Science.gov

Sample records for secondary building units

  1. Computational design of metal-organic frameworks with paddlewheel-type secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschlogl, Udo; Peskov, Maxim V.; Masghouni, Nejib

    We employ the TOPOS package to study 697 coordination polymers containing paddlewheel-type secondary building units. The underlying nets are analyzed and 3 novel nets are chosen as potential topologies for paddlewheel-type metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Dicarboxylate linkers are used to build basic structures for novel isoreticular MOF series, aiming at relatively compact structures with a low number of atoms per unit cell. The structures are optimized using density functional theory. Afterwards the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo approach is employed to generate adsorption isotherms for CO2, CO, and CH4 molecules. We utilize the universal forcefield for simulating the interaction between the molecules and hosting MOF. The diffusion behavior of the molecules inside the MOFs is analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. Systematic design of secondary building units by an efficient cation-directing strategy under regular vibrations of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    An, Bing; Wang, Jun-Li; Bai, Yan; Dang, Dong-Bin

    2015-09-01

    A cobalt-1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid system in a systematic series of ionic liquids with different alkyl chain lengths of imidazolium cations governed the construction of four MOFs with regular changes of secondary building units (SBUs). PMID:26212129

  3. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Construction of a polyhedron decorated MOF with a unique network through the combination of two classic secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guo-Jian; Chang, Ze; Xu, Jian; Hu, Zhenpeng; Liu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Yue-Ling; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-01-26

    A novel decorated metal-organic polyhedron (MOP) based metal-organic framework with a unique 4,9-connected network is successfully constructed, which displays a relatively strong interaction toward H2 and CO2 probably due to the existence of open metal sites in the secondary building units. PMID:26685714

  5. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  6. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal−organic framework based on Co–carboxylate secondary building units

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; Đaković, Marijana

    2015-03-15

    A metal–organic framework [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group with a=13.989(3) Å, b=9.6728(17) Å, c=16.707(3) Å, and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co–O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected. - Graphical abstract: A metal–organic framework of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was synthesized by hydrothermal method. This 2D-periodic framework is constructed from the infinite Co–O–C secondary building units and crystallizes in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group based on Co(II)–carboxylate units. The catalytic oxidation of various olefins was effectively carried out with [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} catalyst by TBHP as oxidant. - Highlights: • A metal–organic framework of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] is prepared by hydrothermal method. • The [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} is constructed from Co–carboxylate secondary building units. • This coordination polymer displayed high catalytic activity for olefin oxidation reactions. • The catalytic reaction is heterogeneous and catalyst can be simply separated. • The heterogeneous catalyst can be reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  7. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework based on Co-carboxylate secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; ?akovi?, Marijana

    2015-03-01

    A metal-organic framework [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P21/n space group with a=13.989(3) , b=9.6728(17) , c=16.707(3) , and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co-O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2]n for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected.

  8. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  9. Buildings As Secondary Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semblat, J.-F.; Kham, M.; Guéguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.

    At the scale of a city, surface structures like buildings can modify the seismic free- field and behave as secondary seismic sources. At a local scale, some experimental evidences of the site-structure interaction were previously given (Guéguen, 2000). Thanks to the boundary element method, the global problem of site-city interaction is herein investigated in two dimensions at the scale of an alluvial deposit and an entire city considering a whole building network. An alluvial deposit located in the center of Nice (France) was firstly considered for the analysis of free-field amplification (Semblat, 2000). The amplification factor was estimated by the boundary element method and compared with experimental results (SSR, HVSR). Starting from these free-field simulations, several site-city models were considered which describe both superficial soil layers and surface structures. We in- vestigate herein the influence of both building type and building density on the modi- fication of free-field amplification. To compare free-field amplification and amplification in urban configurations, sur- face amplification is compared in both cases for a specific uniform building type and various building densities at differents frequencies. Depending on these various pa- rameters, the free-field amplification level could be increased by 20 to 50%. Other urban configurations are considered with various building types in uniform and inho- mogeneous arrangements. For the specific site considered, the various site-city BEM models show that site-city interaction can lead to a strong increase of the free-field am- plification factor. Around the fundamental frequency of a specific building type, for a homogeneous urban configuration, particular resonance effects are observed. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental and local scale numerical results (Guéguen, 2000) and show that the coincidence of the respective eigenfre- quencies of both alluvial deposit and surface structures is a prevailing factor for the occurence of strong site-city interaction. This work is part of the ACI-CATNAT research project on "Site-city interaction and seismic hazard in urban areas". P.Guéguen, P.Y.Bard, J.F.Semblat, "From soil-structure to site-city interaction", 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, 30 jan.-04 feb. 2000. J.F.Semblat, A.M.Duval, P.Dangla, "Numerical analysis of seismic wave amplifica- tion in Nice (France) and comparisons with experiments", Soil Dynamics and Earth- quake Engineering, Vol.19, n05, pp.347-362, 2000.

  10. Building a secondary containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  11. Designing Knowledge Building Communities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, sixteen senior secondary classes participated in this study, with eight of them being distance classes. Approximately 220 Year 11-13 students and 8 teachers took part in this study. This project aimed at designing and evaluating a computer-supported knowledge building community in senior secondary classes. Researchers sought to…

  12. Unique anisotropic optical properties of a highly stable metal-organic framework based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units linked by tetracarboxylic linkers with an anthracene core.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, A V; Milichko, V A; Zaake-Hertling, H; Aleksovska, A; Gruschinski, S; Schmorl, S; Kersting, B; Zolnhofer, E M; Sutter, J; Meyer, K; Lönnecke, P; Hey-Hawkins, E

    2016-05-01

    A highly stable metal-organic framework, [{Fe3(ACTBA)2}X·6DEF]n (1; X = monoanion), based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units connected by tetracarboxylates with an anthracene core, 2,6,9,10-tetrakis(p-carboxylatophenyl)anthracene (ACTBA), is reported. Depending on the direction of light polarisation, crystals of 1 exhibit anisotropic optical properties with birefringence Δn = 0.3 (λ = 590 nm). PMID:26906040

  13. Extraordinary Separation of Acetylene-Containing Mixtures with Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open O Donor Sites and Tunable Robustness through Control of the Helical Chain Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zizhu; Zhang, Zhangjing; Liu, Lizhen; Li, Ziyin; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin; Krishna, Rajamani; Xiang, Shengchang

    2016-04-11

    Acetylene separation is a very important but challenging industrial separation task. Here, through the solvothermal reaction of CuI and 5-triazole isophthalic acid in different solvents, two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, FJU-21 and FJU-22) with open O donor sites and controllable robustness have been obtained for acetylene separation. They contain the same paddle-wheel {Cu2 (COO2 )4 } nodes and metal-ligand connection modes, but with different helical chains as secondary building units (SBUs), leading to different structural robustness for the MOFs. FJU-21 and FJU-22 are the first examples in which the MOFs' robustness is controlled by adjusting the helical chain SBUs. Good robustness gives the activated FJU-22 a, which has higher surface area and gas uptakes than the flexible FJU-21 a. Importantly, FJU-22 a shows extraordinary separation of acetylene mixtures under ambient conditions. The separation capacity of FJU-22 a for 50:50 C2 H2 /CO2 mixtures is about twice that of the high-capacity HOF-3, and its actual separation selectivity for C2 H2 /C2 H4 mixtures containing 1 % acetylene is the highest among reported porous materials. Based on first-principles calculations, the extraordinary separation performance of C2 H2 for FJU-22 a was attributed to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the C2 H2 molecules with the open O donors on the wall, which provide better recognition ability for C2 H2 than other functional sites, including open metal sites and amino groups. PMID:26934040

  14. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING 2), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING 2), WITH HEADHOUSE (BUILDING 4) AND GREENHOUSE #1 (BUILDING 5) AT LEFT - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Main Building, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  15. Microworlds: Building Powerful Ideas in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Craig William

    2012-01-01

    In the 1960s, the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) developed a programming language called LOGO. Underpinning this invention was a profound new philosophy of how learners learn. This paper reviews research in the area and asks how one notion in particular, that of a microworld, may be used by secondary school educators to build powerful…

  16. Interior of secondary building, first floor, ceilingmounted drive belt wheels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of secondary building, first floor, ceiling-mounted drive belt wheels, bevel gears and open pigment conveyor (center). Desk with paint labels below, vaulted brick ceiling above. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  17. VIEW WEST, EAST FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDINGS I, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, EAST FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDINGS I, 3); EAST FRONT OF QUARANTINE HEADHOUSE/GREENHOUSE (BUILDING 30, 31) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Main Building, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  18. Desegregation Instruction Unit: Secondary School Teacher Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Public Schools, MO.

    This guide provides St. Louis, Missouri, secondary school teachers with information about desegregation that would be useful to parents and students in that city. The guide contains instructional materials to be used by teachers to reduce anxieties caused by school desegregation. The background information on St. Louis desegregation includes: (1)…

  19. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  20. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    PubMed

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species. PMID:24891425

  1. VLT secondary mirror unit performance and test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barho, Reiner; Stanghellini, Stefano; Jander, Georg

    1998-08-01

    This paper explains the overall mechanical functions of the Very Large Telescope Secondary Mirror Unit (VLT-M2 Unit), and the method of their verification by tests inside two different test adapters. The cinematic mechanisms of the M2 Unit are the Focusing Stage, Centering Stage and the Chopping Assembly which enables to adjust the position of the secondary mirror along 5 degrees of freedom. All these mechanisms are characterized by very high stiffness and accuracy, long lifetime and high reliability. The presentation of the finally achieved performance test results of the M2 Unit, realized by their high precision mechanisms, are the major points of this presentation.

  2. Torture: A Unit for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Torture is a worldwide, not an isolated, phenomenon. It is epidemic in the world. A human rights unit for high school students on torture as a tool of the state is presented. An interdisciplinary approach, involving social studies and language arts, is used. (RM)

  3. Aerospace-Oriented Units for Use in Secondary School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; And Others

    This set of nine units is intended to furnish aerospace-oriented resource material to help teachers include recent scientific and technological advances in the secondary school science curriculum. The units provided are as follows: history of astronomy, the solar system, beyond the solar system, history of flight, spaceflight facts, aerology,…

  4. Aerospace-Oriented Units for Use in Secondary School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; And Others

    This set of nine units is intended to furnish aerospace-oriented resource material to help teachers include recent scientific and technological advances in the secondary school science curriculum. The units provided are as follows: history of astronomy, the solar system, beyond the solar system, history of flight, spaceflight facts, aerology,

  5. 11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING I, 2); SOUTH AND EAST FRONTS OF SEED STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 21); EAST FRONT OF GREENHOUSE #1 (BUILDING 5) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  6. 9. VIEW NORTH OF BUILDING 12, INDUSTRIAL SASH WINDOW UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH OF BUILDING 12, INDUSTRIAL SASH WINDOW UNITS - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Transonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. 13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ROOM. June 5, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March 11, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  10. [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) A, V=9742(8) A{sup 3}, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[F{sup 2}>2sigma(F{sup 2})]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material. - Graphical abstract: The metal-organic framework [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (MFU-5) is constructed from a molecular precursor containing {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units which become cross-linked into a 3D zeolite-type network with hexagonal symmetry by linear DABCO ligands (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

  11. 12. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING 1, 2); SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN HEADHOUSE (BUILDING 4); EAST FRONT OF GREENHOUSE #1 (BUILDING 5) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  12. Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs: A Secondary Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia; And Others

    This document consists on a 6-week curriculum unit designed to allow secondary students to actively explore issues associated with freedom of belief and expression. Throughout the curriculum students systematically examine the ways in which the legal and constitutional framework of our society directly embodies the norms of freedom of speech and…

  13. Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs: A Secondary Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Patricia; And Others

    This document consists on a 6-week curriculum unit designed to allow secondary students to actively explore issues associated with freedom of belief and expression. Throughout the curriculum students systematically examine the ways in which the legal and constitutional framework of our society directly embodies the norms of freedom of speech and

  14. Developing an Appropriate Goalball Unit for Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.; Happel, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Goalball, a sport designed for those with visual impairments, is a competitive and recreational sport enjoyed by athletes around the world. Students with and without visual impairments can experience positive outcomes when teachers appropriately include a goalball unit as part of their inclusive secondary physical education curriculum. This…

  15. [Cu4OCl6(DABCO)2]·0.5DABCO·4CH3OH (“MFU-5”): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {Cu4OCl6} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying-Ya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias; Volkmer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu 4OCl 6(DABCO) 2] ·0.5DABCO ·4CH 3OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {Cu 4OCl 6} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/ mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) Å, V=9742(8) Å 3, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[ F2>2 σ( F2)]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material.

  16. Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of

  17. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  18. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  19. STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plan, elevations, sections, details. Austin Willmott Earl, Consulting Engineer, 233 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. Drawing no. 504. Various scales. January 20, 1945, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, amendments 4 & 5. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Electrical Services & Switching Station, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  20. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-02-24

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies. Summary of technical progress is presented for: Well drilling and completion; seismic data acquisition; and geologic and engineering interpretation.

  1. Preservation Building Survey Form for Freestanding Library Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Susan M.

    A modification of a University of Michigan form, this survey form is designed to obtain information on a freestanding library unit for preservation. The questionnaire covers the following areas: (1) library facility construction--e.g., primary building materials, characteristics of the foundation and roof, recent problems; (2) heating and cooling…

  2. 2. 808810 SECOND AVENUE MAIN ELEVATIONS OF BUILDINGS United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 808-810 SECOND AVENUE MAIN ELEVATIONS OF BUILDINGS - United Nations Vicinity Area Study, Second Avenue, East Forty-first, East Forty-third, East Forty-fourth, East Forty-eighty, & East Forty-ninth Streets, New York County, NY

  3. Preservation Building Survey Form for Freestanding Library Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Susan M.

    A modification of a University of Michigan form, this survey form is designed to obtain information on a freestanding library unit for preservation. The questionnaire covers the following areas: (1) library facility construction--e.g., primary building materials, characteristics of the foundation and roof, recent problems; (2) heating and cooling

  4. An examination of reasoning and proof opportunities in three differently organized secondary mathematics textbook units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jon D.

    2012-12-01

    Students' struggles in learning reasoning and proof (RP) in mathematics are well known. Despite the instantiation of RP opportunities in mathematics textbooks in the USA and the important role that textbooks play in teachers' instructional decisions, little research has been conducted on analyzing student textbook tasks and narrative sections of mathematics textbooks in the USA. One polynomial functions unit located within a reform-oriented, conventional, and hybrid secondary mathematics textbook was examined for RP instances. RP tasks comprised 4, 9, and 22 % of the student tasks in the conventional, hybrid, and reform-oriented textbook units, respectively. The textbook exposition of all three textbook units promoted the presentation of proof building blocks (e.g., definitions) with no occurrences of conjecture development or testing. Overall, only 19 % of the learning objectives across the three textbook units were validated. The conventional and hybrid textbook units had the potential to promote an authoritative proof scheme in students while the reform-oriented textbook unit had the potential to promote an empirical proof scheme in students.

  5. A Porous Metal-Organic Framework with Helical Chain Building Units Exhibiting Facile Transition from Micro- to Meso-porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinhee; Li, Jian-Rong; Carolina Sañudo, E.; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) with helical channels has been constructed by bridging helical chain secondary building units with 2,6-di-p-carboxyphenyl-4,4'-bipyridine ligands. The activated MOF shows permanent porosity and gas adsorption selectivity. Remarkably, the MOF exhibits a facile transition from micro- to meso-porosity.

  6. 158. ARAIII Reactor building (ARA608) Secondary cooling loop and piping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. ARA-III Reactor building (ARA-608) Secondary cooling loop and piping plan. This drawing was selected as a typical example of piping arrangements within reactor building. Aerojet/general 880-area/GCRE-608-P-16. Date: February 1958. INeel index code no. 063-0608-50-013-102641. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 40 CFR 267.1107 - Can a containment building itself be considered secondary containment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a containment building itself be considered secondary containment? 267.1107 Section 267.1107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Containment buildings § 267.1107 Can a containment...

  8. Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Bradford

    This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of…

  9. Building Bridges: Transitions from Elementary to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Most young people leave elementary school and move into some form of secondary school during early adolescence. At precisely the time that young people are navigating multiple developmental challenges (social, intellectual, academic, physical), they are expected to move between these intuitions of public education. The transition is commonly…

  10. Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Bradford

    This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of

  11. Community United Methodist Church solar classroom building. Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The new building reported is formed by three 20 foot by 70 foot modules, each with the long axis in the east-west direction and with a shed roof over each. Solar features include daylighting, fixed insulating shades over the clerestory windows to minimize heat loss during the winter, some operable clerestory windows for ventillation, thermal mass in the form of a concrete floor slab and dark concrete masonry walls on the north end of interior space, ceiling fans for air circulation and sensible cooling, and a large exhaust fan for night cooling. Backup heating is provided by a natural gas furnace, and an air-conditioning unit is included primarily for humidity control in the summer. The building is highly insulated and incorporates designs which minimize air infiltration. A cost analysis for construction of the building is included. (LEW)

  12. 24 CFR 983.56 - Cap on number of PBV units in each building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirement, the unit continues to count as an excepted unit for as long as the family resides in the unit. If a family in an excepted unit fails without good cause to complete its FSS contract of participation... single-family building; (ii) Excepted units in a multifamily building. (2) Terms (i) “Excepted...

  13. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, S.

    2002-06-13

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site.

  14. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 214. Focus of the posttests is testing and servicing the secondary ignition circuit. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in the unit. (No…

  15. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with how to test and service the secondary ignition circuit. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 215-216. An introduction tells how this unit fits into the total…

  16. 24 CFR 983.56 - Cap on number of PBV units in each building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... single-family building; (ii) Excepted units in a multifamily building. (2) Terms (i) “Excepted units... and the owner, the family and the PHA must sign a statement of family responsibility. The statement of... other project-based assistance in a multifamily building containing excepted units or in a...

  17. 24 CFR 983.56 - Cap on number of PBV units in each building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... single-family building; (ii) Excepted units in a multifamily building. (2) Terms (i) “Excepted units... and the owner, the family and the PHA must sign a statement of family responsibility. The statement of... other project-based assistance in a multifamily building containing excepted units or in a...

  18. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary coolant flowed through carbon steel pipe; primary coolant, through stainless steel. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: April 30, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2080 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Indigenous Secondary Education in the Northern Territory: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Jeannie; McInerney, Dennis M.; Fasoli, Lyn; Stephenson, Peter; Ford, Lysbeth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an Australian Research Council (ARC) funded research project, "Building the future for Indigenous students", an investigation of the hopes and dreams for the future of over 1,000 secondary students, 733 of whom were Indigenous, living in very remote, remote, and urban locations in the Northern…

  20. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models. PMID:15053116

  1. Ethnic Heritage Studies Pertaining to Arabic Culture: Six Teaching Units for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jon; Olson, Margarete

    Six social studies units are presented to help secondary school classroom teachers introduce students to Arab American culture. A major objective is to make students recognize the many contributions made by the Arabs to the development of the United States. In the introduction, Arab Americans are identified as people in the United States who…

  2. A Collection of Teaching Units about Japan for Secondary Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce, Comp; Christian, Duane, Comp.

