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1

Microporous Metal–Organic Framework Constructed from Heptanuclear Zinc Carboxylate Secondary Building Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, three-dimensional, noninterpenetrating microporous metal-organic framework (MOF), (Zn7O2ACHTUNGTRENNUNG(pda)5ACHTUNGTRENNUNG(H2O)2)·5 DMF·4 EtOH· 6H 2 O( 1 )( H 2PDA = p-phenylenedi- acrylic acid, DMF = N,N-dimethylform- amide, EtOH = ethanol), was synthe- sized by constructing heptanuclear zinc carboxylate secondary building units (SBUs) and by using rigid and linear aromatic carboxylate ligands, PDA. The X-ray crystallographic data reveals that the seven zinc

Qian-Rong Fang; Guang-Shan Zhu; Ming Xue; Qing-Lin Zhang; Jin-Yu Sun; Xiao-Dan Guo; Shi-Lun Qiu; Shi-Tao Xu; Ping Wang; De-Jun Wang; Yen Wei

2006-01-01

2

Family of cadmium acetate coordination networks with structurally diverse [Cd4(OAc)9(?3-OH)]2- secondary building units.  

PubMed

By subtly varying crystallization conditions, four distinct cadmium acetate coordination networks with unit cell formulas Cd(87)(H(2)O)(36)(EtOH)(18)(OH)(12)(CH(3)CO(2))(162) (1), Cd(87)(H(2)O)(72)(OH)(12)(CH(3)CO(2))(162) (2), Cd(10)(H(2)O)(6)(OH)(2)(CH(3)CO(2))(18) (3), and Cd(20)(H(2)O)(20)(OH)(4)(CH(3)CO(2))(36) (4) have been isolated. The coordination networks exhibit interesting structural diversity and have been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All four complexes are composed of secondary building units with the general formula [Cd(4)(OAc)(9)(?(3)-OH)](2-). Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit a remarkable three-dimensional network composed of aligned columns, each 4.5 nm long, containing three different cadmium acetate clusters. Complexes 3 and 4 extend in two-dimensions with each unit cell repeating a different linkage isomer of the [Cd(4)(OAc)(9)(?(3)-OH)](2-) cluster. PMID:21391551

Vickers, Susan M; Frischmann, Peter D; MacLachlan, Mark J

2011-03-10

3

Modular Chemistry:  Secondary Building Units as a Basis for the Design of Highly Porous and Robust Metal?Organic Carboxylate Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary building units (SBUs) are molecular complexes and cluster entities in which ligand coordination modes and metal coordination environments can be utilized in the transformation of these fragments into extended porous networks using polytopic linkers (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, 1,3,5,7-adamantanetetracarboxyl- ate, etc.). Consideration of the geometric and chemical attributes of the SBUs and linkers leads to prediction of the framework topology, and in

Mohamed Eddaoudi; David B. Moler; Hailian Li; Banglin Chen; Theresa M. Reineke; OMAR M. YAGHI

2001-01-01

4

Buildings As Secondary Seismic Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the scale of a city, surface structures like buildings can modify the seismic free- field and behave as secondary seismic sources. At a local scale, some experimental evidences of the site-structure interaction were previously given (Guéguen, 2000). Thanks to the boundary element method, the global problem of site-city interaction is herein investigated in two dimensions at the scale of an alluvial deposit and an entire city considering a whole building network. An alluvial deposit located in the center of Nice (France) was firstly considered for the analysis of free-field amplification (Semblat, 2000). The amplification factor was estimated by the boundary element method and compared with experimental results (SSR, HVSR). Starting from these free-field simulations, several site-city models were considered which describe both superficial soil layers and surface structures. We in- vestigate herein the influence of both building type and building density on the modi- fication of free-field amplification. To compare free-field amplification and amplification in urban configurations, sur- face amplification is compared in both cases for a specific uniform building type and various building densities at differents frequencies. Depending on these various pa- rameters, the free-field amplification level could be increased by 20 to 50%. Other urban configurations are considered with various building types in uniform and inho- mogeneous arrangements. For the specific site considered, the various site-city BEM models show that site-city interaction can lead to a strong increase of the free-field am- plification factor. Around the fundamental frequency of a specific building type, for a homogeneous urban configuration, particular resonance effects are observed. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental and local scale numerical results (Guéguen, 2000) and show that the coincidence of the respective eigenfre- quencies of both alluvial deposit and surface structures is a prevailing factor for the occurence of strong site-city interaction. This work is part of the ACI-CATNAT research project on "Site-city interaction and seismic hazard in urban areas". P.Guéguen, P.Y.Bard, J.F.Semblat, "From soil-structure to site-city interaction", 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, 30 jan.-04 feb. 2000. J.F.Semblat, A.M.Duval, P.Dangla, "Numerical analysis of seismic wave amplifica- tion in Nice (France) and comparisons with experiments", Soil Dynamics and Earth- quake Engineering, Vol.19, n05, pp.347-362, 2000.

Semblat, J.-F.; Kham, M.; Guéguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.

5

Building a secondary containment system  

SciTech Connect

Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

Broder, M.F.

1994-10-01

6

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Building Trades (Program CIP: 46.0490--Building Trades, General). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in the building trades: building trades I…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

7

[CuOCl(DABCO)].0.5DABCO.4CHOH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}CuOCl{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [CuOCl(DABCO)].0.5DABCO.4CHOH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}CuOCl{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The

Liu Yingya; Maciej Grzywa; Matthias Weil; Dirk Volkmer

2010-01-01

8

Three two-dimensional cobalt(II) and nickel(II) coordination polymers with dinuclear secondary building units constructed by one unsymmetric dicarboxylic acid: Synthesis, structures, and magnetic property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal synthetic methods using pyridine (py) and 4-methylpyridine (4-mpy) as weak bases and small terminal ligands generated three CoII and NiII 2D coordination polymers with dinuclear metal clusters as secondary building units (SBUs) from an organic bridging ligand, biphenyl-2, 4?-dicarboxylic acid (H2L). These compounds are [Co2(L)2(py)4(H2O)]n (1), [Ni2(L)2(py)4(H2O)]n (2), and [Ni2(L)2(4-mpy)4(H2O)]n (3). Compounds 1 and 2 which both crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c are structural isomorphous, while 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c. Further structural analysis indicates that they all possess the (4, 4) grid layered structure. Magnetization studies show antiferromagnetic coupling for 1 (-E2/k = -6.7 K). Finally, thermal analyses have been performed on these compounds via TG and DTG curves.

Niu, Cao-Yuan; Meng, Lei; Wan, Xin-Sheng; Feng, Chao-Ling; Kou, Chun-Hong

2012-03-01

9

Synthesis and structural characterization of different topological coordination polymers based on tunable Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} secondary building units and macrocyclic azacalixaromatics  

SciTech Connect

The coordination self-assembly between the macrocyclic ligand tetraazacalix[4]pyrimidine (TAPM) with cubane-like copper halides (Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}) produced five coordination polymers 1-5 {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m}(TAPM){r_brace}{sub n} (m=0 (1), 1 (2), 2 (3), 3 (4) and 4 (5)). X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the Br:I ratio in the Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} cores serves as a controlling factor to fine-tune the geometries of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} and therefore induce the conformation variation of tetraazacalix[4]pyrimidine. Consequently, two different topological nets, dia and lcs, were successfully constructed based on tetrahedrally coordinated Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} secondary building units and the flexible macrocyclic quadridentate ligand TAPM. The structure details of 1-5 as porous materials are analyzed, which shows a solvent accessible volume within the range of 27-35%. Compounds 1-5 exhibit luminescence properties with the peak maximum at around 476-488 nm. -- Graphical Abstract: Five luminescent coordination polymers 1-5 were obtained via the reaction of tetrahedral Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} SBUs and a flexible macrocyclic ligand tetraazacalix[4] pyrimidine (TAPM), wherein the Br/I ratio serves as a controlling factor to fine-tune the geometries of Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} and induce the conformation variation of TAPM, thus constructing two different dia and lcs topological nets. Display Omitted Research highlights: > The ratio of Br/I in the Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} cores fine-tunes the geometries of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}. > Variation of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} induces the conformation change of the ligand TAPM. > Two different coordination polymeric structures were successfully constructed. > The five coordination polymers show good luminescent properties.

Wang, Li-Xia [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: zhaolchem@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [The Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, De-Xian [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Mei-Xiang, E-mail: wangmx@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Function, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); The Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-12-15

10

Career Education Teacher's Guide [Secondary Units].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The four teacher's guides, emphasizing career education and its infusion into existing curriculum, are for the following units of instruction and suggested grade levels: entering the world of work, 5-12; making money with a classroom store, 8-12; meteorologist/radio station, 9; and banking, 9-10. Each unit is organized under several strategies…

Rockland County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, West Nyack, NY.

11

Foldability of barnase mutants obtained by permutation of modules or secondary structure units.  

PubMed

Modules, defined as stable, compact structure units in a globular protein, are good candidates for the construction of novel foldable proteins by permutation. Here we decomposed barnase into six modules (M1-M6) and constructed 23 barnase mutants containing permutations of the internal four (M2-M5) out of six modules. Globular proteins can also be subdivided into secondary structure units based on the extended structures that control the mutual relationships of the modules. We also decomposed barnase into six secondary structure units (S1-S6) and constructed 21 barnase mutants containing permutations of the internal four (S2-S5) out of six secondary structure units. Foldability of these two types of mutants was assessed by means of circular dichroism, fluorescence, and 1H-NMR measurements. A total of 15 of 23 module mutants and 15 of 21 secondary structure unit mutants formed definite secondary structures, such as alpha-helix and beta-sheet, at 20 microM owing to intermolecular interactions, but most of them converted to random coil structures at a lower concentration (1 microM). Of the 44 mutants, only two, M3245 and S2543, gave distinct near-UV CD spectra. S2543 especially showed definite signal dispersion in the amide and methyl regions of the 1H-NMR spectrum, though M3245 did not. Furthermore, urea-induced unfolding of S2543 monitored by far-UV CD and fluorescence measurements showed a distinct cooperative transition. These results strongly suggest that S2543 takes partially folded conformations in aqueous solution. Our results also suggest that building blocks such as secondary structure units capable of taking different stable conformations by adapting themselves to the surrounding environment, rather than building blocks such as modules having a specified stable conformation, are required for the formation of foldable proteins. Therefore, the use of secondary structure units for the construction of novel globular proteins is likely to be an effective approach. PMID:10064693

Tsuji, T; Yoshida, K; Satoh, A; Kohno, T; Kobayashi, K; Yanagawa, H

1999-03-12

12

[Cu 4OCl 6(DABCO) 2]·0.5DABCO·4CH 3OH (“ MFU-5”): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {Cu 4OCl 6} secondary building units and linear organic linkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu4OCl6(DABCO)2]·0.5DABCO·4CH3OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {Cu4OCl6} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The

Ying-Ya Liu; Maciej Grzywa; Matthias Weil; Dirk Volkmer

2010-01-01

13

Method of erecting a building using preconstructed modular units  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of constructing a building employing one or more preconstructed modular units each of which constitutes a room of the building after the completion, comprising: providing a floor for one level of the building; locating on the floor a preconstructed modular unit constructed of light-gauge framing materials unsuitable for permanent floor support capability; erecting a temporary shoring

Tricarico

1987-01-01

14

11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING I, 2); SOUTH AND EAST FRONTS OF SEED STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 21); EAST FRONT OF GREENHOUSE #1 (BUILDING 5) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

15

Aerospace-Oriented Units for Use in Secondary School Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of nine units is intended to furnish aerospace-oriented resource material to help teachers include recent scientific and technological advances in the secondary school science curriculum. The units provided are as follows: history of astronomy, the solar system, beyond the solar system, history of flight, spaceflight facts, aerology,…

Williams, Mary H.; And Others

16

Incorporating Critical Thinking Into a Secondary-School Wellness Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documents how to plan and teach critical thinking skills within the framework of a 15-lesson wellness unit for secondary students, discussing theoretical rational and unit development and offering sample lesson plans, describing a four-step format for introducing thinking skills, which involves: introducing the skill, practicing the skill,…

McBride, Ron E.; Carrillo, Deanna

2000-01-01

17

Incorporating Critical Thinking Into a Secondary-School Wellness Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Documents how to plan and teach critical thinking skills within the framework of a 15-lesson wellness unit for secondary students, discussing theoretical rational and unit development and offering sample lesson plans, describing a four-step format for introducing thinking skills, which involves: introducing the skill, practicing the skill,…

McBride, Ron E.; Carrillo, Deanna

2000-01-01

18

12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March 11, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

19

13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ROOM. June 5, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

20

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

2009-04-30

21

Guest-triggered supramolecular isomerism in a pillared-layer structure with unusual isomers of paddle-wheel secondary building units by reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation.  

PubMed

Solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, 1,4-bis[2-(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]benzene (bpeb) and 4,4'-oxybisbenzoic acid (H(2)obc) in the presence of dimethylacetamide (DMA) as one of the solvents yielded a threefold interpenetrated pillared-layer porous coordination polymer with pcu topology, [Zn(2)(bpeb)(obc)(2)]·5H(2)O (1), which comprised an unusual isomer of the well-known paddle-wheel building block and the trans-trans-trans isomer of the bpeb pillar ligand. When dimethylformamide (DMF) was used instead of DMA, a supramolecular isomer [Zn(2)(bpeb)(obc)(2)]·2DMF·H(2)O (2), with the trans-cis-trans isomer of the bpeb ligand with a slightly different variation of the paddle-wheel repeating unit, was isolated. In MeOH, single crystals of 2 were transformed by solvent exchange in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) manner to yield [Zn(2)(bpeb)(obc)(2)]·2H(2)O (3), which is a polymorph of 1. SCSC conversion of 3 to 2 was achieved by soaking 3 in DMF. Compounds 1 and 2 as well as 2 and 3 are supramolecular isomers. PMID:23303617

Park, In-Hyeok; Lee, Shim Sung; Vittal, Jagadese J

2013-01-09

22

Design and preliminary tests of the VLT secondary mirror unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanics of the secondary unit are located behind the secondary mirror as seen from the telescope focus. The secondary is undersized and defines the pupil of the telescope. There is a focusing and centering drive for slow adjustments of the secondary mirror. In addition, the secondary mirror has a fast beam steering mechanism for chopping and rapid guiding to remove atmospheric wavefront tilt during observations. The specified square wave chopping frequency is 5 Hz with a duty cycle larger than 80%. To achieve a high bandwidth, the secondary mirror is manufactured of light-weighted beryllium coated with nickel. The beam steering mechanism has a counter-vibrating mass to compensate for dynamic forces and moments. The chopping mechanism has been successfully tested. The code of the digital control used during the tests was generated using Matlab real time toolbox. The servos were implemented on a digital signal processor card equipped with a TMS 320C40. To compensate for resonances inside the bandwidth of the servos, a special filter is applied in the velocity loop. The design of the secondary unit is now completed and fabrication and assembly have begun.

Stanghellini, Stefano; Manil, Emmanuel; Schmid, M.; Dost, K. H.

1997-03-01

23

LBT adaptive secondary units final design and construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Binocular Telescope will perform its first level AO correction at visual wavelengths by the two Gregorian secondary mirrors. Each unit is made by a 911 mm diameter and 1.6 mm thick Zerodur shell which shape is controlled by 672 electromagnetic actuators at 1 kHz rate. The shape of each mirror is referred to a Zerodur 50 mm thick backplate through a set of capacitive sensors co-located with the actuators. Each adaptive secondary unit embeds its real time computer for actuator control and communication. Each unit is aligned into the secondary hub by a 6 d.o.f. hexapod system. The construction of the AO units started this year, while the hexapods have been completed in 2001. We present in this paper the final design of the adaptive secondary systems with particular emphasis on the modifications that we made based on the MMT adaptive secondary experience. We will also report the first results of the subsystems development tests.

Gallieni, Daniele; Anaclerio, Enzo; Lazzarini, Paolo G.; Ripamonti, Angelo; Spairani, Roberto; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Salinari, Piero; Riccardi, Armando; Stefanini, Paolo; Biasi, Roberto

2003-02-01

24

[Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers  

SciTech Connect

A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) A, V=9742(8) A{sup 3}, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[F{sup 2}>2sigma(F{sup 2})]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material. - Graphical abstract: The metal-organic framework [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (MFU-5) is constructed from a molecular precursor containing {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units which become cross-linked into a 3D zeolite-type network with hexagonal symmetry by linear DABCO ligands (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

Liu Yingya; Grzywa, Maciej [Ulm University, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry II-Materials and Catalysis, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Weil, Matthias [Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Division of Structural Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164-SC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Volkmer, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.volkmer@uni-ulm.d [Ulm University, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry II-Materials and Catalysis, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

2010-01-15

25

Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs: A Secondary Curriculum Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists on a 6-week curriculum unit designed to allow secondary students to actively explore issues associated with freedom of belief and expression. Throughout the curriculum students systematically examine the ways in which the legal and constitutional framework of our society directly embodies the norms of freedom of speech and…

Avery, Patricia; And Others

26

Recovery of Secondary Copper and Zinc in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of the total quantity of secondary copper and zinc that became obsolete in the United States from 1961 through 1970, more than 11 million tons of copper and 10 million tons of zinc were not recovered. The report describes (1) where copper and zinc are bei...

F. V. Carrillo M. H. Hibpshman R. D. Rosenkranz

1974-01-01

27

Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of…

Barnes, Bill

28

Conformational properties of the disaccharide building units of hyaluronan.  

PubMed

The conformational space of the disaccharide building units of hyaluronan, beta-(1-->4) and beta-(1-->3)-linked N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine (GN) and beta-D-glucuronic acid (GA), has been investigated by density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(**) level. The study covered the anionic disaccharides, the neutral acids as well as the sodium salts in the isolated state and in aqueous solution using the PCM model approach. We elucidated the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions characterizing the most favoured conformers. The protonation and salt formation change these secondary interactions in the vicinity of the carboxyl group, resulting often in a considerable alteration of the conformational preferences. The Na(+) ion in the salt is involved in multiple bonding in the most stable structures: beyond the primary ionic bond with the carboxylate group it forms slightly weaker interactions with neighbouring oxygens. The main effect of protonation and salt formation on the electron density distribution is restricted to the surroundings of the broken/formed interactions near the carboxylate group. PMID:19559407

Pogány, Peter; Kovács, Attila

2009-06-06

29

Workshops in Secondary Schools, Singapore. Educational Building Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this document is on the design of educational facilities, especially workshops, in Singapore. Chapter 1 discusses secondary schools, including the general curriculum and specifications-of-space provision in a standard secondary school. In chapter 2 the position of technical education within general secondary schools is addressed.…

Liew Kok-Pun, Michael; And Others

30

Workshops in Secondary Schools, Singapore. Educational Building Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this document is on the design of educational facilities, especially workshops, in Singapore. Chapter 1 discusses secondary schools, including the general curriculum and specifications-of-space provision in a standard secondary school. In chapter 2 the position of technical education within general secondary schools is addressed.…

Liew Kok-Pun, Michael; And Others

31

Investigation on the effect of zeolite precursor on the formation process of MCM-41 containing zeolite Y building units.  

PubMed

The formation process of MCM-41 containing zeolite Y building units has been investigated by UV Raman spectroscopy, (29)Si and (27)Al MAS NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). It is found that the precursor containing zeolite Y secondary building units promotes the formation of a metastable mesopore structure just after mixing the zeolite precursors with CTAB. In contrast, the low-polymerized aluminosilicates and well-crystallized zeolite crystals cannot be assembled with CTAB at this stage. The result supports that the zeolite secondary building units should promote to the formation of the mesopore wall. This has been ascribed to its high anionic charge density as well as the appropriate multidentate coordination. Lowering down the pH value to 9.3 facilitates the further polymerization of the aluminosilicate species to build up a stable mesoporous phase. PMID:23434547

Li, Peng; Xiong, Guang; Liu, Liping; Wang, Longlong

2013-02-01

32

Building for School and Community. III: United States. OECD Programme on Educational Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Programme on Educational Building (PEB) has sponsored the analysis of projects in various countries that associate school buildings with community facilities. The texts brought together in this volume concern the United States. A paper prepared by the Office of Education provides information on the historical and administrative background of…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

33

CFA-2 and CFA-3 (Coordination Framework Augsburg University-2 and -3); novel MOFs assembled from trinuclear Cu(I)/Ag(I) secondary building units and 3,3',5,5'-tetraphenyl-bipyrazolate ligands.  

PubMed

The syntheses of H2-phbpz, [Cu2(phbpz)]·2DEF·MeOH (CFA-2) and [Ag2(phbpz)] (CFA-3) (H2-phbpz = 3,3',5,5'-tetraphenyl-1H,1'H-4,4'-bipyrazole) compounds and their crystal structures are described. The Cu(I) containing metal-organic framework CFA-2 crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system, within space group I4(1)/a (no. 88) and the following unit cell parameters: a = 30.835(14), c = 29.306(7) Å, V = 27 865(19) Å(3). CFA-2 features a flexible 3-D three-connected two-fold interpenetrated porous structure constructed of triangular Cu(I) subunits. Upon exposure to different kinds of liquids (MeOH, EtOH, DMF, DEF) CFA-2 shows pronounced breathing effects. CFA-3 crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, within space group P2(1)/c (no. 14) and the following unit cell parameters: a = 16.3399(3), b = 32.7506(4), c = 16.2624(3) Å, ? = 107.382(2)°, V = 8305.3(2) Å(3). In contrast to the former compound, CFA-3 features a layered 2-D three-connected structure constructed from triangular Ag(i) subunits. Both compounds are characterized by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, single crystal structure analysis and X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR- and fluorescence spectroscopy. Preliminary results on oxygen activation in CFA-2 are presented and potential improvements in terms of framework robustness and catalytic efficiency are discussed. PMID:23519355

Grzywa, Maciej; Geßner, Christof; Denysenko, Dmytro; Bredenkötter, Björn; Gschwind, Fabienne; Fromm, Katharina M; Nitek, Wojciech; Klemm, Elias; Volkmer, Dirk

2013-05-21

34

158. ARAIII Reactor building (ARA608) Secondary cooling loop and piping ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

158. ARA-III Reactor building (ARA-608) Secondary cooling loop and piping plan. This drawing was selected as a typical example of piping arrangements within reactor building. Aerojet/general 880-area/GCRE-608-P-16. Date: February 1958. INeel index code no. 063-0608-50-013-102641. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

35

2. 808810 SECOND AVENUE MAIN ELEVATIONS OF BUILDINGS United ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. 808-810 SECOND AVENUE MAIN ELEVATIONS OF BUILDINGS - United Nations Vicinity Area Study, Second Avenue, East Forty-first, East Forty-third, East Forty-fourth, East Forty-eighty, & East Forty-ninth Streets, New York, New York County, NY

36

Preservation Building Survey Form for Freestanding Library Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modification of a University of Michigan form, this survey form is designed to obtain information on a freestanding library unit for preservation. The questionnaire covers the following areas: (1) library facility construction--e.g., primary building materials, characteristics of the foundation and roof, recent problems; (2) heating and cooling…

Huff, Susan M.

37

Preservation Building Survey Form for Freestanding Library Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modification of a University of Michigan form, this survey form is designed to obtain information on a freestanding library unit for preservation. The questionnaire covers the following areas: (1) library facility construction--e.g., primary building materials, characteristics of the foundation and roof, recent problems; (2) heating and cooling…

Huff, Susan M.

38

52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

39

Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of…

Perkins, Bradford

40

Building Social Capital through Secondary Agricultural Education Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a theory for community social capital constructed by rural secondary agricultural education programs. Social capital represents the ability of people to work together to accomplish shared goals and it can be divided into two distinct types, bonding (within the community) or bridging (outside of the community) social capital. The study

Michael J. Martin; Anna L. Ball; Stephen Gasteyer

2007-01-01

41

Determining when to apply writes received to data units being transferred to a secondary storage  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Provided are a method, system, and article of manufacture for managing writes received to data units that are being transferred to a secondary storage as part of a mirror relationship. Synchronization information indicates data units to transfer from a primary storage to a secondary storage, wherein the synchronization information data is updated to indicate the transfer of one of the data units from the primary storage to the secondary storage. A storage controller receives a write request having an update to a target data unit comprising one of the data units indicated in the synchronization information that has not been transferred from the primary storage to the secondary storage. The write request is allowed to apply the update to the target data unit in response to transferring the data in the target data unit to a network adapter of the storage controller and before the data in the target data unit is transferred to the secondary storage.

Bartfai; Robert Francis (Tucson, AZ); Factor; Michael E. (Haifa, IL); Fienblit; Shachar (Ein Ayala, IL); Gluck; Olympia (Haifa, IL); Gordon; Eyal (Haifa, IL); Jarvis; Thomas Charles (Tucson, AZ); Malul; Eli (Tirat Carmel, IL); Mellgren; Carol Santich (Tucson, AZ); Spear; Gail Andrea (Tucson, AZ); Zlotnick; Aviad (D.N.G.T., IL)

2012-07-03

42

Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials

Taisuke Aoki; Shin-ichi Tanabe

2007-01-01

43

24 CFR 983.56 - Cap on number of PBV units in each building.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in a building, if the total number of dwelling units in the building...more than 25 percent of the number of dwelling units (assisted...requirement, the unit continues to count as an excepted unit...the owner must set aside the number of excepted units made...

