result in summer and fall releases of hydrogen sulfide and fish kills. The salinity of the Sea is 47 g/L and rising, with an annual salt load of 4 million metric tons. Plans are being developed for construction of a salt repository to control salinization, improve water quality, and maintain the Sea as a refuge for migratory waterfowl. We estimate 700,000 metric tons of calcite are precipitating in the Sea each year, along with 7,000 tons of iron sulfide minerals. Potentially, 70,000 metric tons of hydrogen sulfide are produced in the Sea each year. Measurements of hydrogen sulfide production, reoxidation in the water column, and atmospheric releases will be reported. Hydrodynamic modeling of the current Sea, and the proposed smaller Sea, indicate that partitioning the Sea could lead to persistent stratification and episodic releases of hydrogen sulfide during fall mixing.

Amrhein, C.; Reese, B. K.; Anderson, M. A.

2006-12-01

373

Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice can increase pCO2 during precipitation in winter and decrease pCO2 during dissolution in spring. CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice is thought to potentially drive significant CO2 uptake by the ocean. However, little is known about the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of CaCO3 within sea ice. This is the first quantitative study of hydrous calcium carbonate, as ikaite, in sea ice and discusses its potential significance for the carbon cycle in polar oceans. Ice cores and brine samples were collected from pack and land fast sea ice between September and December 2007 during an expedition in the East Antarctic and another off Terre Adélie, Antarctica. Samples were analysed for CaCO3, Salinity, DOC, DON, Phosphate, and total alkalinity. A relationship between the measured parameters and CaCO3 precipitation could not be observed. We found calcium carbonate, as ikaite, mostly in the top layer of sea ice with values up to 126 mg ikaite per liter melted sea ice. This potentially represents a contribution between 0.12 and 9 Tg C to the annual carbon flux in polar oceans. The horizontal distribution of ikaite in sea ice was heterogenous. We also found the precipitate in the snow on top of the sea ice.

Fischer, M.; Thomas, D. N.; Krell, A.; Nehrke, G.; Göttlicher, J.; Norman, L.; Riaux-Gobin, C.; Dieckmann, G. S.

2012-02-01

374

Global sea level linked to global temperature  

PubMed Central

We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100.

Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

2009-01-01

375

Modelling Iodine Chemistry at the Dead Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine oxide (IO) has recently been detected at the Dead Sea with mixing ratios reaching up to 10 pmol/mol. IO has otherwise been detected at several coastal sites around the globe as well as in Antarctica. Our present understanding of iodine chemistry indicates that the precursors for IO are either iodocarbons, which are emitted by several types of algae, and molecular iodine which can be released from certain types of sea weeds and which is also produced abiotically in the ocean. At the Dead Sea however, it is very unlikely that organic precursor compounds play a role in the iodine cycle due to the high salinity of the Dead Sea water. We performed sensitivity studies with a 1D model (MISTRA) including gas- and aqueous phase chemistry in order to explain the measured IO mixing ratios at the Dead Sea. We explicitly calculate chemistry in the Dead Sea water as well as the exchange of halogen species between the Dead Sea and the overlaying atmosphere. We show that under the extreme conditions prevailing at the Dead Sea it is potentially possible to explain the observed iodine oxide mixing ratios by inorganic iodine chemistry and by considering the direct degassing of iodine species out of the water of the Dead Sea.

Smoydzin, L.; von Glasow, R.

2009-04-01

376

Understanding North Pacific sea level trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising sea level poses significant challenges to infrastructure and populations, particularly for coastal [Heberger et al., 2009] and island communities [Webb and Kench, 2010] in the North Pacific where population density at or near coastal waters is high. A significant portion of the United States' security, commerce, and ecosystem assets are located at or near the coast, making them vulnerable to sea level rise. Although global mean sea level (MSL) rise is a fundamental consideration, regional mean sea level (RSL) height variability within ocean basins and along their boundaries can be more critical, particularly in the North Pacific where the amplitude of inter-annual variability is high.

Bromirski, Peter D.; Miller, Arthur J.; Flick, Reinhard E.

2012-07-01

377

[Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].  

PubMed

In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors. PMID:20827996

Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

2010-07-01

378

Sea Ice Index Monitors Polar Ice Extent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2002, Arctic sea ice extent reached a minimum unprecedented in 24 years of satellite passive microwave observations, and almost certainly unmatched in 50 years of charting Arctic ice. Again, in September 2003, ice retreated to an unusually low extent, almost equaling the previous year's minimum. The Sea Ice Index (http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/), an easy-to-use source of information on sea ice trends and anomalies, assists in observing these minima. The Sea Ice Index is intended for both researchers and the scientifically inclined general public.

Fetterer, Florence; Knowles, Kenneth

2004-04-01

379

Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator–prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator–prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

2013-09-01

380

Photochemical production and air-sea exchange of carbonyl sulfide in the eastern Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the EGAMES (Evasion of GAses from the MEditerranean Sea) expedition in the Aegean and eastern Ionian Sea in July 1993, we measured atmospheric and sea surface concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (COS). The surface waters were found to be supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at all times with an average saturation ratio of 2.6 in open ocean areas and

V. S. Ulshöfer; O. R. Flock; G. Uher; M. O. Andreae

1996-01-01

381

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather

Ingo Harms

2004-01-01

382

Sea surface temperature extraction by MODIS remote sensing data in Lianyungang sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lianyungang sea area was taken as subject investigated, sunshiny and cloudless MODIS 1B remote sensing data on February 19, Marsh 16, and April 3 were chosen and some preprocessing such as geometric correction, Bowtie correction, and image resize were done successfully. Then, sea surface temperature (SST) by non-linear sea surface temperature (NLSST) algorithm was extracted (Fig. 1, 2, and 3).

Lu Xia

2010-01-01

383

Havenr og Naersjofart (Ports and Short Sea Shipping -Conditions for Development of Intermodal Sea Transport).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Main objective for the project has been to study the impact of Short Sea Shipping and port structure on sea freight services and which challenges regional planners and ports are facing when they try to establish new sea-based freight services. The analysi...

O. Eidhammer

2002-01-01

384

A Measurement of Sea Ice Albedo over the Southwestern Okhotsk Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate sea ice albedo around the marginal sea ice zone of the southwestern Okhotsk Sea, we conducted the measurement of albedo aboard the ice breaker Soya in early February of 1996 and 1997. Using upward and downward looking pyranometers mounted at the bow of the ship, we obtained albedo data. We also measured ice concentration and thickness

Takenobu Toyota; Jinro Ukita; Kay I. Ohshima; Masaaki Wakatsuchi; Ken-Ichiro Muramoto

1999-01-01

385

SEAWIFS Analysis of the Japan and East China Sea Air/Sea Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using visible wavelength radiance data obtained horn the spaceborne Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), during the Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia), an analysis of the Japan and East China Sea regions was completed to deter...

J. D. Rocha

2001-01-01

386

50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tilefish, or Atlantic deep-sea red crab...sea sampler/observer free and unobstructed access...permit, an Atlantic deep-sea red crab permit...on the NMFS/NEFOP Web site at http://www...on the NMFS/NEFOP Web site. (vii)...

2009-10-01

387

50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tilefish, or Atlantic deep-sea red crab...sea sampler/observer free and unobstructed access...permit, an Atlantic deep-sea red crab permit...on the NMFS/NEFOP Web site at http://www...on the NMFS/NEFOP Web site. (vii)...