    This document contains a collection of eight selected secondary level units of study about Japan. Individual units were planned and written by teachers who participated in the first Southwest Program for Teaching about Japan (SPTAJ) study tour to that country during 1987. Unit topics include: (1) "An Introduction To Japanese Medicine" (G. Adams);…

  3. Model Spacecraft Construction, Units for Secondary School Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, C. Thomas; And Others

    This publication provides twelve model spacecraft construction plans for use by secondary school teachers in industrial arts classes. These models were adopted and developed from plans supplied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and are representative selections from the many spacecraft used in space exploration programs. Some…

  4. Violence Prevention in United States Society of Jesus Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Thomas Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…

  5. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit

  6. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

  7. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal

  8. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 214. Focus of the exercises and pretests is testing and servicing the secondary ignition circuit. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the seven…

  9. United States History in the Secondary School. American People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one of the series described in SO 000 378. When the student of American History seeks beneath the surface of the Dream of the Golden Door, the story he unearths is often one of prejudice, bigotry, and quiet tragedy. For the sake of relevance, the specific objectives of this unit y are: 1) to study the student's ancestors and their struggle

  10. Heterogeneity within a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework with Three Distinct Metal-Containing Building Units.

    PubMed

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Ning, Erlong; Yan, Wenqing; Qi, Yi; Wu, Doufeng; Li, Qiaowei

    2015-10-28

    Materials built from multiple constituents have revealed emerging properties that are beyond linear integration of those from single components. We report a mesoporous metal-organic framework made from three geometrically distinct metal-containing secondary building units (SBUs) as a result of topological induction. The combinations of the Cu-based triangular, Zn-based octahedral, and Zn-based square pyramidal SBUs have created four types of cages in the network, despite that only one organic linker pyrazolecarboxylate was used. The longest distance for molecules maneuvering inside the largest cage is 5.2 nm. Furthermore, the complex and diversified pore environments allow the installation of various new functionalities in the framework as well as the expedited Ag nanoparticle formation in the pores. As presented in the molecule movement diagram, the crystal has provided specific arrangements of cages and apertures with distinct chemical features for guests transporting between the pores. PMID:26335899

  11. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  12. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade

  13. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  14. Electrical. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This teaching guide on electrical building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of electricity in order to know how to make basic repairs to the electrical systems in a building. Introductory material provides teachers with information…

  15. Modelling secondary organic aerosol in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redington, A. L.; Derwent, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    The Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, NAME, has been used to model the formation and transport of anthropogenic and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) over North-West Europe in 2008. The model has been tested against daily organic carbon measurements at Harwell, a rural site in southern UK, where it was able to represent adequately the observed values in summer, with some under-prediction in winter. The model has been used to look at the contribution of SOA to total measured PM10 at four selected UK sites. The site with the greatest contribution (32%) of SOA to PM10 was Auchencorth, a rural site in Scotland and least (9%) at London Bloomsbury. The biogenic SOA (BSOA) dominated over the anthropogenic SOA (ASOA) in the UK and showed a strong seasonal cycle peaking in the summer. There was also a slight summer increase in ASOA. The model has been employed to provide source attribution between UK sources and sources in the rest of Europe. The contribution from Europe was generally small but varied considerably due to meteorology. The UK component showed a seasonal cycle, peaking in the summer months. On an annual basis, considering the four measurement sites, the percentage of SOA arriving from outside the UK was least at Auchencorth (9.8%) and most at London (28.4%). Total modelled SOA had a maximum contribution of 2-3 ?g m-3 as a monthly average. (It should be noted that in addition there will be a small contribution from background SOA to these figures.) Emission sensitivity studies revealed that the response of ASOA was highly non-linear, showing both positive and negative responses to a 30% reduction in all man-made NOx sources and the response was greater than 1:1 to a 30% reduction in all man-made VOC sources. BSOA showed only a small negative response to a 30% NOx reduction and no change to a 30% VOC reduction.

  16. Energy efficiency as a commodity: The emergence of a secondary market for efficiency savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, G.H.; Rosenfield, A.H.; McIntosh, T.A.; McGaraghan, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    The energy efficiency industry is constrained by lack of financing. For example, in the United States, commercial and public buildings need an investment of $100 billion for cost-effective retrofits with an average payback of about four years. But the current level of financing is stagnant at only about 34% of this level per year. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has led the development of the North American Energy Measurement and Verification Protocol (NEMVP). This Protocol will increase the reliability and quality of estimated efficiency savings and improve realized savings. A critical element in the development of low cost financing and a secondary market--whether for homes or credit card debt--is the adoption of protocols to provide uniformity and reliability of the product. This is also true of energy efficiency installations, which have been characterized by inconsistency in the installation methodologies and, frequently, unreliability of savings. This Protocol, published in April 1996, is a DOE-led effort involving American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE, National Association of Energy Service Companies NAESCO, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners NARUC, National Association of State Energy Officials NASEO, US Environmental Protection Agency EPA, Canada`s Canadian Association of Energy Service Companies CAESCO, and Mexico`s Comision Nacional Para El Ahorro De Energia CONAE and Fideicomiso De Apoyo Al Programa De Ahorro De Energia Del Sector Electrico FIDE. DOE has begun to build on this Protocol to develop new forms of lower-cost financing including, ultimately, development of a secondary market for energy efficiency. This could double financing for building energy efficiency within five years.

  17. Robust Cluster Building Unit: Icosanuclear Heteropolyoxocopperate Templated by Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Ling; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Strauch, Peter; Zhuang, Gui-Lin; Guo, Ling-Yu; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Di

    2015-12-14

    The encapsulation of carbonate derived from atmospheric CO2 has resulted in an icosanuclear heteropolyoxocopperate, isolated as a metal-organic 1D chain, 2D sheet, or 3D framework, in which the Cu20 nanocluster represents the first eight-capped α-Keggin polyoxometalate with the late-transition-metal Cu(II) as the polyatom, CO3(2-) as the heteroanion, and OH(-) and suc(2-) or glu(2-) (H2suc=succinic acid; H2glu=glutaric acid) as the terminal ligands, which suggests a conceptual similarity to classical polyoxometalates. Even in the presence of competitive SO4(2-) in the assembly system, the CO3(2-) anion is still captured as a template to direct the formation of the Cu20 nanocluster, which indicates the stronger templation ability of CO3(2-) compared with SO4(2-). When other aliphatic dicarboxylates, such as glutaric acid, were used as ligands, the CO3(2-)-templated Cu20 nanocluster was maintained and acted as a cluster building unit (CBU) to be linked by two glutarate bridges to generate a distinct 1D metal-organic chain. This report presents not only a rare example of a huge anion-templated transition-metal cluster, but also its use as a robust CBU to construct novel coordination architectures. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies revealed that an antiferromagnetic interaction exists within the Cu20 nanocluster. The correlation between the coordination structure and the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra recorded of both powder and single-crystal samples are discussed in detail. PMID:26541877

  18. MUCHA: multiple chemical alignment algorithm to identify building block substructures of orphan secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In contrast to the increasing number of the successful genome projects, there still remain many orphan metabolites for which their synthesis processes are unknown. Metabolites, including these orphan metabolites, can be classified into groups that share the same core substructures, originated from the same biosynthetic pathways. It is known that many metabolites are synthesized by adding up building blocks to existing metabolites. Therefore, it is proposed that, for any given group of metabolites, finding the core substructure and the branched substructures can help predict their biosynthetic pathway. There already have been many reports on the multiple graph alignment techniques to find the conserved chemical substructures in relatively small molecules. However, they are optimized for ligand binding and are not suitable for metabolomic studies. Results We developed an efficient multiple graph alignment method named as MUCHA (Multiple Chemical Alignment), specialized for finding metabolic building blocks. This method showed the strength in finding metabolic building blocks with preserving the relative positions among the substructures, which is not achieved by simply applying the frequent graph mining techniques. Compared with the combined pairwise alignments, this proposed MUCHA method generally reduced computational costs with improving the quality of the alignment. Conclusions MUCHA successfully find building blocks of secondary metabolites, and has a potential to complement to other existing methods to reconstruct metabolic networks using reaction patterns. PMID:22373367

  19. International Students in the United States: A Guide for Secondary School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC.

    A secondary school principals' reference guide provides information on key issues concerning foreign students in the United States both in organized exchange programs and under sponsorship of relatives and friends. The topics discussed include: elements in promoting successful youth exchange programs; admissions and academic placement (initial…

  20. Sharing British Columbia's Water Resources. A Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Angus M.

    Seventeen student worksheets form a secondary school unit which focuses on the challenge of shared usage of water resources. Pressure currently exists for a more balanced approach in which all legitimate interests in a water source are served. The worksheets include readings which focus on enough water for all, the water cycle (including a…

  1. Sharing British Columbia's Water Resources. A Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Angus M.

    Seventeen student worksheets form a secondary school unit which focuses on the challenge of shared usage of water resources. Pressure currently exists for a more balanced approach in which all legitimate interests in a water source are served. The worksheets include readings which focus on enough water for all, the water cycle (including a

  2. Assessing the Impact of a Secondary School Ethnic Relations Unit: Results and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Benjamin I., Jr.

    The research reported assesses the impact of a program on the change of ethnic attitudes of students. The Anthropology Curriculum Project's "Race, Caste and Prejudice," designed to enhance intergroup attitudes and behavior, is a supplementary secondary school unit of study, text and handbook, dealing with race, caste and prejudice from a…

  3. Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Mandler, J.W.; Duce, S.W.; Motes, B.G.

    1981-05-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized.

  4. New building technologies and building energy standards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, P.J.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-11-01

    Some new and emerging technologies that may affect building energy consumption are reviewed in this paper. We also describe a brief impact analysis that evaluates the sensitivity of a simulation model to changes in broad categories of building equipment and materials. The analysis results permit direct comparisons of the effect of changes in energy efficiency to these building components. Potential barriers to the use of some new building products are also discussed. The barriers, inherent in the current building energy standards, result partly from the structure of the standards and the procedures used to determine building compliance with those standards. We propose several methods for overcoming these barriers and encouraging the accommodation of new technologies within the standards. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers addressed a few NOS tenets, emphasizing the full range of possible NOS objectives included in historical PBL is warranted. This study also revealed the importance of creating a collaborative classroom culture and building positive student-teacher relationships when implementing PBL instruction. The four teachers agreed that the historical PBL instructional unit provided a context for learning state standards, and they positively viewed their experiences teaching the lesson. Thus findings from this study suggest that teaching science in a historical context using PBL can be effective.

  6. Integration in Teacher Education: Building Units around Ordinary, Everyday Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bonnie von Hoff; Johnson, Dale D.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a training course for middle school teachers that requires the cooperative student development of an integrated, thematic teaching unit based upon an ordinary object or idea, such as food. Describes the steps to developing the units and provides examples of interesting facts teachers and students learned. (JPB)

  7. Secondary migration and relocation among African refugee families in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Hoffman, Yael; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweigh, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the secondary migration and relocation of African refugees resettled in the United States. Secondary migration refers to moves out of state, while relocation refers to moves within state. Of 73 recently resettled refugee families from Burundi and Liberia followed for 1 year through ethnographic interviews and observations, 13 instances of secondary migration and 9 instances of relocation were identified. A family ecodevelopmental framework was applied to address: Who moved again, why, and with what consequences? How did moving again impact family risk and protective factors? How might policies, researchers, and practitioners better manage refugees moving again? Findings indicated that families undertook secondary migration principally for employment, affordable housing, family reunification, and to feel more at home. Families relocated primarily for affordable housing. Parents reported that secondary migration and relocation enhanced family stability. Youth reported disruption to both schooling and attachments with peers and community. In conclusion, secondary migration and relocation were family efforts to enhance family and community protective resources and to mitigate shortcomings in resettlement conditions. Policymakers could provide newly resettled refugees jobs, better housing and family reunification. Practitioners could devise ways to better engage and support those families who consider moving. PMID:21361922

  8. The Theological Literacy, Beliefs, and Practices of Lay Administrators of Marianist-Sponsored Secondary Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 45 years, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of religious and priests working in Catholic schools in the United States. Currently, 96% of all elementary and secondary faculties are comprised of lay men and women (McDonald, 2010). This same phenomenon can be found in Marianist-sponsored secondary schools in the United

  9. 40 CFR 165.92 - What if I need both a containment pad and a secondary containment unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What if I need both a containment pad... Containment Structures § 165.92 What if I need both a containment pad and a secondary containment unit? You may combine containment pads and secondary containment units as an integrated system provided...

  10. 23. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 3. United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 3. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plans, section, & detail. Alben Froberg, Architect, 3454 Harlan Street, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 3. Plan no. 10,525. Various scales. March 1, 1943, last revised 3/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. 22. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 2. United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 2. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plans, section, & detail. Alben Froberg, Architect, 3454 Harlan Street, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 2. Plan no. 10,525. Various scales. March 1, 1942, last revised 3/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA643. CLARK COMPRESSOR UNIT, 4000 HORSEPOWER. ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. CLARK COMPRESSOR UNIT, 4000 HORSEPOWER. ONE OF TWO INSTALLED IN THE BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3711. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-30

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

  14. Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5μm diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0μm size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

  15. Nation-Building: Tanzania and the World. Through African Eyes: Cultures in Change, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    The process of nation building in Tanzania is the topic of this book, the sixth in a series dealing with African culture and intended for secondary level students. Almost all of the selections in the book were written by Africans, and they come from a variety of sources including speeches, government documents, newspaper and magazine articles,…

  16. Constructing Wood Agricultural Buildings. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Paul; Carpenter, Bruce

    This 5-week unit on constructing wood agricultural buildings is designed for the junior or senior year of the regular agribusiness course of study or as part of the agricultural mechanics program. In outline form, the unit is divided into eight major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested…

  17. Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Xia , Jianjun; Hong , Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng , Wei; Yang, Le; Im , Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari , Mahabir

    2013-10-30

    Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

  18. Building a Strong Contingent of Secondary English-as-a-Foreign-Language Teachers in China: Problems and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei

    2005-01-01

    In the last quarter century, China has come a long way toward building a strong contingent of secondary teachers, including English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers. Over the years, impressive progress has been made in strengthening teacher education and raising the educational levels of the teaching force, with the result being a…

  19. A nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry study of dinoflagellate functional diversity in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R; Tonk, Linda; Dove, Sophie; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoppe, Peter; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Meibom, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional interactions between corals and symbiotic dinoflagellate algae lie at the heart of the structural foundation of coral reefs. Whilst the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium has attracted particular interest because of its contribution to the sensitivity of corals to environmental changes and bleaching (i.e. disruption of coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis), very little is known about the in hospite metabolic capabilities of different Symbiodinium types. Using a combination of stable isotopic labelling and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we investigated the ability of the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Isopora palifera, and Symbiodinium C or D types, to assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (via photosynthesis) and nitrogen (as ammonium). Our results indicate that Symbiodinium types from two clades naturally associated with I. palifera possess different metabolic capabilities. The Symbiodinium C type fixed and passed significantly more carbon and nitrogen to its coral host than the D type. This study provides further insights into the metabolic plasticity among different Symbiodinium types in hospite and strengthens the evidence that the more temperature-tolerant Symbiodinium D type may be less metabolically beneficial for its coral host under non-stressful conditions. PMID:24902979

  20. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  1. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  2. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  3. MODELING THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE EMISSIONS ON ATMOSPHERIC OZONE AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the modeled effects of natural and anthropogenic chlorine emissions on the atmospheric concentrations of ozone and secondary organic aerosol across the United States. The model calculations include anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypo...

  4. Venting krypton-85 from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    To permit the less restricted access to the reactor building necessary to maintain instrumentation and equipment, and to proceed towad the total decontamination of the facility, General Public Utilities, operators of the facility referred to hereafter as GPU, asked the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or NRC, for permission to remove the /sup 85/Kr from the reactor building by venting it to the environment. GPU supported their request with the Safety Analysis and Environmental Assessment Report on the proposed reactor building venting plan. On June 12, 1980, after seven months of licensing deliberations and numerous public hearings, the NRC granted GPU's request. The actual venting took place between June 28 and July 11, 1980. This report presents an overview of the detailed effort involved in the TMI-2 reactor building venting program. The findings reported here are condensed from a published report entitled TMI-2 Reactor Building Purge--Kr-85 Venting.

  5. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit

  6. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit

  7. The Theological Literacy, Beliefs, and Practices of Lay Administrators of Marianist-Sponsored Secondary Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 45 years, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of religious and priests working in Catholic schools in the United States. Currently, 96% of all elementary and secondary faculties are comprised of lay men and women (McDonald, 2010). This same phenomenon can be found in Marianist-sponsored secondary schools in the United…

  8. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit

  9. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  10. THE GREAT RECESSION AND RECENT EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession had substantial effects on the labor market in the United States, as elsewhere. To what extent did secondary students’ employment decline during this time? Which students are leaving the labor market? Are reductions in employment concentrated in particular jobs? To answer these questions, we use data from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing study of secondary students in the United States. More specifically, we examine recent trends in teenage employment using 6 cohorts each of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (from 2006 to 2011, spanning before, during and after the Great Recession). Results show a gradual decline in school year employment since 2006, including the years after the official end of the recession. Employment during the school year is especially low among 8th and 10th graders, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black youth, and students from disadvantaged backgrounds (based upon parental education), though the recent drop in work has varied little by population subgroups. The decline in employment is, however, concentrated among the oldest students, and working intensely (over 20 hours per week) has dropped more than working moderate hours. Students are more likely to babysit and do lawn work and less likely to hold jobs in office, clerical, and sales positions than in years past. These patterns and recent shifts in job type suggest some degree of job replacement by older workers. PMID:25642296

  11. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Labour Movement and Labour Law: Development of Two Introductory Units for Secondary Students. ERIBC Reports. Report No. 79:1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Advisory Committee, Terrace (British Columbia).

    Introductory teaching units for secondary students on the history of the Canadian labor movement and labor law are presented in this report. Five units are outlined, addressing the following questions: (1) How do students perceive organized labor, its position in today's society, and its historical development?; (2) What knowledge do students have…

  13. Evaluation of three common green building materials for ozone removal, and primary and secondary emissions of aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Elliott; Darling, Erin; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Morrison, Glenn C.; Corsi, Richard L.

    2013-10-01

    Ozone reactions that occur on material surfaces can lead to elevated concentrations of oxidized products in the occupied space of buildings. However, there is little information on the impact of materials at full scale, especially for green building materials. Experiments were completed in a 68 m3 climate-controlled test chamber with three certified green building materials that can cover large areas in buildings: (1) recycled carpet, (2) perlite-based ceiling tile and (3) low-VOC paint and primer on recycled drywall. Ozone deposition velocity and primary and secondary emission rates of C1 to C10 saturated carbonyls were determined for two chamber mixing conditions and three values of relative humidity. A direct comparison was made between ozone deposition velocities and carbonyl yields observed for the same materials analyzed in small (10 L) chambers. Total primary carbonyl emission rates from carpet, ceiling tile and painted drywall ranged from 27 to 120 μg m-2 h-1, 13 to 40 μg m-2 h-1, 3.9 to 42 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Ozone deposition velocity to these three materials averaged 6.1 m h-1, 2.3 m h-1 and 0.32 m h-1, respectively. Total secondary carbonyl emissions from these materials ranged from 70 to 276 μg m-2 h-1, 0 to 12 μg m-2 h-1, and 0 to 30 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Carbonyl emissions were determined with a transient approximation, and were found to be in general agreement with those found in the literature. These results suggest that care should be taken when selecting green building materials due to potentially large differences in primary and secondary emissions.