2013-04-01

44

Microbial secondary metabolites in school buildings inspected for moisture damage in Finland, The Netherlands and Spain.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites produced by fungi and bacteria are among the potential agents that contribute to adverse health effects observed in occupants of buildings affected by moisture damage, dampness and associated microbial growth. However, few attempts have been made to assess the occurrence of these compounds in relation to moisture damage and dampness in buildings. This study conducted in the context of the HITEA project (Health Effects of Indoor Pollutants: Integrating microbial, toxicological and epidemiological approaches) aimed at providing systematic information on the prevalence of microbial secondary metabolites in a large number of school buildings in three European countries, considering both buildings with and without moisture damage and/or dampness observations. In order to address the multitude and diversity of secondary metabolites a large number of more than 180 analytes was targeted in settled dust and surface swab samples using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) based methodology. While 42%, 58% and 44% of all samples collected in Spanish, Dutch and Finnish schools, respectively, were positive for at least one of the metabolites analyzed, frequency of detection for the individual microbial secondary metabolites - with the exceptions of emodin, certain enniatins and physcion - was low, typically in the range of and below 10% of positive samples. In total, 30 different fungal and bacterial secondary metabolites were found in the samples. Some differences in the metabolite profiles were observed between countries and between index and reference school buildings. A major finding in this study was that settled dust derived from moisture damaged, damp schools contained larger numbers of microbial secondary metabolites at higher levels compared to respective dust samples from schools not affected by moisture damage and dampness. This observation was true for schools in each of the three countries, but became statistically significant only when combining schools from all countries and thus increasing the sample number in the statistical analyses. PMID:22714101

Peitzsch, Mirko; Sulyok, Michael; Täubel, Martin; Vishwanath, Vinay; Krop, Esmeralda; Borràs-Santos, Alicia; Hyvärinen, Anne; Nevalainen, Aino; Krska, Rudolf; Larsson, Lennart

2012-06-19

45

Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student guide is for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with how to test and service the secondary ignition circuit. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 215-216. An introduction tells how this unit fits into the total…

Bacon, E. Miles

46

Science Accommodation in Secondary Schools: A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 80 (Revised 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document offers guidance in the accommodation needs for teaching the sciences in secondary education, either through new construction or the adaptation of existing buildings. Section 1 outlines the range of spaces usually required and examines planning options in new and adapted departments. Section 2 describes the planning of an individual…

Holt, Diane; Watson, Lucy; Wadsworth, Alison

47

The impact of building recirculation rates on secondary organic aerosols generated by indoor chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous investigators have documented increases in the concentrations of airborne particles as a consequence of ozone\\/terpene reactions in indoor environments. This study examines the effect of building recirculation rates on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) resulting from reactions between indoor limonene and ozone. The experiments were conducted in a large environmental chamber using four recirculation rates (11, 14,

M. S. Zuraimi; C. J. Weschler; K. W. Tham; M. O. Fadeyi

2007-01-01

48

Authoritarianism: Old and New--A Unit for Secondary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Primary source materials and excerpts from books concerning three types of autocracy--the divine right of kings, benevolent despotism, and totalitarianism--are provided for use with secondary students. Discussion questions are included. (RM)|

Osborne, Ken

1985-01-01

49

A Collection of Teaching Units about Japan for Secondary Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains a collection of eight selected secondary level units of study about Japan. Individual units were planned and written by teachers who participated in the first Southwest Program for Teaching about Japan (SPTAJ) study tour to that country during 1987. Unit topics include: (1) "An Introduction To Japanese Medicine" (G. Adams);…

Barker, Bruce, Comp; Christian, Duane, Comp.

50

Truth: Humanities Unit (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, this booklet describes a humanities unit for students in middle and secondary grades. The specific focus of the unit is on truth as it is perceived and expressed in philosophy, literature, art, music, drama, and the social sciences. The study of truth and its surrounding…

Abbott, Barbara; Kolman, Peter

51

Ethnic Heritage Studies Pertaining to Arabic Culture: Six Teaching Units for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six social studies units are presented to help secondary school classroom teachers introduce students to Arab American culture. A major objective is to make students recognize the many contributions made by the Arabs to the development of the United States. In the introduction, Arab Americans are identified as people in the United States who…

Swanson, Jon; Olson, Margarete

52

A Collection of Teaching Units about Japan for Secondary Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a collection of eight selected secondary level units of study about Japan. Individual units were planned and written by teachers who participated in the first Southwest Program for Teaching about Japan (SPTAJ) study tour to that country during 1987. Unit topics include: (1) "An Introduction To Japanese Medicine" (G. Adams);…

Barker, Bruce, Comp; Christian, Duane, Comp.

53

Violence Prevention in United States Society of Jesus Secondary Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the school-based factors that are related to serious

Thomas Andrew Simonds

2009-01-01

54

United States History in the Secondary Schools. Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. One of the most important developments in the recent interpretations of American economic history has been the emphasis placed on business. The specific objectives of this unit are enumerated: 1) to realize that all resources are limited and the utilization of these resources is determined…

Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

55

United States History in the Secondary School. Labor in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. In the nineteen thirties and forties, government began to act as the fulcrum in a balance of power between labor and industry. It is necessary for the students to understand the importance of the role of all three in American Society today. The specific objectives of this unit are enumerated:…

Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

56

What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

Stocklmayer, Sue

57

Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

Stocklmayer, Sue

58

Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

59

The United Nations Programme on Space Applications: Capacity Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations and its specialized agencies have created a number of programmes within their respective institutions in order to translate recommendations of UNISPACE conferences into practical activities. One such programme is the UN Programme on Space Applications of the Office for Outer Space Affairs at UN Headquarters in Vienna. The Programme was established in 1968; it was strengthened and expanded by UNISPACE 82 and UNISPACE III (1999). Following the mandate that emanated from UNISPACE III, the Programme supports capacity building, particularly for the benefit of developing nations, in the disciplines of (i) remote sensing and geographic information systems, (ii) satellite communications, (iii) satellite meteorology and global climate, and (iv) space and atmospheric science. Current activities of the Programme, focusing on (a) knowledge-based, (b) application-based, (c) enabling technologies, and (d) cross-cutting issues in the field of space science and technology will be reviewed. Further information available at http://www.oosa.unvienna.org/sapidx.html

Haubold, H. J.

60

Provision of facilities for secondary transport of seriously ill patients in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

A survey by questionnaire of 280 hospitals with general intensive care units was carried out to find out what facilities were provided for secondary transport of seriously ill patients in the United Kingdom. Replies were received from 181 units. Extrapolating from the survey data showed that about 10 000 patients were transported each year, although many units transferred only a few patients. An appreciable minority of units reported that facilities for secondary transport were inadequate and many were obliged to send inexperienced medical staff with patients. Almost half of the respondents thought that arrangements for transfer were unsatisfactory, but only a tenth said that they delayed or refused transfer for this reason. This undoubtedly reflects a policy of “making do” despite inadequate resources. We believe that these results support the concept of regional transport services, where each major unit would be adequately equipped and staffed and unnecessary duplication of resources avoided.

Wright, I H; McDonald, J C; Rogers, P N; Ledingham, I McA

1988-01-01

61

Characterization of the Secondary Porosity of Some Cretaceous-Recent Jordanian Building Limestones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of limestone (including chalk, travertine, marble, wacke stone and packstone-grainstone) commonly used as building stones in Jordan with porosity ranging from around 1% to less than 30% have been covered in this study. The total porosity has been split into matrix and secondary porosity. Types (fracture/moldic) and amounts of secondary porosity have also been defined. The relationships of the different porosity types with the other measured or derived properties have been delineated using correlation. Mathematical formulae have been presented to derive complicated or difficult to measure properties from easily measured ones. As indicated by the calculated cementation exponent value m and documented petrographically, tight limestones are dominated by fracture porosity, whereas highly porous limestones are dominated by moldic porosity. This is well exemplified by Siwaqa travertine where vugs are dominant in the high porosity varieties and fractures in the low porosity samples. Practical implications of the present work and its limitations have also been discussed.

Moh`D, Basem K.

62

The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.  

PubMed Central

The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increase the knowledge base necessary for developing and evaluating effective preventive interventions. During 1989, CDC, in consultation with the National Council on Disabilities and members of the disability community, has elected to focus its effort in three areas: developmental disabilities, injuries to the head and spinal cord, and secondary complications among persons with physical disabilities.

Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

1989-01-01

63

Project analysis for building new lubricant blending unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to apply the aspects of the project management of building a new lubricant blending plant. Data of the real investment is collected from the concerned departments and vendors. The project involves building a new Lubricant Manufacturing plant with a capacity of 12,000 Mt (Metric tons) per year in Ghana, West Africa, by ABC. A

A. AbuAlmal; S. El-Gamal; A. Hossein Rezaaee; H. Abou-Khreibeh

2010-01-01

64

Sharing British Columbia's Water Resources. A Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seventeen student worksheets form a secondary school unit which focuses on the challenge of shared usage of water resources. Pressure currently exists for a more balanced approach in which all legitimate interests in a water source are served. The worksheets include readings which focus on enough water for all, the water cycle (including a…

Gunn, Angus M.

65

A Study of Secondary School Humanities Programs in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to: (1) identify and describe the nature of rationales, purposes and objectives, content and content organization, methods and materials, time and staff organization, general organization, and student populations of secondary school humanities programs in the United States; and (2) identify and describe the major common…

Oehler, John Summers, Jr.

66

Sharing British Columbia's Water Resources. A Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventeen student worksheets form a secondary school unit which focuses on the challenge of shared usage of water resources. Pressure currently exists for a more balanced approach in which all legitimate interests in a water source are served. The worksheets include readings which focus on enough water for all, the water cycle (including a…

Gunn, Angus M.

67

International Students in the United States: A Guide for Secondary School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A secondary school principals' reference guide provides information on key issues concerning foreign students in the United States both in organized exchange programs and under sponsorship of relatives and friends. The topics discussed include: elements in promoting successful youth exchange programs; admissions and academic placement (initial…

National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC.

68

The cost of building and running laboratory animal units  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The general principles determining the capital and recurrent costs of laboratory animal units are considered in relation to a specified-pathogen- free rat and mouse breeding unit recently established at our laboratory. The steps taken to increase efficiency and reduce costs are also discussed. 105 The costing of laboratory animal units is of interest to all concerned with their design

A. I. T. Walker; D. E. Stevenson

1967-01-01

69

New building technologies and building energy standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Some new and emerging technologies that may affect building energy consumption are reviewed in this paper. We also describe a brief impact analysis that evaluates the sensitivity of a simulation model to changes in broad categories of building equipment and materials. The analysis results permit direct comparisons of the effect of changes in energy efficiency to these building components. Potential barriers to the use of some new building products are also discussed. The barriers, inherent in the current building energy standards, result partly from the structure of the standards and the procedures used to determine building compliance with those standards. We propose several methods for overcoming these barriers and encouraging the accommodation of new technologies within the standards. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

O`Neill, P.J.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-11-01

70

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CLARK COMPRESSOR UNIT, 4000 HORSEPOWER. ONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CLARK COMPRESSOR UNIT, 4000 HORSEPOWER. ONE OF TWO INSTALLED IN THE BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3711. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

71

The Theological Literacy, Beliefs, and Practices of Lay Administrators of Marianist-Sponsored Secondary Schools in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past 45 years, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of religious and priests working in Catholic schools in the United States. Currently, 96% of all elementary and secondary faculties are comprised of lay men and women (McDonald, 2010). This same phenomenon can be found in Marianist-sponsored secondary schools in the United…

Thompson, John

2011-01-01

72

Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5?m diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0?m size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

73

Primary and secondary treatment for Helicobacter pylori in the United States.  

PubMed

One of every 4 to 5 patients who receives antimicrobial therapy for Helicobacter pylori will not have successful eradication. Antimicrobial resistance, poor compliance with the antibiotic regimen, and drug-related side effects all play a role in determining the outcome of therapy. This article discusses the issues involved in H. pylori eradication, the mechanism of antibiotic delivery to the mucus layer of the stomach, and primary and secondary treatment strategies for H. pylori in the United States. PMID:15976737

Vakil, Nimish

2005-01-01

74

Building Stone of the United States: The NIST Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report explains how the NIST test wall was constructed to study the performance and durability of various building stones under uniform climatic conditions. It was built by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1948 and is currently located at their facility in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Users may read and see pictures of the wall's physical features, its orientation, and search among descriptions and pictures of the various types of stone which are incorporated into the wall.

Raz, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul

75

PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

Subbarao, K.

1988-09-01

76

Control of the TMI2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) reactor building environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), significant quantities of radioactive fission products, including gases, particulates, and iodine, were released into the enclosed reactor building atmosphere from failed fuel in the reactor core. Air samples of the reactor building atmosphere showed ⁸⁵Kr with a 10.7-yr half-life to be the principal remaining

G. M. Lodde; B. A. Good; D. M. Surgeoner

1988-01-01

77

Do Sports Build Character. A Study of the Intramural Sports Program of the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the premise that 'sports build character.' Educational institutions in the United States have used sports participation to build character for over 100 years, but verification of whether sport is an effective tool to accomplish charact...

D. C. Gould

2000-01-01

78

Successfully Demonstrating an Integrated Roofing and BIPV Solution for an Historic Building Renovation at the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States Air Force Academy, Vandenberg Hall, Integrated Roofing and Building-Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV) Solution for an Historic Building Renovation. Vandenberg Hall is Six Stories High + Basement, Quarter of a Mile Long, and the Window Wa...

C. Simpson F. Wellers J. G. Luna V. Rossi

2011-01-01

79

Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

80

Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

81

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2004-05.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The...

A. Garofano J. Sable

2008-01-01

82

Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

Udwin, Martin

83

Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

Mandizha, George

84

Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power

A. V. Zhukov; A. N. Komarov; A. N. Safronov; I. V. Barsukov

2009-01-01

85

Evaluation of three common green building materials for ozone removal, and primary and secondary emissions of aldehydes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone reactions that occur on material surfaces can lead to elevated concentrations of oxidized products in the occupied space of buildings. However, there is little information on the impact of materials at full scale, especially for green building materials. Experiments were completed in a 68 m3 climate-controlled test chamber with three certified green building materials that can cover large areas in buildings: (1) recycled carpet, (2) perlite-based ceiling tile and (3) low-VOC paint and primer on recycled drywall. Ozone deposition velocity and primary and secondary emission rates of C1 to C10 saturated carbonyls were determined for two chamber mixing conditions and three values of relative humidity. A direct comparison was made between ozone deposition velocities and carbonyl yields observed for the same materials analyzed in small (10 L) chambers. Total primary carbonyl emission rates from carpet, ceiling tile and painted drywall ranged from 27 to 120 ?g m?2 h?1, 13 to 40 ?g m?2 h?1, 3.9 to 42 ?g m?2 h?1, respectively. Ozone deposition velocity to these three materials averaged 6.1 m h?1, 2.3 m h?1 and 0.32 m h?1, respectively. Total secondary carbonyl emissions from these materials ranged from 70 to 276 ?g m?2 h?1, 0 to 12 ?g m?2 h?1, and 0 to 30 ?g m?2 h?1, respectively. Carbonyl emissions were determined with a transient approximation, and were found to be in general agreement with those found in the literature. These results suggest that care should be taken when selecting green building materials due to potentially large differences in primary and secondary emissions.

Gall, Elliott; Darling, Erin; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Morrison, Glenn C.; Corsi, Richard L.

2013-10-01

86

Trek 21: Building Teachers' Capacity To Develop IT-Integrated Units with Student Engagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Trek 21: Educating Teachers as Agents of Technological Change," is a 3-year PT3 implementation grant from the United States Department of Education designed to build the capacity in teacher educators (teacher education faculty, professional development school faculty, pre-service interns) to integrate technology into their teaching. The goal of…

White, Karissa; Kolar, Barry; Mitchem, Tim; Wells, John

87

Building Bridges: Effective Post-Secondary Transitions for Girls in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transitions between education cycles represent one of the greatest hazards for girls in their educational journey throughout the developing world. It is not uncommon across sub-Saharan Africa for girls' secondary enrollment rates to drop 75% from primary enrollment rates. Between the secondary level and the tertiary level, enrollment rates often…

Academy for Educational Development, 2012

2012-01-01

88

Self-Assembly and Tissue Fusion of Toroid-Shaped Minimal Building Units  

PubMed Central

A significant challenge of tissue engineering is to build tissues whose size is not limited by diffusion. We are investigating the use of scaffold-free lumen containing toroid-shaped microtissues as minimal building units. Monodispersed H35 cells, a rat hepatocyte cell line, were seeded onto micromolded agarose, forming self-assembled multicellular toroids within 48?h. Toroid and lumen diameter were easily controlled by micromold design, and toroid thickness was controlled by seeding density. When harvested, toroids were stable, but underwent predictable changes over time with their lumens narrowing. When brought into contact, these building units fused in the x–y plane, forming a double-lumen structure, as well as the z plane, forming a tubular structure, which completed within 72?h. Large, multi-luminal structures were assembled by multidimensional fusion of many toroids. Toroid settling was not entirely random, with most toroids lying flat with their lumens oriented along the z axis. The rapid production of toroid building units of controlled dimension and lumen size that undergo predictable changes and that can be fused to form larger structures is a step closer to tissue engineering large porous three-dimensional tissues with high cell density.

Livoti, Christine M.

2010-01-01

89

Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, February--April 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies.

Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

1993-05-20

90

Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition Ax[(W,Fe)(O,OH)3]·yH2O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)Å, c=19.55(1)Å, space group P63/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)Å, c=50.49(1)Å, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111)py pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111)py blocks have the same thickness, 6 Å, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12 Å. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111)py oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO3.

Grey, Ian E.; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine; Mills, Stuart J.

2006-12-01

91

Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals  

SciTech Connect

Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

Grey, Ian E. [CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)]. E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D. [Geosciences Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, Vic. 3001 (Australia); Bougerol, Catherine [Equipe CEA-CNRS NPSC SP2M/DRFMC/CEA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Mills, Stuart J. [CSIRO Minerals, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Geosciences Department, Museum Victoria, GPO Box 666, Melbourne, Vic. 3001 (Australia)

2006-12-15

92

TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1: Building units and crystal growth mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Surface fine structure and structural defects in the open framework material VSB-1 have been investigated by electron microscopy. Crystal growth phenomena are proposed by a building unit model: (i) a unit is formed by two building units; (ii) they are linked to form first channels; and (iii) the whole network is grown via a layer-by-layer growth mechanism. A planar defect was observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image taken with the [0001] incidence, and diffuse streaks related to the presence of defects were observed in a series of electron diffraction (ED) patterns. The microstructure model derived from the defect structure gives information on crystal growth. These defects highlight an open site that could be the pillar of a new crystal growth process. The study of defects and crystal growth is important in understanding physical properties such as catalytic or magnetic properties, and in synthesising a new open framework structure. - Graphical abstract: TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1 evidenced defects and information about building units and crystal growth. As usually observed for microporous materials, the crystal growth via a layer by layer mechanism.

Colmont, Marie [Structural Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: marie.Colmont@ensc-lille.fr; Terasaki, Osamu [Structural Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-03-15

93

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document\\/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document constitutes an addendum to the March 2000, Corrective Action Decision Document \\/ Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points (TTR) as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use

Lynn Kidman

2008-01-01

94

Rare Earth coordination polymers with zeolite topology constructed from 4-connected building units.  

PubMed

A series of rare earth coordination polymers, M(BTC)(DMF)(DMSO) (M = Tb (1), Ho (2), Er (3), Yb (4), Y (5)), with zeolite ABW topology have been synthesized under mild conditions. They exhibit the same three-dimensional (3D) architecture and crystallize in monoclinic symmetry space group P2(1)/n. Their structures are built up from inorganic and organic 4-connected building units, whose vertex symbols are 4.4.6.6.6.8. The building units link to each other to generate approximate 5 x 8 angstroms2 channels along the [100] direction. The luminescent and magnetic properties of these compounds are investigated, and the results reveal that they could be anticipated to be potential antiferromagnetic and fluorescent materials. PMID:16676967

Guo, Xiaodan; Zhu, Guangshan; Li, Zhongyue; Chen, Yan; Li, Xiaotian; Qiu, Shilun

2006-05-15

95

Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and\\u000a active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for\\u000a the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are\\u000a discussed. The order of switching the power

A. V. Zhukov; A. N. Komarov; A. N. Safronov; I. V. Barsukov

2009-01-01

96

Profiles of Airborne Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States  

PubMed Central

We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable airborne fungal concentrations in indoor air were lower than those in outdoor air. The fungal levels were highest in the fall and summer and lowest in the winter and spring. Geographically, the highest fungal levels were found in the Southwest, Far West, and Southeast. The most common culturable airborne fungi, both indoors and outdoors and in all seasons and regions, were Cladosporium, Penicillium, nonsporulating fungi, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys chartarum was identified in the indoor air in 6% of the buildings studied and in the outdoor air of 1% of the buildings studied. This study provides industrial hygienists, allergists, and other public health practitioners with comparative information on common culturable airborne fungi in the United States. This is the largest study of airborne indoor and outdoor fungal species and concentrations conducted with a standardized protocol to date.

Shelton, Brian G.; Kirkland, Kimberly H.; Flanders, W. Dana; Morris, George K.

2002-01-01

97

Building Bridges between Primary and Secondary Science for Children and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors introduce the Improving Science Together (IST) project (2000-2002), funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. The project was a partnership between 20 primary and 4 secondary schools in Bristol and South Gloucestershire, LEA advisory staff, BAE Systems, and the primary science team at Bath Spa University…

McMahon, Kendra; Davies, Dan

2003-01-01

98

How to Build the Master Schedule in 10 Easy Steps: A Guide for Secondary School Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is an incredibly valuable resource to anyone involved in building a master schedule. The author provides a comprehensive description of the processes involved and makes the reader aware of what needs to be considered and done throughout the process. One of the most time-consuming tasks for school leaders is creating a master schedule…

Kussin, Steven S.

2007-01-01

99

Accredited Secondary Schools in the United States. Bulletin, 1934, No. 17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In more than 90 percent of the American colleges the prevailing method of transfer from secondary school to college is by certification, based on the pupil's record in secondary school. In the large majority of cases a record of graduation from an accredited secondary school is required to every student admitted to college. When it is considered…

Carr, Margaret J. S.

1934-01-01

100

Accredited Secondary Schools in the United States. Bulletin, 1939, No. 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In more than 90 percent of the American colleges the prevailing method of transfer from secondary school is by certification, based on the pupil's record in secondary school. In the large majority of cases a record of graduation from an accredited secondary school is required of every student admitted to college. When it is considered that in…

Carr, Margaret J. S.

1939-01-01

101

United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2000-2001: The Annual Statistical Report on Schools, Enrollment and Staffing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a statistical report on Catholic elementary and secondary schools in the United States. The first part of this report presents data concerning an overview of the historical dimensions of Catholic education and the context of American education in which private schools operate. The second part includes Catholic school enrollment…

McDonald, Dale

102

Secondary organic aerosol characterization at field sites across the United States during the spring-summer period  

EPA Science Inventory

Sources of secondary organic carbon at 15 field sites across the United States (U.S.) during the years 2003-2010 have been examined. Filter samples have been taken for 24-h at a site in Research Triangle Park, NC; at SEARCH sites in southeastern U.S. during May and August 2005; ...

103

National Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. Jacobs and Kritsonis say the time is now for educators to be recognizant…

Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

2006-01-01

104

Energy conservation standards: Promoting energy efficient new non-residential buildings in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the past fifteen years, a number of energy conservation standards for the design of new non-residential buildings have been promulgated in the United States. These vary in their approach from component level prescription of minimum efficiencies or levels of insulation to whole-building energy goals. Over the past five years, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) of North America have been cooperatively developing the next generation of energy conservation standards for the United States. This paper describes those efforts and provides a comparison of the anticipated benefits (energy savings) resulting from recently adopted standards (the US Department of Energy Non-Residential Standards, and ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90. 1P). A series of annual energy simulations of various types of non-residential buildings was performed to assess the impacts of the requirements of the standards. The results of these simulations (using the DOE-2.1C hourly energy simulation program) are presented and discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Crawley, D.B.

1989-08-01

105

Independent engineering report and certification for closure of building 419 equipment including the size reduction unit & solidification unit at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closure of Building 419 Equipment Including the Size Reduction Unit and Solidification Unit December 31, 1996 Closure activities began in June, 1995 and equipment closure activities were completed in December, 1996. This report determines final closure for B419 Equipment, and was prepared and submitted to LLNL in the final stage of the work. CE performed the Independent Engineering services at

1996-01-01

106

Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 94: Building 650 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 94, will be clean closed by removal in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) operational permit and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Historically, laboratory effluent was discharged through pipelines leading from the Radiochemistry Laboratory in Building 650 to a distribution box and a series of pipes dispersed across the leachfield. Effluent from the laboratory contained both hazardous and radioactive constituents. Discharge of hazardous and radioactive waste began in 1965. Discharge of radioactive waste ended in 1979 and hazardous waste discharge ended in 1987. From 1987 to 1993 the leachfield was used for the disposal of non-hazardous waste water. The piping leading to the leachfield was sealed in 1993.

NONE

1998-03-01

107

AmericaÂs ÂSecond City proposes United States tallest building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the birthplace of the skyscraper, it seems almost fitting that plans were announced this week heralding a proposed 115-story skyscraper on ChicagoÂs lakefront. The team behind the project includes Christopher Carley, a local developer, and the renowned ÂstarchitectÂ, Santiago Calatrava. Renderings of the proposed skyscraper (which would be the tallest in the United States) indicate that the slender structure would rise close to 2000 feet in the air and that its total square footage would be a very modest 920,000 square feet. The building, which would be called the Fordham Spire, faces an uphill battle, in no small part due to the fact that similarly proposed projects in Chicago have faced massive financing challenges. In a recent interview, Carley indicated that the presence of Calatrava would be of great assistance in securing monies for the project, and that he would like to get started as soon as possible. Carley may face another obstacle in the form of residents in the other tony highrises in the area, many of whom have expressed strong resistance to previous projects in their neighborhood. Of course, other skeptics have emerged, including Donald Trump (who is also building one of his signature buildings in Chicago). Trump noted that, ÂIn this climate, I would not want to build that building. Nor would I want to live in that building.ÂThe first link leads to a comprehensive news story on the proposed skyscraper from this TuesdayÂs _Chicago Sun-Times_, complete with a few choice photographic renderings of the yet-to-be built structure. The second link will take users to a CNN piece about the shimmering structure from this WednesdayÂs online edition. The third link will take interested parties to a commentary piece on the nature of ChicagoÂs Âsuperlatives," offered by Mary Schmich of the _Chicago Tribune_. The fourth link leads to an editorial from the Tribune on the whole concept of skyscrapers and such tall buildings, and closes by saying that, ÂWhat ultimately constitutes Chicago or any city is the spaces between those buildingsÂ. The fifth link leads to the official website for Santiago Calatrava. Here visitors may learn about his previous works and his overall design philosophy as expressed through his various commissions. The sixth and final link leads to the homepage of the Trump Chicago complex, which is currently under construction along the Chicago River.