2010-10-01

388

Atlantic Water flow through the Barents and Kara Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pathway and transformation of water from the Norwegian Sea across the Barents Sea and through the St. Anna Trough are documented from hydrographic and current measurements of the 1990s. The transport through an array of moorings in the north-eastern Barents Sea was between 0.6 Sv in summer and 2.6 Sv in winter towards the Kara Sea and between zero and 0.3 Sv towards the Barents Sea with a record mean net flow of 1.5 Sv. The westward flow originates in the Fram Strait branch of Atlantic Water at the Eurasian continental slope, while the eastward flow constitutes the Barents Sea branch, continuing from the western Barents Sea opening. About 75% of the eastward flow was colder than 0°C. The flow was strongly sheared, with the highest velocities close to the bottom. A deep layer with almost constant temperature of about -0.5°C throughout the year formed about 50% of the flow to the Kara Sea. This water was a mixture between warm saline Atlantic Water and cold, brine-enriched water generated through freezing and convection in polynyas west of Novaya Zemlya, and possibly also at the Central Bank. Its salinity is lower than that of the Atlantic Water at its entrance to the Barents Sea, because the ice formation occurs in a low salinity surface layer. The released brine increases the salinity and density of the surface layer sufficiently for it to convect, but not necessarily above the salinity of the Atlantic Water. The freshwater west of Novaya Zemlya primarily stems from continental runoff and at the Central Bank probably from ice melt. The amount of fresh water compares to about 22% of the terrestrial freshwater supply to the western Barents Sea. The deep layer continues to the Kara Sea without further change and enters the Nansen Basin at or below the core depth of the warm, saline Fram Strait branch. Because it is colder than 0°C it will not be addressed as Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean. In earlier decades, the Atlantic Water advected from Fram Strait was colder by almost 2 K as compared to the 1990s, while the dense Barents Sea water was colder by up to 1 K only in a thin layer at the bottom and the salinity varied significantly. However, also with the resulting higher densities, deep Eurasian Basin water properties were met only in the 1970s. The very low salinities of the Great Salinity Anomaly in 1980 were not discovered in the outflow data. We conclude that the thermal variability of inflowing Atlantic water is damped in the Barents Sea, while the salinity variation is strongly modified through the freshwater conditions and ice growth in the convective area off Novaya Zemlya.

Schauer, Ursula; Loeng, Harald; Rudels, Bert; Ozhigin, Vladimir K.; Dieck, Wolfgang

2002-12-01

389

The Pacific sea surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F; (2) N is phase locked directly to F while N is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible.

Douglass, David H.

2011-12-01

390

Sea Level: Ice Volume Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students observe simulations of melting sea ice and a melting continental ice sheet in order to investigate the relationship between the melting of the ice and the water level in the tank. The water tanks simulate the world oceans. In the first example, the ice is floating in water. This would be an example of icebergs or Arctic ice floating on the ocean. In the second example the ice lies on a wood structure. The structure simulates a continent. The block of ice on top of the structure simulates ice grounded on top of a continent. This would be an example of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.

391

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

392

UN adopts Law of Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After more than 8 years of diplomatic wrangling, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted on April 30 by a vote of 130 to 4. The United States, Israel, Turkey, and Venezuela voted against the treaty; 17 nations—including the Soviet Union, West Germany, and Britain—abstained.The treaty, which would give nations the exclusive rights to natural resources in the continental shelf up to approximately 650 km offshore, will be signed in December. The treaty becomes effective 1 year after at least 60 nations ratify it.

Richman, Barbara T.

393

Mean sea level and sea surface variability of northwest pacific ocean and eastern China seas from Geosat altimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collinear analysis technique is widely used for determining sea surface variability with Geosat altimeter data from its Exact Repeat Mission (ERM). But most of the researches have been only on global scale or in oceans deeper than 2000 m. In shallow shelf waters this method is hampered by the inaccuracy of ocean tide data supplied with Geosat Geophysical Data Records (GDRs). This work uses a modified collinear analysis technique characterized by simultaneous separation of mean sea level and ocean tide with the least squares method, to compute sea surface variability in the Northwest Pacific Ocean and eastern China Seas. The mean sea level map obtained contains not only bathymetric but also dynamic features such as amphidromes, indicating considerable improvement over previous works. Our sea surface variability maps show clearly the main current system, the well-known Zhejiang coastal upwelling, and a northern East China Sea meso-scale eddy in good agreement with satellite sea surface temperature (SST) observation and historical in situ measurement. These all suggest that meaningful and reliable oceanographic results can still be achieved in shallow shelf waters from Geosat altimetry as long as proper data processing techniques are applied.

Chen, Ge; He, Ming-Xia; Masatoshi, Akiyama; Yasuhiro, Sugimori; Jun, Suwa

1994-06-01

394

50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area rotation...

2009-10-01

395

50 CFR 648.57 - Sea scallop area rotation program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea scallop area rotation program. 648.57 Section...STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.57 Sea scallop area rotation program. An area rotation...

2010-10-01

396

Sea Otter Biosampling and Winter Mortality Survey 2004: Final Reort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sea Otter Biosampling Program study area includes all Alaska coastal areas that are inhibited by Enhydra lutris kenyoni. The Sea Otter Winter Mortality Survey study areas are: Cordova, Port Heiden, Yakutat and False Pass. The Sea Otter Biosampling Pro...

C. L. Kava L. Jack

2004-01-01

397

50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or landing scallops. (e) Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area. ...or from the area known as the Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area, described...described in § 648.60. (2) The Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area is...

2009-10-01

398

50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that vessel's IFQ. (e) Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area. ...or from the area known as the Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area, described...described in § 648.60. (2) The Elephant Trunk Sea Scallop Access Area is...

2010-10-01

399

Observations of Mediterranean Flow into the Black Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mediterranean Sea water inflow into the Black Sea is investigated using acoustic and oceanographic data obtained in the Black Sea exit region. The path of Mediterranean water and the resulting spreading on the continental shelf is observed with SWATH bott...

D. DiIorio H. Yuce

1997-01-01

400

Biogeochemistry of the Kem' River estuary, White Sea (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemistry of the river-sea interface was studied in the Kem' River (the largest river flowing to the White Sea from Karelian coast) estuary and adjacent area of the White Sea onboard the RV \\

V. R. Shevchenko; Y. S. Dolotov; N. N. Filatov; T. N. Alexeeva; A. S. Filippov; E.-M. Nöthig; A. N. Novigatsky; L. A. Pautova; A. V. Platonov; N. V. Politova; T. N. Rat'kova; R. Stein

2005-01-01

401

77 FR 41171 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...forthcoming meeting of the National Sea Grant Advisory Board. Board members will...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2012-07-12

402

76 FR 57023 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board (Board). Board...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2011-09-15

403

76 FR 4299 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY...agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board (Board). Board...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2011-01-25

404

77 FR 52695 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...forthcoming meeting of the National Sea Grant Advisory Board (Board). Board...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2012-08-30

405

15 CFR 917.11 - Guidelines for Sea Grant Fellowships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Guidelines for Sea Grant Fellowships. 917.11 Section 917.11...OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL SEA GRANT PROGRAM FUNDING REGULATIONS Sea Grant Matched Funding Program § 917.11...

2009-01-01

406

75 FR 44768 - National Sea Grant Review Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Review Panel AGENCY: National Oceanic...agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board. Board members will...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2010-07-29

407

75 FR 59697 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board (Board). Board...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2010-09-28

408

75 FR 53665 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...cancellation of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board. DATES: The 8...CONTACT: Mr. Jim Murray, National Sea Grant College Program, National...

2010-09-01

409

15 CFR 917.11 - Guidelines for Sea Grant Fellowships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for Sea Grant Fellowships. 917.11 Section 917.11...OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL SEA GRANT PROGRAM FUNDING REGULATIONS Sea Grant Matched Funding Program § 917.11...

2010-01-01

410

78 FR 10607 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...forthcoming meeting of the National Sea Grant Advisory Board (Board). Board...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2013-02-14

411

75 FR 20568 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...nominations for potential National Sea Grant Advisory Board members and notice...notice responds to Section 209 of the Sea Grant Program Improvement Act of...

2010-04-20

412

75 FR 6637 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board (Board). Board...and provide advice on the National Sea Grant College Program in the areas of...