  14. Standardized Curriculum for Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: building trades I and II. The eight units in building trades I are as follows: safety; measurement; tools, equipment, and hardware; building plans and blueprints; introduction to carpentry; introduction to plumbing; introduction to…

  15. Self-Assembly and Tissue Fusion of Toroid-Shaped Minimal Building Units

    PubMed Central

    Livoti, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    A significant challenge of tissue engineering is to build tissues whose size is not limited by diffusion. We are investigating the use of scaffold-free lumen containing toroid-shaped microtissues as minimal building units. Monodispersed H35 cells, a rat hepatocyte cell line, were seeded onto micromolded agarose, forming self-assembled multicellular toroids within 48 h. Toroid and lumen diameter were easily controlled by micromold design, and toroid thickness was controlled by seeding density. When harvested, toroids were stable, but underwent predictable changes over time with their lumens narrowing. When brought into contact, these building units fused in the x–y plane, forming a double-lumen structure, as well as the z plane, forming a tubular structure, which completed within 72 h. Large, multi-luminal structures were assembled by multidimensional fusion of many toroids. Toroid settling was not entirely random, with most toroids lying flat with their lumens oriented along the z axis. The rapid production of toroid building units of controlled dimension and lumen size that undergo predictable changes and that can be fused to form larger structures is a step closer to tissue engineering large porous three-dimensional tissues with high cell density. PMID:20109063

  16. Building Bridges: Effective Post-Secondary Transitions for Girls in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Transitions between education cycles represent one of the greatest hazards for girls in their educational journey throughout the developing world. It is not uncommon across sub-Saharan Africa for girls' secondary enrollment rates to drop 75% from primary enrollment rates. Between the secondary level and the tertiary level, enrollment rates often…

  17. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, October 1992--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-02-24

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies. Summary of technical progress is presented for: Well drilling and completion; seismic data acquisition; and geologic and engineering interpretation.

  18. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian E. . E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine

    2006-12-15

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

  19. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis after intensive care unit treatment: clues to the histopathological differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Irene; Kubisova, Andrea; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan; Schirmacher, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) is a chronic cholestatic disorder caused by mechanical, infectious, toxic, or ischemic factors. A new variant of SSC occurring after long-term treatment in intensive care units (ICU) has been recently described and characterized from the clinical point of view. The aim of this study was the histomorphological characterization of ICU-treatment-related SSC (ICU-SSC) and the definition of histological changes occurring over time based on the morphological findings. Liver biopsies of ten patients affected by ICU-SSC obtained at different time points (1.5 to 57 months) after the initial injury were analyzed. The main morphological alterations included degenerative changes of portal bile ducts, portal edema, inflammation, and fibrosis as well as biliary interface activity and bilirubinostasis. Perivenular necroses and bile infarcts were found in eight and six patients, respectively. Bile duct loss was not observed. No correlation between morphological features of biopsies and liver chemistry tests or outcome could be established. Based on the morphological observation, a possible disease-progression model starting with an initial damage of portal bile ducts (primary insult) with associated portal/periportal changes (inflammation, ductular reaction) and resulting in secondary parenchymal changes is proposed. PMID:18769938

  20. United Nations Seminar of Experts on Building Codes and Regulations in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    The Seminar explored ways in which governments and the international community might build upon the recommendations adopted by HABITAT: the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements. Effort concentrated on examining how building codes and regulations can be adapted to meet the basic needs of the poor. Programs for a graduated or a step-by-step improvement in the quality of life of the least advantaged on a continuous basis is recommended, thus ensuring that the total population can achieve an acceptable standard of living within a reasonable period of time. Within this framework, ten detailed recommendations were approved and are presented.

  1. TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1: Building units and crystal growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Colmont, Marie Terasaki, Osamu

    2007-03-15

    Surface fine structure and structural defects in the open framework material VSB-1 have been investigated by electron microscopy. Crystal growth phenomena are proposed by a building unit model: (i) a unit is formed by two building units; (ii) they are linked to form first channels; and (iii) the whole network is grown via a layer-by-layer growth mechanism. A planar defect was observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image taken with the [0001] incidence, and diffuse streaks related to the presence of defects were observed in a series of electron diffraction (ED) patterns. The microstructure model derived from the defect structure gives information on crystal growth. These defects highlight an open site that could be the pillar of a new crystal growth process. The study of defects and crystal growth is important in understanding physical properties such as catalytic or magnetic properties, and in synthesising a new open framework structure. - Graphical abstract: TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1 evidenced defects and information about building units and crystal growth. As usually observed for microporous materials, the crystal growth via a layer by layer mechanism.

  2. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  3. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    SciTech Connect

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured.

  4. Investigation of hydrogen-burn damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Eidem, G.R.

    1982-06-01

    About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 Loss-of-Coolant Accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2, a hydrogen deflagration of undetermined extent occurred inside the reactor building. Examinations of photographic evidence, available from the first fifteen entries into the reactor building, yielded preliminary data on the possible extent and range of hydrogen burn damage. These data, although sparse, contributed to development of a possible damage path and to an estimate of the extent of damage to susceptible reactor building items. Further information gathered from analysis of additional photographs and samples can provide the means for estimating hydrogen source and production rate data crucial to developing a complete understanding of the TMI-2 hydrogen deflagration. 34 figures.

  5. Profiles of Airborne Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Brian G.; Kirkland, Kimberly H.; Flanders, W. Dana; Morris, George K.

    2002-01-01

    We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable airborne fungal concentrations in indoor air were lower than those in outdoor air. The fungal levels were highest in the fall and summer and lowest in the winter and spring. Geographically, the highest fungal levels were found in the Southwest, Far West, and Southeast. The most common culturable airborne fungi, both indoors and outdoors and in all seasons and regions, were Cladosporium, Penicillium, nonsporulating fungi, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys chartarum was identified in the indoor air in 6% of the buildings studied and in the outdoor air of 1% of the buildings studied. This study provides industrial hygienists, allergists, and other public health practitioners with comparative information on common culturable airborne fungi in the United States. This is the largest study of airborne indoor and outdoor fungal species and concentrations conducted with a standardized protocol to date. PMID:11916692

  6. Significant Contributions of Isoprene to Summertime Secondary Organic Aerosol in Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ying, Qi; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha

    2015-07-01

    A modified SAPRC-11 (S11) photochemical mechanism with more detailed treatment of isoprene oxidation chemistry and additional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through surface-controlled reactive uptake of dicarbonyls, isoprene epoxydiol and methacrylic acid epoxide was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to quantitatively determine contributions of isoprene to summertime ambient SOA concentrations in the eastern United States. The modified model utilizes a precursor-origin resolved approach to determine secondary glyoxal and methylglyoxal produced by oxidation of isoprene and other major volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Predicted OC concentrations show good agreement with field measurements without significant bias (MFB ∼ 0.07 and MFE ∼ 0.50), and predicted SOA reproduces observed day-to-day and diurnal variation of Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) determined by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) at two locations in Houston, Texas. On average, isoprene SOA accounts for 55.5% of total predicted near-surface SOA in the eastern U.S., followed by aromatic compounds (13.2%), sesquiterpenes (13.0%) and monoterpenes (10.9%). Aerosol surface uptake of isoprene-generated glyoxal, methylglyoxal and epoxydiol accounts for approximately 83% of total isoprene SOA or more than 45% of total SOA. A domain wide reduction of NOx emissions by 40% leads to a slight decrease of domain average SOA by 3.6% and isoprene SOA by approximately 2.6%. Although most of the isoprene SOA component concentrations are decreased, SOA from isoprene epoxydiol is increased by ∼16%. PMID:26029963

  7. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  8. Building Bridges between Primary and Secondary Science for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra; Davies, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the Improving Science Together (IST) project (2000-2002), funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. The project was a partnership between 20 primary and 4 secondary schools in Bristol and South Gloucestershire, LEA advisory staff, BAE Systems, and the primary science team at Bath Spa University…

  9. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Building Trades. (Program CIP: 46.0000 - Construction Trades, General)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, Jarvis; Manning, Phillip; Matkins, Billy

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  10. Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young People: A New Agenda for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra, Ernesto; Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to set forth policy options for supporting developing countries and transition economies in adapting their secondary education systems to demands arising from the successful expansion of primary education and the socioeconomic challenges presented by globalization and the knowledge-based economy. The report analyzes…

  11. Secondary organic aerosol characterization at field sites across the United States during the spring-summer period

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of secondary organic carbon at 15 field sites across the United States (U.S.) during the years 2003-2010 have been examined. Filter samples have been taken for 24-h at a site in Research Triangle Park, NC; at SEARCH sites in southeastern U.S. during May and August 2005; ...

  12. Serving Students, Science, or Society? The Secondary School Physics Curriculum in the United States, 1930-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the reform of secondary school physics in the United States from the 1930s through the mid-1960s. Describes the impact of progressive education, World War II, and the post-Sputnik reforms. Points out differences between past reform efforts and the current Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (CFR)

  13. United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools 1995-96. The Annual Statistical Report on Schools, Enrollment, and Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X., Comp.; Milks, Mary Jo, Comp.

    Since 1969-70, the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) has published a statistical report on Catholic elementary and secondary schools in the United States. This report contains the core school enrollment and staffing data of the NCEA historical file for 1995-96. Data were collected on Title I services, extended-care programs, school…

  14. United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1988-89. A Statistical Report on Schools, Enrollment, & Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Frederick H., Jr.

    This statistical report focuses on Catholic elementary and secondary schools in the United States. The report contains the core school enrollment and staffing data of the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA). The first part presents a summary of the demographic trends impacting both public and private education. Comparisons are made…

  15. Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America: National Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for the secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. The time is now for educators to be recognizant of these changes.…

  16. Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-09-25

    The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

  17. Energy conservation standards: Promoting energy efficient new non-residential buildings in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.B.

    1989-08-01

    In the past fifteen years, a number of energy conservation standards for the design of new non-residential buildings have been promulgated in the United States. These vary in their approach from component level prescription of minimum efficiencies or levels of insulation to whole-building energy goals. Over the past five years, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) of North America have been cooperatively developing the next generation of energy conservation standards for the United States. This paper describes those efforts and provides a comparison of the anticipated benefits (energy savings) resulting from recently adopted standards (the US Department of Energy Non-Residential Standards, and ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90. 1P). A series of annual energy simulations of various types of non-residential buildings was performed to assess the impacts of the requirements of the standards. The results of these simulations (using the DOE-2.1C hourly energy simulation program) are presented and discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Expanded organic building units for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guo-Qiang; Han, Zhi-Da; He, Yabing; Ou, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yildirim, Taner; Krishna, Rajamani; Zou, Chao; Chen, Banglin; Wu, Chuan-De

    2013-10-25

    Two new organic building units that contain dicarboxylate sites for their self-assembly with paddlewheel [Cu2(CO2)4] units have been successfully developed to construct two isoreticular porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), ZJU-35 and ZJU-36, which have the same tbo topologies (Reticular Chemistry Structure Resource (RCSR) symbol) as HKUST-1. Because the organic linkers in ZJU-35 and ZJU-36 are systematically enlarged, the pores in these two new porous MOFs vary from 10.8 Å in HKUST-1 to 14.4 Å in ZJU-35 and 16.5 Å in ZJU-36, thus leading to their higher porosities with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas of 2899 and 4014 m(2) g(-1) for ZJU-35 and ZJU-36, respectively. High-pressure gas-sorption isotherms indicate that both ZJU-35 and ZJU-36 can take up large amounts of CH4 and CO2, and are among the few porous MOFs with the highest volumetric storage of CH4 under 60 bar and CO2 under 30 bar at room temperature. Their potential for high-pressure swing adsorption (PSA) hydrogen purification was also preliminarily examined and compared with several reported MOFs, thus indicating the potential of ZJU-35 and ZJU-36 for this important application. Studies show that most of the highly porous MOFs that can volumetrically take up the greatest amount of CH4 under 60 bar and CO2 under 30 bar at room temperature are those self-assembled from organic tetra- and hexacarboxylates that contain m-benzenedicarboxylate units with the [Cu2(CO2)4] units, because this series of MOFs can have balanced porosities, suitable pores, and framework densities to optimize their volumetric gas storage. The realization of the two new organic building units for their construction of highly porous MOFs through their self-assembly with [Cu2(CO2)4] units has provided great promise for the exploration of a large number of new tetra- and hexacarboxylate organic linkers based on these new organic building units in which different aromatic backbones can be readily incorporated into the frameworks to tune their porosities, pore structures, and framework densities, thus targeting some even better performing MOFs for very high gas storage and efficient gas separation under high pressure and at room temperature in the near future. PMID:24115143

  19. The Role of Theory Building in the Teaching of Secondary Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Herbst, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Although mathematical practice has traditionally valued two distinct kinds of mathematical work--referred to by Gowers (2000) as theory building and problem solving--activity in classrooms appears to be organized largely around the latter, rather than the former. This study takes up the question of whether there is a customary role for theory…

  20. How to Build the Master Schedule in 10 Easy Steps: A Guide for Secondary School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kussin, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    This book is an incredibly valuable resource to anyone involved in building a master schedule. The author provides a comprehensive description of the processes involved and makes the reader aware of what needs to be considered and done throughout the process. One of the most time-consuming tasks for school leaders is creating a master schedule…

  1. Reading for Deep Understanding: Knowledge Building and Conceptual Artifacts in Secondary English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachowitz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this design-based experiment is two-fold: to see if classroom pedagogies can be developed to improve student achievement in English literature as well as prepare them for 21st Century literacies. Applying Bereiter and Scardamalia's theory of Knowledge Building to English curricula, this experiment tracked the progress of a

  2. Reading for Deep Understanding: Knowledge Building and Conceptual Artifacts in Secondary English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachowitz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this design-based experiment is two-fold: to see if classroom pedagogies can be developed to improve student achievement in English literature as well as prepare them for 21st Century literacies. Applying Bereiter and Scardamalia's theory of Knowledge Building to English curricula, this experiment tracked the progress of a…

  3. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 94: Building 650 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 94, will be clean closed by removal in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recover Act (RCRA) operational permit and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Historically, laboratory effluent was discharged through pipelines leading from the Radiochemistry Laboratory in Building 650 to a distribution box and a series of pipes dispersed across the leachfield. Effluent from the laboratory contained both hazardous and radioactive constituents. Discharge of hazardous and radioactive waste began in 1965. Discharge of radioactive waste ended in 1979 and hazardous waste discharge ended in 1987. From 1987 to 1993 the leachfield was used for the disposal of non-hazardous waste water. The piping leading to the leachfield was sealed in 1993.

  4. Novel building units with bimetallic rings in inorganic/organic hybrid chains and layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahenthirarajah, Thushitha; Li, Yang; Lightfoot, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis has produced three new compounds constructed from novel building units containing vanadium-oxide (or oxyfluoride) subunits linked together via covalently bound cationic copper complexes. Each new compound exhibits novel structural features: [Cu(dipa)][VOF 4] ( 1) incorporates a corner-sharing octahedral vanadium(IV) oxyfluoride chain decorated by copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes which form intra-chain bridges. Within a similar reactant system [Cu(dipa)] 2[V 6O 17] ( 2) is produced, the structure of which exhibits edge-sharing trigonal bipyramidal vanadium(V) 'ladder-like' double chains which are bridged into layers by tetrahedral pyrovanadate dimers together with the copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes. [Cu(py) 4] 2[V 4O 12] ( 3), is a 2-D structure featuring exclusively tetrahedral vanadium(V) in four-membered ring building blocks, linked through octahedral copper-pyridine complexes to form two crystallographically different bimetallic layers.

  5. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  6. Halogen dependent symmetry change in two series of wheel cluster organic frameworks built from La18 tertiary building units.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-01-25

    Two series of wheel cluster organic frameworks (WCOFs) built from La18 tertiary building units are hydrothermally made, which show halogen-dependent structural symmetry, and demonstrate different chiral performances. PMID:26647832

  7. Stages of Learning: Building a Native Curriculum. Teachers' Guide, Student Activities--Part I, Research Unit--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candline, Mary

    This language arts curriculum developed for Native American students in Manitoba (Canada) consists of a teachers' guide, a student guide, and a research unit. The curriculum includes reading selections and learning activities appropriate for the different reading levels of both upper elementary and secondary students. The purpose of the unit is…

  8. Compulsory Secondary Education: Belgium, Norway, United Kingdom. Teacher Tasks in Innovative Schools, Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document comprises three articles which analyze roles and tasks of teachers in innovative secondary schools in Belgium, Norway, and England. Innovative secondary schools are interpreted as schools which favor educational practices such as open classrooms, team teaching, individual student projects, student participation in decision making,…

  9. Competitive Foods and Beverages Available for Purchase in Secondary Schools--Selected Sites, United States, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, L.; Grunbaum, J.; McKenna, M. L.; Wechsler, H.; Galuska, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school,

  10. Competitive Foods and Beverages Available for Purchase in Secondary Schools--Selected Sites, United States, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, L.; Grunbaum, J.; McKenna, M. L.; Wechsler, H.; Galuska, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school,…

  11. Milestones in the Secondary English Curriculum in the United States. ICTE Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Lou Ann

    Written for students pursuing graduate study, this chronological table lists landmark publications in the secondary English curriculum occurring between 1893 and 1971. For each of the 27 milestones--e.g., "Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies" (1893), "Teaching Creative Writing" by Lawrence Conrad (1937), "The Uses of…

  12. What is Matter? Teacher's Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  13. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  14. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  16. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  18. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  19. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  20. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  1. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an important advantage of such a unit; minerals and rocks are linked to physics, chemistry, geomorphology, and also to geography , history, econonomics, and maths. The follow up activities were even more interesting. When we found that the weathering of feldspars to clay can increase the probability of a landslide, I gave the students an example of one of the most famous landslides in the world, Vajont. The students were so interested that they looked by themselves for further information about that tragedy, and the context in which it was possible to happen. Another concept which turned out to be fascinating to the students was how rocks can tell us the geological history of a region . The results of the activities were quite good in Sciences and good in English; the students accepted the challenge, they played along with us and had fun explaining their activities during the open labs devoted to the families of younger students.

  2. Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

  3. Secondary use of electronic health records for building cohort studies through top-down information extraction.

    PubMed

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Berghold, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Controlled clinical trials are usually supported with an in-front data aggregation system, which supports the storage of relevant information according to the trial context within a highly structured environment. In contrast to the documentation of clinical trials, daily routine documentation has many characteristics that influence data quality. One such characteristic is the use of non-standardized text, which is an indispensable part of information representation in clinical information systems. Based on a cohort study we highlight challenges for mining electronic health records targeting free text entry fields within semi-structured data sources. Our prototypical information extraction system achieved an F-measure of 0.91 (precision=0.90, recall=0.93) for the training set and an F-measure of 0.90 (precision=0.89, recall=0.92) for the test set. We analyze the obtained results in detail and highlight challenges and future directions for the secondary use of routine data in general. PMID:25451102

  4. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  5. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats

  6. Building an organized knowledge base: Concept mapping and achievement in secondary school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, William J.