108

Spherical TiO2 aggregates with different building units for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailoring the architectures of spherical TiO2 aggregates is crucial to obtain superior photovoltaic properties and promote their application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we synthesized spherical TiO2 aggregates using different building units, including nanocrystallites, nanorods, nanosheets, and nanotubes, via a hydrothermal method, and studied the effect of the building units on the performances of DSSCs. The aggregates assembled by uniform nanosheet and nanotube building units were synthesized with the use of spherical TiO2 nanorod aggregates as titanium sources in an alkaline hydrothermal reaction. Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, the spherical TiO2 aggregates possess higher surface area, more efficient light scattering ability, and better electron transport properties. Among the four types of spherical TiO2 aggregates; the nanorod, nanotube, and nanosheet aggregates demonstrate better electron transport properties than the nanocrystallite aggregates; the nanotube and nanosheet aggregates exhibit more efficient light scattering than the nanocrystallite and nanorod aggregates; and the nanotube aggregates show the highest surface area. Thus the DSSC based on nanotube aggregates exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 7.48%, which is 16.0%, 9.7%, and 19.5% higher than those of the DSSCs based on the nanosheet, nanorod, and nanocrystallite aggregates, respectively.Tailoring the architectures of spherical TiO2 aggregates is crucial to obtain superior photovoltaic properties and promote their application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we synthesized spherical TiO2 aggregates using different building units, including nanocrystallites, nanorods, nanosheets, and nanotubes, via a hydrothermal method, and studied the effect of the building units on the performances of DSSCs. The aggregates assembled by uniform nanosheet and nanotube building units were synthesized with the use of spherical TiO2 nanorod aggregates as titanium sources in an alkaline hydrothermal reaction. Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, the spherical TiO2 aggregates possess higher surface area, more efficient light scattering ability, and better electron transport properties. Among the four types of spherical TiO2 aggregates; the nanorod, nanotube, and nanosheet aggregates demonstrate better electron transport properties than the nanocrystallite aggregates; the nanotube and nanosheet aggregates exhibit more efficient light scattering than the nanocrystallite and nanorod aggregates; and the nanotube aggregates show the highest surface area. Thus the DSSC based on nanotube aggregates exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 7.48%, which is 16.0%, 9.7%, and 19.5% higher than those of the DSSCs based on the nanosheet, nanorod, and nanocrystallite aggregates, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TEM and SEM images, XRD pattern, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01767b

Liu, Zhaohui; Su, Xunjia; Hou, Genliang; Bi, Song; Xiao, Zhou; Jia, Haipeng

2013-08-01

109

TMI2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) reactor building basement concrete activity distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the March 1979 accident, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building basement wall and floors were submerged in up to 2.6 m (8.5 ft) of water at an activity concentration of 4.8 BBq{center dot}l⁻¹ (0.13 mCi{center dot}ml⁻¹) of ¹³⁷Cs. This radioactivity penetrated the coated and uncoated concrete surfaces to various depths over a 2.5-yr

P. J. Babel; R. E. Lancaster; C. H. Distenfeld

1988-01-01

110

Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved.

Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

2002-01-01

111

What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Dube, Peter

112

Competitive Foods and Beverages Available for Purchase in Secondary Schools--Selected Sites, United States, 2004  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each…

Kann, L.; Grunbaum, J.; McKenna, M. L.; Wechsler, H.; Galuska, D. A.

2005-01-01

113

Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Hosking, Bunty

114

Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Hosking, Bunty

115

What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Dube, Peter

116

Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Stocklmayer, Sue

117

What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Dube, Peter

118

What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Dube, Peter

119

Patterns, structures, and amino acid frequencies in structural building blocks, a protein secondary structure classification scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study local structures in proteins, we previously developed an autoasso- ciative artificial neural network (autoANN) and clustering tool to discover intrinsic fea- tures of macromolecular structures. The hid- den unit activations computed by the trained autoANN are a convenient low-dimensional encoding of the local protein backbone struc- ture. Clustering these activation vectors re- sults in a unique classification of

Jacquelyn S. Fetrow; Michael J. Palumbo; George Berg

1997-01-01

120

Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or “clean,” building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, “Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201”) was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room into one of three categories: Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 (a fourth category is a “Non-Impacted Class” which in the case of Building 2201 only pertained to exterior surfaces of the building.) The majority of the rooms were determined to fall in the less restrictive Class 3 category, however, Rooms 102, 104, 106, and 107 were identified as containing Class 1 and 2 areas. Building 2201 was divided into “survey units” and surveyed following the requirements of the Final Status Survey Plan for each particular class. As each survey unit was completed and documented, the survey results were evaluated. Each sample (static measurement) with units of counts per minute (cpm) was corrected for the appropriate background and converted to a value with units of dpm/100 cm2. With a surface contamination value in the appropriate units, it was compared to the surface contamination limits, or in this case the derived concentration guideline level (DCGLw). The appropriate statistical test (sign test) was then performed. If the survey unit was statistically determined to be below the DCGLw, then the survey unit passed and the null hypothesis (that the survey unit is above limits) was rejected. If the survey unit was equal to or below the critical value in the sign test, the null hypothesis was not rejected. This process was performed for all survey units within Building 2201. A total of thirty-three “Class 1,” four “Class 2,” and one “Class 3” survey units were developed, surveyed, and evaluated. All survey units successfully passed the statistical test. Building 2201 meets the release criteria commensurate with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (for radiological purposes) of the U10C landfill permit residing within NNSS boundaries. Based on the thorough statistical sampling and scanning of the building’s interior, Building 2201 may be considered radiologically “clean,” or free of contamination.

Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

2010-09-30

121

Updating of Control Valves for the Feed System of the Secondary Coolant Circuit of the VVÉR-1000 Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations in the operation of Du 400 shutter control valves used in the feed system of secondary coolant circuits of VVÉR-1000 power-generating units are described. A method is suggested for removing these limitations by equipping the control valves with an unloaded gate and anti-cavitation protection of the flowing channel. The technical characteristics and description of the design of the updated

N. P. Zubkov; A. Ya. Filin; N. M. Aksenov

2004-01-01

122

Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

123

Single Unit "Pauser" Characteristics of the Globus Pallidus Pars Externa Distinguish Primary Dystonia from Secondary Dystonia and Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The presence of high frequency discharge neurons with long periods of silence or “pauses” in the globus pallidus pars externa (GPe) are a unique identifying feature of this nucleus. Prior studies have demonstrated that pause characteristics reflect synaptic inputs into GPe. We hypothesized that GPe pause characteristics should distinguish movement disorders whose basal ganglia network abnormalities are different. We examined pause characteristics in 224 GPe units in patients with primary generalized dystonia, Parkinson's disease (PD), and secondary dystonia, undergoing single unit microelectrode recording for DBS placement in the awake state. Pauses in neuronal discharge were identified using the Poisson surprise method. Mean pause length in primary dystonia (606.8±373.3) was higher than in PD (557.4±366.6) (p<0.05). Interpause interval (IPI) was lower in primary dystonia (2331.6±3874.1) than PD (3646.4±5894.5) (p<0.01), and mean pause frequency was higher in primary dystonia (0.14±0.10) than PD (0.07±0.12) (p<0.01). Comparison of pause characteristics in primary versus secondary generalized dystonia revealed a significantly longer mean pause length in primary (606.8±373.3) than in secondary dystonia (495.6±236.5) (p<0.01). IPI was shorter in primary (2331.6±3874.1) than in secondary dystonia (3484.5±3981.6) (p<0.01). The results show that pause characteristics recorded in the awake human GPe distinguish primary dystonia from Parkinson's disease and secondary dystonia. The differences may reflect increased phasic input from striatal D2 receptor positive cells in primary dystonia, and are consistent with a recent model proposing that GPe provides capacity scaling for cortical input.

Sani, Sepehr; Ostrem, Jill L.; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Levesque, Nadja; Starr, Philip A.

2008-01-01

124

24 CFR 983.261 - When occupancy may exceed 25 percent cap on the number of PBV units in each building.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false When occupancy may exceed 25 percent cap on the number of PBV units in each building...261 When occupancy may exceed 25 percent cap on the number of PBV units in each building...contract units in excess of the 25 percent cap pursuant to § 983.56(a)....

2013-04-01

125

War: Images of America. Social Studies Unit, Secondary Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide helps secondary school teachers supplement social studies materials dealing with wars over the past 200 years. Using authentic visuals including paintings, drawings, engravings, posters, photographs, songsheets, and…

Franklin, Edward; And Others

126

SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL IN THE UNITED STATES USING MODELS AND MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this presentation, three diagnostic evaluation methods of model performance for carbonaceous aerosol are reviewed. The EC-tracer method is used to distinguish primary and secondary carbon, radiocarbon data are used to distinguish fossil-fuel and contemporary carbon, and organ...

127

Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.  

PubMed

The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. PMID:23102641

del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

2012-10-25

128

Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, March 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

ITLV

1999-03-01

129

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 55, Number 10, March 17, 2006. Primary and Secondary Syphilis - United States, 2003-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Primary and Secondary Syphilis United States, 2003-2004; Methamphetamine Use and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Heterosexual Men - Preliminary Results from Five Northern California Counties, December 2001- November 2003; Increased Antiviral Medication...

2006-01-01

130

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2005-06. Statistical Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The...

A. Garofano J. Sable L. Hoffman

2008-01-01

131

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The...

C. Plotts C. S. Chen J. Sable L. Mitchell

2010-01-01

132

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2007-08. Statistical Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The...

C. Plotts J. Sable

2010-01-01

133

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2003-04. Statistical Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The...

B. Dalton J. Sable L. Hoffman

2006-01-01

134

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2006-07. Statistical Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The...

J. Sable J. Tang L. Hoffman

2009-01-01

135

A novel PWM control in the secondary side driven of power supply unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a novel varying-frequency isolated drive power supply method using an isolation method to drive a primary side high-voltage circuit of a power supply by a secondary side PWM, while using a varying-frequency method as a control method to enhance effectiveness and efficiency. The control method mainly focuses on the importance of present power management and energy saving,

Jia-Shing Sheu; Chang-Hsing Chen; Ho-Nien Shou; Chang-Huang Chen

2011-01-01

136

Crowning the Cathedral of Florence: Brunelleschi Builds His Dome. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit focuses on a dramatic moment in the Renaissance from about 1420 when Filippo Brunelleschi single handedly created, defined, and engineered a new architecture by building the great dome of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. The dome became the symbol of Florence's grandeur during the Renaissance, and a model for great…

Symcox, Linda

137

TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI\\/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for

C. Eddy-Dilek; D. Miles; R. Abitz

2009-01-01

138

Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield.

NONE

1998-01-27

139

American Majorities and Minorities: A Syllabus of United States History for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterned after traditional curricula currently used in our nation's schools, this syllabus integrates into the course of study the contributions of Afro-Americans and other minorities to our common heritage and aims for the preparation of good citizens. Each unit of this 36-38 week course is offered as a basis for preparing daily lesson plans and…

Halliburton, Warren J.; Katz, William Loren

140

A Proposed Press Law and Responsibilities Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prompted in part by recent survey results showing that Americans neither know nor care very much about the First Amendment to the Constitution nor the press's role in defending and exercising the rights it guarantees, a teaching unit was designed to increase students' understanding and appreciation of the First Amendment and its implied…

Eveslage, Thomas

141

Cooling energy savings potential of reflective roofs for residential and commercial buildings in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof reflectivity on cooling and heating energy use for buildings in the US. Prototypical buildings are simulated with reflective (light in color) and absorptive (dark in color) roofs. Differences of annual cooling and heating energy use and peak electricity demand between dark and light roofs yield the savings. The DOE-2 building energy

H Akbari; S Konopacki; M Pomerantz

1999-01-01

142

Secondary Prevention of HIV in the United States: Past, Current, and Future Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a synopsis of past, current, and potential next-generation approaches to prevention for positives (PfP) interventions in the United States. Findings/Summary For a variety of reasons, PfP interventions, with the goals of limiting HIV transmission from people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) to others, and protecting the health of PLWHA, did not appear with any frequency in the United States until about 2000. Even today, the number and breadth of evidence-based PfP interventions is very limited. Nevertheless, meta-analytic evidence demonstrates that such interventions can be effective, perhaps even more so than interventions targeting HIV-uninfected individuals. We review early and more recent PfP interventions and suggest that next-generation PfP interventions must involve behavioral and biologic components and target any element that affects HIV risk behavior and/or infectivity. Next generation PfP should include increased HIV testing to identify additional PLWHA, components to initiate and maintain HIV care, to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) and promote adherence, and to reduce sexual and injection drug use risk behavior, as well as ancillary treatments and referrals to services. Comprehensive next-generation PfP, including all of these elements and effective linkages among them, is depicted in Figure 1.

Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Smith, Laramie R.; Lenz, Erin M.

2010-01-01

143

Proceedings of the United States Office of Education Region V and the National Association of Secondary School Principals Conference on Articulation Between Secondary and Post-Secondary Education (Chicago, Illinois, December 1-2, 1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study prepared by a special task force of the National Association of Secondary School Principals is a report on articulation between secondary and post-secondary education. Included are presentations given by distinguished educators representing secondary schools, college and universities, vocational technical schools, proprietary…

Britton, Ronald B., Ed.

144

Certification tests of the 215-MW power unit at the Pskov district power station for conformity with the standards under which the units of thermal power stations may participate in the standardized primary and automatic secondary control of frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of the certification tests of the station No. 1 power unit of the Pskov district power station that were carried out in October 2006 and aimed at checking if the unit complies with the requirements for the standardized primary and automatic secondary control of the frequency in a power system.

Prytkov, N. I.; Fedorov, V. V.; Komarov, K. V.; Davydov, N. I.; Zorchenko, N. V.; Zhiganov, M. A.

2007-10-01

145

Secondary school health education related to nutrition and physical activity--selected sites, United States, 2004.  

PubMed

Eating a healthful diet and engaging in physical activity have important health benefits for youths, such as reducing overweight, a condition that affected 17% of those aged 12-19 years during 2003-2004. School health education that includes information about nutrition and physical activity is an important component of a comprehensive approach to improving dietary behavior, reducing sedentary behavior, and increasing physical activity among youths. A previous study suggested that professional development for health education teachers helps ensure the quality of health education instruction. To identify which nutrition and physical activity topics are being taught in school health education courses and what percentage of lead health education teachers have received professional development on nutrition and physical activity, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools (i.e., middle, junior high, and senior high schools) serving students in grades 6-12 in 25 states and 10 large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that in 2004, approximately one half to three fourths of schools in the participating states and school districts taught all 15 nutrition and dietary behavior topics listed in the School Health Profiles questionnaire in a required health education course, and approximately one third to two thirds taught all 12 physical activity and fitness topics. State and local education agencies should continue to encourage schools to provide education on nutrition and physical activity as part of a coordinated school health program and promote staff development for health education teachers. PMID:16888611

2006-08-01

146

Vertebral fracture secondary to suicide attempt: demographics and patient outcome in a Scottish spinal rehabilitation unit  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish occurrence, method of injury, length of stay (LOS), psychiatric diagnosis, rehabilitation outcome, and demographic data for those admitted to a Scottish Spinal Injuries Rehabilitation Unit as a consequence of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Design A retrospective audit of case-notes and electronic databases of admissions and rehabilitation outcome in a spinal cord injury (SCI) unit where the mechanism of injury was (DSH). Results Forty-six (44 having detailed data available) patients were identified with 95% of injuries resulting from falls. Thirty-six people had pre-existing mental health problems (82%) with 15 (34%) having this diagnosis established shortly after admission. Seventy-five per cent received follow-up from mental health services. Ninety-five per cent returned to their pre-injury (or similar) residence. LOS and functional independence measure (FIM) for the DSH group were compared with a non-DSH group. No differences were found in those with SCI. LOS was significantly longer in the patients with vertebral fracture and no neurological impairment (32 versus 22 days). Sixty-four per cent of those who had self-harmed had substance dependence problems. The predominance of falls (63%) occurred in a residential setting. Annual admissions due to individuals self-harming were stable across the studied period. Conclusions Spinal column fracture in the DSH group is predominantly caused by falls. High levels of mental health and substance abuse problems are noted necessitating formal mental health assessment and follow-up. DSH as a mechanism for injury appears to have a significant impact on LOS only if the patient has fracture without SCI. Immediate rehabilitation outcomes are similar to that of non-DSH group.

Anderson, James; Allan, David B.

2011-01-01

147

Independent engineering report and certification for closure of building 419 equipment including the size reduction unit {ampersand} solidification unit at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Closure of Building 419 Equipment Including the Size Reduction Unit and Solidification Unit December 31, 1996 Closure activities began in June, 1995 and equipment closure activities were completed in December, 1996. This report determines final closure for B419 Equipment, and was prepared and submitted to LLNL in the final stage of the work. CE performed the Independent Engineering services at the request of Ms Dixie Finley of LLNL, as part of the B419 Closure Plan requirement. B419 was constructed by the Navy in the 1940s and used by the Navy for various purposes related to airplane maintenance. In later years, the building was used by a health chemistry program as an assay laboratory. Since 1975, the building has been used by LLNL for equipment decontamination and hazardous and mixed waste treatment activities known as size reduction and solidification. These activities which were covered by the LLNL Part B Permit Application, were discontinued in late 1989 because B419 could not meet the seismic guidelines of the Uniform Building Code (UBC). B419 is a 7, 860 ft square structure consisting of three areas. The middle area has a second floor (attic area); the other two areas (north side and south side) have one floor. The size reduction activities occurred in the south side of the building (room 124), while the solidification activities occurred in the north side (rooms 155 and 167). Documentation for closure of B419 was submitted on September 23, 1994 to DTSC. The documentation consisted of a letter, together with the Closure Plan, Sa1017 Sampling and Analysis Plan, and Health and Safety Plan. A revision to this documentation was sent to DTSC on November 14, 1996, reflecting a two-phase closure for B419 as follows: RCRA Equipment Closure phase to be completed and certified by December 31, 1996. RCRA Structural Closure phase to be extended to September, 1997. This current report certifies the final B419 RCRA Equipment Closure including the Size Reduction Unit and the Solidification Unit.

Chow Engineering, Inc.

1996-12-31

148

Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor building  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes assumptions and procedures used to perform thermal damage analysis caused by post loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) hydrogen deflagration at Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. Examination of available photographic evidence yields data on the extent and range of thermal and burn damage. Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns.

Alvares

1985-01-01

149

Evaluation of radionuclide penetration of structural concrete surfaces in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building  

Microsoft Academic Search

The March 28, 1979 loss-of-coolant accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) resulted in the exposure of \\/approx\\/3000 m² of reactor building internal concrete surfaces to both liquid-and vapor-borne contaminants. The period of contact between the major structural concrete surfaces and the aqueous solutions of mixed fission products ranged from a few days to several years. Exclusive of the

1988-01-01

150

Secondary Prevention in the Intensive Care Unit: Does ICU Admission Represent a "Teachable Moment?"  

PubMed Central

Objective Cigarette smoking and unhealthy alcohol use are common causes of preventable morbidity and mortality that frequently result in admission to an intensive care unit. Understanding how to identify and intervene in these conditions is important because critical illness may provide a “teachable moment.” Furthermore, the Joint Commission recently proposed screening and receipt of an intervention for tobacco use and unhealthy alcohol use as candidate performance measures for all hospitalized patients. Understanding the efficacy of these interventions may help drive evidence-based institution of programs, if deemed appropriate. Data Sources A summary of the published medical literature on interventions for unhealthy alcohol use and smoking obtained through a PubMed search. Summary Interventions focusing on behavioral counseling for cigarette smoking in hospitalized patients have been extensively studied. Several studies include or focus on critically ill patients. The evidence demonstrates that behavioral counseling leads to increased rates of smoking cessation but the effect depends on the intensity of the intervention. The identification of unhealthy alcohol use can lead to brief interventions. These interventions are particularly effective in trauma patients with unhealthy alcohol use. However, the current literature would not support routine delivery of brief interventions for unhealthy alcohol use in the medical ICU population. Conclusion ICU admission represents a “teachable moment” for smokers and some patients with unhealthy alcohol use. Future studies should assess the efficacy of brief interventions for unhealthy alcohol use in medical ICU patients. In addition, identification of the timing and optimal individual to conduct the intervention will be necessary.

Clark, Brendan J.; Moss, Marc

2011-01-01

151

Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 423, Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-02-002-0308, within CAU 423. Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The UDP is approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest of the northwest corner of Building 03-60, the Auto Maintenance Shop. Corrective Action Unit 423 is comprised of the UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60. The UDP received waste oil products from the Auto Maintenance Shop, a light-duty fleet maintenance shop in the Area 3 compound, from 1965 to 1989 or 1990 (DOE/NV, 1997).

DOE /NV

1999-06-19

152

Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

Farhar, B.C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)); Abel, F.H. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Nicholls, A.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Millhone, J.P. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

1991-08-01

153

Terrorism and Africa: A Study of Agenda Building in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agenda-building model was examined for the question of Africa and terrorism. A path analysis compared real-world events (deaths and attacks attributed to terrorism), presidential emphasis, media coverage, and foreign aid for 20 African nations. Results show a clear agenda-building trend—when nations were emphasized with a terrorism frame. Presidential emphasis of nations’ involvement in terrorism influenced media coverage and the

Wayne Wanta; Yusuf Kalyango

2007-01-01

154

Aerosol Precursor Emissions, Secondary Aerosol Production, and Climate-Forcing Gas Exchange in the Midwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol precursors in the Midwest are generated from a myriad of sources including biogenic emissions of terpenes from the Ozarks region, anthropogenic emissions of volatile and semivolatile aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from the St. Louis airshed, and agricultural emissions of ammonia (NH3), amines, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from animal husbandry and cropping systems of the Midwest Corn Belt. The deciduous and coniferous forests of the Ozarks region are significant sources of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes that are sensitive to rising CO2 levels and temperature and generate light-scattering, secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Application of nitrogen fertilizers stimulates emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural soils and crops. Nitric acid, generated through photooxidation of NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion in urban air and from soil emissions in agroecosystems, reacts rapidly with NH3 to generate light-scattering, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA). The atmospheric lifetime of N2O is about 120 years, making the substance a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 290 for a time horizon of 20 years relative to CO2. Emissions of CO2, N2O, and SIA precursors from the Midwest Corn Belt and surrounding areas are likely to increase in the near future as pastureland and prairie is converted to grow corn and other biofuel crops to meet the demand for renewable fuels. Several large river systems transport nutrients from fertilized fields of the Midwest agroecosystem to the Gulf of Mexico where plankton growth is accelerated. Microbial decomposition of plankton detritus consumes oxygen and creates a hypoxic zone, which might be a significant source of N2O.The presentation will discuss gaps in our knowledge of the production of climate-forcing species in the Midwestern United States.

Doskey, P. V.

2009-12-01

155

United Nations Seminar of Experts on Building Codes and Regulations in Developing Countries, Held at Taellberg and Stockholm (Sweden) on March 17-24, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Seminar sought to explore ways in which governments and the international community, especially UNCHS, might build upon the recommendations adopted by HABITAT: the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements. Thus, effort concentrated on examining ...

1980-01-01

156

CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action ...

1998-01-01

157

Putting "Energy" in Your Course: 1978. A Collection of Energy Teaching Units Designed by the Participants of the Energy Institute for Secondary Science and Social Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of energy teaching units is the contribution of participants in a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored institute for secondary science and social studies teachers. The objectives of the Institute were to: (1) provide an overview of past, present, and future energy problems, and (2) stimulate teachers to use this information in…

Albert, Harold E., Ed.

158

Putting "Energy" in Your Course: 1978. A Collection of Energy Teaching Units Designed by the Participants of the Energy Institute for Secondary Science and Social Science Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of energy teaching units is the contribution of participants in a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored institute for secondary science and social studies teachers. The objectives of the Institute were to: (1) provide an overview of past, present, and future energy problems, and (2) stimulate teachers to use this information in their…

Albert, Harold E., Ed.

159

Post-Secondary Education Attainment in Canada and the United States in the 1990s. Technical Paper Series. T-02-2E  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the North American Free Trade Agreement and today's knowledge-based economy, there is a premium placed on post-secondary education and the need to retain graduates in Canada. The share of graduates in the Canadian and the United States labour pools are key to competitiveness. This paper examines Canada's performance relative to the U.S. in…

Bowlby, Jeffrey W.

2002-01-01

160

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2007-08. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-349  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

Plotts, Chris; Sable, Jennifer

2010-01-01

161

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-301  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris; Mitchell, Lindsey

2010-01-01

162

“That's So Gay!”: A Study of the Deployment of Signifiers of Sexual and Gender Identity in Secondary School Settings in Australia and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

While notions of “choice”, essentialism and sexual identity have become some-what passe in the academy, the controversy associated with these notions has not waned within secondary educational settings. Official curriculum and peda-gogy in Australia and the United States is still, I will demonstrate, very much constrained by this hackneyed debate. In the first part of this article my focus is

Mary Louise Rasmussen

2004-01-01

163

Origin of long-range ferromagnetic ordering in metal-organic frameworks with antiferromagnetic dimeric-Cu(II) building units.  