2010-02-10

413

76 FR 16731 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...nominations for potential National Sea Grant Advisory Board members...notice responds to Section 209 of the Sea Grant Program Improvement Act of...

2011-03-25

414

78 FR 55683 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National...nominations for potential National Sea Grant Advisory Board members and notice...notice responds to Section 209 of the Sea Grant Program Improvement Act of...

2013-09-11

415

Sea Surface Signature of Tropical Cyclones Using Microwave Remote Sensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measuring the sea surface during tropical cyclones (TC) is challenging due to severe weather conditions that prevent shipboard measurements and clouds which mask the sea surface for visible satellite sensors. However, sea surface emission in the microwave...

B. Kil D. Burrage J. Wesson S. Howden

2013-01-01

416

50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Black sea bass Accountability Measures. 648.143 Section 648.143...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery... Black sea bass Accountability Measures. (a) Commercial sector...

2012-10-01

417

75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide...enhance alternative sea lamprey control techniques. The meeting is...cancelled due to inclement weather. Any member of public who...Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup,...

2010-12-29

418

76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide...enhance alternative sea lamprey control techniques. The meeting is...cancelled due to inclement weather. Any member of the public...Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup,...

2011-03-04

419

Amundsen Sea ice production and transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drift and variability of sea ice in the Amundsen Sea are investigated with ice buoys deployed in March 2000 and a coupled ice-ocean model. The Bremerhaven Regional Ice Ocean Simulations (BRIOS) model results are compared with in situ ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice measurements; satellite observations; and 8-19 months of buoy drift data. We identify a zone of coastal westward drift and a band of faster eastward drift, separated by a broad transition region characterized by variable ice motions. The model represents drift events at scales approaching its resolution but is limited at smaller scales and by deficiencies in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction forcing. Two thirds of the modeled ice production in the southern Amundsen moves westward near the coast, its transport modulated by meridional wind strength, damping sea ice formation in the eastern Ross Sea. Half of the ice exported from the Ross moves eastward into the northern Amundsen Sea, a net sea ice sink that also receives more than one third of the ice generated to its south. A low rate of exchange occurs with the Bellingshausen Sea, which must have a more independent ice regime. Snow ice formation resulting from high precipitation accounts for one quarter of the ice volume in the Amundsen Sea, aiding the formation of thick ice in a region with generally divergent ice drift. Freshwater extraction by sea ice formation is roughly balanced by precipitation and ice shelf melting, but a positive trend in the surface flux is consistent with an Amundsen source for reported freshening in the Ross Sea.

Assmann, Karen M.; Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Jacobs, Stanley S.

2005-12-01

420

Regional variability of sea level trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite altimetry has allowed precise mapping of the geographical variability of the rates of sea level change and showed that sea level is far from rising uniformely. In some regions, rates are up several times the global mean rise, while in other regions sea level is falling. Like observed sea level trends, observed and model-based ocean thermal expansion trends are not spatially uniform and at least for the recent years, closely resemble the sea level trends patterns. Such a result suggests that non uniform thermal expansion (i.e. non uniform ocean heat content) is the main cause of observed sea level regional variability. However, salinity changes are not negligible at regional scale. In many oceanic regions, temperature and salinity contributions compensate each other and it is indeed the net effect that is responsible of the patterns seen in altimetry-derived sea level trend maps. Self- gravitational effects of present-day meltwater over the oceans also contribute to the spatial trend patterns. The spatial patterns observed in the rates of thermal expansion seem to be subject to high interannual/decadal variability related to ENSO, PDO and NAO variability. Is this also true for sea level, considering that temperature and salinity partially compensate at regional scale? In this presentation, we discuss the stationarity of the spatial trend patterns over the past few decades in sea level, thermal expansion and halosteric effects using observations, global ocean circulation models outputs and sea level reconstructions. The question we intend to address is : are the altimetry-derived spatial patterns transient structures or do they reflect long-term regional trends? This is an important topic for identifying the most vulnerable regions affected by sea level rise.

Cazenave, A.; Lombard, A.; Llovel, W.; Abarca Del Rio, R.

2007-12-01

421

Trends in high sea levels of German North Sea gauges compared to regional mean sea level changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of rising mean sea levels will be felt most acutely during periods of extreme high sea levels which are caused by the combination of mean sea level, tides and storm surges. In this paper, we examine sea level records from six tide gauges along the German North Sea coastline to determine if changes in high sea levels observed throughout the 20th century and early 21st century were primarily driven by increases in mean sea level (i.e. like what has been observed by other authors in most parts of the world) or whether other factors, such as changes in ocean tides or storm surges also contributed significantly to observed changes in high water in this region. Time-series of annual 80th, 85th, 90th, 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles are derived from the sea level records and trends are assessed using linear regression for the entire time periods for which datasets are available at each site and for the common period from 1953 to 2008. The percentile time-series are subsequently reduced relative to mean sea level and a second set of trends are estimated. At all sites and percentile levels, significant positive trends are evident for the observed sea level data. Once the percentile time-series are reduced relative to mean sea level the remaining trends are still significant at the 1?-confidence level, with the exception of the 99.9th percentiles since the standard errors are large. Using a non-linear trend analysis, on the long Cuxhaven record, we find that prior to the mid-1950s and from about 1990 onwards, changes in high sea levels were not different from mean sea level changes. However, from the mid-1950s to 1990 changes were significantly different from those observed in mean sea level. Possible reasons for this appear to be due to changes in the amplitudes of several main tidal constituents, which are apparent since the mid-1950s and decadal variability in the storm activity (with strong westerly winds in the North Atlantic region from 1960 to the 1990s).

Mudersbach, Christoph; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

2013-08-01

422

SeaWiFs satellite data analysis of Black Sea water discharge pattern into the Aegean Sea.  

PubMed

Satellite data from the SeaWiFS sensor has been used to determine chlorophyll-a contents in the North Aegean Sea using SEADAS 3.3 software. The data is used to extract knowledge on water movements/flow phenomena using chlorophyll as a "tracer" but will also indicate water quality. More than 100 SeaWiFS scenes from 1998 up to 2001 have been analyzed in terms of hydrodynamic phenomena, mainly the transport and spreading pattern of Black Sea Water in the North Aegean Sea but also concerning the water quality and its seasonal and yearly variation at the mouth region of the Dardanelles. Some comparison with earlier studies using NOAA AVHRR thermal data and historical CZCS scenes is also made. PMID:12420983

Jönsson, L

2002-01-01

423

Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route: Studies and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the rapid changes that are under way in Arctic sea ice extent, Remote Sensing of Sea Ice in the Northern Sea Route is a timely work. The Northern Sea Route (NSR), along the Arctic coast of Russia, has a long history, dating back to 1932, when the Soviet Union established the NSR administration to develop hydrometeorological services. Shipping along the sea route peaked in the 1980s, but there is renewed interest associated with a lengthening ice-free season and mineral exploitation. Since July 1991, the NSR has been open to all merchant vessels.

Barry, Roger G.