    Direct teaching of problem-solving methods to high school physics students met with little success. Expert problem solving depended upon an organized knowledge base. Concept mapping was found to be a key to organizing an effective knowledge base. The investigation of the effect of the degree of concept mapping on achievement was the purpose of this study. Six intact high school physics classes, taught by this investigator, took part in the study. Two classes were control groups and received standard instruction. Four classes received six weeks of concept-mapping instruction prior to the unit under study. Two of these four classes were the low-level treatment group and were required to submit concept maps at the conclusion of the instruction. The other two classes were the high-level treatment group and were required to submit concept maps at the beginning and at the conclusion of the unit under study. One class from each treatment group took a pretest prior to instruction. An analysis of the posttest results revealed no pretest sensitization. A one-way analysis of covariance indicated a significant main effect for the treatment level at the p < 0.05 level. A pair of single-df comparisons of the adjusted treatment means resulted in significant differences (p < 0.05) between the control group and the average of the treatment means as well as between the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that for this sample (upper-middle-class high school physics students) mapping concepts prior to, during, and subsequent to instruction led to greater achievement as measured by posttest scores.

  7. Building the capacity for public engagement with science in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guston, David H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews efforts of the Center for Nanotechnology in Society at Arizona State University (CNS-ASU) to begin to build capacity for public engagement with science in the United States. First, the paper sets a context in the US of the current challenges to democracy and for science. It then reviews the literature on the accomplishments of the National Citizens' Technology Forum (NCTF) on nanotechnology and human enhancement, held in 2008, as well as some caveats that emerged from that enterprise. It concludes with a brief discussion of two kinds of activities - participation in the World Wide Views process organized by the Danish Board of Technology, and methodological innovations that include more concrete and experiential modes of engagement - that have spun off from the NCTF. PMID:24434713

  8. Development of 20 IEER Rooftop Units System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith; Vineyard, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Based on detailed steady-state system and component modeling, we developed a rooftop unit system design, which is able to achieve IEER (Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio) higher than 20. We modeled fin-&-tube and micro-channel heat exchangers using segment-to-segment approach, and use AHRI 10-coefficient compressor map to simulate compressor performance. The system modeling is based on a component-based modeling approach, which facilitates flexible simulation of complicated system configurations. Starting with a baseline system having IEER of 16.6, we extensively investigated numerous technical options, i.e. varying compressor sizes, heat exchanger fin densities, fin-&-tube or micro-channel heat exchanger, suction line heat exchanger, desiccant wheel, tandem compressor, variable-speed compressor, and condenser evaporative pre-cooling; and developed an innovative system configuration combining a tandem compression system with a variable-speed compression system. The combined system can achieve high IEER as well as process the outdoor ventilation air over an extensive range. We successfully evaluated the design concept for a 20-ton (70.4 kW) unit as well as a 10-ton (35.2 kW) unit. All the selected components are readily accessible on the market, and we validated the performance predictions against existing Rooftop Unit (RTU) products at the rating condition. This paper illustrates a potentially cost-effective high IEER RTU design. In addtion, we conducted extensive building energy simulations using EnergyPlus to predict seasonal energy saving potentials and peak power reductions using the High IEER RTU in sixteen US cities, in comparison to a RTU with a minimum efficiency.

  9. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast...-key selection procedures to enter into fixed-price design-build contracts in accordance with 14...

  10. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-09-30

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or “clean,” building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, “Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201”) was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room into one of three categories: Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 (a fourth category is a “Non-Impacted Class” which in the case of Building 2201 only pertained to exterior surfaces of the building.) The majority of the rooms were determined to fall in the less restrictive Class 3 category, however, Rooms 102, 104, 106, and 107 were identified as containing Class 1 and 2 areas. Building 2201 was divided into “survey units” and surveyed following the requirements of the Final Status Survey Plan for each particular class. As each survey unit was completed and documented, the survey results were evaluated. Each sample (static measurement) with units of counts per minute (cpm) was corrected for the appropriate background and converted to a value with units of dpm/100 cm2. With a surface contamination value in the appropriate units, it was compared to the surface contamination limits, or in this case the derived concentration guideline level (DCGLw). The appropriate statistical test (sign test) was then performed. If the survey unit was statistically determined to be below the DCGLw, then the survey unit passed and the null hypothesis (that the survey unit is above limits) was rejected. If the survey unit was equal to or below the critical value in the sign test, the null hypothesis was not rejected. This process was performed for all survey units within Building 2201. A total of thirty-three “Class 1,” four “Class 2,” and one “Class 3” survey units were developed, surveyed, and evaluated. All survey units successfully passed the statistical test. Building 2201 meets the release criteria commensurate with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (for radiological purposes) of the U10C landfill permit residing within NNSS boundaries. Based on the thorough statistical sampling and scanning of the building’s interior, Building 2201 may be considered radiologically “clean,” or free of contamination.

  11. 40 CFR 267.1105 - What do I do if my containment building contains areas both with and without secondary containment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I do if my containment building contains areas both with and without secondary containment? 267.1105 Section 267.1105 Protection... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT...

  12. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL IN THE UNITED STATES USING MODELS AND MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, three diagnostic evaluation methods of model performance for carbonaceous aerosol are reviewed. The EC-tracer method is used to distinguish primary and secondary carbon, radiocarbon data are used to distinguish fossil-fuel and contemporary carbon, and organ...

  13. Functions in Contemporary Secondary Mathematics Textbook Series in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks play a central role in US mathematics classrooms (Stein, Remillard, & Smith, 2007) and functions are a key topic in secondary mathematics (Carlson, Jacobs, Coe, Larsen, & Hsu, 2002). This study presents results from an analysis of this essential topic in the latest editions of three textbook series: the Glencoe Mathematics

  14. Functions in Contemporary Secondary Mathematics Textbook Series in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks play a central role in US mathematics classrooms (Stein, Remillard, & Smith, 2007) and functions are a key topic in secondary mathematics (Carlson, Jacobs, Coe, Larsen, & Hsu, 2002). This study presents results from an analysis of this essential topic in the latest editions of three textbook series: the Glencoe Mathematics…

  15. Resource Supplement of Student Materials for Six Teaching Units for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livonia Public Schools, MI.

    This materials package supplements a high school level social studies curriculum unit on Arab American culture and the contributions of Arabs to development of the United States (SO 012 253). The duplicated materials are presented in six categories--the family, geography of the Middle East, Arab history and its contribution to the West,…

  16. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-03-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  17. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2004.

    PubMed

    Kann, L; Grunbaum, J; McKenna, M L; Wechsler, H; Galuska, D A

    2005-12-01

    School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school, the principal and lead health education teacher were sent questionnaires to be self-administered and returned to the state or local agency conducting the survey. In 2004, a total of 27 states and 11 large urban school districts obtained weighted data from their survey of principals. The findings in this report indicate that the majority of secondary schools in 27 states and 11 large urban school districts allow students to purchase snack foods or beverages from vending machines or at the school store, canteen, or snack bar. The types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase varied across states and large urban school districts. Overall, fruits or vegetables were less likely to be available for purchase than the other types of foods or beverages. Bottled water and soft drinks, sports drinks, or fruit drinks that are not 100% juice were most likely to be available for purchase. PMID:16313507

  18. Combination of an electrolytic pretreatment unit with secondary water reclamation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Bonura, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight concept prototype electrolytic pretreatment unit (EPU) and of a contractor-furnished air evaporation unit (AEU) are described. The integrated EPU and AEU potable water recovery system is referred to as the Electrovap and is capable of processing the urine and flush water of a six-man crew. Results of a five-day performance verification test of the Electrovap system are presented and plans are included for the extended testing of the Electrovap to produce data applicable to the combination of electrolytic pretreatment with most final potable water recovery systems. Plans are also presented for a program to define the design requirements for combining the electrolytic pretreatment unit with a reverse osmosis final processing unit.

  19. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.

    PubMed

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. PMID:23102641

  20. Competitive foods and beverages available for purchase in secondary schools--selected sites, United States, 2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-29

    Schools are in a unique position to help improve youth dietary behaviors and prevent and reduce obesity. In most schools, foods and beverages are made available to students through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) school meal programs and the sale of competitive foods, which are any foods and beverages sold at a school separately from the USDA school meal programs. Foods and beverages sold through the USDA school meal programs must meet federal nutrition requirements. Competitive foods are not subject to any federal nutrition standards unless they are sold inside the food service area during mealtimes. A 2007 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report concluded that schools should limit the availability of less nutritious competitive foods or include more nutritious foods and beverages if they make competitive foods available. To identify the types of competitive foods and beverages available for purchase from vending machines or at school stores, canteens, or snack bars, CDC analyzed data from the 2006 School Health Profiles for public secondary schools in 36 states and 12 large urban school districts. CDC also compared 2004 and 2006 data among 24 states and nine large urban school districts. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicated that, from 2004 to 2006, the median percentage of secondary schools across states allowing students to purchase chocolate candy and salty snacks that are not low in fat decreased; however, in 2006, secondary schools still offered less nutritious foods and beverages that compete with school meals. School and public health officials should work together with families to provide foods and beverages at school that follow the IOM recommendations. PMID:18756192

  1. Crowning the Cathedral of Florence: Brunelleschi Builds His Dome. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symcox, Linda

    This unit focuses on a dramatic moment in the Renaissance from about 1420 when Filippo Brunelleschi single handedly created, defined, and engineered a new architecture by building the great dome of the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. The dome became the symbol of Florence's grandeur during the Renaissance, and a model for great…

  2. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Houts, Michael; Pearson, Boise; Webster, Kenny; Gibson, Marc; Qualls, Lou; Poston, Dave; Werner, Jim; Radel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and Mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program, which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter for tests at MSFC. When tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumentation (temperature, pressure, flow) for data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  3. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, T.; Dickens, R.; Houts, M.; Pearson, B.; Webster, K.; Gibson, M.; Qualls, L.; Poston, D.; Werner, J.; Radel, R.

    The Nuclear Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter when being tested at MSFC. When tested at GRC the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumenta- tion (temperature, pressure, flow) data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  4. Alcohol-soluble bis(tpy)thiophenes: new building units for constitutional dynamic conjugated polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Štenclová-Bláhová, Pavla; Svoboda, Jan; Šloufová, Ivana; Vohlídal, Jiří

    2015-05-28

    New building units (unimers) for metallo-supramolecular polymers 2,5-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-4'-yl)thiophene, M, and 5,5'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-4'-yl)(2,2'-bithiophene), B, with ionic groups attached to thiophene rings are prepared by the modification of corresponding bromo-precursors and assembled with Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) ions into alcohol-soluble conjugated constitutional-dynamic polyelectrolytes (polyelectrolyte dynamers). Ionization of side groups only slightly affects the absorption spectra of unimers as well as dynamers but dramatically changes their solubility. Cyclic conformations of unimer molecules resulting from intramolecular interactions between tpy end-groups and cationic or polar (-CH2Br) side groups are proposed to explain the spectral conformity of the M- and B-type unimers and their dynamers and also inhibition of the ionization reaction with tpy end-groups. The absorption spectra and excitation profiles of Raman spectra show that mainly the red arm of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band of Fe-dynamers is significantly contributed with transitions involving thiophene rings. The constitutional dynamics of Zn-dynamers is fast while that of Fe-dynamers is so slow that it allows effective separation of the dynamer to fractions in SEC columns. Electronic spectra and viscosity measurements proved that excess of Fe(2+) ions results in shortening of the dynamer chains and their end-capping by these ions. PMID:25941777

  5. Inconsistencies among secondary sources of Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) introductions to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cropper, Wendell P.; Broz, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The propagule pressure hypothesis asserts that the number of individuals released is the key determinant of whether an introduction will succeed or not. It remains to be shown whether propagule pressure is more important than either species-level or site-level factors in determining the fate of an introduction. Studies claiming to show that propagule pressure is the primary determinant of introduction success must assume that the historical record as reported by secondary sources is complete and accurate. Here, examine a widely introduced game bird, the Chukar (Alectoris chukar), to the USA. We compare the records reported by two secondary sources (Long, 1981; Lever, 1987) to those in a primary source (Christensen, 1970) and to a recent study by Sol et al. (2012). Numerous inconsistencies exist in the records reported by Sol et al. (2012), Long (1981) and Lever (1987) when compared to the primary record of Christensen (1970). As reported by Christensen (1970), very large numbers of Chukars were released unsuccessfully in some states. Our results strongly imply that factors other than sheer numbers are more important. Site-to-site differences are the most likely explanation for the variation in success. PMID:26644981

  6. Inconsistencies among secondary sources of Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) introductions to the United States.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Michael P; Cropper, Wendell P; Broz, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The propagule pressure hypothesis asserts that the number of individuals released is the key determinant of whether an introduction will succeed or not. It remains to be shown whether propagule pressure is more important than either species-level or site-level factors in determining the fate of an introduction. Studies claiming to show that propagule pressure is the primary determinant of introduction success must assume that the historical record as reported by secondary sources is complete and accurate. Here, examine a widely introduced game bird, the Chukar (Alectoris chukar), to the USA. We compare the records reported by two secondary sources (Long, 1981; Lever, 1987) to those in a primary source (Christensen, 1970) and to a recent study by Sol et al. (2012). Numerous inconsistencies exist in the records reported by Sol et al. (2012), Long (1981) and Lever (1987) when compared to the primary record of Christensen (1970). As reported by Christensen (1970), very large numbers of Chukars were released unsuccessfully in some states. Our results strongly imply that factors other than sheer numbers are more important. Site-to-site differences are the most likely explanation for the variation in success. PMID:26644981

  7. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

  8. Factor Label Method of Units Analysis: A Learning Package for Secondary Mathematics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoile, Margaret Ann

    In an attempt to prepare students for units analysis in the solution of problems in high school chemistry and physics, the author developed learning packets on the factor label method. Thirty-three students used these packets individually during a regular tenth-grade geometry class. There were two packets, each to be used for two days. Prior to…

  9. The Impact of Accountability on Student Performance in a Secondary Physical Education Badminton Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn; Shanklin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of accountability on the quality of student motor responses during a 10-day badminton unit with female high school students enrolled in a required physical education class. Students in the control class participated in the same learning activities taught by the same teacher as the treatment

  10. The Impact of Accountability on Student Performance in a Secondary Physical Education Badminton Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn; Shanklin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of accountability on the quality of student motor responses during a 10-day badminton unit with female high school students enrolled in a required physical education class. Students in the control class participated in the same learning activities taught by the same teacher as the treatment…

  11. Teaching and Learning about the United States Constitution in American Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontz, Thomas S.

    This master's thesis synthesizes literature on the teaching of the United States Constitution, analyzes the Supreme Court case of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens, 1990, and provides lesson plans for teaching the constitutional significance of this case. The thesis argues that because of the poor quality of textbooks and the inadequate…

  12. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. Annual report, October 1992--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-diciplinary approach to targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management. The first phase involves geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquisition and analysis to identify optimum well sites and to develop a reservoir operations plan. This report summarizes activities concerned with phase I of the Sooner Unit Project.

  13. Advanced secondary recovery project for the Sooner D Sand Unit, Weld County, Colorado: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this project was to increase production at the Sooner D Sand Unit through geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management of waterflood operations. The Sooner D Sand Unit demonstration project should be an example for other operators to follow for reservoir characterization and exploitation methodologies to increase production by waterflood from the Cretaceous D Sandstone in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. This project involved multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization using high-density 3D seismic, detailed stratigraphy and reservoir simulation studies. Infill drilling, water-injection conversion and re-completing some wells to add short-radius laterals were based on the results of the reservoir characterization studies. Production response were evaluated using reservoir simulation and production tests. Technology transfer utilized workshops, presentations and technical papers which emphasized the economic advantages of implementing the demonstrated technologies.

  14. Imported leprosy in the United States, 1978 through 1988: an epidemic without secondary transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Mastro, T D; Redd, S C; Breiman, R F

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Leprosy remains a major health problem in many regions of the world. In the United States, although leprosy continues to be reported, approximately 90% of cases are imported (i.e., occur among immigrants and refugees). An increase in imported cases began in 1978. This study was conducted to analyze this trend and to characterize the contributing cases. METHODS. Centers for Disease Control leprosy surveillance data from 1971 through 1988 were analyzed. RESULTS. The number of imported cases reported annually was relatively constant from 1971 through 1977 (mean = 119 per year), increased to 307 in 1985, and then decreased to 102 in 1988. Of the 957 excess cases reported from 1978 through 1988, 73.4% were among persons from Southeast Asia, including 51.3% from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (Indochina). There was no coincident increase in indigenous cases of leprosy; the mean annual number of such cases was 17.7 (range = 10 to 29). Leprosy remains endemic in Texas, Hawaii, Louisiana, and possibly California. CONCLUSIONS. An epidemic of imported leprosy began in the United States in 1978, peaked in 1985, and ended by 1988. This increase was primarily due to cases among refugees from Indochina and was limited by a decrease in the influx of Indochinese refugees in the mid-1980s. There is no evidence that these cases resulted in transmission in the United States. PMID:1636833

  15. Local source impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exhibits heterogeneity in composition across urban areas, leading to poor representation of outdoor air pollutants in human exposure assessments. To examine heterogeneity in PM composition and sources across an urban area, fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5) were chemically profiled in Iowa City, IA from 25 August to 10 November 2011 at two monitoring stations. The urban site is the federal reference monitoring (FRM) station in the city center and the peri-urban site is located 8.0 km to the west on the city edge. Measurements of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol, inorganic ions, molecular markers for primary sources, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers were used to assess statistical differences in composition and sources across the two sites. PM2.5 mass ranged from 3 to 26 μg m-3 during this period, averaging 11.2 ± 4.9 μg m-3 (n = 71). Major components of PM2.5 at the urban site included organic carbon (OC; 22%), ammonium (14%), sulfate (13%), nitrate (7%), calcium (2.9%), and elemental carbon (EC; 2.2%). Periods of elevated PM were driven by increases in ammonium, sulfate, and SOA tracers that coincided with hot and dry conditions and southerly winds. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to apportion OC to primary sources; biomass burning, vegetative detritus, diesel engines, and gasoline engines accounted for 28% of OC at the urban site and 24% of OC at the peri-urban site. Secondary organic carbon from isoprene and monoterpene SOA accounted for an additional 13% and 6% of OC at the urban and peri-urban sites, respectively. Differences in biogenic SOA across the two sites were associated with enhanced combustion activities in the urban area and higher aerosol acidity at the urban site. Major PM constituents (e.g., OC, ammonium, sulfate) were generally well-represented by a single monitoring station, indicating a regional source influence. Meanwhile, nitrate, biomass burning, food cooking, suspended dust, and biogenic SOA were not well-represented by a single site and demonstrated local influences. For isoprene SOA, product distributions indicated a larger role for the high-NOx pathway at the urban site. These local sources are largely responsible for differences in population exposures to outdoor PM in the study domain located within the Midwestern US.