PubMed

Even though metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived from antiferromagnetic dimeric-Cu(II) building units and nonmagnetic molecular linkers are known to exhibit unexpected ferromagnetic behavior, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Using a combined theoretical and experimental approach, here we reveal the origin of the long-range ferromagnetic coupling in a series of MOFs, constructed from antiferromagnetic dimeric-Cu(II) building blocks. Our studies show that the strong localization of copper vacancy states favors spontaneous spin polarization and formation of local moment. These copper vacancy-induced moments are coupled via the itinerant electrons in the conjugated aromatic linkers to establish a long-range ferromagnetic ordering. The proposed mechanism is supported by direct experimental evidence of copper vacancies and the magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops. PMID:23009199

Shen, Lei; Yang, Shuo-Wang; Xiang, Shengchang; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Bangchuan; Ng, Man-Fai; Göettlicher, Jörg; Yi, Jiabao; Li, Sean; Wang, Lan; Ding, Jun; Chen, Banglin; Wei, Su-Huai; Feng, Yuan Ping

2012-10-05

164

Environmental test chamber elucidation of ozone-initiated secondary pollutant emissions from painted wooden panels in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoor ozone readily reacts with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and produces formaldehyde as a secondary pollutant. In this study, small-scale environmental chamber experiments are performed using a painted hardwood panel to evaluate the production of VOCs and formaldehyde given different ozone concentrations and reaction times. The results reveal that of the various VOCs emitted by the panel, limonene reacts most

Yung-Tai Huang; Yaw-Kuang Chen; Cheng-Chen Chen; Che-Ming Chiang; Chia-Yen Lee

165

Synthesis of novel protected Nalpha(omega-thioalkyl) amino acid building units and their incorporation in backbone cyclic disulfide and thioetheric bridged peptides.  

PubMed

General methods for the preparation of protected Nalpha(omega-thioalkyl) amino acids building units for backbone cyclization using reductive alkylation and on-resin preparation are described. The synthesis of non-Gly Fmoc-protected S-functionalized N-alkylated amino acids is based on the reaction of readily prepared protected omega-thio aldehyde with the appropriate amino acid. Preparation of Fmoc-protected S-functionalized N-alkylated Gly building units was carried out using two methods: reaction of glyoxylic acid with Acm-thioalkylamine and an on-resin reaction of bromoacetyl resin with Trt-thioalkylamines. Three model peptides were prepared using these building units. The GlyS2 building unit was incorporated into a backbone cyclic analog of somatostatin that contains a disulfide bridge. Formation of the disulfide bridge was performed by on-resin oxidation using 12 or Tl(CF3COO-)3. Both methods resulted in the desired product in a high degree of purity in the crude. The AspS3 building unit was also successfully incorporated into a model peptide. In addition, the in situ generation of sulfur containing Gly building units was demonstrated on a Substance P backbone cyclic analog containing a thioether bridge. PMID:12005422

Gazal, S; Gellerman, G; Glukhov, E; Gilon, C

2001-12-01

166

Government roles in implementing building information modelling systems : Comparison between Hong Kong and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Building information modelling (BIM) is a paradigm shift in the architectural, engineering and construction industries which transforms processes to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the implementation of BIM in Hong Kong and the USA and recommend strategies for BIM implementation in Hong Kong. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of BIM

Andy K. D. Wong; Francis K. W. Wong; Abid Nadeem

2011-01-01

167

Building health promotion capacity in developing countries: strategies from 60 years of experience in the United States.  

PubMed

The Galway Consensus Conference articulated key definitions, principles, values, and core domains of practice as the foundation for the diffusion of health promotion across the globe. The conference occurred in the context of an urgent need for large numbers of trained health workers in developing countries, which face multiple severe threats to the health of their people. In this article, the authors draw on the experience acquired by the health promotion profession in the United States to illustrate what might be done to build health promotion capacity in developing countries. They examine the profession's experience in the areas of accreditation and certification, research and publications, advocating for the profession, and advocating for public health policy. Finally, the authors direct a challenge to the profession in the United States to extend a hand to developing countries to assist them in expanding their capacity to prepare health promotion professionals and deliver health promotion services. PMID:19447941

Howze, Elizabeth H; Auld, M Elaine; Woodhouse, Lynn D; Gershick, Jessica; Livingood, William C

2009-05-15

168

Camel Single-domain Antibodies as Modular Building Units in Bispecific and Bivalent Antibody Constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-domain antibodies against various antigens are isolated from the unique heavy-chain antibodies of immunized camels and llamas. These minimal sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. We evaluated the feasibil- ity to produce soluble, functional bispecific and bivalent antibodies in Escherichia coli with camel single-domain antibody fragments as building blocks. Two

Katja Els Conrath; Mark Lauwereys; Lode Wyns; Serge Muyldermans

2001-01-01

169

IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias [Laboratoire de Materiaux a Porosite Controlee (UMR 7016 CNRS, ENSCMu, UHA), 3 rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Paillaud, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Materiaux a Porosite Controlee (UMR 7016 CNRS, ENSCMu, UHA), 3 rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)], E-mail: Jean-Louis.Paillaud@uha.fr; Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic [Laboratoire de Materiaux a Porosite Controlee (UMR 7016 CNRS, ENSCMu, UHA), 3 rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Ersen, Ovidiu [IPCMS-GSI, UMR 7504 (CNRS, ULP), 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg, Cedex 2 (France); Bats, Nicolas [IFP-Lyon, BP3, 69360 Solaize (France)

2009-03-15

170

Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of

N. Brown; S. J. Parkinson; R. M. Cornell; A. T. Staples

2006-01-01

171

Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

172

Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

173

Forces. 'O' Level Teacher's Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Udwin, Martin

174

Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Hosking, Bunty

175

Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Hosking, Bunty

176

Teaching in the Face of Academic Diversity: Unit Planning and Instruction by Secondary Teachers to Enhance Learning in Inclusive Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher planning is a highly personal process, one that may be relatively complex when teachers attempt to differentiate instruction. Planning and individualizing instruction also may be problematic, particularly in secondary school settings, because of the curricular demands and the systemic variables that distinguish secondary from elementary schools (Cuban, 1993; Schumaker & Deshler, 1988). The purpose of this study was to

Daniel J. Boudah; B. Keith Lenz; Jean B. Schumaker; Donald D. Deshler

2008-01-01

177

Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Chidume, Kwashira

178

Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Chidume, Kwashira

179

Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Simango, Sam

180

Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Simango, Sam

181

Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

Stocklmayer, Sue

182

Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Stocklmayer, Sue

183

Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

Stocklmayer, Sue

184

Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Stocklmayer, Sue

185

Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Zesaguli, Josie

186

Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

Zesaguli, Josie

187

Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Hosking, Bunty

188

Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities…

Hosking, Bunty

189

Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Chidume, Kwashira

190

Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

Chidume, Kwashira

191

The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Stocklmayer, Sue

192

The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Stocklmayer, Sue

193

Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

Mandizha, George

194

Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Chidume, Kwashira

195

Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Chidume, Kwashira

196

Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

Hosking, Bunty

197

Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

Hosking, Bunty

198

Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic

Matthew S. Merrifield; Ellen Hines; Xiaohang Liu; Michael W. Beck; Simon Thrush

2011-01-01

199

A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

2012-01-01

200

‘Building democracy’ through foreign aid: The limitations of United States political conditionalities, 1992–96  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the record of the United States government in promoting democratic reform through the manipulation of development aid flows between 1992 and 1996. The first section reviews the origins of the policy of political conditionality and the subsequent changes in the US Agency for International Development. The next section evaluates the policy's execution by considering trends in the

Steven W. Hook

1998-01-01

201

A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

2012-01-01

202

Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need

WIlliam W Stead; Brian J Kelly; Robert M Kolodner; M S Sridhar

2005-01-01

203

Viewpoint Paper: Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need

William W. Stead; Brian J. Kelly; Robert M. Kolodner

2005-01-01

204

The fluidized-bed catalytic cracking unit building its future environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) has been considered as one of the largest catalytic process in the world. FCC is the name for a complex process unit that cracks long molecules from gas oils and residua into added value shorter fuel compounds; additionally, this process can be used to produce important petrochemical precursors, such as propylenes. Although historically FCC has been

Gladys Jiménez-García; Ricardo Aguilar-López; Rafael Maya-Yescas

2011-01-01

205

Building Program Acceptability: Perceptions of Gay and Bisexual Men on Peer or Prevention Case Manager Relationships in Secondary HIV Prevention Counseling  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in integrating HIV prevention counseling for HIV-infected gay and bisexual men into HIV primary care. HIV-infected peers and professionally trained prevention case managers (PCMs) have been used to provide prevention counseling services. The current qualitative study seeks to examine participant perceptions of the acceptability of HIV-infected peer counselors and of trained prevention case managers from the perspective of 41 HIV-infected gay and bisexual men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-infected men who were currently receiving primary HIV health care. Positive peer counselor themes included shared experiences and para-professional. Positive themes specific to the PCM relationships included were provision of resources and professional skills and knowledge. Common themes identified across both peer and PCM counselor relationships were creating a comfortable environment, non-judgmental stance, and rapport building/communication skills. Recommendations for HIV secondary prevention interventions are presented.

DRISKELL, JEFFREY R.; O'CLEIRIGH, CONALL; COVAHEY, CHARLES; RIPTON, JESSICA; MAYER, KENNETH; PERRY, D'HANA; SALOMON, ELIZABETH; SAFREN, STEVEN

2013-01-01

206

Sources of particulate matter in the northeastern United States in summer: 1. Direct emissions and secondary formation of organic matter in urban plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship and aircraft measurements of aerosol organic matter (OM) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were made in fresh and aged pollution plumes from major urban areas in the northeastern United States in the framework of the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) study. A large part of the variability in the data was quantitatively described by a simple parameterization from a previous study that uses measured mixing ratios of CO and either the transport age or the photochemical age of the sampled air masses. The results suggest that OM was mostly due to secondary formation from anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors in urban plumes. Approximately 37% of the secondary formation can be accounted for by the removal of aromatic precursors using newly published particulate mass yields for low-NOx conditions, which are significantly higher than previous results. Of the secondary formation, 63% remains unexplained and is possibly due to semivolatile precursors that are not measurable by standard gas chromatographic methods. The observed secondary OM in urban plumes may account for 35% of the total source of OM in the United States and 8.5% of the global OM source. OM is an important factor in climate and air quality issues, but its sources and formation mechanisms remain poorly quantified.

de Gouw, J. A.; Brock, C. A.; Atlas, E. L.; Bates, T. S.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Kuster, W. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Matthew, B. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Onasch, T. B.; Peltier, R. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Senff, C. J.; Stohl, A.; Sullivan, A. P.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Weber, R. J.; Williams, E. J.

2008-04-01

207

Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

2008-06-17

208

Building Community Resilience: What Can the United States Learn From Experiences in Other Countries?  

PubMed

Objectives:  Community resilience (CR) is emerging as a major public policy priority within disaster management and is one of two key pillars of the December 2009 US National Health Security Strategy. However, there is no clear agreement on what key elements constitute CR. We examined exemplary practices from international disaster management to validate the elements of CR, as suggested by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21 (HSPD-21), to potentially identify new elements and to identify practices that could be emulated or adapted to help build CR. Methods:  We extracted detailed information relevant to CR from unpublished case studies we had developed previously, describing exemplary practices from international natural disasters occurring between 1985 and 2005. We then mapped specific practices against the five elements of CR suggested by HSPD-21. Results:  We identified 49 relevant exemplary practices from 11 natural disasters in 10 countries (earthquakes in Mexico, India, and Iran; volcanic eruption in Philippines; hurricanes in Honduras and Cuba; floods in Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Mozambique; tsunami in Indian Ocean countries; and typhoon in Vietnam). Of these, 35 mapped well against the five elements of CR: community education, community empowerment, practice, social networks, and familiarity with local services; 15 additional practices were related to physical security and economic security. The five HSPD-21 CR elements and two additional ones we identified were closely related to one another; social networks were especially important to CR. Conclusions:  While each disaster is unique, the elements of CR appear to be broadly applicable across countries and disaster settings. Our descriptive study provides retrospective empirical evidence that helps validate, and adds to, the elements of CR suggested by HSPD-21. It also generates hypotheses about factors contributing to CR that can be tested in future analytic or experimental research. PMID:22547118

Moore, Melinda; Chandra, Anita; Feeney, Kevin C

2012-04-30

209

Design Quality Indicator for Schools in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 2005, the United Kingdom launched a process for evaluating the design quality of primary and secondary school buildings. The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) for Schools is a tool that can assist stakeholders--teachers, parents, school governors, students, community members, local authority clients and building professionals--to achieve…

PEB Exchange, 2006

2006-01-01

210

Building regional threat-based networks for estuaries in the Western United States.  

PubMed

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S. Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

Merrifield, Matthew S; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W

2011-02-28

211

An analysis of secondary school meningococcal vaccination mandates in the United States using NIS-Teen 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the meningococcal conjugate vaccine for teens aged 11–18 years. After the recommendation of the ACIP, state response varied from non-action to mandated vaccination as condition of enrollment and vaccine education in secondary schools. Although the meningococcal vaccination coverage of adolescents has been increasing, it remains below the Healthy People 2020

James A Zottarelli

2012-01-01

212

Parental Perspectives of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Transitioning from Primary to Secondary School in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transferring from mainstream primary to secondary school can be especially problematic for children with an autism spectrum disorder. Two groups of parents (nine pretransition and six posttransition parents) contributed to this 15-month-long study. Perceptions of the pretransition group were captured through focus groups and in-depth interviews at…

Dillon, Gayle Victoria; Underwood, Jean D. M.

2012-01-01

213

The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit on the Environmental Decision-Making of Secondary School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the first phase of this study an interdisciplinary curriculum unit was developed centered on the concept of sustainable development in tropical rainforests. The centerpiece of the interdisciplinary unit was the investigation of a simulated environmental problem which required students to develop and then decide on a solution, having weighed a…

McConney, Amanda W.; And Others

214

Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the March 2000, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points (TTR) as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-51-001-0355 – Photo Shop UDP, Drains in CAU 429. It should be noted that there are no changes to CAU 406. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

215

Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments ( Brown 1992 , Collins 1990…

Kawasaki, Keiko; Rupert Herrenkohl, Leslie; Yeary, Sherry

2004-01-01

216

Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990)…

Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

2004-01-01

217

Parental Perspectives of Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders Transitioning From Primary to Secondary School in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferring from mainstream primary to secondary school can be especially problematic for children with an autism spectrum disorder. Two groups of parents (nine pretransition and six posttransition parents) contributed to this 15-month-long study. Perceptions of the pretransition group were captured through focus groups and in-depth interviews at three critical times: before transition, one term in, and after a full year

Gayle Victoria Dillon; Jean D. M. Underwood

2012-01-01

218

Effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery: A patient-based survey at a pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital.  

PubMed

Pancha karma is a modality of treatments commonly used in Ayurvedic hospitals. It has elaborate textual reference of its usage in various clinical conditions forming the basis of its extensive use in Ayurvedic clinical practice. Unfortunately, despite its unquestionable popularity and usage among Ayurvedic physicians and patients, it has not been evaluated rigorously on scientific parameters to identify its effectiveness, safety, and procedural standards. Considering the patient's opinion as an important determinant in this perspective, this study aims at identifying the patient's (actual recipients of pancha karma therapy) perception toward the effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery concerning pancha karma through a structured survey at a pre-identified pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital. Majority of the survey respondents considered these therapies as safe and effective (88%). Ninety-four percent respondents have expressed their satisfaction to the standard of services provided to them at the pancha karma unit of the hospital concerned. PMID:22253510

Rastogi, Sanjeev

2011-10-01

219

Effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery: A patient-based survey at a pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital  

PubMed Central

Pancha karma is a modality of treatments commonly used in Ayurvedic hospitals. It has elaborate textual reference of its usage in various clinical conditions forming the basis of its extensive use in Ayurvedic clinical practice. Unfortunately, despite its unquestionable popularity and usage among Ayurvedic physicians and patients, it has not been evaluated rigorously on scientific parameters to identify its effectiveness, safety, and procedural standards. Considering the patient's opinion as an important determinant in this perspective, this study aims at identifying the patient's (actual recipients of pancha karma therapy) perception toward the effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery concerning pancha karma through a structured survey at a pre-identified pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital. Majority of the survey respondents considered these therapies as safe and effective (88%). Ninety-four percent respondents have expressed their satisfaction to the standard of services provided to them at the pancha karma unit of the hospital concerned.

Rastogi, Sanjeev

2011-01-01

220

Exploitation of secondary standard for calibration in units of Dw,1 cm and assessment of several HDR brachytherapy planning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A secondary standard of the BEV, calibrated at the PTB in terms of Dw,1 cm, was used for calibration of the well-type chamber-based measuring systems used in clinics. In addition to the calibration, we tried to employ it for assessment of treatment planning systems (TPS) used for each particular afterloader. The dose to water at 1 cm distance from the source position was calculated by the TPS, using reference data from the source producer certificate. The values were compared directly with the dose measured at the same distance from the source. The comparison has been carried out for GammaMed Plus and MicroSelectron HDR sources. Differences of secondary standard measurements and TPS calculations were lower than ±5%, which is below the achievable uncertainty of both dose measurement and dose determination by the TPS. Nevertheless, it is higher than generally accepted in the case of external beam radiotherapy. Additional direct measurements in terms of Dw,1 cm may improve the safety and reliability of patient treatment. Part of the EMRP JRP T02.J06 Project ‘Increasing Cancer Treatment Efficacy Using 3D Brachytherapy’.

Gabris, Frantisek; Zeman, Jozef; Valenta, Jiri; Selbach, Hans-Joachim

2012-10-01

221

Analyzing In-State Post-Secondary Tuition Policies for Undocumented Illegal Aliens in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

For my research question I am focused on whether or not states should offer in-state tuition policies for undocumented illegal aliens who have graduated from the public K-12 school system in the United States. This question has been hotly debated over the past few years after the culmination of the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act)

Jonathon Thompson

2011-01-01

222

Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

2001-01-01

223

Views, Beliefs, & Opinions of Business Education by State Employment Service Managers in the Pacific Northwest, Secondary Principals in the Pacific Northwest, Chief State School Officers throughout the United States, State Directors of Employment & Training throughout the U.S.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State employment service managers in the Pacific Northwest, secondary principals in the Pacific Northwest, chief state school officers throughout the United States, and state directors of employment and training throughout the United States were asked to rate students on a list of 15 attributes seen as key to performance on the job. Their…

Yopp, Martha C.

224

Long-Term Electronic Technology Trends: Forecasted Impacts on Education. Paper presented to Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education (April 25, 1979).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The technological-driven future will evolve through the next decades to massively impact elementary and secondary education, starting in the 1980 decade and building toward revolutionizing education in the 1990 decade. The evolving "silicon revolution" is producing a continuing list of new electronic technology poised at the threshold for massive…

Joseph, Earl C.

225

Fast and informative flow simulations in a building by using fast fluid dynamics model on graphics processing unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast indoor airflow simulations are necessary for building emergency management, preliminary design of sustainable buildings, and real-time indoor environment control. The simulation should also be informative since the airflow motion, temperature distribution, and contaminant concentration are important. Unfortunately, none of the current indoor airflow simulation techniques can satisfy both requirements at the same time. Our previous study proposed a Fast

Wangda Zuo; Qingyan Chen

2010-01-01

226

Ag(I)/V(V) heterobimetallic frameworks generated from novel-type {Ag2(VO2F2)2(triazole)4} secondary building blocks: a new aspect in the design of SVOF hybrids.  

PubMed

A series of new silver(I)-containing MOFs [Ag(2)(tr(2)ad)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (1), [Ag(2)(VO(2)F(2))(2)(tr(2)ad)(2)]·H(2)O (2), [Ag(2)(VO(2)F(2))(2)(tr(2)eth)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (3), and [Ag(2)(VO(2)F(2))(2)(tr(2)cy)(2)]·4H(2)O (4) supported by 4-substituted bifunctional 1,2,4-triazole ligands (tr(2)ad = 1,3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)adamantane, tr(2)eth = 1,2-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)ethane, tr(2)cy = trans-1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)cyclohexane) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In these complexes, the triazole heterocycle as an N(1),N(2)-bridge links either two adjacent Ag-Ag or Ag-V centers at short distances forming polynuclear clusters. The crystal structure of compound 1 is based on cationic {Ag(2)(tr)(4)}(2+) fragments connected in a 2D rhombohedral grid network with (4,4) topology. The neighboring layers are tightly packed into a 3D array by means of argentophilic interactions (Ag···Ag 3.28 Å). Bridging between different metal atoms through the triazole groups assists formation of heterobimetallic Ag(I)/V(V) secondary building blocks in a linear V-Ag-Ag-V sequence that is observed in complexes 2-4. These unprecedented tetranuclear {Ag(2)(VO(2)F(2))(2)(tr)(4)} units (the intermetal Ag-Ag and Ag-V distances are 4.24-4.36 and 3.74-3.81 Å, respectively), in which vanadium(V) oxofluoride units possess distorted trigonal bipyramidal environment {VO(2)F(2)N}¯, are incorporated into 1D ribbon (2) or 2D square nets (3, 4) using bitopic ?(4)-triazole ligands. The valence bond calculation for vanadium atoms shows +V oxidation state in the corresponding compounds. Thermal stability and photoluminescence properties were studied for all reported coordination polymers. PMID:22831832

Senchyk, Ganna A; Bukhan'ko, Valeriy O; Lysenko, Andrey B; Krautscheid, Harald; Rusanov, Eduard B; Chernega, Alexandr N; Karbowiak, Miroslaw; Domasevitch, Konstantin V

2012-07-25

227

Absence of TLR4 Reduces Neurovascular Unit and Secondary Inflammatory Process after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade that contributes to neuronal damage and behavioral impairment. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are signaling receptors in the innate immune system, although emerging evidence indicates their role in brain injury. We have therefore investigated the role played by TLR4 signaling pathway in the development of mechanisms of secondary inflammatory process in traumatic brain injury (TBI) differ in mice that lack a functional TLR4 signaling pathway. Methods/Principal Findings Controlled cortical impact injury was performed on TLR4 knockout (KO) mice (C57BL/10ScNJ) and wild-type (WT) mice (C57BL/10ScNJ). TBI outcome was evaluated by determination of infarct volume and assessment of neurological scores. Brains were collected at 24 h after TBI. When compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice had lower infarct volumes and better outcomes in neurological and behavioral tests (evaluated by EBST and rotarod test). Mice that lacked TLR4 had minor expression of TBI-induced GFAP, Chymase, Tryptase, IL-1?, iNOS, PARP and Nitrotyrosine mediators implicated in brain damage. The translocation of expression of p-JNK, I?B-? and NF-?B pathway were also lower in brains from TLR4 KO mice. When compared to WT mice, resulted in significant augmentation of all the above described parameters. In addition, apoptosis levels in TLR4 KO mice had minor expression of Bax while on the contrary with Bcl-2. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly demonstrated that absence of TLR4 reduces the development of neuroinflammation, tissues injury events associated with brain trauma and may play a neuroprotective role in TBI in mice.

Campolo, Michela; Genovese, Tiziana; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

2013-01-01

228

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

229

Building Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Gudzak, Raymond

230

TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in the remedial decision making. The site should redo the risk calculations as the future use scenario has changed for the site. As a result, the existing model is based on very conservative assumptions that result in calculation of unreasonably low cleanup goals. Specifically, the review team proposes that LLNL consider: (1) Revising the industrial worker scenario to a reasonable maximum exposure (RME) for a site worker that performs a weekly walk down of the area for two hours for 25 years (or an alternative RME if the exposure scenario changes); (2) Revising the ESSI of 2 mg U per kg soil for the deer mouse to account for less than 0.05 of the total ingested uranium being adsorbed by the gut; (3) Revising bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for vegetation and invertebrates that are based on 100 mg of soluble uranium per kg of soil, as the uranium concentration in the slope soil does not average 100 mg/kg and it is not all in a soluble form; and (4) Measuring actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates at the site and using the actual values to support risk calculations. The team recommends that the site continue a phased approach during remediation. The activities should focus on elimination of the principal threats to groundwater by excavating (1) source material from the firing table and alluvial deposits, and (2) soil hotspots from the surrounding slopes with concentrations of U-235 and U-238 that pose unacceptable risk. This phased approach allows the remediation path to be driven by the results of each phase. This reduces the possibility of costly 'surprises', such as failure of soil treatment, and reduces the impact of remediation on endangered habitat. Treatment of the excavated material with physical separation equipment may result in a decreased volume of soil for disposal if the DU is concentrated in the fine-grained fraction, which can then be disposed of in an offsite facility at a considerable cost savings. Based on existing data and a decision to implement the recommended phased approach, the cost of characterization, excavation and physical

Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

2009-08-14

231

Building digest - general building aspects  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen bulletins are compiled covering Flush Doors; Wood Seasoning; Proportioning of Fly Ash Concrete Mix; The Yield of Mortar and Concrete Mix; Solar Water Heater - Domestic Type; Units for Living; Plastics and their Applications in Buildings; Hardboard and Particle Board; Woodwool Board; Material Constants in Building Works; Check-list for Taking Over Newly Constructed Buildings; Some Typical Enquiries and their Replies; and Energy Conservation in Buildings. These bulletins provide a comprehensive, step-by-step set of instructions on how to make and use the materials and techniques covered. Wood preservation and termite and rodent resistance of plastic pipes is also covered.

Damodaran, K.; George, J.; Rehsi, S.S.; Singh, S.; Sofat, G.C.

1981-01-01

232

Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

233

Assessment of thermal damage to polymeric materials by hydrogen deflagration in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume

Alvares

1985-01-01

234

Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith  

SciTech Connect

The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. The building contains two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements together with other supporting facilities. The original intention was to demolish the caves ahead of the building but after detailed consideration it was concluded that demolition of the building in advance of the caves was more operationally effective. As a result, the original decommissioning plan had to be reworked to reflect these changes. The paper briefly explains how this situation arose and the means by which the problems experienced were overcome by a complete revision to the decommissioning programme. The updated plan has been adopted by UKAEA and work is now proceeding apace to clear the building of redundant items, to complete decontamination of all remaining areas and facilities and to carry out detailed radiological surveys to confirm that the building structure is clean and ready for demolition. Both cave lines have been completely decontaminated to low residual levels of activity and are essentially ready for controlled demolition. This paper describes some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year with particular reference to the decommissioning techniques that gave the greatest success and the limitations of others originally considered. Some of these processes were aimed at minimising the volume of low level waste (LLW) generated by using standard off-the-shelf equipment to remove contamination from {approx}5 Ton concrete blocks recovered from both cave line structures. A novel hot-cutting technique used to remove steel coatings from sections of each block was also instrumental in assisting with achieving this objective. Finally, the paper sets out the plans that have been developed for the sequenced demolition of the building structure, the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines and the base slab. This will include details of the means by which residually contaminated and partly inaccessible items will be recovered for disposal during the demolition process. The decommissioning programme remains on schedule and has been achieved by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has greatly assisted in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a number of problems that have arisen during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M. [RWE NUKEM Limited, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Staples, A.T. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

235

CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: ? Develop corrective action objectives. ? Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. ? Develop corrective action alternatives. ? Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. ? Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: ? Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. ? Prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. Based on the review of existing data, future land use assumption, and current operations at the Tonopah Test Range, the following alternatives were developed for consideration at the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point: ? Alternative 1 - No Action ? Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls ? Alternative 3 - Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls ? Alternative 4 - In Situ Bioremediation The corrective action alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423 is Alternative 2, Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The preferred corrective action alternative was evaluated on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. The alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The alternative also meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils.