2008-07-01

424

Sea Level Variaton in the Java Sea Derived from Topex/Poseidon and Tide Gauge Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding and coastal erosion in the big cities like Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya are easily affected by the sea level changes of the Java Sea. Past sea level changes in the Java Sea are investigated using satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) and tide gauges between January 1993 and December 1999 are used. Trend analysis is applied to define the changing rate of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level of the Java Sea. Monthly mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges show sea level rise rate 0.19 mm/month, 0.86 mm/month, and 1.58 mm/month at Jakarta and Jepara (near Semarang), and Surabaya respectively, whereas T/P indicate 0.91 mm/month to 1.08 mm/month at three locations. Trend analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) in the Java Sea during the same period indicates that SST has high correlated trend with the T/P and tide gauge trends. The high correlation between SST trends and T/P or tide gauge trends suggest that sea level changes of the Java Sea from 1993 to 1999 are due to heating of the Java Sea which has average depth from 40 m to 50 m. In addition the wavelet analysis was also used to SST and monthly mean sea level anomalies for evaluating ENSO impact on SST and monthly mean sea level anomalies. The results of wavelet analysis of SST show SST near Jakarta was highly affected by the 1994 to 1995 ENSO years than the 1997 to 1998 ENSO years. The period of the maximum power spectrum of SST anomalies at Jakarta was shorter than Jepara and Surabaya. Power spectrum of tide gauge sea level anomalies show the impacts of ENSO were different based on the geographical locations. Tide gauge mean sea level anomalies at Surabaya had the highest power spectrum during the 1997 to 1998 ENSO years and had the smallest power at Jakarta during the same period. Comparison of the maximum power spectrum at each location shows the period of maximum power spectrum at Jakarta was shorter than the others. But the results from T/P show power spectrum from 1997 to 1998 ENSO years was the highest at Jakarta, and was the smallest at Jepara. The differences of period and the magnitude of the maximum power spectrum of tide gauge sea level anomalies at Surabaya may be explained by the closeness to the Makasar Strait where the Indonesian Trough Flow is dominant.

Sofian, Ibnu; Kozai, Kozai

425

Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (~1-2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called ``the Svalbard sea ice barrier,'' spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard.

S. V. Nghiem; M. L. Van Woert; G. Neumann

2005-01-01

426

Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (?1–2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called “the Svalbard sea ice barrier,” spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard.

S. V. Nghiem; M. L. Van Woert; G. Neumann

2005-01-01

427

Adriatic Sea Seasonal Circulation Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general circulation of the Adriatic Sea is studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with climatological forcing. The seasonal variability in the Adriatic Sea is established and affected by atmospheric forcing, river runoff, and exchanges with the Eastern Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. In addition, the circulation is affected by the complex bathymetry in the basin. Several simulations are carried out to study the sensitivities to grid resolution, climatological atmospheric forcing, vertical mixing parameterization, and interaction with the Eastern Mediterranean. Two horizontal grids are used in this study. The first grid is a variable resolution, curvilinear grid identical to the work of Zavatarelli et al. (2002). The second grid is a uniform, 3-km resolution grid. Three atmospheric forcing datasets with different spatial resolution are used: COADS (1°x1°), ECMWF operational analyses (0.5°x0.5°) relative to the period 1998-2001, and LAMBO (0.125°x0.125°) operational forecast for the same period. Due to the strong atmospheric and buoyancy forcing, the simulations are affected by the choice of vertical mixing parameterization. Three different vertical mixing closure schemes are used in this study including the Mellor-Yamada 2.5, K-profile parameterization (Large et al, 1994), and generic length scale (Umlauf and Burchard, 2001). Comparisons with previous simulations (Zavatarelli et al., 2002) and available data will be discussed.

Arango, H. G.; Chiggiato, J.

2003-04-01

428

Deep-sea pleistocene biostratigraphy.  

PubMed

The first detailed paleontological analysis of a deep-sea pistoncore from the Caribbean Sea has been completed. The core, P6304-8, was raised from 3927 meters, east of Beata Ridge at 14 degrees 59'N, 69 degrees 20'W. Formerly, stratigraphic works in this area were based on studies of paleotemperature, measured by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method, or on micropaleontological analysis by means of rapid or cursory examinations. For core P6304-8, samples for foraminiferal analysis were taken at 10-centimeter intervals and split into smaller samples containing an average of 710 individuals (smallest sample, 517 individuals); all individuals were then identified and counted. By use of data derived from populations of this size, a statistical reliability was insured within a 5 percent limnit. Temperature oscillations, the best method of portraying Pleistocene stratigraphy, were shown by using ratios of the relative abundances of tropical and subtropical planktonic foraminifera to those found in temperate and cooler waters. These ratios correlate well with existing paleotemperature measurements for the same core, obtained by the oxygen isotope mass spectrometry method. PMID:17821563

Lidz, L

1966-12-16

429

Dan Field - Danish North Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Dan field is a simple, salt-induced structural dome with the bulk of oil and gas trapped in low permeability chalk of Upper Cretaceous and Lower Paleocene age. Oil in place is in excess of 2 Bbbl. Matrix permeabilities are generally less than 3 md. Permeability enhancement from natural fracturing as d toit is known from other chalk fields in the North Sea appears to be limited. The lack of natural fracturing gave rise to rapid production decline in the wells drilled during the 1970s and early 1980s. Significant effort was continuously directed towards overcoming the lack of natural fracturing. In 1987, the first horizontal well was drilled in the Dan field. This was to be the industry's first hydraulically fractured well. Since then, seven more horizontal wells with massive propped hydraulic fractures have been drilled in the field. The technique has more than doubled production per well, thereby proving to be viable for further development of the Dan field. Horizontal wells have recently successfully been placed in three other chalk fields in the Danish North Sea. The introduction of horizontal wells has required strong geological participation in the well planning phase. In particular, determination of the orientation of the in-situ stress has been the subject of extensive investigation. In the drilling phase, geological involvement has led to optimization of certain geological techniques, such as high-resolution biostratigraphy that is required to ensure correct stratigraphic placement of the individual well.

Joergensen, L.N. (Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark))

1991-03-01

430

Sea Scallop Shell Lab Teacher's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used in combination with the Sea Scallop Lab handout, students will examine sea scallop shells to determine their size, approximate age, and meat yield. This lab activity is complete with objectives, math and science standards, materials list, procedure, and extensions. The handout is available from the COSEE-NE OSEI resource site.

431

Naval UAV Programs: Sea Based UAV's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to state the importance of having an evolving sea based UAV program to aid in the development of successive sea based UAV systems. The Pioneer use on hoard LPDs and changing requirements helped shape the VTUAV development. ...

L. D. Whitmer

2002-01-01

432

High Seas Oil Containment Barrier Mooring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mooring system was designed, fabricated and tested to moor the Air Deployable Lightweight High Seas Oil Containment Barrier, a component of the U.S. Coast Guard's High Seas Oil Spill Response System. The key criteria to which the mooring system was bu...

K. R. Bitting

1975-01-01

433

Inverse electromagnetic scattering models for sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverse scattering algorithms for reconstructing the physical properties of sea ice from scattered electromagnetic field data are presented. The development of these algorithms has advanced the theory of remote sensing, particularly in the microwave region, and has the potential to form the basis for a new generation of techniques for recovering sea ice properties, such as ice thickness, a parameter

K. M. Goldenl; D. Borup; M. Cheney; E. Cherkaeva; M. S. Dawson; Kung-Hau Ding; A. K. Fung; D. Isaacson; S. A. Johnson; Arthur K. Jordan; Jin Au Kong; Ronald Kwok; Son V. Nghiem; Robert G. Onstott; J. Sylvester; D. P. Winebrenner; I. H. H. Zabel

1998-01-01

434

Box modeling of the Eastern Mediterranean sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ˜1990 a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1 Sv, three times larger than the Adriatic source. We develop a simple three-box model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The three boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian seas. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We conjecture that the change in the deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea is attributed to a switch between the different states on the thermohaline circulation; this switch may result from decreased temperature and/or increased salinity over the Aegean sea.

Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stone, Peter H.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

2012-02-01

435

Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION DATA AND MODELS THE ANALYSIS METHOD ATMOSPHERIC FORCING OF NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES NORTH ATLANTIC SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE FORCING OF THE ATMOSPHERE Observational Evidence Model Results POTENTIAL SEASONAL PREDICTABILITY BASED ON THE ATMOSPHERE GENERAL - CIRCULATION MODEL CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION REFERENCES

Rodwell, M. J.