  16. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  17. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036.104-90... 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  18. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  19. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  20. Vertebral fracture secondary to suicide attempt: demographics and patient outcome in a Scottish spinal rehabilitation unit.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Anderson J; Allan DB

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish occurrence, method of injury, length of stay (LOS), psychiatric diagnosis, rehabilitation outcome, and demographic data for those admitted to a Scottish Spinal Injuries Rehabilitation Unit as a consequence of deliberate self-harm (DSH).DESIGN: A retrospective audit of case-notes and electronic databases of admissions and rehabilitation outcome in a spinal cord injury (SCI) unit where the mechanism of injury was (DSH).RESULTS: Forty-six (44 having detailed data available) patients were identified with 95% of injuries resulting from falls. Thirty-six people had pre-existing mental health problems (82%) with 15 (34%) having this diagnosis established shortly after admission. Seventy-five per cent received follow-up from mental health services. Ninety-five per cent returned to their pre-injury (or similar) residence. LOS and functional independence measure (FIM) for the DSH group were compared with a non-DSH group. No differences were found in those with SCI. LOS was significantly longer in the patients with vertebral fracture and no neurological impairment (32 versus 22 days). Sixty-four per cent of those who had self-harmed had substance dependence problems. The predominance of falls (63%) occurred in a residential setting. Annual admissions due to individuals self-harming were stable across the studied period.CONCLUSIONS: Spinal column fracture in the DSH group is predominantly caused by falls. High levels of mental health and substance abuse problems are noted necessitating formal mental health assessment and follow-up. DSH as a mechanism for injury appears to have a significant impact on LOS only if the patient has fracture without SCI. Immediate rehabilitation outcomes are similar to that of non-DSH group.

  1. Assessing awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry among secondary mathematics teachers in the United States and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suanrong

    Fractal geometry has gained great attention from mathematicians and scientists in the past three decades (Fraboni & Moller, 2008). As a new geometry language and subject, fractal geometry has significant value in teaching and learning secondary mathematics. The present study focused on investigating the current state of mathematics teachers' awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry in the United States (U.S.) and China, as well as the factors that influence them. The instrument of the study included a survey and a test designed by the researcher and validated by five experts. The results of the study indicated that secondary math teachers in the U.S. and China had very low levels of awareness of fractals and lack the knowledge and skills of solving fractal problems, but they had a higher level of interest in fractals related to classroom teaching and professional development as compared with their levels of awareness. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the factor 'experience of learning fractals' had the most positive effect on the average score of awareness. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most positive effect on the average score of interest. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most negative effect on the average score of knowledge.

  2. Proceedings of the United States Office of Education Region V and the National Association of Secondary School Principals Conference on Articulation Between Secondary and Post-Secondary Education (Chicago, Illinois, December 1-2, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Ronald B., Ed.

    This study prepared by a special task force of the National Association of Secondary School Principals is a report on articulation between secondary and post-secondary education. Included are presentations given by distinguished educators representing secondary schools, college and universities, vocational technical schools, proprietary…

  3. Independent engineering report and certification for closure of building 419 equipment including the size reduction unit {ampersand} solidification unit at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chow Engineering, Inc.

    1996-12-31

    Closure of Building 419 Equipment Including the Size Reduction Unit and Solidification Unit December 31, 1996 Closure activities began in June, 1995 and equipment closure activities were completed in December, 1996. This report determines final closure for B419 Equipment, and was prepared and submitted to LLNL in the final stage of the work. CE performed the Independent Engineering services at the request of Ms Dixie Finley of LLNL, as part of the B419 Closure Plan requirement. B419 was constructed by the Navy in the 1940s and used by the Navy for various purposes related to airplane maintenance. In later years, the building was used by a health chemistry program as an assay laboratory. Since 1975, the building has been used by LLNL for equipment decontamination and hazardous and mixed waste treatment activities known as size reduction and solidification. These activities which were covered by the LLNL Part B Permit Application, were discontinued in late 1989 because B419 could not meet the seismic guidelines of the Uniform Building Code (UBC). B419 is a 7, 860 ft square structure consisting of three areas. The middle area has a second floor (attic area); the other two areas (north side and south side) have one floor. The size reduction activities occurred in the south side of the building (room 124), while the solidification activities occurred in the north side (rooms 155 and 167). Documentation for closure of B419 was submitted on September 23, 1994 to DTSC. The documentation consisted of a letter, together with the Closure Plan, Sa1017 Sampling and Analysis Plan, and Health and Safety Plan. A revision to this documentation was sent to DTSC on November 14, 1996, reflecting a two-phase closure for B419 as follows: RCRA Equipment Closure phase to be completed and certified by December 31, 1996. RCRA Structural Closure phase to be extended to September, 1997. This current report certifies the final B419 RCRA Equipment Closure including the Size Reduction Unit and the Solidification Unit.

  4. Novel method for the synthesis of urea backbone cyclic peptides using new Alloc-protected glycine building units.

    PubMed

    Hurevich, Mattan; Tal-Gan, Yftah; Klein, Shoshana; Barda, Yaniv; Levitzki, Alexander; Gilon, Chaim

    2010-04-01

    Cyclization of bioactive peptides, utilizing functional groups serving as natural pharmacophors, is often accompanied with loss of activity. The backbone cyclization approach was developed to overcome this limitation and enhance pharmacological properties. Backbone cyclic peptides are prepared by the incorporation of special building units, capable of forming amide, disulfide and coordinative bonds. Urea bridge is often used for the preparation of cyclic peptides by connecting two amine functionalized side chains. Here we present urea backbone cyclization as an additional method for the preparation of backbone cyclic peptide libraries. A straightforward method for the synthesis of crystalline Fmoc-N(alpha) [omega-amino(Alloc)-alkyl] glycine building units is presented. A set of urea backbone cyclic Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 analogs was prepared and assessed for protein kinase B inhibition as anticancer leads. PMID:20196085

  5. A structure-directing method to prepare semiconductive zeolitic cluster-organic frameworks with Cu3I4 building units.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yao; Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-28

    Two semiconductive cluster-organic frameworks based on Cu4I4 and Cu3I4 building units were obtained by the use of different organic structure-directing agents; the latter Cu3I4 nodes are tetrahedrally connected through 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) linkers and Cu-I bridges, giving rise to a zeolitic framework with SOD topology. PMID:25940240

  6. CHSalign: A Web Server That Builds upon Junction-Explorer and RNAJAG for Pairwise Alignment of RNA Secondary Structures with Coaxial Helical Stacking.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; Song, Yang; Kim, Namhee; Laing, Christian; Wang, Jason T L; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    RNA junctions are important structural elements of RNA molecules. They are formed when three or more helices come together in three-dimensional space. Recent studies have focused on the annotation and prediction of coaxial helical stacking (CHS) motifs within junctions. Here we exploit such predictions to develop an efficient alignment tool to handle RNA secondary structures with CHS motifs. Specifically, we build upon our Junction-Explorer software for predicting coaxial stacking and RNAJAG for modelling junction topologies as tree graphs to incorporate constrained tree matching and dynamic programming algorithms into a new method, called CHSalign, for aligning the secondary structures of RNA molecules containing CHS motifs. Thus, CHSalign is intended to be an efficient alignment tool for RNAs containing similar junctions. Experimental results based on thousands of alignments demonstrate that CHSalign can align two RNA secondary structures containing CHS motifs more accurately than other RNA secondary structure alignment tools. CHSalign yields a high score when aligning two RNA secondary structures with similar CHS motifs or helical arrangement patterns, and a low score otherwise. This new method has been implemented in a web server, and the program is also made freely available, at http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/CHSalign/. PMID:26789998

  7. CHSalign: A Web Server That Builds upon Junction-Explorer and RNAJAG for Pairwise Alignment of RNA Secondary Structures with Coaxial Helical Stacking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Laing, Christian; Wang, Jason T. L.; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    RNA junctions are important structural elements of RNA molecules. They are formed when three or more helices come together in three-dimensional space. Recent studies have focused on the annotation and prediction of coaxial helical stacking (CHS) motifs within junctions. Here we exploit such predictions to develop an efficient alignment tool to handle RNA secondary structures with CHS motifs. Specifically, we build upon our Junction-Explorer software for predicting coaxial stacking and RNAJAG for modelling junction topologies as tree graphs to incorporate constrained tree matching and dynamic programming algorithms into a new method, called CHSalign, for aligning the secondary structures of RNA molecules containing CHS motifs. Thus, CHSalign is intended to be an efficient alignment tool for RNAs containing similar junctions. Experimental results based on thousands of alignments demonstrate that CHSalign can align two RNA secondary structures containing CHS motifs more accurately than other RNA secondary structure alignment tools. CHSalign yields a high score when aligning two RNA secondary structures with similar CHS motifs or helical arrangement patterns, and a low score otherwise. This new method has been implemented in a web server, and the program is also made freely available, at http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/CHSalign/. PMID:26789998

  8. Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C. ); Abel, F.H. ); Nicholls, A.K. ); Millhone, J.P. . Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-06-19

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 423, Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-02-002-0308, within CAU 423. Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The UDP is approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest of the northwest corner of Building 03-60, the Auto Maintenance Shop. Corrective Action Unit 423 is comprised of the UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60. The UDP received waste oil products from the Auto Maintenance Shop, a light-duty fleet maintenance shop in the Area 3 compound, from 1965 to 1989 or 1990 (DOE/NV, 1997).

  10. Impact of 2003 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2002-07-08

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs for improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, this report uses the ImBuild II model to assess the future economic impacts of Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) FY 2003 portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The energy savings expected to be created by market penetration of the BTS programs have the potential of creating nearly 270,000 jobs and about $3.41 billion in wage income(1999$) by the year 2030.

  11. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Gordon, Timothy D; Hennigan, Christopher J; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George; Adams, Peter J; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-07-22

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and biomass burning. About 10-20% of NMOG emissions from these major combustion sources are not routinely speciated and therefore are currently misclassified in emission inventories and chemical transport models. The smog chamber data demonstrate that this misclassification biases model predictions of SOA production low because the unspeciated NMOG produce more SOA per unit mass than the speciated NMOG. We present new source-specific SOA yield parameterizations for these unspeciated emissions. These parameterizations and associated source profiles are designed for implementation in chemical transport models. Box model calculations using these new parameterizations predict that NMOG emissions from the top six combustion sources form 0.7 Tg y(-1) of first-generation SOA in the United States, almost 90% of which is from biomass burning and gasoline vehicles. About 85% of this SOA comes from unspeciated NMOG, demonstrating that chemical transport models need improved treatment of combustion emissions to accurately predict ambient SOA concentrations. PMID:25002466

  12. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Pouliot, George; Adams, Peter J.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and biomass burning. About 10–20% of NMOG emissions from these major combustion sources are not routinely speciated and therefore are currently misclassified in emission inventories and chemical transport models. The smog chamber data demonstrate that this misclassification biases model predictions of SOA production low because the unspeciated NMOG produce more SOA per unit mass than the speciated NMOG. We present new source-specific SOA yield parameterizations for these unspeciated emissions. These parameterizations and associated source profiles are designed for implementation in chemical transport models. Box model calculations using these new parameterizations predict that NMOG emissions from the top six combustion sources form 0.7 Tg y−1 of first-generation SOA in the United States, almost 90% of which is from biomass burning and gasoline vehicles. About 85% of this SOA comes from unspeciated NMOG, demonstrating that chemical transport models need improved treatment of combustion emissions to accurately predict ambient SOA concentrations. PMID:25002466

  13. Impact of building technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Elliott, D.B.; Schultz, R.W.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. This assessment is being done for the first time in FY99 as a supplement to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA--formerly, Quality Metrics) estimates of primary energy savings and environmental and direct financial benefits of the BTS programs. The programmatic needs of BTS suggest that a simple, flexible, user-friendly method is needed to derive national employment and income impacts of individual BTS programs. Therefore, BTS funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a special-purpose version of the Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) national input-output model (Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. 1997) specifically to estimate the employment and income effects of building energy technologies. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. Extensive documentation and a user`s guide are provided in Scott et al. (1998). Compared with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as the published multipliers from the Department of Commerce Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS 2), ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. In this report, the authors use the ImBuild model to calculate the impact of all 32 BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997.

  14. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

    2009-08-31

    Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buildings within each task did not appear to differ in sound quality. Hence, post-hoc tests were not appropriate and individual zones were not compared for these buildings. It is interesting to note that sound measurements in some buildings were widely varied with most zone comparisons and other buildings varied between only a few zones.

  15. Aerosol Precursor Emissions, Secondary Aerosol Production, and Climate-Forcing Gas Exchange in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol precursors in the Midwest are generated from a myriad of sources including biogenic emissions of terpenes from the Ozarks region, anthropogenic emissions of volatile and semivolatile aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from the St. Louis airshed, and agricultural emissions of ammonia (NH3), amines, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from animal husbandry and cropping systems of the Midwest Corn Belt. The deciduous and coniferous forests of the Ozarks region are significant sources of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes that are sensitive to rising CO2 levels and temperature and generate light-scattering, secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Application of nitrogen fertilizers stimulates emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural soils and crops. Nitric acid, generated through photooxidation of NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion in urban air and from soil emissions in agroecosystems, reacts rapidly with NH3 to generate light-scattering, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA). The atmospheric lifetime of N2O is about 120 years, making the substance a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 290 for a time horizon of 20 years relative to CO2. Emissions of CO2, N2O, and SIA precursors from the Midwest Corn Belt and surrounding areas are likely to increase in the near future as pastureland and prairie is converted to grow corn and other biofuel crops to meet the demand for renewable fuels. Several large river systems transport nutrients from fertilized fields of the Midwest agroecosystem to the Gulf of Mexico where plankton growth is accelerated. Microbial decomposition of plankton detritus consumes oxygen and creates a hypoxic zone, which might be a significant source of N2O.The presentation will discuss gaps in our knowledge of the production of climate-forcing species in the Midwestern United States.

  16. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  17. How to Build a Unit of Work. Bulletin, 1946, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Ruth G.

    1946-01-01

    Units of work represent an effort on the part of the school to relate subject matter and the development of skills in the organization of children's learning about important interests, topics, or problems. The units are made by teachers with their children and are designed to fit the situation in which they are to be used. There is no single…

  18. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes assumptions and procedures used to perform thermal damage analysis caused by post loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) hydrogen deflagration at Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. Examination of available photographic evidence yields data on the extent and range of thermal and burn damage. Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. A control pendant from the polar crane located in the top of the reactor building sustained asymmetric burn damage of decreasing degree from top to bottom. Evidence suggests the polar-crane pendant side that experienced heaviest damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations approximate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building and support for an estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  20. The effect of marine isoprene emissions on secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation in the coastal United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, Brett; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The impact of marine isoprene emissions on summertime surface concentrations of isoprene, secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and ozone (O 3) in the coastal areas of the continental United States is studied using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Marine isoprene emission rates are based on the following five parameters: laboratory measurements of isoprene production from phytoplankton under a range of light conditions, remotely-sensed chlorophyll- a concentration ([Chl- a]), incoming solar radiation, surface wind speed, and sea-water optical properties. Model simulations show that marine isoprene emissions are sensitive to meteorology and ocean ecosystem productivity, with the highest rates simulated over the Gulf of Mexico. Simulated offshore surface layer marine isoprene concentration is less than 10 ppt and significantly dwarfed by terrestrial emissions over the continental United States. With the isoprene reactions included in this study, the average contribution of marine isoprene to SOA and O 3 concentrations is predicted to be small, up to 0.004 μg m -3 for SOA and 0.2 ppb for O 3 in coastal urban areas. The light-sensitivity of isoprene production from phytoplankton results in a midday maximum for marine isoprene emissions and a corresponding daytime increase in isoprene and O 3 concentrations in coastal locations. The potential impact of the daily variability in [Chl- a] on O 3 and SOA concentrations is simulated in a sensitivity study with [Chl- a] increased and decreased by a factor of five. Our results indicate that marine emissions of isoprene cause minor changes to coastal SOA and O 3 concentrations. Comparison of model simulations with few available measurements shows that the model underestimates marine boundary layer isoprene concentration. This underestimation is likely due to the limitations in current treatment of marine isoprene emission and a coarse spatial resolution used in the model simulations.

  1. Let's Talk about Friendship: An Anti-Bias Unit on Building Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieff, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In many classrooms, children behave in rude and hateful ways. According to the American Association of University Women (AAUW), "Sexual harassment of girls by boys--from innuendo to actual assault--in the nation's schools is increasing" (AAUW, 2001). In this article, the author features the anti-bias curriculum approach to building friendships and…

  2. "Boss of the United States" Kindergarteners' Concept of Voting: Five Scaffolded Lessons that Build Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulrey, Betty C.; Ackerman, Ann T.; Howson, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In any U.S. presidential election year, classroom teachers integrate lessons into their curriculum that help students understand their privileges, responsibilities, and rights as good citizens. Teaching about the electoral process and voting in primary classrooms is one way to build a foundation that promotes civic engagement. In this article, the…

  3. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-301

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris; Mitchell, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  4. Mexican Influence on Contemporary Art and Architecture of the United States: A Model Lesson for Cross Cultural Understanding at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finer, Neal

    In this model lesson, secondary students test the hypothesis that Mexican achievements have widely influenced art and architecture in the United States as a result of the cultural flow and exchange between the two nations. The lesson is designed to be presented in two to three class periods. To determine the validity of the hypothesis, students…

  5. Addressing Diversity in US Teacher Preparation Programs: A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Programs' Priorities and Challenges from across the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Data gathered from 142 public university elementary and secondary teacher preparation programs across the United States (representing the preparation of approximately 23,000-30,000 new teachers annually), indicated that race/ethnicity was the most emphasized diversity topic followed by special needs, language diversity, economic (social class),…

  6. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2005-06. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-339

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  7. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2007-08. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2010-349

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Chris; Sable, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  8. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1934-1936. Bulletin, 1937, No. 2. Volume I. Chapter II: Trends in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessen, Carl A.

    1937-01-01

    Education in the United States faces important problems in the large and increasing enrollments in secondary schools, in the wide variety of interests and the extensive range of capacities represented in the pupils coming to these schools, and in the peculiar needs by pupils of early adolescent age for advice and guidance on social, moral,…

  9. Putting "Energy" in Your Course: 1978. A Collection of Energy Teaching Units Designed by the Participants of the Energy Institute for Secondary Science and Social Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Harold E., Ed.

    This collection of energy teaching units is the contribution of participants in a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored institute for secondary science and social studies teachers. The objectives of the Institute were to: (1) provide an overview of past, present, and future energy problems, and (2) stimulate teachers to use this information in their…

  10. Post-Secondary Education Attainment in Canada and the United States in the 1990s. Technical Paper Series. T-02-2E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlby, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    With the North American Free Trade Agreement and today's knowledge-based economy, there is a premium placed on post-secondary education and the need to retain graduates in Canada. The share of graduates in the Canadian and the United States labour pools are key to competitiveness. This paper examines Canada's performance relative to the U.S. in…

  11. Empowering Hispanics in the Mainstream: Building a Curriculum Unit on Immigration and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauer, Jane Zion

    1989-01-01

    Describes a six-week curriculum unit to assist Hispanic immigrant students entering mainstream urban elementary classrooms. Emphasizes interviewing activities that "empower" the new student and heterogeneous group activities that break down prejudice among the mainstream students. (FMW)

  12. Hypermedia Creation: Offering Prospective Secondary Teachers Opportunities To Build Flexible and Powerful Conceptions of Mathematics and Mathematics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melvin Skip; Lloyd, Gwendolyn M.