NONE

1998-06-01

236

Assessment of thermal damage to polymeric materials by hydrogen deflagration in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building  

SciTech Connect

Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations duplicate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building. These data support estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen concentration predictions based on various hydrogen production mechanisms.

Alvares, N.J.

1985-05-01

237

Secondary power systems  

SciTech Connect

In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

Not Available

1985-01-01

238

23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

239

Acción Mutua (Shared Action): a multipronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance to agencies serving Latino communities in the United States.  

PubMed

Culturally appropriate, theory-based capacity-building assistance can serve a vital role in helping HIV prevention providers remain up-to-date, effective, and responsive to those they serve. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS Project Los Angeles, in collaboration with San Francisco State University's César E. Chávez Institute, conducted full-day site visits and qualitative interviews in 2005 with mid-level management staff of CDC-funded community-based organizations delivering HIV prevention services to Latino communities in the western region of the United States. We found that agencies we visited (1) had not yet adapted the evidence-based interventions they were using at the time of our visit and (2) requested technical assistance and training in the areas of program development, evaluation, group facilitation techniques, consumer recruitment, client retention, intervention adaptation, and materials development. Findings from this needs assessment were used to inform our seven-pronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance entitled "Acción Mutua" (Shared Action). The approach emphasizes strategic partnerships, stakeholder involvement, organizational self-assessment, culturally appropriate materials development, interactive training, tailored onsite technical assistance, and professional networking opportunities. This article describes our approach in detail, the assessment process we used to develop it, and its implications for capacity-building practice. PMID:17159465

Ayala, George; Chión, Miguel; Díaz, Rafael M; Heckert, Andrea L; Nuño, Monica; del Pino, Homero E; Rodríguez, Claudia; Schroeder, Kurt; Smith, Terry

2007-01-01

240

Contributions of Selected Biogenic and Aromatic Compounds to the Formation of Tropospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol over Several Sites in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Exposure Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently undertook an integrated laboratory and field research effort to better understand the contribution of biogenic and aromatic hydrocarbons to the formation of submicron ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In the laboratory, isoprene, ?-pinene, ?-caryophyllene, 1,3-butadiene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, benzene, and toluene were individually irradiated under a wide range of conditions in a photochemical reaction chamber in the presence of nitrogen oxide (NOx). These hydrocarbons are thought to contribute to ambient SOA formation. In field studies conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC; Duke Forest in Chapel Hill, NC; Atlanta, GA; Pensacola, FL; Birmingham and Centerville, AL; Riverside, CA; Detroit, MI; Northbrook, East St. Louis and Bondville, IL; and Cincinnati, OH, ambient PM2.5 samples were collected for various periods between 2003 and 2006. The SOA collected from these laboratory experiments and the ambient PM2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) concentration and for organic tracer compounds by GC-MS using BSTFA derivatization for their identification and quantification. An organic tracer-based method was developed for estimating ambient SOA concentrations from individual SOA precursors to allow an assessment of SOA model predictions with ambient data. The results show that several major reaction products detected in SOA formed in the laboratory photooxidations were among the major compounds detected in field samples, effectively connecting laboratory and field results. Using the tracer-based method, the contributions of isoprene and monoterpenes to SOA formation show strong seasonal dependencies. However, no clear seasonal variations were observed for sesquiterpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. The contribution of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol to ambient SOA was found to be not only season dependent but also higher in locations dominated by conifers, which are believed to be the major emitters of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol into the atmosphere. The ratios of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to OC for these locations ranged from 20% during the winter to 50% and occasionally higher during the summer. In addition, during the winter season, levoglucosan (a biomass burning tracer) appeared to be a dominant contributor to ambient PM2.5 OC concentrations, while the SOA contributions remained low. However, during the summer, the SOA contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons along with OC concentrations increased, while the biomass burning contribution decreased. The limitations of these methods will also be addressed. Disclaimer: This work has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Contract EP-D-05-065 to Alion Science and Technology. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.

Jaoui, M.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Lewandowski, M.; Offenberg, J. H.; Corse, E. W.; Gerald, T.; Edney, E.

2009-12-01

242

Cohesive Tactical Units Are Effective Combat Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph discusses the importance of cohesion to build an effective tactical unit. Historically, armies that have done well in combat have been cohesive units. This monograph investigates the components that produce effective cohesive units among th...

M. W. Alexander

1994-01-01

243

Building Food Secure Communities In The Southeastern United States: A Case Study Of “Local Food For Local Power”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local Food for Local Power was a project of the Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (SSAWG 2009) that sought to strengthen the food security advocacy of communities, increase sustainable and local agricultural practices and engage community organizations in creating food system changes. Focused on the southeastern United States, SSAWG has been a supporter of small farmers and a proponent of

Christopher Adams

2010-01-01

244

The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

Ullman, Char

2010-01-01

245

Factors that Influence Participation of Students in Secondary Science and Mathematics Subjects in IB Schools Outside of the United States and Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (p<.01). Home region was the most important factor affecting participation in both math and science. Students from East, Southeast and South-Central Asia; and Eastern Europe have greater participation in math. The highest science participation came from students in East, Southern and Western Africa; and Southeast Asia. Top participators in science came from Australia/New Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of significant others in career and academic decisions. Findings indicate that performance on the PSAT- Math was the most important predictor of both science and mathematics participation. Twenty students were also interviewed. Results showed the importance of several key factors. These include the role of parents in student academic and career decisions, the importance of personal interest, and the contribution of early decisions in confidence-building.

Straffon, Elizabeth

246

Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

Heitor, Teresa V.

2008-01-01

247

(Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y} alloys assembled on Si(100) from Al-P-Si{sub 3} building units  

SciTech Connect

An original class of IV/III-V hybrid (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y}/Si(100) semiconductors have been produced via tailored interactions of molecular P(SiH{sub 3}){sub 3} and atomic Al yielding tetrahedral ''Al-P-Si{sub 3}'' building blocks. Extensive structural, optical, and vibrational characterization corroborates that these units condense to assemble single-phase, monocrystalline alloys containing 60%-90% Si (y = 0.3-1.0) as nearly defect-free layers lattice-matched to Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and density functional theory band structure calculations indicate mild compositional bowing of the band gaps, suggesting that the tuning needed for optoelectronic applications should be feasible.

Watkins, T.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States); Jiang, L.; Xu, C.; Smith, D. J.; Menendez, J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2012-01-09

248

(Si)5-2y(AlP)y alloys assembled on Si(100) from Al-P-Si3 building units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original class of IV/III-V hybrid (Si)5-2y(AlP)y/Si(100) semiconductors have been produced via tailored interactions of molecular P(SiH3)3 and atomic Al yielding tetrahedral ``Al-P-Si3'' building blocks. Extensive structural, optical, and vibrational characterization corroborates that these units condense to assemble single-phase, monocrystalline alloys containing 60%-90% Si (y = 0.3-1.0) as nearly defect-free layers lattice-matched to Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and density functional theory band structure calculations indicate mild compositional bowing of the band gaps, suggesting that the tuning needed for optoelectronic applications should be feasible.

Watkins, T.; Jiang, L.; Xu, C.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Smith, D. J.; Menéndez, J.; Kouvetakis, J.

2012-01-01

249

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

J. L. Smith

2001-01-01

250

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Plan provides the closure methods for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 423: Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), Tonoopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 423 consists of the UDP and an associated discharge pipeline extending from Building 03-60. Corrective action investigations were completed in January 1998, and are documented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (US DOE, 1998). Results indicate an asymmetrical hydrocarbon plume, measuring 11 meters (m) 35 ft in length, 6 m (20 ft) in width, and 4 to 20 m (14 to 65 ft) in depth, has formed beneath the UDP and migrated westward. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels were identified above the 100 miligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) action level specified in Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 445A (NAC 1996). The highest petroleum hydrocarbon concentration detected was 2,4000 mg/kg at 6 m, 20 ft, below surface grade as diesel. Corrective actions will consist of administrative controls and in place closure of th e UDP and its associated discharge pipeline.

Bechtel Nevada

1998-10-31

251

Metal Building Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last two decades, metal building systems have become an important part of the building construction industry. Today, almost 50% of the low-rise non-residential buildings under 150,000 square feet constructed in the United States, are metal buil...

K. E. Mikula

1988-01-01

252

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

DOE /NV

1999-05-20

253

SEASONAL AND REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: OBSERVATION-BASED ESTIMATES AND MODEL EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to the lack of an analytical technique for directly quantifying the atmospheric concentrations of primary (OCpri) and secondary (OCsec) organic carbon aerosols, different indirect methods have been developed to estimate their concentrations. In this stu...

254

The Role of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in Building Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) will provide an overview of achievements of UN- COPUOS, UNISPACE Conferences, particularly the establishment of the Programme on Space Applications and its priority thematic areas, UN-affiliated Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), the UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-Spider), and legal framework governing space activities of UN Member States. OOSA will review results of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative, particularly the development of networks of astronomical telescope facilities, planetariums, and instrument arrays for space research in developing nations. The mission of OOSA, implemented through on-going programmes developed for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007) and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) will be highlighted.

Haubold, Hans

255

Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm/sup 2/ of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm/sup 2/. The other three spots are 100 cm/sup 2/ or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10/sup 2/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/ and 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/. No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer.

Not Available

1980-02-01

256

Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program  

SciTech Connect

Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

Not Available

1998-04-01

257

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfields, Nevada Test Site, Revision 0, DOE/NV--535 UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1  

SciTech Connect

The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

US DOE Nevada Operations Office

1999-04-12

258

The rational synthesis of (10,3)-type MOFs based on tetranuclear [W(Mo)OS3Cu3]+ secondary building units.  

PubMed

The self-assembly reaction of the preformed clusters with two extended linear and trigonal rigid ligands as organic linkers afforded two 2D and 3D Mo(W)/Cu/S-based cluster polymers. They show unprecedented structure types in Mo(W)/S/Cu chemistry and exhibit strong third-order nonlinear optical properties. PMID:21826299

Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Pan, Zhao-Rui; Hu, Jin-Song; Li, Yi-Zhi; Guo, Zi-Jian; Zheng, He-Gen

2011-08-08

259

Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 263, Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nevada and includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 25-05-04 Leachfield. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action for CAU 263 is necessary. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the April 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. The purpose of the CAI was to identify the presence and the vertical and lateral extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), specifically volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivola tile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as 1,4-dichlorobenzene and p-isopropyl toluene. The subsequent investigation included direct-push environmental soil samples from within the leachfield using a Geoprobe{reg_sign} unit; field screening of soil samples for radiological constituents and VOCs; submittal of environmental and quality control samples for testing for total VOCs, total SVOCs, and gamma spectrometry; and collection of soil samples from both the liquid phase and the underlying sludge of the septic tank contents. The CAI activities determined that: (1) all total VOC and total SVOC results were below the preliminary action levels outlined in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), and (2) radiological results were not distinguishable from background concentrations identified in the CAIP. Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 263. No use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of co ntamination at the site.

None

1999-10-01

260

Building Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Building Design site bills itself as "the architects" website", and it is a claim that is quite accurate and apropos. Designed to complement their print publication, the site is a treasure-trove of material for just about anyone who is involved in any aspect of building, including architects, design theorists, planners, and so on. As the magazine is based in the United Kingdom, there's definitely a British Isles focus. Readers probably won't mind as the site offers excellent coverage of the field in the "News" section, where they can sign up to receive email updates, watch some slideshows of new and proposed buildings, and read long-form pieces. Not surprisingly, the site is keeping up with the proverbial Joneses" by offering a smattering of intelligent and lively blogs, coupled with podcasts that mix contemporary interviews and discussions with archived materials such as talks with Buckminster Fuller on his environmental philosophy.

261

The Use of Intraservice Work per Unit of Time (IWPUT) and the Building Block Method (BBM) for the Calculation of Surgical Work  

PubMed Central

Objective: We will review the contribution to the Medicare Fee Schedule (MFS) by the techniques of intensity of work per unit of time (IWPUT), the building block methodology (BBM), and the work accomplished by the American College of Surgeons General Surgery Coding & Reimbursement Committee (GSCRC) in using IWPUT/BBM to detect undervalued surgical procedures and recommend payment increases. Summary Background Data: The MFS has had a major impact on surgeons’ income since its introduction in 1992 by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) and additionally has been adopted for use by many commercial insurers. A major component of MFS is physician work, measured as the relative value of work (RVW), which has 2 components: time and intensity. These components are incorporated by: RVW = time × intensity. Methods: This work formula can be rearranged to give the IWPUT, which has become a powerful tool to calculate the amount of RVW performed by physicians. Most procedures are valued by the total RVW in the global surgical package, which includes pre-, intra-, and postoperative care for a time after surgery. Summing these perioperative components into RVW is called the building block methodology (BBM). Results: Using these techniques, the GSCRC increased the values for 314 surgery procedures during a recent CMS 5-year review, resulting in an increase to general surgeons of roughly $76 million annually. Conclusions: The use of IWPUT/BBM has been instrumental to correct payment for undervalued surgical procedures. They are powerful methods to measure RVW across specialties and to solve reimbursement, compensation, and practice management problems facing surgeons.

Mabry, Charles D.; McCann, Barton C.; Harris, Jean A.; Martin, Janet; Gage, John O.; Fischer, Josef E.; Opelka, Frank G.; Zwolak, Robert; Borman, Karen; Preskitt, John T.; Collicott, Paul E.; McGinnis, LaMar; Cohn, Isidore

2005-01-01

262

Life Insurance for Consumers: A Teacher's Guide. A Teacher Inservice Module for Secondary Level Consumer Education Units in Home Economics, Business Education, Social Studies and Related Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher-oriented learning module for secondary level consumer education teachers, the first in a series of three, was developed to provide information on life insurance and ideas for conveying this content to students. The module begins with a definition and general goals of consumer economics, an overview, a pre-test, a performance objective…

Thelen, Judith

263

Current Challenges Facing the Future of Secondary Education and Transition Services for Youth with Disabilities in the United States. Discussion Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is intended to promote discussion among professionals, policymakers, employers, parents, and individuals with disabilities concerning current and future challenges facing secondary education and transition services nationally. The issues identified and discussed should not, however, be viewed as inclusive of the full range of possible…

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET), University of Minnesota, 2004

2004-01-01

264

Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

265

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

266

Three-dimensional six-connecting organic building blocks based on polychlorotriphenylmethyl units--synthesis, self-assembly, and magnetic properties.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a three-dimensional, six-connecting, organic building block based on a robust, rigid, and open-shell polychlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) unit (radical 1) is reported, and its self-assembly properties are described in detail. The tendencies of this highly polar molecule and its hydrogenated precursor, compound 4, to form hydrogen bonds with oxygenated solvents ([1THF(6)] and [4THF(6)]) were reduced by replacing THF with diethyl ether in the crystallization process to yield two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen-bonded structures ([1(Et(2)O)(3)] and [4(Et(2)O)(3)]). The presence of direct hydrogen bonds between the radicals in the latter phase of 1 gives rise to very weak ferromagnetic intermolecular interactions at low temperatures, whereas when the radicals are isolated by THF molecules these interactions are antiferromagnetic and very weak. The role played by the carboxylic groups not only in the self-assembly properties but also in the transmission of the magnetic interactions has been illustrated by determination of the crystal structure and measurement of the magnetic properties of the corresponding hexaester radical 6, in which the close packing of molecular units gives rise to weak antiferromagnetic intermolecular interactions. Attempts to avoid solvation of the molecules in the solid state and to increase the structural and magnetic dimensionality were pursued by recrystallization of both compounds 1 and 4 from concentrated nitric acid, affording two three-dimensional (3D) robust hydrogen-bonded structures. While the structure obtained with compound 4 is characterized by the presence of polar channels and boxes containing water guest molecules along the c axis, radical 1 was oxidized to the corresponding fuchsone 10, which presented a completely different close-packed, guest-free structure. PMID:16969779

Roques, Nans; Maspoch, Daniel; Wurst, Klaus; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume

2006-12-13

267

VPI-8: A high-silica molecular sieve with a novel `pinwheel` building unit and its implications for the synthesis of extra-large pore molecular sieves  

SciTech Connect

Relatively large (up to 4 {mu}m), needle-like crystals of the high-silica molecular sieve VPI-8 are synthesized by hydrothermal methods and are subsequently calcined to remove the pore-filling organic TEA{sup +} (tetraethylammonium cation). Numerous physicochemical techniques are used to determine and characterize the structure of organic-free VPI-8. The structure is discussed with the use of two ordered topologies (la and lb) and an average structure (lc) that accounts for the possibility of structural disorder in one of the T-atoms (Sil). The symmetry and space group of the ordered structure type la (tetragonal, P4{bar O} (no. 81)) is supported by electron diffraction data and the Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron X-ray powder data based on la converges with the lowest agreement factors. The pore system of VPI-8 consists of one-dimensional channels containing 12-membered T-atom rings (12MRs) that run down the c-axis. HRTEM images along [001] confirm the general structure topology (the possible disorder occurs only along c). The structure of VPI-8 contains five unique T-atoms in atomic ratios of 1:4:4:4:4 per unit cell. These number densities are consistent with the data obtained from {sup 29}Si solid-state NMR spectra. The main feature of the VPI-8 structure is a novel `pinwheel` framework building unit that has not been observed before in microporous materials and that seems well-suited for forming extra-large pore molecular sieves. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Freyhardt, C.C.; Khodabandeh, S.; Lewis, J.E. Jr. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); and others

1996-08-07

268

[Secondary traumatization/trauma among employees in palliative care units--the products of prolonged repeated exposure to suffering and death].  

PubMed

The palliative care philosophy accepts the dying process as a natural phase in the life cycle and provides quality end of life care for terminal patients and their family members. Prolonged exposure to the physical symptoms and pain, as well as the psychological, spiritual, and existential suffering of the dying patient, may be fertile ground for the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms among palliative care teams. Work-related positive outcomes (such as compassion, satisfaction and meaning) and work-related negative outcomes (such as compassion fatigue, secondary traumatization and burnout) can exist side by side, and the unique balance between them will determine the quality of life of the worker. This review presents the current knowledge about the prevalence and causes of work-related stress outcomes among palliative care teams and measurement tools that are available. The literature review discusses secondary traumatization in palliative care teams and relevant messages for the development of treatment options, burnout prevention programs and support interventions for professionals who lead the care for terminal patients in Israel. PMID:23367727

Samson, Tali; Shvartzman, Pesach

2012-11-01

269

United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project--training and interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention.  

PubMed

Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of laboratories (reality check) and a series of training sessions. The target compounds were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Seven laboratories from five countries (Ecuador, Uruguay, Kenya, Moldova, and Fiji) participated. Most of the laboratories had no experience in determining PCBs. Although chromatograms improved considerably after the training and installation of new gas chromatographic (GC) columns at participating laboratories, the level of performance in the interlaboratory study was essentially on par with the moderate performance level achieved by European POP laboratories in the 1980s. Only some individual results were within +/-20% of the target values. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) in POP concentrations determined by laboratories in a sediment sample were >200% in a number of cases. The results for a certified herring sample were better with at least some R.S.D. values below 50% and most below 100%. Clean up was as one of the main sources of error. After inspection it was ascertained that training of laboratory staff and investments in simple consumables such as glassware and GC columns would help to improve the quality of the analysis more than major investments in expensive instrumentation. Creating an effective network of POP laboratories at different continents together with a series of interlaboratory studies and workshops is suggested to improve the measurements of POPs in these countries. PMID:18486660

de Boer, J; Leslie, H; van Leeuwen, S P J; Wegener, J-W; van Bavel, B; Lindström, G; Lahoutifard, N; Fiedler, H

2008-02-09

270

Sources of particulate matter in the northeastern United States in summer: 1. Direct emissions and secondary formation of organic matter in urban plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ship and aircraft measurements of aerosol organic matter (OM) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were made in fresh and aged pollution plumes from major urban areas in the northeastern United States in the framework of the 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) study. A large part of the variability in the data was quantitatively described

J. A. de Gouw; C. A. Brock; E. L. Atlas; T. S. Bates; F. C. Fehsenfeld; P. D. Goldan; J. S. Holloway; W. C. Kuster; B. M. Lerner; B. M. Matthew; A. M. Middlebrook; T. B. Onasch; R. E. Peltier; P. K. Quinn; C. J. Senff; A. Stohl; A. P. Sullivan; C. Warneke; R. J. Weber; E. J. Williams

2008-01-01

271

Influence of depositional environments on origin of secondary carbonates and diagenesis of organic matter, Tertiary basinal units, La Honda basin, Santa Cruz Mountains, California  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of authigenic carbonates formed in five organic-rich, deep-water units of the La Honda basin indicates that sedimentation rate and degree of bottom-water oxygenation ultimately controlled the timing, chemical environment, mineralogy, and rate of authigenic carbonate formation. Additionally, sedimentation rate and oxygenation of bottom water governed the sequence of diagenetic chemical environments, the degree of preservation of organic matter, and the source bed potential of the basinal units. The conditions necessary for the preservation of organic matter and the development of potentially good source rocks were variable. However, the occurrence of anaerobic bottom waters was the critical element in the development of excellent source rocks (i.e., Twobar Shale Member, Lambert Shale) regardless of the rate of sedimentation or the rate of primary productivity. In contrast, in basinal units characterized by oxygenated bottom waters, high rates of sedimentation, and high rates of primary productivity (Monterey Formation and Santa Cruz Mudstone Member), rapid burial of organic matter promoted highly anaerobic diagenetic environments which decreased the rate of organic matter decomposition, thereby producing units with good potential source rocks.

Hollander, D.J.; Garrison, R.E.

1989-03-01

272

A Report on Advances in Secondary Mathematics Curriculum Development in the United States and Imminent New Directions: Core-Plus Mathematics as a Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses the Core-Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP) as a case-study example of how new high school curricula have developed in the United States over the last decade since the publishing of the first NCTM Standards Documents (1989, 1991). Beginning with a description of both the curriculum itself and the rationale used to guide its…

Ziebarth, Steven W.

273

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership) in the United States and jurisdictions (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Schools, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands). Almost one in every four public-school…

Young, Beth Aronstamm

274

Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-312  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership) in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense schools, Puerto Rico, and four outlying areas: American Samoa, Guam,…

Sable, Jennifer; Hoffman, Lee

2005-01-01

275

PROGRAM PLANNING FOR HOME ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MINNESOTA, GRADES 7-12, A RESOURCE UNIT IN FOODS AND NUTRITION. CURRICULUM BULLETIN NO. 12 A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CURRICULUM MATERIALS TO HELP TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING SPECIFIC PLANS FOR TEACHING FOODS AND NUTRITION IN GRADES 7 THROUGH 12 ARE PRESENTED. CLASSROOM TEACHERS, SUPERVISORS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STUDENTS CONTRIBUTED TO THE STATEWIDE CURRICULUM PROJECT WHICH DEVELOPED THE MATERIALS. MAJOR CONCEPTS INCORPORATED INTO THE UNITS…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

276

Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

2012-08-01

277

Secondary atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a drop is subjected to a surrounding dispersed phase that is moving at an initial relative velocity, aerodynamic forces\\u000a will cause it to deform and fragment. This is referred to as secondary atomization. In this paper, the abundant literature\\u000a on secondary atomization experimental methods, breakup morphology, breakup times, fragment size and velocity distributions,\\u000a and modeling efforts is reviewed and

D. R. Guildenbecher; C. López-Rivera; P. E. Sojka

2009-01-01

278

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

279

Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes an addendum to the July 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 0360 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-02-002-0308, Underground Discharge Point. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

Lynn Kidman

2008-10-01

280

Secondary Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

281

Assistive Technology Barriers and Facilitators During Secondary and Post-secondary Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identifies the technology barriers and facilitators as students with disabilities transition from secondary and post-secondary settings to adult life. Twenty-seven disability technology specialists from across the United States participated in a three round modified Delphi study. These specialists identified four top ten technology lists related to secondary and post-secondary transition issues including (a) facilitators when moving from secondary

David E. Houchins

2001-01-01

282

Building Trades 1. Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to assist building trades instructors, this course outline to a prevocational building trades program for junior and senior high school students covers four occupational areas: carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electricity. Specific notes to the administrator and teacher and the course goals precede the four occupational units. Each unit…

Hill, Clair S.

283

Acute respiratory failure secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated in the intensive care unit: a long term follow up study  

PubMed Central

Background: Traditionally, patients with acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are believed to have a poor outcome. A study was undertaken to explore both hospital and long term outcome in this group and to identify clinical predictors. Methods: A retrospective review was carried out of consecutive admissions to a tertiary referral ICU over a 6 year period. This group was then followed prospectively for a minimum of 3 years following ICU admission. Results: A total of 74 patients were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure due to COPD during the study period. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 0.74 (0.34) l. Eighty five per cent of the group underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 2 days (range 1–17). The median duration of stay in the ICU was 3 days (range 2–17). Survival to hospital discharge was 79.7%. Admission arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and APACHE II score were independent predictors of hospital mortality on multiple regression analysis. Mortality at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years was 40.5%, 48.6%, 58.1%, and 63.5%, respectively. There were no independent predictors of mortality in the long term. Conclusions: Despite the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in most of the study group, good early survival was observed. Mortality in the long term was significant but acceptable, given the degree of chronic respiratory impairment of the group.