436

Scientific reticence and sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

I suggest that a ‘scientific reticence’ is inhibiting the communication of a threat of a potentially large sea level rise. Delay is dangerous because of system inertias that could create a situation with future sea level changes out of our control. I argue for calling together a panel of scientific leaders to hear evidence and issue a prompt plain-written report

J. E. Hansen

2007-01-01

437

The Deep Structure of the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an intensive seismic survey in the Red Sea are presented. Analysis of twenty seismic refraction lines leaves no doubt that much more than just the central trough of the Red Sea is underlain by material with a seismic velocity which is characteristic of oceans. In addition, up to 5 km of what we interpret as evaporites were

D. Davies; C. Tramontini

1970-01-01

438

22 Years of Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA visualization video on YouTube shows the seasonal variations in sea surface temperatures and ice cover for the 22 years prior to 2007 based on data collected by NOAA polar-orbiting satellites (POES). El NiÃo and La NiÃa are easily identified, as are the trends in decreasing polar sea ice.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Visualizations

439

Petroleum geology of the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Sea comprises two extensional basins formed in a back-arc setting above the northward subducting Tethys Ocean, close to the southern margin of Eurasia. The two basins coalesced late in their post-rift phases in the Pliocene, forming the present single depocentre. The Western Black Sea was initiated in the Aptian, when a part of the Moesian Platform (now the

A. G. Robinson; J. H. Rudat; C. J. Banks; R. L. F. Wiles

1996-01-01

440

Overview of Radioactive Waste Disposal at Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes from human activities. Although no high level radioactive waste has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive wastes have been dumped at 47 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. in 1946 the first

Dominique Calmet

1992-01-01

441

Mucus antigenicity in sea anemones and corals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigenicities of external mucus from the sea anemones Stoichactis haddoni, Radianthus ritteri and Gyrostoma hertwigi and from the coral Trachyphyllia geoffroyi were compared. Marked differences were found between species but not within species. The differences suggested that mucus composition might be species specific, and hence that it might be one of the factors used by sea anemones and corals

Roger Lubbock

1979-01-01

442

Strategic Mobility 21 Joint Sea Based Logistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Joint Deployment and Distribution Support Platform (JDDSP) design concept developed by SM21 includes distribution support for joint sea- based forces in its design and will support many of the to-be requirements. The objective of the SM2l-JDDSP sea ba...

L. G. Mallon

2008-01-01

443

Sea Otter Oil Spill Avoidance Study,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine whether acoustic, visual or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findi...

R. W. Davis T. M. Williams F. Awbrey

1988-01-01

444

Biological Impacts of Translocated Sea Otters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sea otters are one of the wildlife species most sensitive to oil spills. If an oil spill occurred in the southern part of the sea otter range in California, otters would probably be captured and released in an uncontaminated area to the north. However, if...

K. Ralls D. B. Siniff A. Doroff A. Mercure

1990-01-01

445

2004 LEPTOSPIROSIS OUTBREAK AMONGST CALIFORNIAN SEA LIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Leptospirosis outbreaks among marine mammals, and specifically California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), have resulted in large scale, cyclic epizootics since the early 1970s, with a distinct 3-4 year periodicity. During 2004 over 300 sea lions died along the central California coas...

446

Modelling the extinction of Steller's sea cow.  

PubMed

Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed that its extinction resulted from a sea urchin population explosion triggered by extirpation of local sea otter populations that eliminated the shallow-water kelps on which sea cows fed. Hunting records from eighteenth century Russian expeditions to the Commander Islands, in conjunction with life-history data extrapolated from dugongs, permit modelling of sea cow extinction dynamics. Sea cows were massively and wastefully overexploited, being hunted at over seven times the sustainable limit, and suggesting that the initial Bering Island sea cow population must have been higher than suggested by previous researchers to allow the species to survive even until 1768. Environmental changes caused by sea otter declines are unlikely to have contributed to this extinction event. This indicates that megafaunal extinctions can be effected by small bands of hunters using pre-industrial technologies, and highlights the catastrophic impact of wastefulness when overexploiting resources mistakenly perceived as 'infinite'. PMID:17148336

Turvey, S T; Risley, C L

2006-03-22

447

Factors Affecting Sea Lamprey Egg Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that affect recruitment of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are not well understood; for example, the majority (85%) of sea lamprey eggs are washed out of the nest, and the survival rate of these eggs is unknown. We examined the role of predation and substrate on egg survival in the laboratory and egg predation and dispersion of eggs outside the

Stephen J. Smith; J. Ellen Marsden

2009-01-01

448

North Sea Emerald crude oil assayed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reports on an analysis of crude from Emerald field, 70 miles east of the Shetland Islands in the British North Sea, which shows that the crude is much heavier than typical North Sea crude. Elements of the long- delayed project appear to be in place, but production has not yet begun. Plans calls for producing the field at

1991-01-01

449

Aquarius: Sea Surface Salinity from Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online in 2009, the Aquarius instrument will measure sea surface salinity. Site provides background information about salinity, salinity lesson plans, and salinity data and tools. Activities include relating salt to density, conductivity, buoyancy, and understanding the effect of the water cycle on salinity. View figures of sea surface salinity and temperature as they change from month to month and more.

450

Post-Cromerian Rise in Sea Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intensified cooling in the northern hemisphere during the Elsterian-Saalian ice ages (isotopic stages 22-6) resulted in a reduction of the Antarctic ice sheet by 10-15 x 106 km3, equal to a rise in sea level by about 40 m. This rise in sea level chang...

E. Olausson

1992-01-01

451

Day Pass Down the Red Sea  

NASA Video Gallery

This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Sept. 17, 2011, from 12:14:25 to 12:24:55 GMT, on a descending pass from southern Greece to the Horn of Africa.

Mark Garcia

2011-10-24

452

The Risk of Sea Level Rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The United Nations Framework ,Convention ,on Climate ,Change ,requires nations to implement,measures for adapting to rising sea level and other effects of changing climate. To decide upon an appropriate response, coastal planners and engineers must weigh the cost of these measures against the likely cost of failing to prepare, which depends on the probability of the sea rising a

J. G. Titus; V. Narayanan

1996-01-01

453

Active Microwave Measurements of Artificial Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 5 m x 15 m outdoor tank of 1.2 m depth was filled with sea water, and polarimetric radar backscatter data were collected at 1.8, 5, and 10 GHz for incidence angles 0 to 60 deg. Observations commenced with open water and continued until 30 cm of sea ice ...

R. G. Onstott S. H. Gaboury J. Bredow P. Gogineni

1988-01-01

454

Sea Surface Height 1993-2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation of the Pacific Ocean sea surface height from 1993-2011. Data gathered by multiple NASA satellite missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason 2). Animation shows view of Pacific Ocean and simultaneously graphs global average sea surface height data.

455

Floe formation in Arctic sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ice pack covering northern seas is composed of a mixture of thick ridged and rafted ice, undeformed ice, and open water. Ice motions determined from satellite remote sensing data show that deformation of the pack takes place along the boundary of large floes. Eulerian continuum sea ice models can simulate this behavior to a degree by capturing the localization

Mark A. Hopkins; Alan S. Thorndike

2006-01-01

456

Spatial scaling of Arctic sea ice deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic sea ice deformation arises from spatial gradients in the ice velocity field. This deformation occurs across a wide range of spatial scales, from meters to thousands of kilometers. We analyze 7 years of sea ice deformation data from the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) covering the western Arctic Ocean. We find that the mean deformation rate is related to

H. L. Stern; R. W. Lindsay

2009-01-01

457

Marine Education: A Vision for Sea Grant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores Sea Grant's vision and role in the education of an informed citizenry. Argues that Sea Grant will need to consider education more explicitly in its strategic thinking, develop innovative approaches and technologies for delivery of education, and work closely with educators themselves in more productive collaboration. (PVD)|

Baird, Ronald C.