    This paper illustrates the themes of reflection and connection in teacher education by discussing the experiences and conceptions of one preservice teacher who was enrolled in a secondary mathematics methods course. Small groups of preservice teachers created hypermedia stacks to demonstrate their views on important issues in mathematics…

  13. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  14. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Wage Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1999$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  15. Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

  16. Tetranuclear [MDy]2 compounds and their dinuclear [MDy] (M = Zn/Cu) building units: their assembly, structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Tang, Jinkui

    2013-06-01

    The reactions between a salen ligand N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (H2L) and different metal salts lead to the formation of four 3d-4f [MDy] and [MDy]2 (M = Zn/Cu) compounds, where the [MDy]2 can be considered as resulting from the assembly of two [MDy] building blocks. Field-induced single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior was observed in [ZnDy] and [CuDy] compounds with the effective suppression of fast quantum tunneling under a dc field. Moreover, the [ZnDy]2 compound demonstrates typical SMM behavior, which may originate from the high axial anisotropy of Dy ions correlating to the change of coordination geometry and enhanced ferromagnetic interactions between Dy ions via the coupling of two [DyZn] units. The result suggests the positive effects of coupling blocking units to enhance their SMM behavior, presenting a promising strategy for constructing efficient heterometallic SMMs. PMID:23679564

  17. Building a Better Halide Receptor: Optimum Choice of Spacer, Binding Unit, and Halosubstitution.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Binod; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-03-16

    Quantum calculations are used to measure the binding of halides to a number of bipodal dicationic receptors, constructed as a pair of binding units separated by a spacer group. A number of variations are studied. A H atom on each binding unit (imidazolium or triazolium) is replaced by Br or I. Benzene, thiophene, carbazole, and dimethylnaphthalene are considered as spacer groups. Each receptor is paired with halides F(-) , Cl(-) , Br(-) , and I(-) . Substitution with I on the binding unit yields a large enhancement of binding, as much as 13 orders of magnitude; a much smaller increase occurs for substitution with Br. Imidazolium is a more effective binding agent than is triazolium. Benzene and dimethylnaphthalene represent the best spacers, followed by thiophene and carbazole. F(-) binds much more strongly than do the other halides, which obey the order Cl(-) >Br(-) >I(-) . PMID:26676206

  18. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  19. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciTech Connect

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Ersen, Ovidiu; Bats, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

  20. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  1. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States. PMID:26414053

  2. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  3. United We Learn: Team Effort Builds a Path to Equity and Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a plan to create a united approach to improve high quality instruction in Robbinsdale Cooper High School in New Hope, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Professional learning communities were in their infancy, conversations around data were about autopsies of annual standardized tests, and there was no description of what

  4. United We Learn: Team Effort Builds a Path to Equity and Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a plan to create a united approach to improve high quality instruction in Robbinsdale Cooper High School in New Hope, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Professional learning communities were in their infancy, conversations around data were about autopsies of annual standardized tests, and there was no description of what…

  5. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  6. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  8. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  9. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  10. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in

  13. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities

  14. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  15. What Do You Know about Water? Teacher's Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  16. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  17. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  19. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  20. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  1. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional

  7. What Do You Know about Water? Teacher's Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in

  8. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of

  9. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  10. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  11. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in

  12. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities

  13. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  14. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,

  16. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in

  17. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to

  18. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  19. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in

  20. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in

  1. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  3. Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-06-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and fluorescence property of a novel layered fluorinated gallium phosphite with heptameric building unit

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Liangliang; Song Tianyou; Shi Suhua; Tian Zhenfen; Wang Li Zhang Lirong

    2008-06-15

    A new fluorinated gallium phosphite, Ga{sub 3}F{sub 2}(2,2'-bipy){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 1.5}PO{sub 3}){sub 2}1, which is the first layered gallium phosphite with neutral framework, has been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of 2,2'-bipyridine (2,2'-bipy) acting as a ligand. The as-synthesized product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ICP-AES and elemental analyses and fluorescent spectrum. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15) with cell parameters a=17.633(3) A, b=9.883(2) A, c=16.793(3) A, {beta}=109.88(3){sup o}, V=2752.1(9) A{sup 3} and Z=4. The construction of two-dimensional (2D)-layered structure in compound 1 may be viewed as the assembly of heptameric building unit, which is the first to be found in gallium phosphate/phosphite. The heptameric building unit exists in two types of configuration, which alternately connect through oxygen atoms from HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids to form a layer with 10-membered ring windows viewed along the a-axis. The adjacent layers are stably packed together and exhibit interesting three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular array via {pi}-{pi} interactions of the 2,2'-bipy groups. Additionally, compound 1 shows strong fluorescent property in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: The first two-dimensional layer gallium phosphite Ga{sub 3}F{sub 2}(2,2'-bipy){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 1.5}PO{sub 3}){sub 2} with 10-membered ring windows along the a-axis, which is built from the novel heptameric building unit.

  5. Building a "geologic Library" of the Major Lithologic Units in the EL Paso Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J.; Sanderson, E.; Cancellare, J.; Caskey, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mineralogy and Introduction to Petrology, a sophomore level course, is being offered at El Paso Community College for the first time in the spring semester, 2014. To prepare for this, several geology major students have been establishing a "Geologic Library" to include a comprehensive accumulation of material covering the major lithologic units in the El Paso area. Students associated with the Mineralogy SOLARIS project, funded by the National Science Foundation, began this summer by collecting, cutting, slabbing, and polishing rock samples, doing geochemical analyses of all samples using the microprobe, and making petrographic thin sections of each unit collected. In addition, other SOLARIS students have been taking Giga-pan photos of the outcrops where the samples were collected, and Giga-pan photos of the polished slabs. The goal of this "Geologic Library" is to put all of this information on a website, allowing students to observe each outcrop from the Giga-pans, scroll to a close-up of the polished section, link to the geochemical analysis, and then link to photomicrographs of the thin sections.

  6. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles,...

  7. Building Program Acceptability: Perceptions of Gay and Bisexual Men on Peer or Prevention Case Manager Relationships in Secondary HIV Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    DRISKELL, JEFFREY R.; OCLEIRIGH, CONALL; COVAHEY, CHARLES; RIPTON, JESSICA; MAYER, KENNETH; PERRY, DHANA; SALOMON, ELIZABETH; SAFREN, STEVEN

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in integrating HIV prevention counseling for HIV-infected gay and bisexual men into HIV primary care. HIV-infected peers and professionally trained prevention case managers (PCMs) have been used to provide prevention counseling services. The current qualitative study seeks to examine participant perceptions of the acceptability of HIV-infected peer counselors and of trained prevention case managers from the perspective of 41 HIV-infected gay and bisexual men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-infected men who were currently receiving primary HIV health care. Positive peer counselor themes included shared experiences and para-professional. Positive themes specific to the PCM relationships included were provision of resources and professional skills and knowledge. Common themes identified across both peer and PCM counselor relationships were creating a comfortable environment, non-judgmental stance, and rapport building/communication skills. Recommendations for HIV secondary prevention interventions are presented. PMID:23710120

  8. Building Program Acceptability: Perceptions of Gay and Bisexual Men on Peer or Prevention Case Manager Relationships in Secondary HIV Prevention Counseling.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Jeffrey R; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Covahey, Charles; Ripton, Jessica; Mayer, Kenneth; Perry, D'Hana; Salomon, Elizabeth; Safren, Steven

    2010-07-01

    There is growing interest in integrating HIV prevention counseling for HIV-infected gay and bisexual men into HIV primary care. HIV-infected peers and professionally trained prevention case managers (PCMs) have been used to provide prevention counseling services. The current qualitative study seeks to examine participant perceptions of the acceptability of HIV-infected peer counselors and of trained prevention case managers from the perspective of 41 HIV-infected gay and bisexual men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-infected men who were currently receiving primary HIV health care. Positive peer counselor themes included shared experiences and para-professional. Positive themes specific to the PCM relationships included were provision of resources and professional skills and knowledge. Common themes identified across both peer and PCM counselor relationships were creating a comfortable environment, non-judgmental stance, and rapport building/communication skills. Recommendations for HIV secondary prevention interventions are presented. PMID:23710120

  9. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: the SHARPn project.

    PubMed

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G; Haug, Peter J; Huff, Stanley M; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation's health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation's many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or 'liquidity' of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. PMID:22326800

  10. The dimeric [V2O2F8]4- anion: Structural characterization of a magnetic basic-building-unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hongcheng; Gautier, Romain; Li, Zuo-Xi; Jie, Wanqi; Liu, Zhengtang; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2013-04-01

    New materials built from the [V2O2F8]4- anionic basic-building-unit (BBU) exhibit interesting magnetic properties owing to the proximity of the two d1 V(IV) cations and the orbital interactions of fluoride and oxide ligands. In our search to target such materials, the vanadium oxide-fluoride compound [dpaH2]2[V2O2F8] in which a dimeric anion [V2O2F8]4- is isolated in a hydrogen bond network was hydrothermally synthesized (dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine). This hydrogen bond network is able to stabilize the highly ionic species [V2O2F8]4- as demonstrated with bond valence calculations. The coordination of the O2-/F- ordered ligands was investigated and antiferromagnetic coupling of the isolated BBU was measured.

  11. Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

  12. Integration of Photovoltaics into Building Energy Usage through Advanced Control of Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Nutaro, James J; Irminger, Philip; Ollis, Benjamin; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Fugate, David L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to forecast photovoltaic (PV) power in kW based on a neural network linkage of publicly available cloud cover data and on-site solar irradiance sensor data. We also describe a control approach to utilize rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) to support renewable integration. The PV forecasting method is validated using data from a rooftop PV panel installed on the Distributed Energy, Communications, and Controls (DECC) laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The validation occurs in multiple phases to ensure that each component of the approach is the best representation of the actual expected output. The control of the RTU is based on model predictive methods.

  13. Secondary stroke in patients with polytrauma and traumatic brain injury treated in an Intensive Care Unit, Karlovac General Hospital, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Belavić, M; Jančić, E; Mišković, P; Brozović-Krijan, A; Bakota, B; Žunić, J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into primary and secondary brain injury. Primary brain injury occurs at the time of injury and is the direct consequence of kinetic energy acting on the brain tissue. Secondary brain injury occurs several hours or days after primary brain injury and is the result of factors including shock, systemic hypotension, hypoxia, hypothermia or hyperthermia, intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema, intracranial bleeding or inflammation. The aim of this retrospective analysis of a prospective database was to determine the prevalence of secondary stroke and stroke-related mortality, causes of secondary stroke, treatment and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. This study included patients with TBI with or without other injuries who were hospitalised in a general ICU over a five-year period. The following parameters were assessed: demographics (age, sex), scores (Glasgow Coma Score, APACHE II, SOFA), secondary stroke (prevalence, time of occurrence after primary brain injury, causes of stroke and associated mortality), length of stay in the ICU and hospital, vital parameters (state of consciousness, cardiac function, respiration, circulation, thermoregulation, diuresis) and laboratory values (leukocytes, C-reactive protein [CRP], blood glucose, blood gas analysis, urea, creatinine). Medical data were analysed for 306 patients with TBI (median age 56 years, range 18-93 years) who were treated in the general ICU. Secondary stroke occurred in 23 patients (7.5%), 10 of whom died, which gives a mortality rate of 43.4%. Three patients were excluded as the cause of the injury was missile trauma. The study data indicate that inflammation is the most important cause of secondary insults. Levels of CRP were elevated in 65% of patients with secondary brain injury; leukocytosis was present in 87% of these patients, and blood glucose was elevated in 73%. The lungs and urinary tract were the most common sites of infection. In conclusion, elevated inflammatory markers (white blood cell count and CRP) and hyperglycaemia are associated with secondary brain injury. The lack of routine use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring may explain the high mortality rate and the occurrence of secondary stroke in patients with TBI. PMID:26620118

  14. Future premature mortality due to O3, secondary inorganic aerosols and primary PM in Europe--sensitivity to changes in climate, anthropogenic emissions, population and building stock.

    PubMed

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000-2009, 2050-2059 and 2080-2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future. PMID:25749320

  15. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    PubMed Central

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E.; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future. PMID:25749320

  16. Building coalitions to support women's health and rights in the United States: South Carolina and Florida.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Theresa

    2007-05-01

    There is a health care crisis in the United States and women, particularly low-income women and women of colour, are paying the price. The politicisation of pregnancy, sexuality and women's reproductive rights has created a uniquely contradictory situation in many states. Policymakers are working to control women's reproductive choices and sexuality, and restricting sex education, but doing little to address the overall lack of access to quality reproductive health care. This article describes a new reproductive rights advocacy model that was implemented starting in 2003 in two US states, South Carolina and Florida. In-depth research on the status of reproductive health and rights in each state, analysed by race, economic status, county and state policy initiatives relevant to women's health, showed that in both states access to contraception and abortion, cervical and breast cancer screening and treatment, HIV/AIDS-related care and pregnancy care were poor, with African American and Hispanic women faring even worse than white women. Implementing the advocacy model involved identifying and bringing together a diverse set of health care professionals, academics and activists who formed coalitions and are now working together and developing advocacy strategies in support of policies to improve access to reproductive health care and protect reproductive rights in both states. PMID:17512383

  17. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  18. Open frameworks based on mono-lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminate building units: Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Cheng, Lin; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2013-07-15

    Metal-substituted polyoxometalates are one of the most important research branch in polyoxometalate chemistry and have attached an increasing attention due to not only their intriguing structural diversity but also their special properties applicable to material science. In this paper, A series of novel lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates (LSPs), K{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}[Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]·nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Pr 1, Nd 2, Sm 3, Eu 4, Gd 5, Tb 6; for 1, n=8; for 2,4,5,6, n=7; for 3, n=9), have been hydrothermally made and characterized by infrared (IR) spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The experimental results indicate these compounds exhibit 3-D frameworks with Gra-type topology constructed by lanthanide cations, mono- lanthanide-substituted [Gd(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 5−} cluster units and K{sup +} cations. The photoluminescence measurements show that Compounds 2, 4, 6 exhibit the characteristic emission for Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} cations, respectively. In addition, this series of LSPs show weak second harmonic generation effects and ferroelectric properties. The success in making 1−6 not only provides innovative examples in search of new POM species, but also may open up possibilities for the design of LSP-based materials with related functions. - Graphical abstract: A series of lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates have been hydrothermally made and their photoluminescence, non-linear optical and ferroelectricity properties have also been investigated, respectively. - Highlights: • Six lanthanide-substituted Al-based polyoxometalates have first been made. • Eu/Nd/Tb-based compounds display photoluminescence property. • The nonlinear optical and ferroelectricity properties have been investigated.

  19. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  20. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: United States History (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.

    This guide contains 13 concept-based lessons in economics for use in secondary U.S. history courses. One component of a two part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students develop basic economic concepts. Each lesson is…

  1. Promoting Secondary Teachers' Diagnostic Competence with Respect to Functions: Development of a Scalable Unit in Continuous Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Julia; Barzel, Bärbel; Leuders, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing student achievement in a formative way is a crucial skill for planning and carrying out effective mathematics lessons. This study takes a subject-specific view and aims at investigating diagnostic competence in the field of mathematical functions at secondary level and how to improve it. Following three evidence-based design principles,…

  2. Web-Enhanced, Standards-Oriented Teaching Units on Post-Wall Germany for the Secondary School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Handle, Donna C.; Ayres, Evelyn; Cimino, Ellen; Dunn, Bryan; Foell, Kimberly; McCarthy, Jennifer K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of Web sites developed by secondary school teachers of German and European history who participated in an NEH-sponsored summer institute titled "Post-Wall Germany: Integrating Post-Unification German Culture into the High School Curriculum. Teacher participants also offer suggestions for using sites they created in…

  3. Parental Perspectives of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Transitioning from Primary to Secondary School in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Gayle Victoria; Underwood, Jean D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Transferring from mainstream primary to secondary school can be especially problematic for children with an autism spectrum disorder. Two groups of parents (nine pretransition and six posttransition parents) contributed to this 15-month-long study. Perceptions of the pretransition group were captured through focus groups and in-depth interviews at…

  4. Putting Professionalism Back into Teaching: Secondary Preservice and In-Service Teachers Engaging in Interdisciplinary Unit Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolle, Elizabeth Petroelje; Frambaugh-Kritzer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Recently, interdisciplinary instruction has come back to the educational scene, specifically supported through the Common Core State Standards. As teacher educators and former middle-level teachers, the authors see this as a positive move to enhance learning for adolescents. This qualitative study sought to answer: How do secondary preservice and…

  5. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the March 2000, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points (TTR) as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-51-001-0355 – Photo Shop UDP, Drains in CAU 429. It should be noted that there are no changes to CAU 406. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

  6. The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit on the Environmental Decision-Making of Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Amanda W.; And Others

    In the first phase of this study an interdisciplinary curriculum unit was developed centered on the concept of sustainable development in tropical rainforests. The centerpiece of the interdisciplinary unit was the investigation of a simulated environmental problem which required students to develop and then decide on a solution, having weighed a…

  7. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2014-07-01

    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  8. Design Quality Indicator for Schools in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In December 2005, the United Kingdom launched a process for evaluating the design quality of primary and secondary school buildings. The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) for Schools is a tool that can assist stakeholders--teachers, parents, school governors, students, community members, local authority clients and building professionals--to achieve…

  9. Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990)…

  10. Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Rupert Herrenkohl, Leslie; Yeary, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments ( Brown 1992 , Collins 1990 )…

  11. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  12. Effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery: A patient-based survey at a pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Pancha karma is a modality of treatments commonly used in Ayurvedic hospitals. It has elaborate textual reference of its usage in various clinical conditions forming the basis of its extensive use in Ayurvedic clinical practice. Unfortunately, despite its unquestionable popularity and usage among Ayurvedic physicians and patients, it has not been evaluated rigorously on scientific parameters to identify its effectiveness, safety, and procedural standards. Considering the patient's opinion as an important determinant in this perspective, this study aims at identifying the patient's (actual recipients of pancha karma therapy) perception toward the effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery concerning pancha karma through a structured survey at a pre-identified pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital. Majority of the survey respondents considered these therapies as safe and effective (88%). Ninety-four percent respondents have expressed their satisfaction to the standard of services provided to them at the pancha karma unit of the hospital concerned. PMID:22253510

  13. Training, Recruitment and Utilization of Teachers in Primary and Secondary Education. Country Case Studies: Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    This is one of a series of studies on the training, recruitment, and utilization of teachers in member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This volume deals with Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. The section on Germany (129 pages) has chapters on the German educational system, trends in the demand for…

  14. Truth-Beauty-Goodness: Philosophy Units for Gifted Students (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolman, Peter

    This document, one in a series of nine units of study developed for middle and junior high school gifted students outlines an introduction to philosophy based on Mortimer Adler's conceptions. Adler simplified the study of logic into the study of truth, the study of aesthetics to that of beauty, and distilled the study of ethics to the study of…

  15. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  16. Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

  17. A new chiral uranyl phosphonate framework consisting of achiral building units generated from ionothermal reaction: structure and spectroscopy characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lanhua; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2015-11-01

    The ionothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and 1,3-pbpH4 (1,3-pbpH4 = 1,3-phenylenebis(phosphonic acid) ligand in ionic liquids of [C4mim][Dbp], [C4mpyr][Br], and [Etpy][Br], respectively, afforded three new uranyl phosphonates, namely [C4mim][(UO2)2(1,3-pbpH)(1,3-pbpH)·Hmim] (1), [UO2(1,3-pbpH2)H2O·mpr] (2), and [Etpy][UO2(1,3-pbpH2)F] (3). Compound 1 exhibits a rare example of a chiral uranyl phosphonate 3D framework structure built from achiral building units of tetragonal bipyramidal uranium polyhedra and 1,3-pbp ligands. The structure adopts a network with channels extending along the b axis, which are filled with C4mim(+) and protonated 1-methylimidazole. In sharp contrast, compounds 2 & 3 both show pillared topology composed of uranyl pentagonal bipyramid polyhedra and phosphonate ligands. The layers are neutral in compound 2 with N-methylpyrrole molecules in the interlayer space, while compound 3 adopts anionic layer, and the charge is compensated with N-ethyl-pyridinium cations between the layers. Although compounds 1, 2, and 3 were synthesized under identical conditions with sole variation of the ionic liquid species, the resulting structures show a rich diversity in the local coordination environment of uranyl ions, the protonation of the phosphonate ligand, the conformation of ionic liquid ions, and the overall arrangement of the structure. All compounds were characterized by absorption, temperature dependent fluorescence, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopies. PMID:26419426

  18. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should include mixed mode thermal comfort models, semi-volatile organic compounds, assessment of new chemicals, and permissible exposure levels of many known indoor VOCs and bioaerosols. Plus, the relationship between energy consumption and IAQ, and tenant education on health effects of indoor pollutants and their sources may need more attention in IAQ investigations in green buildings. PMID:25594117

  19. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner unit. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Sooner {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand Unit is located about 100 miles northeast from Denver. The Cretaceous {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand has good primary recovery but disappointing waterflood performance. The nearest ten waterflood projects in the area of the Sooner Unit produced only an average of 2 percent incremental oil from waterflooding after an average primary recovery of 16 percent OOIP. Poor waterflood recovery is attributed to reservoir heterogeneity, poor reservoir management practices and lack of infill drilling. Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic had not been used in the D-J Basin for exploration or development of {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand reservoirs prior to this project.