Breen, D; Churches, T; Hawker, F; Torzillo, P

2002-01-01

284

GMT adaptive secondary design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GMT adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) is based on a "segmented" concept following the primary segment layout: seven 1.05m diameter circular, independent adaptive mirrors are fed by the primaries and focus to the main telescope focal stations. The adaptive unit's design is based on the consolidated thin mirror, contactless technology already employed in several units (MMT, LBT, Magellan, VLT and one of the proposed E-ELT M4 designs), but nevertheless the mirror's topology reveals several design challenges. In particular, the off-axis units are strongly aspheric and therefore they require aspheric shaping of both thin mirror surfaces and of the thick reference body. The strong tilt of the off-axis units forced us to consider a peculiar fine positioning hexapod design, maximizing its stiffness and also implementing a special design of the last three rings of actuators to remain within the prescribed obstruction. From the control point of view, the actuator density of the adaptive mirrors is remarkably lower than in all previous units: 672 actuators with 36mm spacing compared to 30mm typical separation adopted so far. This choice is validated by static and dynamic performance computation though a sophisticated numerical simulator based on a full state space model incorporating mechanics, control and fluid dynamics. The control system fulfills the dimensional constraints of the unit. The design has completed the feasibility phase, including the cost estimate. The choice of making the GMT adaptive secondary mirrors similar to the already existing ones strongly reduces the implementation risks and allows shortening the remaining design path.

Biasi, R.; Veronese, D.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Gallieni, D.; Mantegazza, M.; Tintori, M.; Lazzarini, P.; Manetti, M.; Johns, M. W.; Hinz, P. M.; Kern, J.

2010-07-01

285

Secondary Syphilitic Lesions  

PubMed Central

An important theme that emerges from all early historical accounts is that in addition to the decreased virulence of Treponema pallidum, the incidence of secondary syphilis has decreased drastically over the past three centuries. Even in the early 20th century, most syphilologists were of the opinion that the disease had undergone changes in its manifestations and that they were dealing with an attenuated form of the spirochete. Such opinions were based primarily on the observations that violent cutaneous reactions and fatalities associated with the secondary stage had become extremely rare. The rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States increased in 2002 for the second consecutive year. After a decade-long decline that led to an all-time low in 2000, the recent trend is attributable, to a large extent, by a increase in reported syphilis cases among men, particularly homosexual and bisexual men having sex with men. The present review addresses the clinical and diagnostic criteria for the recognition of secondary syphilis, the clinical course and manifestations of the disease if allowed to proceed past the primary stage of disease in untreated individuals, and the treatment for this stage of the disease.

Baughn, Robert E.; Musher, Daniel M.

2005-01-01

286

Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

287

Goree Island Hotel. Feasibility Study for the Planned Restoration of Historic Buildings on Goree Island, Dakar, Senegal, as an 86-Unit Luxury Hotel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, conducted by Henderson Associates, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. It examines the feasibility of restoring historic building into a luxury hotel on Goree Island, Senegal. The report contains information on the site...

1997-01-01

288

The State of Music in Secondary Schools: The Principal's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to profile secondary school music programs in the United States and investigate principals' perceptions of those curricula. A survey form was sent to 1,000 secondary school principals, yielding a 54% response rate. That form was designed to answer the following questions: What is the profile of secondary music programs in the United States? How

Carlos R. Abril; Brent M. Gault

2008-01-01

289

Solar energy conversion unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy converter is provided in the form of a unit for assembly together with other similar units to build up a solarenergy conversion installation. Each unit includes a fixed support structure, a mounting element articulated on the support structure, and an optical concentrator carried by the mounting element. The optical concentrator consists of a plurality of coplanar, spherical

M. Palazzetti; C. Ponti; P. L. Tenci

1981-01-01

290

United States Business Responds  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States business abroad is a show case for the values, policies, and practices of the United States. To build friendly and profitable relations in Latin America, United States private enterprise active there has followed the practices of staying out of local politics, employing local people to the fullest extent possible, and assimilating the local customs and language. An atmosphere

J. Peter Grace

1961-01-01

291

Partnerships in Pharma--An Economist Intelligence Unit Seminar--Building Innovation into Alliances and Business Models. 1 October 2010, London, UK.  

PubMed

The Partnerships in Pharma seminar, held in London, included topics related to building innovation into alliances and business models within the pharmaceutical industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on strategies for successful partnering, partnering alongside an evolving CRO industry, considering the pharma value chain, and partnerships between industry and academia. Approaches used by Ipsen, Merck Serono, Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare are also described. PMID:21154130

Kibble, Alexandra

2010-12-01

292

The mathematical needs of secondary teachers: data from three countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the mathematical needs of secondary teachers, in particular senior secondary teachers who are preparing students for tertiary mathematical study. It also reports on data concerning secondary mathematics teacher qualifications in New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom. Despite an increasing need for both deeper and wider mathematical understanding, the levels of mathematical qualifications of secondary teachers in

B. Barton; L. Sheryn

2009-01-01

293

Moon Munchies: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge--A Standards-Based Elementary School Model Unit Guide--Design, Build, and Evaluate (Lessons 1-6). Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-92-MSFC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this unit, elementary students design and build a lunar plant growth chamber using the Engineering Design Process. The purpose of the unit is to help students understand and apply the design process as it relates to plant growth on the moon. This guide includes six lessons, which meet a number of national standards and benchmarks in…

Weaver, Kim M.

2005-01-01

294

[Secondary Career Education Activities: Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

Radford City Schools, VA.

295

[Secondary Career Education Activities: Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

Radford City Schools, VA.

296

Secondary hypertension: Evaluation and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most patients with hypertension in the United States have essential (primary) hypertension (95 %), the cause of which is unknown. The remaining 5 % of adults with hypertension have the secondary form of hypertension, the cause and pathophysiologic process of which are known. Internists and other primary care physicians refer to this as treatable or curable hypertension, because the hypertension

Basil E. Akpunonu; Patrick J. Mulrow; Elizabeth A. Hoffman

1996-01-01

297

Improving Citizenship Education: Secondary Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to enrich secondary level social studies education, this manual provides teaching strategies and units on local, state, and federal government; global education; law and individual rights; and citizenship skills. Teaching strategies include case studies, using community resources, using the newspaper, quantitative inquiry, simulation…

Jackson, Edwin L., Ed.

298

[Secondary Career Education Activities: English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

Radford City Schools, VA.

299

Youth United through Health Education: Building Capacity through a Community Collaborative Intervention to Prevent HIV/STD in Adolescents Residing in a High STD Prevalent Neighborhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The early detection and treatment of STDs is an effective strategy for slowing the sexual transmission of HIV. The goal of the YUTHE (Youth United Through Health Education) program, a collaborative effort between the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, is to increase sexually…

Sieverding, John; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Siller, Jacqueline; Gallaread, Alonzo; Krone, Melissa; Chang, Y. Jason

2005-01-01

300

Public Segmentation and Government–Public Relationship Building: A Cluster Analysis of Publics in the United States and 19 European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study are (a) to suggest a model of public segmentation and (b) to examine each segment's level of trust in government. By using individuals’ cognitive perceptions of government and participation in social organizations, as well as media use and demographic characteristics, as public segmentation criteria, a cluster analysis of international survey datasets of the United States

Hyehyun Hong; Youngah Lee; Jongmin Park

2012-01-01

301

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES UP IN BACKGROUND AS WORKERS PLACE A SECTION OF WATER LINE THAT WILL CARRY SECONDARY COOLANT BETWEEN HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING AND THE COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2205. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/28/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

302

Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building. Volume VI  

SciTech Connect

Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate nonuniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for nonuniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed - leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels.

Alvares, N.J.

1984-02-01

303

Building Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this on site "field trip" activity (located on pages 6-9 of PDF), learners get hands-on experience identifying building materials by playing "Building Bingo". To play, teams of learners locate interior and exterior building materials at their site, use the Natural Materials chart to complete the Building Materials Facts label, and cross off the boxes on their Bingo cards. This lesson guide includes suggestions/tips and game hand-outs.

Wiberg, Leanne; History, National M.

2000-01-01

304

Building Migratory Bridges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

2007-01-01

305

Building Foundations in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of teaching architecture to gifted students and describes a unit implemented in elementary gifted classrooms. Student activities included researching architects' styles, creating model-building exteriors out of mixed media, creating floor plans, designing interiors, and brainstorming with resource people from fields related…

Pentecost, C. Houston

1999-01-01

306

Building Migratory Bridges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

2007-01-01

307

Healthy Buildings?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

Grubb, Deborah

308

Chiral and achiral fundamental conformational building units of beta-peptides: a matrix isolation conformational study on Ac-beta-HGly-NHMe and Ac-beta-HAla-NHMe.  

PubMed

The infrared spectra of two model beta-peptides, N-acetyl-3-aminopropionic acid-N'-methylamide (Ac-beta-HGly-NHMe) and N-acetyl-3-aminobutanoic acid-N'-methylamide (Ac-beta-HAla-NHMe), have been recorded in low-temperature Ar and Kr matrixes. The spectra were assigned by the help of electronic structure calculations. The analysis of spectra, in line with the theoretical predictions, revealed that both biocompatible peptide building blocks have a single dominant backbone conformer. Besides this prevalent conformer, which has a six-membered H-bonded pseudoring, conformers with eight-membered H-bonded rings are also observed but in a significantly smaller amount. The calculated conformer distribution is consistent with the experimental findings. The present work along with other recent results supports the concept that the backbone conformation of longer biopolymers, such as alpha- and beta-peptides, can be deciphered using the conformers of their structural building blocks. In this respect, our conformational study on the simplest models for beta-peptides both by IR spectroscopic experiments and quantum chemical studies has significance for the better design and understanding of the backbone conformations of larger beta-peptides with biomedical potential. The present conformational analysis suggests that although beta-peptides, having an "extra" backbone torsion and hence more conformational freedom, should be more flexible than alpha-peptides, fewer backbone conformers are viable based on their relative energies. Thus, from a larger conformational arsenal, only a lower number of backbone conformers can emerge, which possibly had a fundamental effect on their applicability during prebiotic evolution. PMID:19432461

Beke, Tamás; Somlai, Csaba; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Perczel, András; Tarczay, György

2009-06-01

309

Building Futures in a Global Community: Department of Defense Education Activity: School, District, Area, and System. Accountability Profiles, 1997-98. Department of Defense Domestic Dependent Elementary and Secondary Schools (DDESS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains accountability profiles with detailed information for the Department of Defense Domestic Dependent Elementary and Secondary Schools. Each profile contains a description of the school, district, or area characteristics and highlights identified by the principal or superintendent. Profiles also contain the 1997-98 priorities…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

310

Building structures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A building structure offset uses hexagon structures assembled in an offset layering architecture to construct walls, floors and roofs. Hexagon building structures include interior panels adhered to both sides of a foam core. The structures also include radial cutouts the corners for offset layering assembly with another structure. Peg retainers selectively secure the hexagon building structures together. Fastening holes provide fastener locations for screwing or bolting through the layers of the hexagon structures. The holes align with an offset layer of hexagons when assembled in the axial direction. Conduit holes are selectively located depending on the fastening technique selected. The system includes five derivatives of hexagon building structures and a header, providing square, triangular, and curved geometries when assembled. Since hexagon buildings are built from hexagon building structures without customization, hexagon buildings can be rebuilt, modified, or recycled using the same materials.

Zornes; David A. (Redmond, WA)

2003-10-14

311

Comparative Evaluation of United Nations Peacekeeping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mr. Chairman, I understand that the purpose of these hearings is to consider the importance the United States should attach to United Nations peacekeeping and nation building activities. In my testimony, I will compare United Nations performance in this a...

J. Dobbins

2007-01-01

312

[W(CN)6(L)](1-/2-) (L = bidentate ligand) as a useful building unit to construct molecule-based magnetic systems.  

PubMed

Metal ions heavier than the 3d metals have attracted increasing attention due to their strong magnetic exchange coupling, arising from the diffuse nature of the extended valence orbitals of the 4d and 5d elements and the involvement of a large magnetic anisotropy contingent on their strong spin-orbit coupling. [W(CN)6(L)](1-/2-) (L = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)) serves as a suitable building block for constructing molecule-based magnetic systems. Discrete molecular entities and one-dimensional chains are preferably obtained when the restricted paramagnetic precursor [W(CN)6(bpy)](-) encounters metal counterparts with the available coordination sites. The bimetallic magnetic assemblies exhibit a variety of magnetic features, along with a magnetostructural correlation. These include slow relaxation of magnetization, typical for single-molecule magnets and single-chain magnets, spin-canting, and metamagnetism. The two-dimensional structure is stabilized by using the reduced [W(CN)6(bpy)](2-) complex. In this perspective article, detailed discussions of molecular materials based on the W(v) ion are reviewed. PMID:24022831

Lim, Kwang Soo; Hong, Chang Seop

2013-09-11

313

Conflict Resolution Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

Busselle, Tish

314

Linear, dendritic and hyperbranched polyimides: The tetrahydro[5]helicene unit as a novel building block for an exercise in macromolecular architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of chemical derivatives of 5,6,9,10-tetrahydro[5]helicene-7,8-dicarboxylic anhydride have been made. Each derivative can be made by simple and selective chemical transformations using readily available reagents. Each derivative has a unique spacial arrangement of its functionality and as a result, this single core molecule has been incorporated into a variety of macromolecules. Although all the macromolecules share the same root functionality, they differ in their molecular architecture. Specifically, an AB-type monomer 3-amino-5,6,9,10-tetrahydro[5]helicene-7,8-dicarboxylic anhydride (3-1) has been shown to undergo polymerization in the solid state. This is possible because this monomer is stable at ambient and moderate temperatures yet becomes activated to polymerization at elevated temperatures. The facile nature of the solid state polymerization process has been shown to be compatible with inorganic dopants and as a result has been used to form hybrid polyimide-inorganic materials. Furthermore, the method of solid-state polymerization has been extended to the solid-state polymerization of an A2B-monomer (3-3), which produces hyperbranched polyimides (3-4). It has been demonstrated that the use of the transimidization reaction is a feasible route to a polyimide when a target AB-monomer is not stable. The synthesis and polymerization of an AX-type amino imide monomer containing the tetrahydro[5]helicene unit was accomplished. It underwent a self-transimidization reaction and produced polyimide 4-3. Dendritic aryl imides from generation one to three, containing the tetrahydro[5]helicene unit have been synthesized. Each of the dendrons underwent either one or two electrochemical reductions. When a dendritic aryl imide was compared with its linear analog, differences were found in the hydrodynamic volumes, glass transition temperatures, and fluorescence and electrochemical behaviour. Several AA-type diamine monomers containing the tetrahydro[5]helicene core have been made. In one case polyimides derived from AA-type diamine monomers 6-2a and 6-2b were used as precursors to [5]helicene containing polyimides, which were otherwise unobtainable. Another AA-type diamine monomer containing a helically locked o-terphenyl unit (6-13) has been synthesized and copolymerized to form a series of copoly(ether imide)s. The tendency of the copolymers to be of lower molecular weight and form macrocyclic materials at higher molar percentage of monomer 6-14 has been demonstrated. It has also been shown that the glass transition of the copoly(ether imide) can be controlled and varied depending on the amount of monomer 6.13 present. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Bender, Timothy P.

2000-10-01

315

Building Mainteance Module I: Orientation to Building Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-lesson Missouri secondary education course on building maintenance fundamentals. The document begins with an explanation of its components and how to use them. Next is a table that associates individual instructional materials in the lessons with the competencies they teach. The lessons are:…

Eck, Francis

316

Intelligent buildings  

SciTech Connect

The use and development of integrated sensor based systems in building design could turn the concept of an intelligent building from dream to reality over the next few years. To the user, an intelligent building offers economic and efficient environmental systems - heating, lighting and air conditioning; increased safety - with fire and security monitoring; improved business potential - with integrated data communication systems. To the manufacturer, intelligent buildings offer a lucrative market, particularly if they are able to exploit both the commercial and consumer markets. This book provides architects, building developers, system suppliers, engineers and academic researchers with an overview of the intelligent building market. The book brings together previously published papers as well as new material and examines the economics of sensor based systems. It explores the latest technological development and discusses the problems and the pitfalls. Emphasis is placed on practical case study material, covering a broad range of end users.

McClelland, S.

1989-01-01

317

Rural Community Studies and Secondary Data: Aggregation Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the issue of selecting the unit of analysis when employing secondary data in rural community studies and provides an empirical demonstration of the influence of selecting one unit of analysis over another. (JOW)

Farmer, Frank L.; And Others

1992-01-01

318

Building Maintenance. Student Learning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student learning guide contains one module for completing a course in building maintenance. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. The module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets,…

Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

319

Evaluation of residential building energy performance standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and analysis of energy performance standards for residential buildings in the United States is described. The approach involves an assessment of the economic costs and benefits of alternative standards and provides quantitative estimates of the reduction of energy use resulting from the implementation of standards. The sensitivities of building energy use to design parameters of buildings - including

M. D. Levine; D. B. Goldstein; A. H. Lokmanhekim; A. H. Rosenfeld

1979-01-01

320

Principles of Building Partnership Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Defense Strategy of the United States continues to place ever greater importance on the practice of building the capacity of partner nations. The role of the United States military in this endeavor will continue to grow for the foreseeable fu...

J. B. Terry

2010-01-01

321

Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

2010-08-01

322

Building Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From residential houses to hundred-story skyscrapers, many different technologies come together to make a building safe and comfortable. Building design is a continually changing industry, and new advances are being made possible as research progresses.Sustainable development is gaining popularity worldwide in an effort to minimize environmental impact. The Center for Resourceful Building Technology (1) maintains an online guide that describes building practices that are resource-efficient; some information on the center's research projects is also available. Similar in topic is this report from the National Association of Home Builders Research Center (2). The 70-page document is the final report of an April 2003 conference on green building; it gives day-by-day summaries of presentations and activities in which the conference participants were involved. Office buildings have a number of design issues that need to be considered to make a productive work environment. One such issue is the acoustics in a cubicle workspace. The Canadian Institute for Research in Construction (3) discusses some design factors that can improve privacy even in the very open atmosphere of closely spaced cubicles. In the wake of the 2001 anthrax scare, a research project at Pennsylvania State University has garnered significant attention. This paper (4) introduces immune buildings, which have advanced ventilation and air filtration systems that can mitigate the danger caused by airborne pathogens. Experimental results from the project are also presented. The US Department of Energy High Performance Building Initiative (5) is investigating new technologies to make commercial buildings more comfortable and cost effective. Several interesting technical papers and introductory reports are given on the initiative's homepage, including a technology road map for high performance buildings. This essay from the June 2003 issue of Constructech Magazine (6) highlights a movement toward integrated control systems for all types of buildings. The author notes that having a unified system that automatically manages security, lighting, energy, and several other building operations can save time and money in the long run. Another article, written by a member of the Partnership for Advanced Technology in Housing (7), discusses building materials and practices that can improve residential installation's resistance to major storms and natural disasters. An example of an area that is using these weather resistant designs is in Florida; the article cites the vulnerability of coastal homes to hurricanes and outlines some efforts to build them in a more structurally sound manner. Lastly, the Commercial Modular Construction Magazine (8) is a quarterly publication that centers on permanent and temporary modular building design. The second issue of 2003 has, among other things, a good article that describes the basics and benefits of modular construction.

Leske, Cavin.

323

Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease  

PubMed Central

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images

McPhee, Stephen J.

1984-01-01

324

Evaluating Montbrillant Lower Secondary School in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Does Geneva's Montbrillant lower secondary school, which has now been in use for one year, meet the objectives targeted when it was designed? Does the new school respond to the needs and expectations of staff and students? Questions such as these serve to evaluate the quality of a school building once in use and tie in with work supported by PEB…

Simioni, Sandro

2004-01-01

325

Evaluating Montbrillant Lower Secondary School in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does Geneva's Montbrillant lower secondary school, which has now been in use for one year, meet the objectives targeted when it was designed? Does the new school respond to the needs and expectations of staff and students? Questions such as these serve to evaluate the quality of a school building once in use and tie in with work supported by PEB…

Simioni, Sandro

2004-01-01

326

Burnout and Secondary Trauma Among Forensic Interviewers of Abused Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors associated with burnout and secondary trauma among forensic interviewers of abused children. Sixty-six forensic interviewers who are affiliated with advocacy centers across the United States completed an online survey. The Oldenburg Burnout Inventory and Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale were used to measure burnout and secondary trauma, respectively. Results indicate that organizational satisfaction has a moderate inverse

Brian E. Perron; Barbara S. Hiltz

2006-01-01

327

Seismically radiated energy per unit area remains constant for families of volcanic hybrid earthquakes associated with the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens dome building eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extrusion of several Dacite spines during the 2004-2008 eruption at Mount St. Helens produced new faulting surfaces, exhibiting many features commonly observed in shallow faulting zones, such as gouge, striations, and fault-zone cataclasite. Much of the seismicity associated with the solid rock spine extrusions occurred at shallow depths, suggesting that the majority of events occurred at the base of the extruding spines. Many of the events exhibited features commonly attributed to volcanic hybrid earthquakes, namely high-frequency onsets which transition to low-frequency ringing, and long durations relative to event size. Here we show using new data from a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers in 2006 that a group of hybrid earthquakes associated with the spine extrusion exhibit a constant ratio of radiated seismic energy to earthquake size. We manually search the waveforms of 11 broadband stations installed on the Mount St. Helens edifice at distances of less than 2 km from the crater for seismic events from the 6th to the 9th of September in 2006. We cross-correlate events on the individual stations in order to find event pairs with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 or higher. The similarity of waveforms suggests that the selected events form families of co-located earthquakes with similar focal mechanisms. We first estimate the size, and duration (i.e., long-period spectral amplitude, and spectral corner frequency) of the largest events with a high signal-to-noise ratio in a given family by fitting the displacement spectra. Next, we calculate the source parameters of the smaller events in the family by fitting spectral ratios of large and small events. Fitting the spectral ratios provides more accurate estimations of spectral characteristics for the smaller events, as the spectral ratio suppresses the influence of non-source related effects on the signal such as travel path attenuation, and site response. The spectral amplitude and corner frequency values provide a size-duration scaling relationship from which the proportion of radiated seismic energy is calculated, assuming a Haskell source model. We observe a size-duration scaling corresponding to a constant energy-moment ratio. Such scaling suggests that the seismic energy radiated per unit area does not vary for the hybrid events occurring on the fresh faulting surface at the base of the extruding spine.

Harrington, R. M.; Kwiatek, G.

2011-12-01

328

Primary and Secondary Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...

Bates, Albion M.

2010-01-23

329

Building Skills to Build Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities are at the heart of the government's vision for the Big Society. And it's the author's strongly held view that skills should be at the heart of each and every one of those communities. If one grows the skills of an individual then the community will flourish. There is a job to be done in building skills to build communities--skilled…

Russell, Geoff

2011-01-01

330

Building a Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variations of white light in this Moveable Museum unit, in which they build a pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and examine different light sources in school, at home, and around their town or city. The seven-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity and safety notes, step-by-step directions, and a spectroscope template.

331

Perceptions of Jordanian Secondary Schools Teachers towards Critical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to discover themes or concepts, generated from the collected data, that formed building blocks of grounded theory in the study of secondary school social studies teachers' perspectives. This research study was conducted in Jordan, where secondary school social studies teachers were interviewed regarding their…

Bataineh, Osamah; Alazzi, Khaled F.

2009-01-01

332

Intelligent Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The topic of "intelligent buildings" (IBs) emerged in the early 1980s. Since, the term has been used to represent a variety of related, yet differing topics, each with a slightly different focus and purpose. Wiring and networking-infrastructure companies emphasize the cabling requirements for communication in intelligent buildings and the need to accommodate future needs for higher-speed broadband. Lucent (Lucent 2000) for example, defines an IB as "...one with a completely integrated wiring architecture. A single cabling system that handles all information traffic - voice, data, video, even the big building management systems."

Brambley, Michael R.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas

2001-01-01

333

Educational Technology. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, on Examining Legislation Authorizing Funds for the Elementary Secondary Education Act, Focusing on Education Technology Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions on examining legislation authorizing funds for the Elementary Secondary Education Act, focusing on educational technology programs, contains statements by: James M Jeffords, Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions; Barbara Means, Assistant…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.

334

Scaling of Secondary Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Secondary craters are common features around fresh planetary-scale primary impact craters throughout most of the Solar System. They derive from the ejection phase of crater formation, thus secondary scaling relations provide constraints on parameters affe...

S. K. Croft

1991-01-01

335

Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the solar savings fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit to unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top floor and south wall variations.

Balcomb, J. D.

336

Supramolecular arrays based on dimetal building units.  

PubMed

Supramolecular chemistry is today a major thrust area, a significant part of which is based on the use of metal atoms or ions as key elements in promoting the assembly of and dictating the main structural features of the supramolecular products. Most of the work has been done with single metal atoms or ions in this role, but considerable success has already been achieved by employing M-M bonded dimetal entities instead. We review here the work done in our laboratory. Metal-metal bonded cationic complexes of the [M(2)(DAniF)(n)(MeCN)(8-2n)]((4-n)+) type, where M = Mo or Rh and DAniF is an N,N'-di-p-anisylformamidinate anion, have been used as subunit precursors and then linked by various equatorial and axial bridging groups such as polycarboxylate anions, polypyridyls, and polynitriles. Characterization of the products by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, CV, DPV, NMR, and other spectroscopic techniques has revealed the presence of discrete tetranuclear (pairs or loops), hexanuclear (triangles), octanuclear (squares), and dodecanuclear (cages) species and one-, two-, or three-dimensional molecular nanotubes. These compounds display a rich electrochemical behavior which is affected by the nature of the linkers. PMID:11601960

Cotton, F A; Lin, C; Murillo, C A

2001-10-01

337

SUPPORT AND FLIGHTLINE BUILDINGS, LOOKING TOWARD SQUADRON OPERATIONS BUILDING (BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SUPPORT AND FLIGHTLINE BUILDINGS, LOOKING TOWARD SQUADRON OPERATIONS BUILDING (BUILDING 2716)RIGHT, AIR FORCE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (AFCS) MAINTENANCE FACILITY (BUILDING 2714)CENTER AND BASE OPERATIONS (BUILDING 2712)LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

338

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE TWELVE HEAT EXCHANGER UNITS. COOLANT FROM ETR WILL ENTER EXCHANGERS AT TEMPERATURE OF 137.5 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE THE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. SECONDARY WATER WILL ENTER AT 78 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3712. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

339

Building Tall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity (page 2 of PDF), young learners investigate how a wide base can make a building more stable. Learners use blocks or boxes of different sizes to construct stable towers. Learners will compare and contrast different structures, document their observations, experiment with different materials, and conduct stability tests. This activity is part of the Curious George "Under Construction" lesson plan and related to the show Curious George on PBS, specifically the episode "Curious George's Home for Pigeons." The lesson plan includes several activities that explore building engineering. Activities are connected to fiction and non-fiction books and include family extension projects.