1998-01-01

458

ESONET- European sea floor observatory network  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESONET proposes a network of sea floor observatories around the European Ocean margin from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea for strategic long term monitoring as part of the European GMES (global monitoring for environment and security) with capability in geophysics, geotechnics, chemistry, biochemistry, oceanography, biology and fisheries. Long-term data collection and alarm capability in the event of hazards

I. G. Priede; M. Solan; J. Mienert; R. Person; T. C. E. Van Weering; O. Pfannkuche; N. O'Neill; A. Tselepides; L. Thomsen; P. Favali; F. Gasparoni; N. Zitellini; A. Millot; H. W. Gerber; J. M. A. De Miranda; M. Klages; P. Sigray

2003-01-01

459

Seismogeodynamics of the Caspian Sea Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies of fluctuations in seismic regime of the Caspian Sea and adjacent area are ana- lyzed in order to reveal the correlation of anomalous variations in the sea level with seismicity of the region. The inferred regularities indicate that these phenomena have a common origin. A seismogeodynamic model of the region under consideration is discussed.

1999-01-01

460

Antarctic Sea Ice in the IPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antarctic Sea Ice covers an area of 20 million km2 at maximum extent and therefore represents an areal coverage larger than either the Arctic ice cover or the Antarctic continent. Studies of Antarctic sea ice in the modern era were only initiated well after the IGY, with the advent of passive microwave satellite coverage in 1973, followed by the use

S. F. Ackley; D. K. Perovich; C. A. Geiger

2003-01-01

461

Ancient sea-level swings confirmed  

SciTech Connect

Geologic benchmarks long touted and documented by Exxon scientists along the edges of continents record changes in global sea levels. However the driving force behind the holdest sea-level shifts remains mysterious, including ice sheet melting and forming and climatic change. This article discussed both the findings and the speculation about why the fluctuations took place.

Kerr, R.A.

1996-05-24

462

Sea Energy Conversion: Problems and Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, policies are being developed in many countries in order to decrease their greenhouse gases emissions. While in this area some technologies are widely installed (wind and solar energy), other ones, like the sea energy, could get an important role in the medium and long term. That is why the most relevant technologies associated to the sea energy conversion are

G. Buigues; I. Zamora; A. J. Mazón; V. Valverde; F. J. Pérez

463

High Frequency Audio Absorption in Sea Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a preliminary report on a programme to measure acoustic absorption in sea ice in the frequency range from 25-250 kc. Artificial sea water is frozen in a tank 2 feet to the side with a pressure release mechanism. A slab of ice 2 feet x 2 feet x 1 f...

E. R. Pounder

1966-01-01

464

Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I. [National Inst. for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, PO Box 10, Rm. Valcea, 24050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

465

Empirical Ace Based Analysis of Sea Level, Sea Surface Temperature and Seawifs Ocean Colour Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternating Conditional Expectations Algorithm (ACE) is used to estimate canoni- cal variates that describes the highest correlation between altimetric sea level height, ocean surface temperature and ocean colour data from SeaWIFS during 1999. ACE can handle arbitrary mixtures of continuous and categorical variables. The method is data-driven and non-parametric with minimal assumptions concerning the data dis- tribution and the form of the optimal transformations. In this investigation, the ACE analysis have been set up to create the best fitting additive model to model the re- lationship between altimetric sea level height, ocean surface temperature and ocean colour data from SeaWIFS during 1999. Time series of SeaWiFS, AVHRR, Topex, and ERS measurements have been used for the investigation. The SeaWiFS data are level 3 processed sets of CHLO, CPIG, K490, and L555. The AVHRR data are sea surface temperature, SST. Topex and ERS provide altimetry measurements from the NASA Pathfinder (v.8) data set. Tidal and meteorological contributions to the sea sur- face height in the target time frame is modeled by the Mike 21 model, and the residual heights of the simulations are applied in a multiple regression setting using the Sea- WiFS and AVHRR measurements as predictors. The time frame is partitioned into 29 SeaWiFS weeks, i.e. periods of 8 days, and the SeaWiFS and SST measurements are integrated fields over each period.

Hilger, K. B.; Nielsen, A. A.; Andersen, O.; Knudsen, P.; Knudsen, T.

466

Accumulation and exploration of gas hydrate in deep-sea sediments of northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large deep-sea area from the southwestern Qiongdongnan Basin to the eastern Dongsha Islands, within the continental margin of northern South China Sea, is a frontier of natural gas hydrate exploration in China. Multiform of deep-sea sedimentations have been occurred since late Miocene, and sediment waves as a potential quality reservoir of natural gas hydrate is an most important style of them. Based on abundant available data of seismic, gravity sampling and drilling core, we analyzed the characteristics of seismic reflection and sedimentation of sediment waves and the occurrence of natural gas hydrate hosted in it, and discussed the control factors on natural gas hydrate accumulation. The former findings revealed the deep sea of the northern South China Sea have superior geological conditions on natural gas hydrate accumulation. Therefore, it will be of great significance in deep-sea natural gas hydrate exploration with the study on the relationship between deep-sea sedimentation and natural gas hydrate accumulation.

Zhang, Guangxue; Chen, Fang; Yang, Shengxiong; Su, Xin; Sha, Zhibin; Wang, Hongbin; Liang, Jinqiang; Zhou, Yang

2012-09-01

467

Occurrence and air-sea exchange of phthalates in the Arctic.  

PubMed

Air and seawater samples were taken simultaneously to investigate the distribution and air-sea gas exchange of phthalates in the Arctic onboard the German Research Ship FS Polarstern. Samples were collected on expeditions ARK XX1&2 from the North Sea to the high Arctic (60 degrees N-85 degrees N) in the summer of 2004. The concentration of sigma6 phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-i-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)) ranged from 30 to 5030 pg L(-1) in the aqueous dissolved phase and from 1110 to 3090 pg m(-3) in the atmospheric gas phase. A decreasing latitudinal trend was present in the seawater and to a lesser degree in the atmosphere from the Norwegian coast to the high Arctic. Overall, deposition dominated the air-sea gas exchange for DEHP, while volatilization from seawater took place in the near-coast environment. The estimated net gas deposition of DEHP was 5, 30, and 190 t year(-1) for the Norwegian Sea, the Greenland Sea, and the Arctic, respectively. This suggests that atmospheric transport and deposition of phthalates is a significant process for their occurrence in the remote Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. PMID:17695896

Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Temme, Christian; Lohmann, Rainer; Caba, Armando; Ruck, Wolfgang

2007-07-01

468

Observation evidences of the deep convection temporal variability in the Greenland Sea and its impact on ocean climate of the Nordic Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All available hydrographical data within the Greenland Sea Gyre (GSG) since captain Amundsen's 1901 measurements have been reanalysed with respect to water column stratification and contribution to the deep-water formation. Resent chimney-like events have been compared with profiles measured during active convection phase. Vertical mixing in the GSG is very sensitive to the local salinity variations coupled with interannual and decadal fluctuations in Atlantic Water (AW) spreading in the Nordic Seas associated with freshwater anomalies propagation. Low winter NAO index during 1965-1971 coincides with active deep-water formation stage in the GSG accompanied by extremely high upper layer density in the Nordic Seas. It caused both cold and fresh water overturning in the GSG and warm and salty water sinking along AW trajectory. Simultaneously the oceanographic parameters gradients increased between Arctic and Atlantic Domains of the Nordic Seas. Reduction of the deep-water formation rate in GSG leads to the Greenland Sea Deep Water (GSDW) temperature increase of 0.25oC since late 1960s, density decline and changing of Norwegian Sea Deep Water (NSDW) properties that is an important component of overflow to the North Atlantic.

Korablev, A. A.; Alekseev, G. V.; Johannessen, O. M.