  20. Views, Beliefs, & Opinions of Business Education by State Employment Service Managers in the Pacific Northwest, Secondary Principals in the Pacific Northwest, Chief State School Officers throughout the United States, State Directors of Employment & Training throughout the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Martha C.

    State employment service managers in the Pacific Northwest, secondary principals in the Pacific Northwest, chief state school officers throughout the United States, and state directors of employment and training throughout the United States were asked to rate students on a list of 15 attributes seen as key to performance on the job. Their…

  1. Long-Term Electronic Technology Trends: Forecasted Impacts on Education. Paper presented to Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education (April 25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    The technological-driven future will evolve through the next decades to massively impact elementary and secondary education, starting in the 1980 decade and building toward revolutionizing education in the 1990 decade. The evolving "silicon revolution" is producing a continuing list of new electronic technology poised at the threshold for massive…

  2. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  3. Improved secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. The Sooner Unit Field is located about 100 miles northeast from Denver, Colorado and produces from the fluvial-deltaic Cretaceous {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand formation at an average depth of 6,200 ft. The first phase of the project will involve multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization and recovery identification in which high-density 3-D seismic. detailed stratigraphy and engineering analysis will be used to identify optimum infill well sites and production/withdrawal schedules. One well will be drilled during this phase to obtain data pertinent to seismic activities. The second phase will involve implementation of the selected technologies by drilling geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Evaluation of results from the second phase will be performed using reservoir simulation. transient well tests and careful production tests of producing wells. The objective will be to compare the prediction of ultimate recovery resulting from the implementation of these technologies with that which would have occurred in the absence of these technologies. The third phase of the project will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and implemented technologies. Small to medium sized independents will be targeted. The success of this project and effective technology transfer should prompt-re-appraisal of older waterflood projects and implementation of new projects in oil provinces such as the D-J Basin.

  4. Design and implementation of a structural health monitoring and alerting system for hospital buildings in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Friberg, Paul; Leith, W. K.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current progress in the development of a structural health monitoring and alerting system to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to monitor hospital buildings instrumented in high and very high seismic hazard regions in the U.S. The system, using the measured vibration data, is primarily designed for post-earthquake condition assessment of the buildings. It has two essential components – sensing and analysis. The sensing component includes all necessary firmware and sensors to measure the response of the building; while the analysis component consists of several data processing modules integrated into an open source software package which compresses a large amount of measured data into useful information to assess the building’s condition before and after an event. The information can be used for a rapid building safety assessment, and to support decisions for necessary repairs, replacements, and other maintenance and rehabilitation measures.

  5. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  6. Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Secondary Structural Components for the Habitat Demonstration Unit-Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Russell W.; Langford, William M.

    2012-01-01

    In support of NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Prototype, a number of evolved structural sections were designed, fabricated, analyzed and installed in the 5 meter diameter prototype. The hardware consisted of three principal structural sections, and included the development of novel fastener insert concepts. The articles developed consisted of: 1) 1/8th of the primary flooring section, 2) an inner radius floor beam support which interfaced with, and supported (1), 3) two upper hatch section prototypes, and 4) novel insert designs for mechanical fastener attachments. Advanced manufacturing approaches were utilized in the fabrication of the components. The structural components were developed using current commercial aircraft constructions as a baseline (for both the flooring components and their associated mechanical fastener inserts). The structural sections utilized honeycomb sandwich panels. The core section consisted of 1/8th inch cell size Nomex, at 9 lbs/cu ft, and which was 0.66 inches thick. The facesheets had 3 plys each, with a thickness of 0.010 inches per ply, made from woven E-glass with epoxy reinforcement. Analysis activities consisted of both analytical models, as well as initial closed form calculations. Testing was conducted to help verify analysis model inputs, as well as to facilitate correlation between testing and analysis. Test activities consisted of both 4 point bending tests as well as compressive core crush sequences. This paper presents an overview of this activity, and discusses issues encountered during the various phases of the applied research effort, and its relevance to future space based habitats.

  7. The predictors of chemistry achievement of 12th grade students in secondary schools in the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Ali Khalfan

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore variables related to chemistry achievement of 12th grade science students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The focus is to identify student, teacher, and school variables that predict chemistry achievement. The analysis sample included 204 males and 252 females in 66 classes in 60 schools from 10 districts or bureaus of education in the UAE. Thirty-two male and 33 female chemistry teachers and 60 school principals were included. The Khalaf Chemistry Achievement Test, GALT, the Student Questionnaire, Teacher Questionnaire, and School Information Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics, correlations, analyses of variance, factor analysis, and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were done. The results indicate that demographic, home environment, prior knowledge, scholastic ability, attitudes and perceptions related to chemistry and science, and student perception of instructional practices variables correlated with student chemistry achievement. The amount of help teachers received from the supervisor, class size, and courses in geology were teacher variables that correlated with class chemistry achievement. Nine school variables involving school, division, and class sizes correlated with school chemistry achievement. Analyses of variance revealed significant interaction effects: district by school size and district by student gender. In two districts, students in small schools achieved better than those in large schools. Generally female students achieved equal to or better than males. Three factors from the factor analysis: School Size, Prior Student Achievement, and Student Perception of Teacher Effectiveness, correlated with school chemistry achievement. The results of the multiple linear regression indicated that the factors of Prior Student Achievement, Student Perception of Teacher Effectiveness, and Teacher Experience and Expertise accounted for 45% of the variance in school chemistry achievement. Results indicate that the strongest predictors of chemistry achievement are prior achievement in science, Arabic language, and mathematics; student perception of teacher effectiveness; and teacher experience and expertise. Females tend to achieve better in chemistry than males. No nationality differences were found and the relationship of school size to chemistry achievement was inconclusive. Recommendations related to chemistry and science are presented. These include curriculum, school practice, teacher professional development, and future research.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  9. Building digest - general building aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Damodaran, K.; George, J.; Rehsi, S.S.; Singh, S.; Sofat, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen bulletins are compiled covering Flush Doors; Wood Seasoning; Proportioning of Fly Ash Concrete Mix; The Yield of Mortar and Concrete Mix; Solar Water Heater - Domestic Type; Units for Living; Plastics and their Applications in Buildings; Hardboard and Particle Board; Woodwool Board; Material Constants in Building Works; Check-list for Taking Over Newly Constructed Buildings; Some Typical Enquiries and their Replies; and Energy Conservation in Buildings. These bulletins provide a comprehensive, step-by-step set of instructions on how to make and use the materials and techniques covered. Wood preservation and termite and rodent resistance of plastic pipes is also covered.

  10. Assessment of thermal damage to polymeric materials by hydrogen deflagration in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations duplicate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building. These data support estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen concentration predictions based on various hydrogen production mechanisms.

  11. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in the remedial decision making. The site should redo the risk calculations as the future use scenario has changed for the site. As a result, the existing model is based on very conservative assumptions that result in calculation of unreasonably low cleanup goals. Specifically, the review team proposes that LLNL consider: (1) Revising the industrial worker scenario to a reasonable maximum exposure (RME) for a site worker that performs a weekly walk down of the area for two hours for 25 years (or an alternative RME if the exposure scenario changes); (2) Revising the ESSI of 2 mg U per kg soil for the deer mouse to account for less than 0.05 of the total ingested uranium being adsorbed by the gut; (3) Revising bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for vegetation and invertebrates that are based on 100 mg of soluble uranium per kg of soil, as the uranium concentration in the slope soil does not average 100 mg/kg and it is not all in a soluble form; and (4) Measuring actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates at the site and using the actual values to support risk calculations. The team recommends that the site continue a phased approach during remediation. The activities should focus on elimination of the principal threats to groundwater by excavating (1) source material from the firing table and alluvial deposits, and (2) soil hotspots from the surrounding slopes with concentrations of U-235 and U-238 that pose unacceptable risk. This phased approach allows the remediation path to be driven by the results of each phase. This reduces the possibility of costly 'surprises', such as failure of soil treatment, and reduces the impact of remediation on endangered habitat. Treatment of the excavated material with physical separation equipment may result in a decreased volume of soil for disposal if the DU is concentrated in the fine-grained fraction, which can then be disposed of in an offsite facility at a considerable cost savings. Based on existing data and a decision to implement the recommended phased approach, the cost of characterization, excavation and physical treatment of the contaminated materials is roughly estimated to be one third to one fourth of the cost of the current baseline treatment. This is an estimated cost; the actual cost of the project will be sensitive to actual soil/sediment volumes that can be refined with the results from characterization studies. The technical team encourages the site to promote a more holistic approach during remediation of contaminated sediments at Site 300. It is true that the presence of low levels of residual DU on the steep slopes may stress the ecosystem, as it is not possible to block the exposure of resident biota. It is clear that remediation of the primary source areas will reduce potential effects to humans. However, the site should consider that excavation of the slopes will profoundly disrupt the ecosystem and it may take decades to recover.

  12. Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2006-07-01

    The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. The building contains two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements together with other supporting facilities. The original intention was to demolish the caves ahead of the building but after detailed consideration it was concluded that demolition of the building in advance of the caves was more operationally effective. As a result, the original decommissioning plan had to be reworked to reflect these changes. The paper briefly explains how this situation arose and the means by which the problems experienced were overcome by a complete revision to the decommissioning programme. The updated plan has been adopted by UKAEA and work is now proceeding apace to clear the building of redundant items, to complete decontamination of all remaining areas and facilities and to carry out detailed radiological surveys to confirm that the building structure is clean and ready for demolition. Both cave lines have been completely decontaminated to low residual levels of activity and are essentially ready for controlled demolition. This paper describes some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year with particular reference to the decommissioning techniques that gave the greatest success and the limitations of others originally considered. Some of these processes were aimed at minimising the volume of low level waste (LLW) generated by using standard off-the-shelf equipment to remove contamination from {approx}5 Ton concrete blocks recovered from both cave line structures. A novel hot-cutting technique used to remove steel coatings from sections of each block was also instrumental in assisting with achieving this objective. Finally, the paper sets out the plans that have been developed for the sequenced demolition of the building structure, the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines and the base slab. This will include details of the means by which residually contaminated and partly inaccessible items will be recovered for disposal during the demolition process. The decommissioning programme remains on schedule and has been achieved by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has greatly assisted in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a number of problems that have arisen during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  13. Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

  14. How to Build a 5Why Scaffolding Guided Questioning Teaching Case Film? Campus Insects Unit as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chow-Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to set up a 5Why scaffolding guided questioning teaching case film for student teachers. The case can provide complete 5Why scaffolding guided questioning science teaching unit (campus insect unit) for the student teachers to observe and learn the curriculum design, teaching didactics and problem solving method. In…

  15. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Y; Nakata, M; Higashimura, K; Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Akimoto, M; Ono, T; Mukumoto, N; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was −0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=−0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=−0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful.

  16. The thermal process diagram and equipment of the secondary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station unit based on the BREST-OD-300 reactor installation for subcritical steam conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, Yu. V.; Lisyanskii, A. S.; Makarova, E. I.; Bal'Va, L. Ya.; Prikhod'Ko, P. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    The 300-MWe power unit based on an experimental-demonstration two-circuit 700-MWt reactor installation with lead coolant is briefly described. The thermal process diagram of the secondary coolant circuit for the subcritical steam conditions 17 MPa and 505°C at the outlet from steam generators is presented.

  17. An Electron-Deficient Building Block Based on the B←N Unit: An Electron Acceptor for All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chuandong; Long, Xiaojing; Ding, Zicheng; Xie, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2016-01-22

    A double B←N bridged bipyridyl (BNBP) is a novel electron-deficient building block for polymer electron acceptors in all-polymer solar cells. The B←N bridging units endow BNBP with fixed planar configuration and low-lying LUMO/HOMO energy levels. As a result, the polymer based on BNBP units (P-BNBP-T) exhibits high electron mobility, low-lying LUMO/HOMO energy levels, and strong absorbance in the visible region, which is desirable for polymer electron acceptors. Preliminary all-polymer solar cell (all-PSC) devices with P-BNBP-T as the electron acceptor and PTB7 as the electron donor exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.38%, which is among the highest values of all-PSCs with PTB7 as the electron donor. PMID:26663513

  18. Ab Initio Study of the Adsorption of Small Molecules on Metal-Organic Frameworks with Oxo-centered Trimetallic Building Units: The Role of the Undercoordinated Metal Ion.

    PubMed

    Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Boese, A Daniel; Fink, Karin; Heine, Thomas; Klopper, Wim

    2015-09-01

    The interactions of H2, CO, CO2, and H2O with the undercoordinated metal centers of the trimetallic oxo-centered M3(III)(μ3-O)(X) (COO)6 moiety are studied by means of wave function and density functional theory. This trimetallic oxo-centered cluster is a common building unit in several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as MIL-100, MIL-101, and MIL-127 (also referred to as soc-MOF). A combinatorial computational screening is performed for a large variety of trimetallic oxo-centered units M3(III)O (M = Al(3+), Sc(3+), V(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Rh(3+), In(3+), Ir(3+)) interacting with H2O, H2, CO, and CO2. The screening addresses interaction energies, adsorption enthalpies, and vibrational properties. The results show that the Rh and Ir analogues are very promising materials for gas storage and separations. PMID:26252363

  19. The dimeric [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} anion: Structural characterization of a magnetic basic-building-unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongcheng; Gautier, Romain; Li, Zuo-Xi; Jie, Wanqi; Liu, Zhengtang; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2013-04-15

    New materials built from the [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} anionic basic-building-unit (BBU) exhibit interesting magnetic properties owing to the proximity of the two d{sup 1} V(IV) cations and the orbital interactions of fluoride and oxide ligands. In our search to target such materials, the vanadium oxide–fluoride compound [dpaH{sub 2}]{sub 2}[V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}] in which a dimeric anion [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} is isolated in a hydrogen bond network was hydrothermally synthesized (dpa=2,2′-dipyridylamine). This hydrogen bond network is able to stabilize the highly ionic species [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} as demonstrated with bond valence calculations. The coordination of the O{sup 2−}/F{sup −} ordered ligands was investigated and antiferromagnetic coupling of the isolated BBU was measured. - The new hybrid compound [dpaH{sub 2}]{sub 2}[V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}] built from the interesting [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} magnetic basic-building-unit (BBU) was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coordination of the O{sup 2−}/F{sup −} ordered ligands was investigated by BVS calculations and antiferromagnetic coupling was measured. Highlights: ► A new vanadium oxyfluoride was synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► The Dimeric [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} basic building unit is isolated in the hydrogen bond networks. ► The coordination of [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units to the extended structure is investigated. ► Isolated [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling.