Kids, Pbs

2006-01-01

340

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

341

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-15

342

2. PRINTING AND ADVERTISING BUILDING, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MERCHANDISE BUILDING, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PRINTING AND ADVERTISING BUILDING, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MERCHANDISE BUILDING, AND GARDEN, VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Bounded by Lexington & Grenshaw Streets, Kedzie Avenue & Independence Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

343

Character Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines violence prevention programs nationwide, which are not only changing student behavior but also laying the foundation of morality, honesty, respect, and accountability within U.S. students. Successful programs target specific populations, build individual skills, include parent effectiveness training, and encourage changes in peer group…

Dychkowski, Linda

2002-01-01

344

Laboratory Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

Barnett, Jonathan

345

Building Sustainability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation for high school and community college instructors on developing curricula in the sustainable building industry. The document was part of a workshop held during ATEEC's Sustainable Energy Education and Training conference. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-03-31

346

Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer  

SciTech Connect

The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

Abraham, B.M.

1982-06-01

347

A Radial Profile of Tycho Secondary Crater Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the typical secondary crater production of individual primary events is an important step in gauging the extent of secondary crater contamination of crater-counting derived ages. Previous lunar observations of secondary crater production from individual primary events have focused on secondary craters near the parent primary and extrapolated to larger radial distances where morphological identification of secondaries is more difficult [Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, E03005, doi:10.1029/2005JE002484, 2006]. As some workers suggest that more distant secondaries may constitute much of the total secondary crater population [McEwen et al., Icarus, 176, 2005; Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, E03005, doi:10.1029/2005JE002484, 2006], lunar observational evidence in this regime is critical to building a robust picture of secondary crater production on the Moon. We present preliminary results of a survey of Tycho secondaries ranging in distance from 1-25 crater radii from the parent crater. Secondary craters in this study lie along a ray extending south from Tycho across Clavius crater and are identified by characteristic, asymmetric ejecta blankets visible in 2.38 GHz (12.6 cm) radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) images acquired during bi-static observations with the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes. In addition to presenting the size-frequency distributions of these secondary craters and implications thereof, we compare the population of Tycho secondaries identified in the radar CPR near Pictet crater to that identified via morphology in optical images by Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, 2006.

Wells, Kassandra; Campbell, D. B.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.; Anderson, R. F.

2009-09-01

348

New Mexico State Secondary School Science-Based Nutrition Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for a 10-unit secondary-level science-based nutrition course. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: a summary sheet for each function, including generalizations with corresponding objectives, additional learning activities, and additional resources; unit outline;…

Ecklund, Susan, Ed.; Smalley, Katherine, Ed.

349

Outdoorsman, Unit III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

350

DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

2005-10-09

351

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: engraving published by Myer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: engraving published by Myer, 1851 - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

352

Energy Efficiency: Transportation and Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a condensed version of the American Physical Society's 2008 analysis of energy efficiency in the transportation and buildings sectors in the United States with updated numbers. In addition to presenting technical findings, we include the report's recommendations for policy makers that we believe are in the best interests of the nation.

Lubell, Michael S.; Richter, Burton

2011-11-01

353

Creating Energy-Efficient Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper was presented during the time the author was president of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, (CEFP/I). The presentation begins with a summary of the state of the world's natural gas and petroleum supplies and states that since one-third of all energy consumed in the United States is to heat and cool buildings

Burr, Donald F.

354

Bridge Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick activity (on page 2 of the PDF) about how the arrangement of carbon atoms determines carbon's different properties. Learners will build bridges with Post-It notes that model two types of carbon molecules, graphite and carbon nanotubes, and test which structure of the same material can bear the weight of the most pennies. Also relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

355

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

356

Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

357

Fears of Senegalese Secondary School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire investigating the inventory of fears and worries of Senegalese adolescents was administered to 806 secondary school students; Croake's classification was utilized. School fears were found to be much more important in Senegal than in France or the United States. As has been noticed in industrialized countries, girls and children born of poorer parents were more subject to fears

Michel Vandewiele

1981-01-01

358

Fish: Form and Function. Secondary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New England Aquarium Education Department offers a series of curriculum units and field trip guides for teachers of all grade levels on aquatic biology and ecology topics. Fish characteristics and behaviors are explained in this packet for secondary science teachers. Pre-trip materials include factsheets and worksheets on fish: (1)…

New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

359

[Secondary Career Education Activities: Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

Radford City Schools, VA.

360

Secondary Literacy Coaching: A Macedonian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocational high schools in the Republic of Macedonia are making efforts to add content literacy and learning strategies to their curricula through Secondary Education Activity (SEA). SEA is a collaboration of the government of Macedonia, the International Reading Association, the American Institutes for Research, and the United States Agency for…

Sturtevant, Elizabeth G.; Linek, Wayne M.

2007-01-01

361

Post-Secondary Students' Purposes for Blogging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the study was to explore post-secondary students' purposes for blogging with particular attention to the social and instructional purposes. The sample of blogs came from an all-women's college in the United Arab Emirates. Content analysis was conducted on eight blogs using previously tested instruments to identify social presence…

Leslie, Paul; Murphy, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

362

Intelligent buildings.  

PubMed

The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence. PMID:10282446

Williams, W E

1987-01-01

363

Children's Perspectives on Building Science Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the experiences of 10- and 11-year-old students with building science models during a unit on weather. With the teacher, we prepared and gathered materials for the students to use in the building of dynamic physical models demonstrating the key features of the weather concepts they were learning. An important aspect of the…

Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, A. Leo

2006-01-01

364

Children's perspectives on building science models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the experiences of 10- and 11-year-old students with building science models during a unit on weather. With the teacher, we prepared and gathered materials for the students to use in the building of dynamic physical models demonstrating the key features of the weather concepts they were learning. An important aspect of the approach used in the construction

Ann Sherman; A. Leo MacDonald

2006-01-01

365

Energy flux optimization in future buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the steadily increase of electrical power demand, the pressure on the power grid as well as electricity power bills keep rising. One way of resolving the first issue consists of building more traditional power generation units (fossil, nuclear, hydroelectric …) and building a stronger grid. However, with the democratization of alternative green energy sources more elegant solutions are now

Y. Stauffer; E. Onillon; L. Lisowski; C. Meier; P. Theurillat; B. Roustom; G. Francecscutto; R. Marquis; A. Closset; A. Toth

2011-01-01

366

Leadership Development. Unit A-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This secondary curriculum guide is comprised of thirteen jobs (units of instruction) that focus on the area of leadership development. An introductory section lists the jobs included in the guide, intended use, unit objectives, and references. Among the jobs included are (1) Examining the History of the Future Farmers of America (FFA); (2)…

Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

367

Experiencing a Model United Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an international student exchange program for the elementary and secondary school level. Discusses research projects conducted at United Nations Depository Libraries in preparation for Model United Nations programs. Contends that students remember the program as a highlight of their school experience. (CFR)

Travis, Susan

1994-01-01

368

Humanizing the Secondary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These papers, presented during ASCD-sponsored conference, confront educators with issues in and alternatives for making secondary schools a more humanizing experience for students. The contributors and their articles are: Norman K. Hamilton, "Alternatives in Secondary Education"; Thornton B. Monez and Norman L. Bussiere, "The High School in Human…

Hamilton, Norman K., Ed.; Saylor, J. Galen, Ed.

369

Research in Secondary Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summers' annotated bibliographies of secondary reading (1963, 1964), "Review of Educational Research,""Journal of Reading," ERIC/CRIER, and "Research in Education" are listed as resources for all phases of reading. A shifting of trends in the nature and scope of research topics in secondary reading is noted, with diagnosis and treatment,…

Kling, Martin

370

Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well

Luis A. Martinez

2009-01-01

371

Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

Martinez, Luis A.

2009-01-01

372

Remediation of the site of a former active handling building at UKAEA- Winfrith  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59 at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building demolition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remediation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control. Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m{sup 3} of surrounding concrete. In order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recovery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be necessary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity. (authors)

Armitage, Jack; Brown, Nick; Cornell, Rowland [NUKEM Ltd., Kelburn Court, Daten Park, Birchwood, Warrington, WA3 6TW (United Kingdom); Jessop, Gareth [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

373

Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.  

PubMed

We reviewed the etiology and management of secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) that is appropriate and in response to a stimulus, most commonly low serum calcium. In secondary hyperparathyroidism, the serum calcium is normal and the PTH level is elevated. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by excessive secretion of PTH after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism, in which hypercalcemia has ensued. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism typically occurs in men and women with chronic kidney disease usually after kidney transplant. The etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively straightforward whereas data on the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism is limited to a few small trials with short follow-up. PMID:23267748

Jamal, Sophie A; Miller, Paul D

2012-12-23

374

Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building  

SciTech Connect

The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

1998-12-01

375

Health Rights in Secondary Schools: Student and Staff Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the perspectives of secondary school students and staff about the extent to which young people's health rights are catered for at school. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the concept of Health-Promoting Schools encourage the provision of healthy school environments. A postal survey of secondary…

Smith, Anne B.; Gaffney, Michael; Nairn, Karen

2004-01-01

376

Science, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the core science curriculum standards which must be completed by all students as a requisite for graduation from Utah's secondary schools. Contained within are the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. Each course entry for grades 7-12 contains: course title, unit of…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

377

The Design of Polytechnic Institute Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines for the choice of site, layout, and design of polytechnic institutes at the post-secondary level are presented in this UNESCO manual issued in 1972. The purpose is to provide information for use in the erection of functionally appropriate and economically viable buildings. The manual is composed of eight chapters, mostly relating to…

Mills, Edward D.; Kaylor, Harry

378

Building a sustainable future: Bioclimatic house  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of bioclimatic principles is a critical factor in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This poster develops a sequence of experiments and building working models in order to form students of secondary school and make progress towards real applications of new energy technologies. The activity has been carried out by 14 and 15-year-old students using a Power House

Esther Gomez Mallen; Oriol Rivera Fusalba

2010-01-01

379

User Involvement in School Building Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author of this article is the Managing Director of School Works, a groundbreaking school design initiative working in collaboration with partners such as the Architecture Foundation, DfES, Demos, and schools. School Works is a not for profit company which works to link the design of secondary school buildings with their impact on the…

Wright, Sharon

2004-01-01

380

Energy savings in new, low-rise multifamily buildings due to energy efficient building practices  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses methods, findings, and conclusions related to electric space heating savings due to energy-efficient building standards, known as Model Conservation Standards, in new, low-rise multifamily buildings in Tacoma, Washington. The analyses focus on both unit-level (apartment) and building-level data. In order to obtain estimates of weather-adjusted annual space heating electricity use, electric utility bills are normalized using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). PRISM is applied to samples of treatment (MCS) and control (1983 Current Practice) units and buildings. Occupant surveys are used in both the unit-level and building-level analysis to control for nonclimate influences on energy use. Multivariate regression models are developed from these data to identify the amount of electric space heating savings that can be attributed to the MCS.

Tonn, B.E.; White, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1990-01-01

381

Building Construction. Competency-Based Education Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed and field-tested over a 2-year period by vocational teachers in West Virginia, this competency-based building construction curriculum contains five units of study: Safety, form carpentry, carpentry, masonry, and plumbing. Each unit is subdivided into several competencies, and for each competency taught the performance objectives,…

West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

382

Personalizing Secondary Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To facilitate "personalizing" and individualizing secondary school curriculum, the author presents eight conceptual aspects of individualization and discusses the relationship of these concepts to program design and implementation of an individual learning program. (HMD)|

Bailey, William J.

1974-01-01

383

This System Used Students to Build Its Central Offices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lucia Mar (California) school system turned to a high school industrial arts class when no money could be found to construct a needed administration building. The project provided a new building, at half the cost of conventional construction, and valuable job training for many secondary students. (Author/WD)

Lieberman, Myron

1981-01-01

384

Secondary osteoporosis in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary osteoporosis comprises a minority of all osteoporosis cases. In this study we summarize the causes of secondary\\u000a osteoporosis we encountered in patients currently on follow-up in our osteoporosis outpatient clinic. A total of 1015 female\\u000a patients are involved in the study. Recorded data of the patients are evaluated retrospectively. Patients with spine bone\\u000a mineral density (BMD) 2.5 standard deviation

B. Çakir; E. Odabasi; M. Turan; S. Güler; M. Kutlu

2002-01-01

385

Secondary psychoses: an update  

PubMed Central

Psychotic disorders due to a known medical illness or substance use are collectively termed secondary psychoses. In this paper, we first review the historic evolution of the concept of secondary versus primary psychosis and how this distinction supplanted the earlier misleading classification of psychoses into organic and functional. We then outline the clinical features and approach to the diagnosis of secondary psychotic disorders. Features such as atypical presentation, temporal relation to detectable medical cause, evidence of direct physiological causal relationship to the etiological agent, and the absence of evidence of a primary psychotic illness that may better explain the presentation suggest consideration of a secondary psychosis. Finally, we discuss how careful studies of secondary psychotic disorders can help elucidate the pathophysiology of primary, or idiopathic, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. We illustrate this issue through a discussion of three secondary psychotic disorders — psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, velocardiofacial syndrome, and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis — that can, respectively, provide neuroanatomical, genetic, and neurochemical models of schizophrenia pathogenesis.

Keshavan, Matcheri S; Kaneko, Yoshio

2013-01-01

386

21. Detail of typical refrigeration unit in the southwest corner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Detail of typical refrigeration unit in the southwest corner of the fruit and vegetable storage room - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

387

Unit: Water, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teachers' guide to this unit, prepared for use in grades seven or eight of Australian secondary schools, contains a list of unit objectives, teaching notes on each activity, lists of required apparatus, suggested teacher and student reference materials, and appropriate audio-visual aids. The core of the unit explores the importance of water…

Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

388

Unit: Polymers, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is one of a series developed by the Australian Science Education Project (ASEP) for use by students at the junior secondary level (grades 7-10) in Australian schools. The unit is a trial version dealing with polymers, and may be used independently or integrated into a sequential program with other units. All students complete the…

Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

389

Solar energy conversion unit  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy converter is provided in the form of a unit for assembly together with other similar units to build up a solarenergy conversion installation. Each unit includes a fixed support structure, a mounting element articulated on the support structure, and an optical concentrator carried by the mounting element. The optical concentrator consists of a plurality of coplanar, spherical lenses the centers of which are located at the vertices of a polygon. The center of the polygon lies on a line extending perpendicularly to the plane of the lenses through the point of articulation of the mounting element on the support structure. Each unit further includes a plurality of converter modules located at the foci of respective ones of the spherical lenses and carried by respective connecting legs which extend from the mounting element. Each converter module includes a photovoltaic cell and means for transferring the heat dissipated in the photovoltaic cell to a liquid.

Palazzetti, M.; Ponti, C.; Tenci, P.L.

1981-07-28

390

Buildings and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquakes happen when forces in the Earth cause violent shaking of the ground. Earthquakes can be very destructive to buildings and other man-made structures. Design and build various types of buildings, then test your buildings for earthquake resistance using a shake table and a force sensor that measures how hard a force pushes or pulls your building.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

391

Occurrence of secondary magnetite within biodegraded oil  

SciTech Connect

Samples of solid bitumen from the Thornton Quarry (Illinois) and the Cynthia Quarry (Mississippi) were found to be strongly magnetic and to have rock magnetic properties suggesting that the magnetizable grains present are magnetite. Studies of magnetic isolates revealed that magnetite is present primarily as spherical crystal aggregates that appear identical to magnetite spherules isolated from remagnetized Paleozoic carbonate units from other localities. Organic geochemical analyses of the solid bitumen suggest an origin by microbial attack on what once was liquid crude oil. The occurrence of secondary magnetite as inclusions within solid bitumen suggests a relationship between crude oil biodegradation and development of that mineral in their samples. The authors infer that secondary magnetite in other geologic environments may be related to the presence of hydrocarbons. The discovery of a natural association of secondary magnetite and hydrocarbons has important implications for paleomagnetism and for petroleum exploration.

McCabe, C.; Sassen, R.; Saffer, B.

1987-01-01

392

Building America  

SciTech Connect

Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

Brad Oberg

2010-12-31

393

Renovation Salvages Building Shells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The renovation of the two-building junior high school in Manhattan (Kansas), built in the 1920s, saved the building exteriors, modernized the interiors, and added a new three-story pedestrian link connecting the buildings. (Author/MLF)|

American School and University, 1981

1981-01-01

394

Conservation of Old Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a consideration of how buildings age and become damaged, the complexity of and unknown factors in aging, and the influence of structural design, building materials, weathering, and other factors on building deterioration.

B. Linn

1975-01-01

395

Secondary prevention of stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke and transient ischemic attacks result from a range of mechanisms. Secondary prevention includes both conventional approaches to vascular risk-factor management (blood pressure lowering, cholesterol reduction with statins, smoking cessation and antiplatelet therapy) and more specific interventions, such as carotid endarterectomy or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. The relative importance of even conventional risk factors in stroke differs from coronary artery disease. Large clinical trials produce information on most aspects of stroke prevention. Stroke and transient ischemic attacks are now recognized as medical emergencies, with a high early risk of recurrence, and evidence is accumulating to support the importance of immediate institution of secondary preventative treatments. We review current literature on the secondary prevention of stroke. PMID:19764863

MacDougall, Niall J J; Amarasinghe, Sanjay; Muir, Keith W

2009-09-01

396

Secondary syphilis: uncommon manifestations of a common disease.  

PubMed

Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. PMID:6702190

McPhee, S J

1984-01-01

397

Coating concrete secondary containment structures exposed to agrichemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete has traditionally been the material of choice for building secondary containment structures because it is relatively inexpensive and has structural properties which make it ideal for supporting the loads of vehicles and large tanks. However, concrete`s chemical properties make it susceptible to corrosion by some common fertilizers. Though fairly impervious to water movement, concrete is easily penetrated by vapors

M. F. Broder; D. T. Nguyen

1995-01-01

398

Primary and Secondary Teachers' Conceptions of Assessment: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A particular framework of teachers' conceptions about assessment in school is presented. Fifty teachers of primary and secondary school were interviewed. Results of a qualitative analysis allowed building a model of conceptions of assessment. This model comprises four dimensions about the effects of assessment on: teaching, learning,…

Remesal, Ana

2011-01-01

399

Gothic Model of BWR Secondary Containment Drawdown Analyses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article introduces a GOTHIC version 7.1 model of the Secondary Containment Reactor Building Post LOCA drawdown analysis for a BWR. GOTHIC is an EPRI sponsored thermal hydraulic code. This analysis is required by the Utility to demonstrate an ability ...

2005-01-01

400

Secondary syphilis and HIV  

PubMed Central

Syphilis has been termed the “great mimic” due to its versatile and varied disease presentations. Dermatological findings are associated with the secondary phase of the disease and typically consist of a generalized papular eruption that can involve the palms and soles, genitals, and mucous membranes. Patients with syphilis and concomitant HIV infection may have altered presentations. We report a case of a 41-year-old HIV-positive man who presented with a papular rash of a few months' duration and was diagnosed with secondary syphilis.

Dhaliwal, Shagun; Patel, Mahir

2012-01-01

401

Building safeguards infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcclelland - Kerr, John [NNSA/NA-242

2009-01-01

402

A Blessing or a Curse: An Environmental Decision Case for Secondary and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decision cases have been used in the United States for higher education in agriculture and natural resources, as well as in extension education. Few cases have been developed for secondary education audiences and fewer yet for both secondary and higher education applications. This case was developed for use in both secondary- and university-level…

Autrey, Ann; Simmons, Steve; Aikin, Royace

2006-01-01

403

Predictors of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Children's Advocacy Center Forensic Interviewers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined various predictor variables that were hypothesized to impact secondary traumatic stress in forensic interviewers (n = 257) from children's advocacy centers across the United States. Data were examined to investigate the relationship between organizational satisfaction, organizational buffers, and job support with secondary traumatic stress using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale. The most salient significant result was an

Kathryn Bonach; Alex Heckert

2012-01-01

404

A Blessing or a Curse: An Environmental Decision Case for Secondary and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decision cases have been used in the United States for higher education in agriculture and natural resources, as well as in extension education. Few cases have been developed for secondary education audiences and fewer yet for both secondary and higher education applications. This case was developed for use in both secondary- and university-level…

Autrey, Ann; Simmons, Steve; Aikin, Royace

2006-01-01

405

Biomedical Engineering and Cognitive Science Secondary Science Curriculum Development: A Three Year Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports on a multi-year effort to create and evaluate cognitive-based curricular materials for secondary school science classrooms. A team of secondary teachers, educational researchers, and academic biomedical engineers developed a series of curriculum units that are based in biomedical engineering for secondary level students in…

Klein, Stacy S.; Sherwood, Robert D.

2005-01-01

406

Vienna RNA secondary structure server  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vienna RNA secondary structure server provides a web interface to the most frequently used functions of the Vienna RNA software package for the analysis of RNA secondary structures. It currently offers prediction of secondary structure from a single sequence, prediction of the consensus secondary structure for a set of aligned sequences, and the design of sequences that will fold

Ivo L. Hofacker

2003-01-01

407

Facility Focus: Science Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides examples of four university science buildings whose design fosters interdisciplinary interaction among students coupled with lab flexibility. Design concepts, innovations, and building layouts are examined. (GR)|

College Planning & Management, 1999

1999-01-01

408

Facility Focus: Science Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples of four university science buildings whose design fosters interdisciplinary interaction among students coupled with lab flexibility. Design concepts, innovations, and building layouts are examined. (GR)

College Planning & Management, 1999

1999-01-01

409

Active building envelope system (ABE): Wind and solar-driven ventilation, electricity and heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study takes the ventilation into consideration, making the active building envelope (ABE) system more close to the realistic application conditions. The ABE system is comprised of a photovoltaic unit (PV unit) and a thermoelectric heat pump unit (TE unit). The PV unit consists of photovoltaic cells, which convert solar radiation energy into electrical energy. The TE unit consists of

Bor-Jang Tsai; Chien-Ho Lee

2010-01-01

410

Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 9: Human Comfort and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module is the ninth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 10, and 11). The objective of this module is…

Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

411

Secondary Services in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic characteristics of sixty-nine secondary services in physics were analyzed in terms of sponsorship and distribution by: (1) country of origin, (2) language, (3) age, (4) frequency of publication, (5) subject and geographical coverage and (6) size. The eight major services, in terms of size, are identified. The use of the services by the…

Cooper, Marianne; Terry, Edward

412

Secondary oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary recovery process is described which employs the steps of (1) injecting into the formation via an injection well a solution of a polymerized methacrylate in a water-miscible solvent, and (2) recovering from the formation oil displaced by the injected solution via the production well. Optionally, after step (1), a hydrocarbon fluid can be injected via the injection well

A. Brown; S. F. Hager; M. Chichakli; C. H. Wu

1977-01-01

413

Dynamics of secondary forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and conditions that affect the course of succession (shortly reviewed in chapter 1). Successional dynamics, however, are inferred rather

Breugel van M

2007-01-01

414

Secondary Lithium Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been discovered that some fusible alloys composed of Bi, Pb, Sn and Cd exhibit good characteristics as the material of the negative electrode of secondary lithium batteries. The alloy electrode allows charging and discharging by such reaction to ab...

Y. Toyoguchi J. Yamaura T. Matsui N. Koshiba T. Shigematsu

1986-01-01

415

Secondary Dance Instructional Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides guidelines for dance teachers in secondary schools. A brief statement is made on the purpose and philosophy of dance education, and activities and instructional suggestions are presented for various dance forms: (1) group dance--folk/ethnic, square dance, and social dance; (2) aerobic dance; (3) jazz dance; (4) modern dance;…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

416

Secondary Emission Multiplier Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The secondary emission multiplier structure is for use in electron tubes wherein there is an electron-optical image, such as image intensifier tubes. The structure consists of a plurality of plates or sheets of material each having a number of tapered con...

E. W. Poor

1965-01-01

417

Secondary alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

McBreen, J.

1984-03-01

418

[Postrubella secondary pigmentary retinopathy].  

PubMed

The paper presents the case of an 11 years-old child with secondary pigmentary retinopathy, atrial septal defect, facial dysmorphia with mandibular hypoplasia: all these malformations are part of the congenital rubeola syndrome. The patient has a twin brother presenting similar manifestations, but having a different expressivity. PMID:8338828

Nicu, C; Damian, C; Glavici, M

419

Secondary metabolism in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco has been quite well studied phytochemically, more than 2500 compounds have been identified. Here, the secondary metabolism in tobacco will be reviewed in a biosynthetic perspective. Major groups of compounds which have extensively been studied are the isoprenoids, alkaloids, cinnamoylputrescines, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Their biosynthetic pathways and its regulation, and their occurrence in cell cultures and in intact plants

Laurentius H. Nugroho; Robert Verpoorte

2002-01-01

420

United States Health Workforce Personnel Factbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States health Workforce Personnel Factbook is a compilation of data from secondary sources, such as the American Medical Association and the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. It includes information on the supply of health personnel in severa...

2002-01-01

421

Einstein/Roosevelt Letters: A Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The letters in this unit of study intended for secondary students are facsimile reproductions of the correspondence between Albert Einstein and President Roosevelt on the possibility of constructing an atomic bomb. Classroom activities are also suggested. (RM)|

Bodle, Walter S.