2003-04-01

469

Importance of sea contribution to nucleons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the statistical model of nucleons consisting of sea having various quark-gluon Fock states in addition to valence quarks. Using statistical consideration and taking 86% of the total Fock states contributing to the low energy properties of nucleon, we aim to find the contributions to these properties coming from the scalar, vector and tensor sea. We checked its validity against the assumption where the contributions from scalar and tensor sea have been suppressed and justified to be unimportant. We took the approximation that sea is getting a zero contribution from H0G and H1G in three gluon states. Under the above considerations, the calculated magnetic moment, spin distribution and weak decay coupling constant ratio for proton and neutron states have been tabulated. We hereby confirm that the suppression of the scalar and tensor sea leads to modification in the parameters of the nucleons showing deviation from the experimental data.

Batra, M.; Upadhyay, A.

2012-09-01

470

Global Ups and Downs, Changing Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unitfocuses on the concept that changes in sea level have occurred in the past, are occurring now, and will continue to occur. The unit provides an inquiry-based exploration of the lines of evidence for periodic melting of ice and resulting sea level rise: glacial evidence, geologic evidence, fossil evidence, and isotopic evidence. Students learn about the worldwide effects of sea level changes in the past and then use a study on topography and sea level to demonstrate their understanding of impact of sea level change on flora, fauna, and human society. Details about the supported concepts and standards, lessons with activities organized into teachable units, and a section describing the online resources used in the unit are provided for ready reference.

2005-01-01

471

Brine-ecosystem interactions in sea ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microalgae grow in brine inclusions in sea ice. Previous sea ice-ecosystem models neglect brine-microalgae interactions, prescribing the location of the microbial communities. In this study, a sea ice model with explicit brine dynamics coupled to a simple nutrient-phytoplankton (N-P) module (diatoms and dissolved silicates) is introduced. The model predicts bottom and surface microalgal populations. In fall, brine convection in cooling ice supplies nutrients, which favors microalgal growth. In early summer, the vertical brine density profile in warmer ice stabilizes, nutrient supply shuts off, which prevents further biomass building. Sensitivity tests in an idealized Antarctic pack ice configuration suggest that mode of microalgal transport within brine (passive or active) induces important population differences. This study is a step toward a more realistic sea ice-ecosystem model, which is required to understand the role of sea ice and associated ecosystems in global biogeochemical cycles.

Vancoppenolle, M.; Bitz, C. M.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; Lancelot, C.; Tison, J.

2010-12-01

472

Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.  

PubMed

The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges. PMID:21141043

Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

2009-01-01

473

Last glacial–Holocene paleoceanography of the Black Sea and Marmara Sea: stable isotopic, foraminiferal and coccolith evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-proxy data and radiocarbon dates from several key cores from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea document a complex paleoceanographic history for the last ?30?000 yr. The Marmara Sea was isolated from both the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea during glacial periods when global sea-level lowering subaerially exposed the shallow sills at the Straits of Bosphorus and Dardanelles (i.e.

A. E. Aksu; R. N. Hiscott; M. A. Kaminski; P. J. Mudie; H. Gillespie; T. Abrajano; D. Ya?ar

2002-01-01

474

Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

1995-02-01

475

76 FR 53381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...sea urchin, crab, lobster, and sea cucumber), recreational fisheries (lobster...sea urchin, crab, lobster, and sea cucumber) and recreational (lobster), would...southern California. Commercial sea cucumber landings averaging 155,714 to...

2011-08-26

476

Comparing proxies for the reconstruction of LGM sea-surface conditions in the northern North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the multiproxy approach for the reconstruction of the glacial ocean (MARGO) project, sea-surface conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 23 19 ka) were reconstructed using different proxies, which were calibrated to a standardized modern hydrography. In the North Atlantic, the revised LGM MARGO data set provides a comprehensive coverage, including the Nordic Seas. The data set includes reconstruction based on planktonic foraminifer assemblages, dinocyst assemblages, alkenone coccolithophorid biomarkers and Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifers. Several hydrological features of the LGM North Atlantic can be identified, that are supported by all four proxies. They include an extensive perennial sea-ice cover along the eastern Canadian and Greenland margins, seasonally ice-free central North Atlantic and Norwegian Sea, and the winter sea-ice limit being located at about 55°N. All proxies also suggest significantly colder than modern sea-surface conditions in the southeastern part of the North Atlantic and a more zonal temperature pattern than at present, with a steep SST gradient of the order of 10 °C between 40°N and 45°N. However, in the Nordic Seas large discrepancies remain, well above the level of uncertainty of the SST reconstructions. These discrepancies might be related to stratification of the upper water mass linked to large annual amplitude of temperature with contrasting winter and summer conditions, high interannual-interdecadal variability, or taphonomic processes affecting some of the proxies. The average LGM SST in the Nordic Seas cannot at present be assessed with confidence. However, the existing evidence suggests that highly variable sea-surface conditions and at least occasional advection of North Atlantic waters may have characterised the glacial Nordic Seas.

de Vernal, A.; Rosell-Melé, A.; Kucera, M.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Eynaud, F.; Weinelt, M.; Dokken, T.; Kageyama, M.

2006-11-01

477

International Arctic Seas Assessment Project.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency responded to the news that the former Soviet Union had dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas, by launching the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project in 1993. The project had two objectives: to assess the risks to human health and to the environment associated with the radioactive wastes dumped in the Kara and Barents Seas; and to examine possible remedial actions related to the dumped wastes and to advise on whether they are necessary and justified. The current radiological situation in the Arctic waters was examined to assess whether there is any evidence for releases from the dumped waste. Potential future releases from the dumped wastes were predicted, concentrating on the high-level waste objects containing the major part of the radionuclide inventory of the wastes. Environmental transport of released radionuclides was modelled and the associated radiological impact on humans and the biota was assessed. The feasibility, costs and benefits of possible remedial measures applied to a selected high-level waste object were examined. Releases from identified dumped objects were found to be small and localised to the immediate vicinity of the dumping sites. Projected future annual doses to members of the public in typical local population groups were very small, less than 1 microSv--corresponding to a trivial risk. Projected future doses to a hypothetical group of military personnel patrolling the foreshore of the fjords in which wastes have been dumped were higher, up to 4 mSv/year, which still is of the same order as the average annual natural background dose. Moreover, since any of the proposed remedial actions were estimated to cost several million US$ to implement, remediation was not considered justified on the basis of potentially removing a collective dose of 10 man Sv. Doses calculated to marine fauna were insignificant, orders of magnitude below those at which detrimental effects on fauna populations might be expected to occur. Remediation was thus concluded not to be warranted on radiological grounds. PMID:10568273

Sjöblom, K L; Salo, A; Bewers, J M; Cooper, J; Dyer, R S; Lynn, N M; Mount, M E; Povinec, P P; Sazykina, T G; Schwarz, J; Scott, E M; Sivintsev, Y V; Tanner, J E; Warden, J M; Woodhead, D

1999-09-30

478

Sea level change: a philosophical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere, land vegetation and carbonate platforms are major CO2 buffers which may both take up and release CO2. CO2 can be released from the ocean due to changes in the pCO2 caused by growth of coral reefs and by uptake of CO2-rich freshwater from karst provinces. Efficient sinks of CO2 are the weathering products of silicate rocks; long-term sinks are organic deposits caused by regional anoxic events which preferrably develop during sea level rises and highstands; and coal-bearing strata. Deposition of limestone also removes CO2 from the atmospheric-hydrospheric cycle at a long term. Biotic crises are often related to either sea-level lows or sea-level highs. Long-term sea-level lows, characteristic of glacial periods, indicate cooling as major cause of extinction. During verly long-lasting greenhouse episodes the sea level is very high, climate and circulation systems are stable and biotic crises often develop as a consequence of oxygen depletion. On land, niche-splitting, complex food web structures and general overspecialization of biota will occur. Whether the crisis is caused by a single anoxic event (e.g. in the Late Devonian) or a disturbance by an asteroid impact (e.g. the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary), it will only trigger total collapse of an ecosystem if a large part of it was already in decline. The regulatory mechanisms and buffers are thermodynamically extremely efficient if they are given sufficient time in which to deploy their power. However, after major catastrophes the re-establishment of successful ecosystems will take millions of years. The present rate of sea level and associated temperature rise is much too fast to be compensated and buffered by the network of natural controls. It is likely that the transitional time towards a new steady state will be an extremely variable and chaotic episode of unpredictable duration.

Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

1993-07-01

479

Current Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the most recent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data available for the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Coast region. Users can see the progression of warm waters (shown in yellow, orange, and red) slowly filling the Gulf of Mexico. This natural annual warming contributes to the possible formation of hurricanes in the Gulf. The animation updates every 24 hours, and still images of the data are also available. There is also imagery of the most recent 10-day average of SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean, which is used by scientists for studying El Nino and La Nina. Warmer colors (yellow, red, orange) indicate positive anomalies (temperatures above normal). The imagery is from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite.

480

Polar Seas Oceanography: An Integrated Case Study of the Kara Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What strikes first when browsing through this book is that the main title is misleading. Polar Seas Oceanography is, first of all, a book on ``an integrated case study of the Kara Sea,'' as the subtitle says. For readers who are interested more generally in polar oceanography, the book is probably the wrong choice. The Kara Sea is a rather shallow shelf sea within the Arctic Ocean, located between the Barents Sea to the west and the Laptev Sea to the east. The importance of the Kara Sea is manifold: climate change issues like ice formation and freshwater runoff, environmental problems from dumping of radioactive waste or oil exploitation, and finally, the Northern Sea route, which crosses large parts of the Kara Sea, underline the economical and ecological relevance of that region. In spite of severe climate conditions, the Kara Sea is relatively well investigated. This was achieved through intense oceanographic expeditions, aircraft surveys, and polar drift stations. Russian scientists from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) carried out a major part of this outstanding work during the second half of the last century.

Harms, Ingo

2004-02-01

481

Chemical Composition of Sea Fog Water Along the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and microphysical properties of sea fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six sea fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 ?S/cm. The observed total ion concentration of sea fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other sea areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all sea fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the sea fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China Sea. The data also showed that the sea fog droplet spectrum over the South China Sea is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of sea fog.

Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

2012-12-01

482

Sea ice reconstructions in the southwestern Labrador Sea based on a novel biomarker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two short sediment cores NE and SE of Newfoundland covering the last ca. 100 years were analysed for IP25, a novel chemical tracer for the presence of seasonal sea ice. Instrumental data (air and sea surface temperatures) and sea ice observations are available for the time period covered by these cores enabling the validation of the sediment proxy record. IP25 has previously been used to produce sea ice reconstructions both in the Canadian Arctic and east of Greenland in the Fram Strait and North Icelandic Shelf area over the last millenia. However, studies enabling the comparison with climate-related modern observations are still required to further establish this highly promising proxy. The results from our short cores show 1) significantly higher IP25 concentrations north of Newfoundland, which is consistent with modern sea-ice observations, 2) a good correlation between IP25 and alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the NE site 3) an overall good agreement between our proxy data, measured air and SST data, and local and regional sea ice extent. Furthermore, the general trends in the IP25 records can also be correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with a positive NAO indicating colder conditions and more sea ice in the area. These results support the validity of the late-Holocene IP25 record presented, showing increasing sea ice concentrations starting from ca. 1500 cal. yr BP, with clearly less sea ice during recent times.

Weckström, K.; Massé, G.; Sicre, M.-A.; Seidenkrantz, M.-S.; Kuijpers, A.; Schmidt, S.; Collins, L. G.

2012-04-01

483

Regional sea level change and variability in the Caribbean sea since 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the regional variability in sea level in the Caribbean Sea region over the past 60 years (1950-2009) using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF)-based 2-dimensional past sea level reconstruction (a mean of 3 reconstructions based on few long tide gauge records and different sea level grids from satellite altimetry and ocean circulation models) and satellite altimetry data for the last two decades. We find that over the past 60 years, the mean rate of sea level rise in the region was similar to the global mean rise (~1.8 mm/yr). The interannual mean sea level of the placeCaribbean region appears highly correlated with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices. Interpolation of the sea level reconstruction grid at different sites, in particular at the Caribbean Islands where tide gauge records are either very short or inexistent, shows that locally, the sea level trend is on the order of 2 mm/yr, i.e. only slightly larger than the mean trend over the region. Besides, correlation with ENSO is in general good, especially since the mid-1980s. We also find a significant correlation between the interannual variability in sea level and hurricane activity, especially over the past decade during which hurricane intensity and sea level interannual variability have both increased.

Palanisamy, H.; Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Henry, O.; Cazenave, A.

2012-01-01

484

Sea Level Variability in the Central Region of the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three bottom pressure/temperature/conductivity (PTC) instruments was deployed along the Saudi Arabian coast of the eastern Red Sea since 2008. These locations, represent the central region of the Red Sea; Al-Lieth (100km south of Jeddah), Thuwal (KAUST) and Arriyas (100km north of Rabigh). Surface sea level/height was calculated from the bottom pressure measurements using the hydrostatic equation. The data analysis displayed the sea level variability into three different scales: 1) On daily time scales: the data showed the most energetic component of sea level variability was the diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominated by the M2, N2, K1 and O1 tidal constituents. 2) On weekly time scales (~10 days): the sea level variability was wind driven with setup and set down up to 40 cm due to the local wind stress. 3) On yearly time scales: the sea level varied approximately 50 cm and was highest in winter (January-February) and lowest in summer (July-August). Barometric pressure also had an annual cycle of approximately 10mb and was highest in January, thus attenuating the amplitude of the annual sea level variability. The data analysis postulate that the only mechanism behind the higher sea level in the central Red Sea during winter months was due to a response to the convergent in the large-scale Red Sea wind stress associated with the Indian Monsoon, which is consisting of NNW winds in the northern part of the Red Sea and SSE winds in the southern part. The amplitude of the principal tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability was coherent at the three sites, but the direction of phase propagation could not be resolved with confidence.

Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Limeburner, Richard; Farrar, J. Thomas; Beardsley, Robert

2013-04-01

485

Putting SEA in context: A discourse perspective on how SEA contributes to decision-making  

SciTech Connect

Over the last couple of years there is an ongoing debate in the environmental assessment literature about the contribution of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to public decision-making and how this can be understood and enhanced by better incorporating insights from policy analysis, planning theory and political sciences. By explicitly framing SEA as an element in a process where stakeholders with diverging interests struggle, acceptability of SEA processes and results by stakeholders has become an important element in SEA evaluation. In addition, the importance of other context variables, such as the institutional organisation, and the need for SEA to adapt to this context, is stressed. Thus far, publications in this area have been dealing with the operationalisation of SEA's 'contribution', typologies of roles that SEA can or should play in different policy settings and on factors that stimulate or impede SEA to play these roles. In this paper an alternative approach is suggested that starts from the deliberative processes around a particular policy issue or decision supported by SEA. Of particular interest are 'discourses': the frames through which groups of actors give meaning to aspects of the policy issues and decisions that are supported by SEA. Discourses do not only reflect conflicts of interests and power play, but also the ways in which actors perceive and understand aspects of the world. Decision-making is conceptualised as a 'system of competing discourse coalitions and their struggles to 'control shared meanings' and to gain acceptance of their framing of a policy issue' [Durning D. A review of Fischer and Forrester (1993) The argumentative turn in policy analysis and planning. Policy Sci 1995;28(1):102-8]. SEA is one of the events in this process that may impact upon dominant discourses. Discourse analysis allows for an understanding of arguments that are considered legitimate for (not) incorporating particular elements of SEA. In addition it opens the door to relatively new strategies for SEA professionals to enhance their contribution to decision-making.

Runhaar, Hens [Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.runhaar@geo.uu.nl

2009-04-15

486

Thermodynamic properties of sea air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for f