1985-01-01

422

Silicone Sealed Insulating Glass Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Silicone dual-seal insulating glass units (IGUs) have a lower moisture penetration rate than organically sealed units, because the permeability of the edge-seal is almost exclusively determined by the permeability of the primary (PIB) seal, and because silicone secondary sealants do a better job in maintaining a low effective cross-section relevant for diffusion through the primary seal. Silicone dual-seal IGU

Andreas T. Wolf

423

Build a Solar Oven  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features a classroom project for secondary science education that integrates engineering design with optics and thermodynamics. Students work on teams to construct a solar oven with flat reflector panels. The project was designed to help learners understand that, to harness the sun as a source of energy, solar energy must be converted from visible light into heat or electricity. The construction kit calls for simple materials such as cardboard and duct tape, and includes a downloadable pattern for building the oven. Background information gives student and teacher support on the subject of solar heat and its applications. Registered teacher-users also have access to supporting lesson plans. This resource is part of a larger collection of hands-on projects and teaching materials on the topic of renewable energy. Editor's Note: Although this resource is designated for use in middle school, the reading level for the student guide is Grade 10, and for background information is Grade 11. Overall, the concepts are appropriate for the cognitive level of Grades 7-8, but teacher scaffolding may be needed for unfamiliar vocabulary. High school students should be expected to complete the activity with minimal scaffolding.

424

Interim feasibility assessment method for solar heating and cooling of Army buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses design considerations for heating and cooling buildings with solar energy. General criteria are provided for selecting the components and configuration of such a system. The report presents parametric computer simulation studies for two buildings of typical construction at five locations in the United States. Hourly building heating and cooling loads were computed for each building at each

D. C. Hittle; D. F. Holshouser; G. Walton

1976-01-01

425

A Cloistered Ethos? Landscapes of Learning and English Secondary Schools for Girls: An Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nineteenth-century founders of academic girls' secondary schools in England often used an existing building, frequently a former dwelling-house, adding to it as resources increased and curricula developed, before moving to a purpose-built school as the venture prospered. As municipal secondary schools for girls developed in England in the wake…

Goodman, Joyce

2005-01-01

426

A Cloistered Ethos? Landscapes of Learning and English Secondary Schools for Girls: An Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nineteenth-century founders of academic girls' secondary schools in England often used an existing building, frequently a former dwelling-house, adding to it as resources increased and curricula developed, before moving to a purpose-built school as the venture prospered. As municipal secondary schools for girls developed in England in the…

Goodman, Joyce

2005-01-01

427

Concepts in Building Firesafety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

Egan, M. David

428

Underground buildings: energy savers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground or earth-covered buildings can save energy because the earth moderates the temperatures to which a structure is subjected. Smaller mechanical heating and cooling systems are required using less energy. Life-cycle costs and payback periods do not always favor buildings underground, however. Open excavation costs and a greater roof strength or thickness can increase building costs over conventional buildings. One

Bartos; M. J. Jr

1979-01-01

429

Library Buildings--1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Report on academic and public library facility construction (new buildings, additions, renovations) highlights academic library buildings and projects (1975-85), new circulation desks, public library buildings and projects, buildings not previously reported, funding, and a six-year cost summary. Individual project costs, square feet, volumes,…

Fox, Bette-Lee; And Others

1985-01-01

430

BUILDING ENVELOPE'S INFRARED TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaged heat transfer resistance of the building envelope is the primary parameter that determines the energy saving characteristics of the building. At the phase of the building design it is usually taken into account that building must preserve heat effectively. It is mostly important in northern countries where cold seasons last for more than a half of year. Usually infrared

V. Avramenko; O. Budadin

431

Creating Citizens: Lessons in Relationships, Personal Growth, and Community in One Secondary Social Studies Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents findings from a study examining how a secondary social studies teacher used curriculum and pedagogy to help racially\\/ethnically diverse students from low socioeconomic backgrounds build community to become active citizens with the capacity for democratic living. In particular, the article discusses his emphasis on critical thinking, building of community, and thorough disciplinary content. The resulting pedagogy, Classroom-based

Anand R. Marri

2009-01-01

432

PepBuild: a web server for building structure data of peptides/proteins  

PubMed Central

PepBuild, a web server, will aid in designing and building a capped or uncapped peptide/protein with known secondary and tertiary structure. The user can build a peptide/protein by choosing the required amino acid residue with regular secondary structure. The torsional angles can be supplied by the user, if desired. The server also allows the user to add relevant protecting groups at the N- and/or C-terminal of the peptide. The amino acid side chains of the designed peptide are optimized using rotameric libraries. Finally, the server provides the option of displaying the result or downloading the complete file in PDB (Protein Data Bank) format. This PDB file can later be used as an input for various molecular simulation programs or for graphical display. The web server is available at http://www.imtech.res.in/bvs/pepbuild/.

Singh, Balvinder

2004-01-01

433

The Commonwealth Building: Groundbreaking history with a groundwater heat pump  

SciTech Connect

In 1946, following a wartime moratorium on the construction of commercial buildings, a savings and loan in Portland, Oregon, was granted the first permit to build a new commercial office building. The Equitable Building -- known today as the Commonwealth Building -- was subsequently designed and constructed, incorporating many other ``firsts`` in the architectural, mechanical, and electrical design of commercial buildings. For example, the groundwater heat pump plant, designed by J. Donald Kroeker, has become known as the first major commercial installation of a central ground-coupled heat pump in the US. In addition to being the first large commercial groundwater source heat pump installation, the Commonwealth Building was the first building designed in an architectural style that was to become the standard for many decades. The architect, Pietro Belluschi, was a nationally recognized Portland architect. The building has become something of a legend in its use of innovative building systems technology. Throughout the intervening years, the Commonwealth Building has received credit as: (1) The first building to use a central heat pump system, coupled to the earth, in the form of well water, for both heating and cooling. (2) The first building in the United States to be constructed with fixed double-paned glazing. (3) The first building to recover heat from toilet exhaust for use in pre-heating fresh air. (4) The first building to use an exterior building system composed of aluminum sheathing. (5) The first building to make significant use of cold cathode fluorescent lighting for flexibility in tenant space layout. Within the building engineering community, the central, well-coupled heat pump system in the Commonwealth Building has received the greatest acclaim. The building was recognized by the ASME as a National Historical Mechanical Engineering Landmark in 1980. The central heat pump plant has many unique features and an intriguing operational history.

Hatten, M.J.; Morrison, W.B.

1995-07-01

434

Secondary aortoduodenal fistula.  

PubMed

Secondary aortoenteric fistula (SAF) is now recognized as an uncommon but exceedingly important complication of abdominal aortic reconstruction. The complication often occurs months to years after the original surgery. The main clinical manifestation of the disease is always upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Treatment of the disease is early surgical intervention. The mortality is high if no prompt operation. We present a case of secondary aortoduodenal fistula (SADF) found 20 days after aortic reconstructive surgery, with the clinical presentation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Even immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed, the patient died 48 hrs after the surgical management. Because of the increasing number of elective aortic aneurysm repairs in the aging population, it is likely that more patients with SAF will present to the clinical physicians in the future. So, a high index of suspicion is necessary for prompt diagnosis and treatment of this actually life-threatening event. PMID:12479626

Chang, Meng-Wei; Chan, Yi-Ling; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Chang, Shy-Shin

2002-09-01

435

Physical Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes units of measurement, unit conversions, dimensional analysis and basic mechanical quantities. Length, Mass and Time link to separate pages that go into more detail on the physical quantities and their definitions. Also included is a link to a page that does unit conversions for the user.

Nave, Carl R.

2004-12-15

436

Lake Erie...Build a Fish to Scale!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This elementary school teaching unit was developed as a part of a series of teaching units that deal with Lake Erie. This unit was developed to enable children to: (1) name the different parts of a fish; (2) assemble a fish using overlapping overheads to reinforce fish parts; (3) build a fish to scale using jumbo fish puzzle parts; (4) classify…

Canning, Maureen; Dunlevy, Margie

437

Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Renovation of Building 225, Hill Air Force Base, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hill AFB proposes to accommodate current United States Air Force (USAF) missions by renovating Building 225 on Hill AFB. The proposed action is needed to meet operational requirements and to provide safe working conditions. The proposed building renovatio...

R. Klein K. Winn

2005-01-01

438

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore LaVack, Photographer. June 23, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore LaVack, Photographer. June 23, 1936. (East Elevation) Building No. 1 - GUN CARRIAGE HOUSE - United States Arsenal, Second & Arsenal Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

439

Secondary School Advisors as Mentors and Secondary Attachment Figures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher-student relationship is vital to student outcomes in secondary school. Unfortunately, the transition from elementary to secondary school is associated with a decrease in the quality or supportiveness of this relationship. In response, some secondary schools implement advisory programs, in which a teacher/advisor meets periodically with…

Van Ryzin, Mark

2010-01-01

440

Secondary or Reactive AA Amyloidosis  

MedlinePLUS

Secondary AA Secondary amyloidosis is caused by a chronic infection or chronic inflammatory disease. The deposits in this type ... are made up of a protein called the AA protein. Medical or surgical treatment of the underlying ...

441

CFD studies on burner secondary airflow  

SciTech Connect

In many fossil power plants operating today, there is insufficient means to assure the proper balancing of the secondary airflows between the individual burners of wall-fired units. This mismatch leads to decreased boiler efficiency and increased emissions. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of a fossil power plant wind box was performed. The model solved the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model. The CFD results were validated by the experimental data taken from a 1/8th scale model of a wall-fired fossil unit. Simulations under various mass flow rates specified at inlet, various baffle positions and two opening conditions of the burners were obtained to identify the optimum design in terms of the equalization of the secondary airflow through the burners. This study demonstrated that the combination of experimental and CFD approach can be an effective tool in the research of burner secondary airflow balancing.

Purimetla, A.; Cui, J. [Tennessee Technology University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-02-15

442

Air Age Education. Elementary Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of these units are: 1) to teach social science concepts using aviation as a vehicle to create interest and provide a meaningful context; 2) to facilitate skilled development through varied learning experiences which meet the individual needs of the students; 3) to provide learning experiences which build upon previous knowledge; 4) to…

Fountain Valley School District, CA.

443

Fetch, plug, and play: How secondary science instructors use digital learning objects in their classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This mixed methods exploratory research study describes how United States science teachers who used digital learning objects in their secondary classrooms implemented them. The types of digital learning objects and frequency of use in addition to instructional strategies used with digital learning objects and instructors' reasons for using them were explored. An online survey and four interviews were conducted with instructors who used digital learning objects in traditional classrooms, and artifacts that included sample digital learning objects and lesson plans that integrate them in classrooms were collected and analyzed. Data from this exploratory research study indicates that digital learning objects shift the focus of education from the instructor to the learner. Participants talked and wrote about students' active engagement in their learning with instructors as facilitators providing scaffolding and support for student learning. Interactive digital learning objects providing immediate feedback opportunities allowed students to control the learning pace, manipulate and extend learning in new ways that are difficult to find in other learning activities. Models and visualizations extended and enriched learning, making abstract concepts more concrete by providing multiple perspectives that provoke learner reflection and restructuring of their knowledge leading to higher levels of learning. Digital learning objects were used to motivate students by gaining their attention, providing relevant content, encouraging learner confidence, and gaining learner satisfaction. This study may benefit secondary instructors by helping them build upon the experiences described by study participants. Results indicate that digital learning objects promoted learner-centered classrooms and exhibited instructional strategies consistent with constructivist learning theory.

Looser, Theresa A.

444

12. GENERAL VIEW TO THE WEST FROM NEAR BUILDING NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. GENERAL VIEW TO THE WEST FROM NEAR BUILDING NO. 14 (CONTROL HOUSE FOR DRY DOCK), NOW LOCATED AT THE EAST END OF THE PROJECT AREA. IN THE LEFT FAR DISTANCE ARE TWO WATER TOWERS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION. DIRECTLY BENEATH THEM IS THE FRAME OF BUILDING NO. 6. BUILDING NO. 1 IS IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, MOSTLY OBSCURED BY A MODERN METAL BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 18 AND THE WET BASIN ARE AT RIGHT CENTER, IN DISTANCE. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

445

The Nuclear Arms Race: Materials for a Secondary Classroom Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of materials for study of the nuclear arms issue. Citations are divided into nonfiction, fiction, poetry, periodicals, quotations, and audiovisual categories. Includes names and addresses of antinuclear activist groups. (HTH)

Totten, Sam

1983-01-01

446

Technical Subjects in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to examine technical education in various types of secondary schools, and suggests three levels of technical courses to be taught in secondary schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the differences between technical schools and colleges, and vocational technical courses taught in "academic" secondary…

Howard, A. E.

2008-01-01

447

Building Survey: Building 184-K Powerhouse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a building energy survey of Building 184-K powerhouse, which serves an area including a nuclear reactor facility, are given. This facility is located in the Savannah River Plant of the Energy Research and Development Administration near Aik...

T. C. Hardin J. D. Colven

1977-01-01

448

The Peruvian Building Code for Earthen Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every time a strong earthquake occurs in areas where earthen buildings are common, there is widespread damage, economic losses, and death caused by the col- lapse of earthen houses. In some cases, as in Peru, the academic and professional communities have reacted against this dreadful situation by conducting research to find adequate seismic reinforcement alternatives for earthen buildings, and the

Julio Vargas Neumann; Marcial Blondet; Nicola Tarque

449

Secondary Waste Form Development and Optimization—Cast Stone  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Services is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-permitted, multi-waste, treatment and storage unit and can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid wastes generated during operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The STU to ETF will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary wastes expected to be produced by WTP.

Sundaram, S. K.; Parker, Kent E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pitman, Stan G.; Chun, Jaehun; Chung, Chul-Woo; Kimura, Marcia L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Um, Wooyong; Westsik, Joseph H.

2011-07-14

450

Resource Unit on Race, Prejudice & Discrimination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource unit is a teacher-developed guide to methods and materials for teaching about race and ethnocentrism at the secondary level. The purpose of the outline is to provide a substantive and provocative unit on race, prejudice, and discrimination, with the strong conviction that attitudes and behavior can be influenced through exposure to a…

Leviatin, Victor

451

DEVELOPMENT OF A FLEXIBLE, MULTIZONE, MULTIFAMILY BUILDING SIMULATION MODEL  

SciTech Connect

Weatherization of multifamily buildings is gaining increased attention in the U.S. Available energy audit tools for multifamily buildings were found to need desirable improvements. On the wish list of field experts for enhanced features was the basic ability to model multizone buildings (i.e., one thermal zone per dwelling unit) with simplified user inputs, which allows a better analysis of decentralized and centralized HVAC and domestic hot water systems of multifamily buildings without having to create detailed building models. To address the desired capabilities, development of an enhanced energy audit tool was begun in 2011. The tool is a strategically structured, flexible, one-zone-per-unit, DOE-2.1e model coupled with a simplified user interface to model small to large multifamily buildings with decentralized or centralized systems and associated energy measures. This paper describes the modeling concept and its implementation.

Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

2012-01-01

452

Secondary homoclinic bifurcation theorems.  

PubMed

We develop criteria for detecting secondary intersections and tangencies of the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic periodic orbits appearing in time-periodically perturbed one degree of freedom Hamiltonian systems. A function, called the "Secondary Melnikov Function" (SMF) is constructed, and it is proved that simple (resp. degenerate) zeros of this function correspond to transverse (resp. tangent) intersections of the manifolds. The theory identifies and predicts the rotary number of the intersection (the number of "humps" of the homoclinic orbit), the transition number of the homoclinic points (the number of periods between humps), the existence of tangencies, and the scaling of the intersection angles near tangent bifurcations perturbationally. The theory predicts the minimal transition number of the homoclinic points of a homoclinic tangle. This number determines the relevant time scale, the minimal stretching rate (which is related to the topological entropy) and the transport mechanism as described by the TAM, a transport theory for two-dimensional area-preserving chaotic maps. The implications of this theory on the study of dissipative systems have yet to be explored. (c) 1995 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12780192

Rom-Kedar, Vered

1995-06-01

453

The scaling of secondary craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary craters are common features around fresh planetary-scale primary impact craters throughout most of the Solar System. They derive from the ejection phase of crater formation, thus secondary scaling relations provide constraints on parameters affecting ejection processes. Secondary crater fields typically begin at the edge of the continuous ejecta blankets (CEB) and extend out several crater radii. Secondaries tend to have rounded rims and bilateral symmetry about an axis through the primary crater's center. Prominent secondary chains can extend inward across the CEB close to the rim. A simple method for comparing secondary crater fields was employed: averaging the diameters and ranges from the center of the primary crater of the five largest craters in a secondary crater field. While not as much information is obtained about individual crater fields by this method as in more complete secondary field mapping, it facilitates rapid comparison of many secondary fields. Also, by quantifying a few specific aspects of the secondary crater field, this method can be used to construct scaling relations for secondary craters.

Croft, Steven K.

1991-06-01

454

Buildings Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buildings Energy Conservation announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Information on the following subjects is included within t...

1985-01-01

455

Building the Channel Tunnel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you build a tunnel 32 miles long -- under water? This video segment adapted from Building Big, follows the construction of the Channel Tunnel (nicknamed Chunnel), the engineering wonder that connects England to France.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-01-22

456

Building Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buildings Energy Conservation announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Information on the following subjects is included within t...

1991-01-01

457

Building Energy Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buildings Energy Conservation announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Information on the following subjects is included within t...

1988-01-01

458

Build a Skyscraper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, learners use simple materials to build--and then test the strength of--a skyscraper. Learners research buildings, sketch a design, build a structure, and then test its fortitude against the weight of a tennis ball and the force of a fan. Activity PDF includes worksheet and guide for learners to record their work. Learners are encouraged to improve their designs until they have the tallest, strongest skyscraper they can build.

History, National M.

2013-01-30

459

71. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIQUID AIR BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

71. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIQUID AIR BUILDING, LOOKING AT A BANK OF AIR COMPRESSORS. JANUARY 29, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

460

Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings  

SciTech Connect

Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

2003-06-01

461

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF LOSSINGBARRITT ENGRAVING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF LOSSING-BARRITT ENGRAVING FROM CHARLES NORDHOFF'S COMMUNISTIC SOCIETIES OF THE UNITED STATES (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1875), p. 155. - Shaker Church Family Herb House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

462

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF LOSSINGBARRITT ENGRAVING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF LOSSING-BARRITT ENGRAVING FROM CHARLES NORDHOFF'S COMMUNISTIC SOCIETIES OF THE UNITED STATES (1875) p. 162. - Shaker Church Family Trustees' Office, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

463

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF LOSSINGBARRITT ENGRAVING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, PHOTOCOPY OF LOSSING-BARRITT ENGRAVING FROM CHARLES NORDHOFF'S COMMUNISTIC SOCIETIES OF THE UNITED STATES (1875), p. 130. - Shaker Church Family Seed House, Shaker Road, New Lebanon, Columbia County, NY

464

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 TYPICAL OFFICE, SECOND FLOOR (ROOM 276) - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

465

24. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 UPPER PART OF DEAD-LETTER OFFICE (NOW HEARING ROOM, THIRD FLOOR) - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

466

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

467

60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE POIDOMETER AND WEIGHING MACHINE. MAY 5, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

468

67. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NEUTRALIZER BUILDING, LOOKING AT CONDENSERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NEUTRALIZER BUILDING, LOOKING AT CONDENSERS, NEUTRALIZERS AND STORAGE TANKS, APRIL 11, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

469

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

470

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

471

PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING, AMMONIA SPHERES IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

472

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING WEST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

473

66. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COOLING BUILDING, LOOKING AM DAMPERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COOLING BUILDING, LOOKING AM DAMPERS, HIGH TEMPERATURE AND LOW TEMPERATURE COOLERS. APRIL 11, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

474

65. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIMENITROGEN (CALCIUM CYANAMIDE) OVEN BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME-NITROGEN (CALCIUM CYANAMIDE) OVEN BUILDING, LOOKING AT 2 BANKS OF OVENS. MARCH 2, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

475

2. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, FACING NORTHWEST. (BUILDINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST WALLS, FACING NORTHWEST. (BUILDINGS 122 AND 128 ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, G. U. Treatment Unit Lavatory, Hood Avenue, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

476

Evaluation of Residential Building Energy-Performance Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on the development and analysis of energy-performance standards for residential buildings in the United States. The approach involves an assessment of the economic costs and benefits of alternative standards and provides quantitative es...

M. D. Levine D. B. Goldstein M. Lokmanhekim A. H. Rosenfeld

1979-01-01

477

180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating front elevation of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating front elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

478

180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180 degree view of Building 20, illustrating rear elevation of two story walk-up flat type unit. View facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, Two Story Walk-Up Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

479

View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 1506 in background), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of EPA Farm cattle shelters (Building 15-06 in background), facing southeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Shelter Unit Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

480

Energy Efficiency for Building Construction Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended primarily but not solely for use at the postsecondary level, this curriculum guide contains five units of materials on energy efficiency that were designed to be incorporated into an existing program in building construction. The following topics are examined: conservation measures (residential energy use and methods for reducing…

Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

481

Optimized design of low energy buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1996 the Danish government presented their plan (Energi21 1996) formulating how Denmark could fulfill the demands for CO(sub 2)-reduction recommended by United Nations. The major issues in the plan, regarding new and existing buildings, is that heat de...

C. Rudbeck P. Kjaer Esbensen S. Svendsen

1999-01-01

482

Asbestos and ShipBuilding: Fatal Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The severe bombing of Belfast in 1941 had far-reaching consequences. Harland and Wolff was crippled. The British Merchant Ship Building Mission to the USA was being constrained by the UK treasury. On being told of the Belfast destruction, the British Mission and the United States Maritime Commission were emboldened. The result was 2,710 Liberty Ships launched to a British

John Hedley-Whyte; Debra R Milamed

2008-01-01

483

Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2002; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2001-2002: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: A Precarious Holding Pattern; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2002: The Building Buck Doesn't Stop Here.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets;…

Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee

2003-01-01

484

EPA Green Buildings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency's site contains a wealth of information on green guilding: green-built schools, residences, and office buildings. This site also describes what EPA is doing to green its own buildings. Topics such as energy efficiency, indoor environment, and sustainable development are covered on the Green Buildings website.

2008-09-12

485

Building Science Corporation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internationally recognized firm and valuable website for expertise in moisture dynamics, indoor air quality, and forensic (building failure) investigations. Also on the leading edge of the design of sustainable communities and buildings, this website promotes energy efficiency and environmental responsibility within the constraints of marketable and affordable building technology.

2007-07-30

486

To Renovate or Build?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the decision-making process facility directors can use when deciding between building renovation versus constructing new ones. Considerations include building renovation costs versus building life expectancy and changes in school policy and campus evolution. Concluding comments address the desire to maintain the campus architectural…

Fickes, Michael

1999-01-01

487

Building thermal monitoring methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any method for monitoring building thermal energy has three key steps: model selection, building testing, and model analyses. first a thermal model of the building must be chosen that accounts for all major thermal processes and that adequately answers the questions motivating the monitoring project. Once a model is chosen, a test is designed and executed to determine from data

Burch

1986-01-01

488

Post-occupancy assessment: building design, governance and household consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can post-occupancy assessment assess drivers of household consumption? A mixed-methods approach was used to investigate household consumption patterns in three housing types in Vancouver, Canada. An analysis of eight multi-unit, residential household settings was conducted that included high-performance green residential buildings, co-housing buildings, and typical multi-residential buildings. A post-occupancy assessment survey instrument quantified household solid waste, recycling, and storage relationships,

David J. Hendrickson; Hannah K. Wittman

2010-01-01

489

Wireless Sensors: Technology and Cost-Savings for Commercial Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two projects under way for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs, aim to adapt, test and demonstrate wireless sensors and data acquisition for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) in commercial buildings. One project focuses on built-up systems in medium to large buildings; the second on applications for rooftop units in small- to medium-size

Michael CW Kintner-Meyer; Michael R. Brambley; Teresa A. Carlon; Nathan N. Bauman

2002-01-01

490

Unit 1003: The Language of Exposition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This language unit for grade 10 builds on a definition of the expository use of language developed in the two previous 10th-grade units. In a brief overview of report language, the referential language of Thomas Huxley is compared with the expressive language of Edgar Allan Poe. The writings of S. I. Hayakawa, Hans Guth, and others are examined…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

491

Introduction to Animal Science. Unit A-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in the college animal science curriculum. It is intended to be used for 20 hours of instruction for freshmen as an introduction to animal science. It explores the livestock industry and builds a foundation for livestock selection. The unit's objectives are to help the student develop an understanding…

Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

492

An approach to management of critical indoor air problems in school buildings.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted in a school center that had been the focus of intense public concern over 2 years because of suspected mold and health problems. Because several attempts to find solutions to the problem within the community were not satisfactory, outside specialists were needed for support in solving the problem. The study group consisted of experts in civil engineering, indoor mycology, and epidemiology. The studies were conducted in close cooperation with the city administration. Structures at risk were opened, moisture and temperature were measured, and the causes of damage were analyzed. Microbial samples were taken from the air, surfaces, and materials. Health questionnaires were sent to the schoolchildren and personnel. Information on the measurements and their results was released regularly to school employees, students and their parents, and to the media. Repairs were designed on the basis of this information. Moisture damage was caused mainly by difficult moisture conditions at the building site, poor ventilation, and water leaks. Fungal genera (concentrations <200 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3), <3000 cfu/cm(2)) typical to buildings with mold problems (e.g., Aspergillus versicolor, Eurotium) were collected from the indoor air and surfaces of the school buildings. Where moisture-prone structures were identified and visible signs of damage or elevated moisture content were recorded, the numbers of microbes also were high; thus microbial results from material samples supported the conclusions made in the structural studies. Several irritative and recurrent symptoms were common among the upper secondary and high school students. The prevalence of asthma was high (13%) among the upper secondary school students. During the last 4 years, the incidence of asthma was 3-fold that of the previous 4-year period. Images Figure 1

Haverinen, U; Husman, T; Toivola, M; Suonketo, J; Pentti, M; Lindberg, R; Leinonen, J; Hyvarinen, A; Meklin, T; Nevalainen, A

1999-01-01

493