  20. Closure report for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) category, Corrective Action Unit 95, EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 was located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95, Corrective Action Site 15-41-01, in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order and was assigned to Functional Category 41 (Decontamination and Decommissioning [D and D] Facility.) In August 1997, the Department of Energy/Nevada (DOE/NV) accelerated the corrective actions for CAU 95. A final Corrective Action Decision Document and a draft Corrective Action Plan were submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and notification was made to the NDEP that work would proceed at the site while the documents were reviewed. The NDEP approved the decontamination and demolition of the Laboratory Building as the corrective action alternative most suitable for the closure of CAU 95. Closure activities were initiated on September 2, 1997 and completed October 23, 1997. The decontamination of Building 15-06 was accomplished in conference with the D and D Subproject Characterization Work Plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  1. Building a World Fit for Children: The United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children, 8-10 May, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    The United Nations Special Session on Children in May, 2002, was a landmark for children and human developmentthe first Special Session of the General Assembly devoted exclusively to children and the first to include them as official delegates. Participants came together to assess the progress made toward achieving the goals of the 1990 World…

  2. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

  3. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as

  4. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  5. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways

  6. Classroom Temperature, Clothing and Thermal Comfort -- A Study of Secondary School Children in Summertime. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 22/74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a study of summertime classroom temperature and its relationship to the clothing worn by English secondary school children. Data on classroom temperatures and children's clothing were recorded during one summer for a total of 987 lessons. Analysis of the data showed that the strong clothing-temperature correlation could be

  7. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  8. Classroom Temperature, Clothing and Thermal Comfort -- A Study of Secondary School Children in Summertime. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 22/74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a study of summertime classroom temperature and its relationship to the clothing worn by English secondary school children. Data on classroom temperatures and children's clothing were recorded during one summer for a total of 987 lessons. Analysis of the data showed that the strong clothing-temperature correlation could be…

  9. Building a genomic framework for prospective MRSA surveillance in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Sandra; Török, M. Estée; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Reynolds, Rosy; Raven, Kathy E.; Blane, Beth; Donker, Tjibbe; Bentley, Stephen D.; Aanensen, David M.; Grundmann, Hajo; Feil, Edward J.; Spratt, Brian G.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomes drawn from England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Republic of Ireland over a decade. We sequenced 1013 MRSA submitted to the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy by 46 laboratories between 2001 and 2010. Each isolate was assigned to a regional healthcare referral network in England and was otherwise grouped based on country of origin. Phylogenetic reconstructions were used to contextualize MRSA outbreak investigations and to detect the spread of resistance. The majority of isolates (n = 783, 77%) belonged to CC22, which contains the dominant United Kingdom epidemic clone (EMRSA-15). There was marked geographic structuring of EMRSA-15, consistent with widespread dissemination prior to the sampling decade followed by local diversification. The addition of MRSA genomes from two outbreaks and one pseudo-outbreak demonstrated the certainty with which outbreaks could be confirmed or refuted. We identified local and regional differences in antibiotic resistance profiles, with examples of local expansion, as well as widespread circulation of mobile genetic elements across the bacterial population. We have generated a resource for the future surveillance and outbreak investigation of MRSA in the United Kingdom and Ireland and have shown the value of this during outbreak investigation and tracking of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26672018

  10. Building a genomic framework for prospective MRSA surveillance in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Sandra; Török, M Estée; Holden, Matthew T G; Reynolds, Rosy; Raven, Kathy E; Blane, Beth; Donker, Tjibbe; Bentley, Stephen D; Aanensen, David M; Grundmann, Hajo; Feil, Edward J; Spratt, Brian G; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J

    2016-02-01

    The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomes drawn from England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Republic of Ireland over a decade. We sequenced 1013 MRSA submitted to the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy by 46 laboratories between 2001 and 2010. Each isolate was assigned to a regional healthcare referral network in England and was otherwise grouped based on country of origin. Phylogenetic reconstructions were used to contextualize MRSA outbreak investigations and to detect the spread of resistance. The majority of isolates (n = 783, 77%) belonged to CC22, which contains the dominant United Kingdom epidemic clone (EMRSA-15). There was marked geographic structuring of EMRSA-15, consistent with widespread dissemination prior to the sampling decade followed by local diversification. The addition of MRSA genomes from two outbreaks and one pseudo-outbreak demonstrated the certainty with which outbreaks could be confirmed or refuted. We identified local and regional differences in antibiotic resistance profiles, with examples of local expansion, as well as widespread circulation of mobile genetic elements across the bacterial population. We have generated a resource for the future surveillance and outbreak investigation of MRSA in the United Kingdom and Ireland and have shown the value of this during outbreak investigation and tracking of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26672018

  11. Secondary infection and clinical aspects after pandemic swine–origin influenza a (H1N1) admission in an Iranian critical care unite

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza; Tabarsi, Payam; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Shamaee, Massoud; Chitsazan, Mandana; Radmand, Golnar; Maadani, Mohammadreza; Mansouri, Seyed Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A new flu virus (H1N1) swine origin and cause of human infection with acute lung disease was published in the world and led to many patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, all ICU patients in a pulmonary disease specialist hospital between April 2010 and July 2011 with confirmed infection (H1N1) were evaluated. Information including demographic, clinical and microbiology using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 was studied and classified. Results: Of 46 patients hospitalized with confirmed diagnosis of swine flu pneumonia (H1N1), 20 cases (43.7%) admitted in ICU out of which 10 cases were males (50%), the mean age was 36.9 and the range was 21-66 years. Nine patients (45%) had underlying diseases. Most underlying disease was respiratory disease in which four cases (20%) were of asthma and one patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). No admission of pregnant patient with swine flu was reported in the ICU. Cough and sputum were the most frequent symptoms (19 patients equal 95%). Four patients (20%) were admitted with decreased level of consciousness and five cases (25%) died during hospitalization. Conclusion: It seems, swine flu with high mortality and transfer rates is a worldwide health problem. Because of limited treatment regimen, the risk of secondary infection and high need to intensive care in H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high risk people and public announcement, make determining role in controlling of this disease. PMID:25625063

  12. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 423: BUILDING 03-60 UNDERGROUND DISCHARGE POINT, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (Corrective Action Unit 423) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 423 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is comprised of Corrective Action Site 03-02-002-0308. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following: � Develop corrective action objectives. � Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. � Develop corrective action alternatives. � Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. � Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit. In January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997). A hydrocarbon plume was found to emanate from near the bottom of the Underground Discharge Point to the west. The plume encompasses approximately 65 square meters (700 square feet). The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon level detected was 2,400 milligrams per kilogram. No other contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels. Details of the investigation can be found in Appendix A of this document. Based on the potential exposure pathways identified during the Data Quality Objectives process, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 423: � Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soil containing contaminants of concern. � Prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. Based on the review of existing data, future land use assumption, and current operations at the Tonopah Test Range, the following alternatives were developed for consideration at the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point: � Alternative 1 - No Action � Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls � Alternative 3 - Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls � Alternative 4 - In Situ Bioremediation The corrective action alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for Corrective Action Unit 423 is Alternative 2, Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The preferred corrective action alternative was evaluated on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. The alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The alternative also meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will reduce potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils.

  14. Factors that Influence Participation of Students in Secondary Science and Mathematics Subjects in IB Schools Outside of the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straffon, Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (p<.01). Home region was the most important factor affecting participation in both math and science. Students from East, Southeast and South-Central Asia; and Eastern Europe have greater participation in math. The highest science participation came from students in East, Southern and Western Africa; and Southeast Asia. Top participators in science came from Australia/New Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of significant others in career and academic decisions. Findings indicate that performance on the PSAT- Math was the most important predictor of both science and mathematics participation. Twenty students were also interviewed. Results showed the importance of several key factors. These include the role of parents in student academic and career decisions, the importance of personal interest, and the contribution of early decisions in confidence-building.

  15. An unusual hybrid fluoride featuring a [V{sub 7}F{sub 27}]{sup 6-} chain motif based on a pyrochlore-like building unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aldous, David W.; Slawin, Alexandra M.Z.; Lightfoot, Philip

    2008-11-15

    A new hybrid vanadium (III) fluoride [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[V{sub 7}F{sub 27}] has been synthesised solvothermally. The crystal structure (trigonal, R3-bar c; a=17.367(2) A, c=19.604(2) A) reveals an unusual and novel chain motif consisting of pyrochlore-like heptameric units of corner-sharing octahedra, which are further linked into linear chains of alternating triple and single octahedral groups. The chains are separated by hydrogen-bonded piperazinium moieties. Magnetic susceptibility data show moderate antiferromagnetic interactions but no long-range order above 2 K, consistent with pronounced one-dimensional character, as well as frustration arising within the triangular units of magnetic ions in the chains. - Graphical abstract: A unique chain-structure vanadium(III) fluoride [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[V{sub 7}F{sub 27}], based on a pyrochlore-like building unit, has been prepared solvothermally. Despite antiferromagnetic interactions, no long-range magnetic order occurs above 2 K, suggesting possible frustration.

  16. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department Of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-02-24

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 266 consists of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-09 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 266. Corrective Action Unit 266 is located southwest of Building 3124 which is located southwest and adjacent to Test Cell A. Test Cell A was operational during the 1960s to test nuclear rocket reactors in support of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Operations within Building 3124 from 1962 through the early 1990s resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations, various laboratories including a high-level radioactivity environmental sample handling laboratory, and possibly the Treatability Test Facility. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include radionuclides, oil/diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act characteristic volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and metals. Samples will also be analyzed for radionuclides and polychlorinated biphenyls not considered during the DQO process. Additional samples will be analyzed for geotechnical and hydrological properties and a bioassessment may be performed. The technical approach for investigating this Corrective Action Unit consists of the following activities: (1) Perform a radiological walkover survey. (2) Perform video and radiation surveys of the discharge and outfall lines. (3) Collect samples from within the septic tank. (4) Mark approximate locations of leachfield distribution lines on the ground surface. (5) Collect subsurface soil samples in areas of the collection system including the septic tank and outfall end of the diversion chamber. (6) Collect subsurface soil samples underlying the leachfield distribution pipes. (7) Field screen samples for volatile organic compounds and radiological activity. (8) Drill boreholes and collect subsurface soil samples if required. (9) Analyze soil samples for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (oil/diesel-range organics), and polychlorinated biphenyls. (1) Analyze a minimum of 25 percent of the soil samples for gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, isotopic americium, and strontium-90 if radiological field screening levels are exceeded. (2) Collect samples from native soils beneath the distribution system and analyze for geotechnical/hydrologic parameters. (3) Collect and analyze bioassessment samples at Site Supervisors discretion if volatile organic compounds exceed field-screening levels. Additional sampling and analytical details are presented.

  18. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Stable Zirconium Building Units for Storage and Delivery of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Gutov, OV; Krungleviciute, V; Borah, B; Mondloch, JE; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Snurr, RQ

    2014-10-14

    A metal organic framework (MOF) with high volumetric deliverable capacity for methane was synthesized after being identified by computational screening of 204 hypothetical MOF structures featuring (Zr6O4)(OH)(4)(CO2)(n) inorganic building blocks. The predicted MOF (NU-800) has an fcu topology in which zirconium nodes are connected via ditopic 1,4-benzenedipropynoic acid linkers. Based on our computer simulations, alkyne groups adjacent to the inorganic zirconium nodes provide more efficient methane packing around the nodes at high pressures. The high predicted gas uptake properties of this new MOF were confirmed by high-pressure isotherm measurements over a large temperature and pressure range. The measured methane deliverable capacity of NU-800 between 65 and 5.8 bar is 167 cc(STP)/cc (0.215 g/g), the highest among zirconium-based MOFs. High-pressure uptake values of H-2 and CO2 are also among the highest reported. These high gas uptake characteristics, along with the expected highly stable structure of NU-800, make it a promising material for gas storage applications.

  19. (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y} alloys assembled on Si(100) from Al-P-Si{sub 3} building units

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.; Jiang, L.; Xu, C.; Smith, D. J.; Menendez, J.

    2012-01-09

    An original class of IV/III-V hybrid (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y}/Si(100) semiconductors have been produced via tailored interactions of molecular P(SiH{sub 3}){sub 3} and atomic Al yielding tetrahedral ''Al-P-Si{sub 3}'' building blocks. Extensive structural, optical, and vibrational characterization corroborates that these units condense to assemble single-phase, monocrystalline alloys containing 60%-90% Si (y = 0.3-1.0) as nearly defect-free layers lattice-matched to Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and density functional theory band structure calculations indicate mild compositional bowing of the band gaps, suggesting that the tuning needed for optoelectronic applications should be feasible.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  1. The Role of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in Building Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans

    The Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) will provide an overview of achievements of UN- COPUOS, UNISPACE Conferences, particularly the establishment of the Programme on Space Applications and its priority thematic areas, UN-affiliated Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), the UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-Spider), and legal framework governing space activities of UN Member States. OOSA will review results of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative, particularly the development of networks of astronomical telescope facilities, planetariums, and instrument arrays for space research in developing nations. The mission of OOSA, implemented through on-going programmes developed for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007) and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) will be highlighted.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE/NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  3. Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

  4. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of

  5. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  6. Water uptake by organic aerosol and its influence on gas/particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Asher, William E.; Pankow, James F.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) is at least partly hygroscopic, i.e., water partitions into the organic phase to a degree determined by the relative humidity (RH), the organic chemical composition, and the particle size. This organic-phase water increases the aerosol mass and provides a larger absorbing matrix while decreasing its mean molecular weight, which can encourage additional condensation of semi-volatile organic compounds. Most regional and global atmospheric models account for water uptake by inorganic salts but do not explicitly account for organic-phase water and its subsequent impact on gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile OA. In this work, we incorporated the organic-phase water model described by Pankow et al. (2015) into the UCD/CIT air quality model to simulate water uptake by OA and assessed its influence on total OA mass concentrations. The model was run for one summer month over two distinct regions: South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) surrounding Los Angeles, California and the eastern United States (US). In SoCAB where the OA was dominated by non-hygroscopic primary OA (POA), there was very little organic-phase water uptake (0.1-0.2 μg m-3) and consequently very little enhancement (or growth) in total OA concentrations (OA + organic-phase water): a 3% increase in total OA mass was predicted for a 0.1 increase in relative humidity. In contrast, in the eastern US where secondary OA (SOA) from biogenic sources dominated the OA, substantial organic-phase water uptake and enhancement in total OA concentrations was predicted, even in urban locations. On average, the model predicted a 20% growth in total OA mass for a 0.1 increase in relative humidity; the growth was equivalent to a 250 nm particle with a hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of 0.15. Further, for the same relative humidity, the exact extent of organic-phase water uptake and total OA enhancement was found to be dependent on the particle mixing state. When the source-oriented mixing state of aerosols was considered, generally, less organic-phase water uptake was predicted than when simple internal mixing approximations were made. Overall, the results indicated that organic-phase water can significantly influence predicted total OA concentrations under certain conditions. Regional models applied in areas with high humidity and significant SOA formation should include calculations for organic-phase water in order to capture this effect.

  7. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers. PMID:16021938

  8. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

  9. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm/sup 2/ of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm/sup 2/. The other three spots are 100 cm/sup 2/ or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10/sup 2/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/ and 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/. No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer.

  10. Theory building and modeling in a sinking and floating unit: a case study of third and fourth grade students' developing epistemologies of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990) and employs discourse analytic methods in order to examine epistemological development in the dynamic swirl of talk, text and other representations, and social interaction in the classroom. In order to examine students' epistemological development, we draw on the work of Driver et al. (1996) who found that students' use of "theory" falls into three general categories: (1) a descriptive state, or phenomenon-based reasoning, where ideas are not different from experiments, (2) relation-based reasoning, where students come to believe that one can find ultimate proof for particular theories, and (3) model-based reasoning, where students recognize that theories might need to be changed in light of new evidence. Through following students across the unit and examining changes in student participation within discussions and analyzing the quality and content of these discussions, we argue that they are developing a powerful epistemology of science that is more commensurate with the work of actual scientists.

  11. The Building of Knowledge, Language, and Decision-Making about Climate Change Science: A Cross-National Program for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Diana; Maul, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations' declaration on climate change education in December 2014 has sparked a renewal of policies and programs initiated during the "Decade of Education for Sustainable Development" (DESD, 2005-2014), aimed at promoting awareness, understanding, and civic action for environmental sustainability within learning communities…

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 263, Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nevada and includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 25-05-04 Leachfield. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action for CAU 263 is necessary. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the April 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. The purpose of the CAI was to identify the presence and the vertical and lateral extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), specifically volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivola tile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as 1,4-dichlorobenzene and p-isopropyl toluene. The subsequent investigation included direct-push environmental soil samples from within the leachfield using a Geoprobe{reg_sign} unit; field screening of soil samples for radiological constituents and VOCs; submittal of environmental and quality control samples for testing for total VOCs, total SVOCs, and gamma spectrometry; and collection of soil samples from both the liquid phase and the underlying sludge of the septic tank contents. The CAI activities determined that: (1) all total VOC and total SVOC results were below the preliminary action levels outlined in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), and (2) radiological results were not distinguishable from background concentrations identified in the CAIP. Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 263. No use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of co ntamination at the site.

  13. The 2nd United Kingdom Extracellular Vesicle Forum Meeting Abstracts: 15 December 2015, Hadyn Ellis Building, Cardiff University.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Aled; Lawson, Charlotte; Gardiner, Chris; Harrison, Paul; Carter, David

    2016-01-01

    The UK Extracellular Vesicles (UKEV) Forum meetings were born of the realization that there were a number of UK laboratories studying extracellular vesicle biology and using similar techniques but without a regular national meeting dedicated to EVs at which to share their findings. This was compounded by the fact that many of these labs were working in different fields and thus networking and sharing of ideas and best practice was sometimes difficult. The first workshop was organized in 2013 by Dr Charlotte Lawson, under the auspices of the Society for Endocrinology, led to the founding of the UKEV Forum and the organization of a British Heart Foundation sponsored 1-day conference held in London in December 2014. Although growing in size every year, the central aims of these workshops have remained the same: to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas, to allow young scientists to present their data in the form of short talks and poster presentations and to discuss their work with more established scientists in the field. Here we include the presented abstracts for the 2015 1-day conference hosted by Cardiff University. This meeting was attended by approximately 130 delegates throughout the United Kingdom, but also attended by delegates from Belgium, Netherlands, France, Ireland and other nations. The day composed of plenary presentations from Prof Matthias Belting, Lund University, Sweden and Dr Guillaume van Niel, Institut Curie, Paris together with 10 short presentations from submitted abstracts. The topics covered were broad, with sessions on Mechanisms of EV production, EVs in Infection, EVs in Cancer and in Blood and Characterizing EVs in Biological fluids. This hopefully gives a reflection of the range of EV-related studies being conducted currently in the UK. There were also 33 poster presentations equally broad in subject matter. The organizers are grateful to the Life Science Research Network Wales - a Welsh government-funding scheme that part-sponsored the conference. We are also grateful to commercial sponsors, and 3 paid-presentations are included in the abstracts. The UK EV Forum is expected to become an established annual event held at different Universities across the UK and continue to attract increasing delegate numbers and abstract submissions. We look forward to the next planned conference, which will be hosted by David Carter and his colleagues at Oxford Brookes University on 13th December 2016. PMID:26928673

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfields, Nevada Test Site, Revision 0, DOE/NV--535 UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  15. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  16. A statistical intercomparison between "urban" and "rural" precipitation chemistry data from greater Manchester and two nearby secondary national network sites in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David S.; Longhurst, James W. S.

    Precipitation chemistry data from a dense urban monitoring network in Greater Manchester, northwest England, were compared with interpolated values from the U.K. secondary national acid deposition monitoring network for the year 1988. Differences were found to be small. However, when data from individual sites from the Greater Manchester network were compared with data from the two nearest secondary national network sites, significant differences were found using simple and complex statistical analyses. Precipitation chemistry at rural sites could be similar to that at urban sites, but the sources of some ions were thought to be different. The synoptic-scale gradients of precipitation chemistry, as shown by the secondary national network, also accounted for some of the differences.

  17. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  18. The Influence of Anthropogenic Sources on Fluxes of Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors From a Deciduous Forest in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, R. D.; Stein, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    The dynamic, bi-directional exchange of trace chemical species between forests and the atmosphere has important impacts on both the forest ecosystem and atmospheric composition, with potentially profound consequences on air quality, climate and global ecosystem functioning. Forests are a dominant source of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions into the earth's atmosphere and thus play an important role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). To arrive at a better scientific understanding of the complex chemical and physical processes of forest-atmosphere exchange and provide a platform for robust analysis of field measurements of these processes, a process-level, multiphase model of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of forest canopies is being developed. This model, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS) is being used to investigate various aspects of forest-atmosphere exchange and chemistry including gas, aqueous and aerosol phases. ACCESS currently includes processes accounting for the emission of BVOCs from the canopy, turbulent vertical transport within and above the canopy and throughout the height of the planetary boundary layer, detailed chemical reactions, mixing with the background atmosphere and bi-directional exchange between the atmosphere and the canopy and the forest floor. The Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) is a dedicated ecosystem research area on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. The 97.5 ha watershed has been the site of long-term ecosystem and atmospheric research activities since the mid-1960's. A flux tower located within the watershed (35°57'30"N, 84°17'15"W; 365 m above mean sea level) and 10 km southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has served as a focal point for previous atmospheric turbulence and chemical flux measurements and the canopy morphology of the forest surrounding the flux tower has been extensively documented. The forest is broadleaf deciduous consisting of chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), white oak (Quercus alba), red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), and various hickory species (Carya sp.) in order of decreasing biomass density. At the time of isoprene flux measurements made at the tower in 1999, the stand was approximately 50 years old, the overstory canopy height was 24 m, and the whole canopy leaf area index was 4.9 m2 leaf/m2 ground area. In this presentation, the model formulation is described and results from the application of ACCESS to the WBW forest are presented and compared to measurements made at the site to investigate the influence of background anthropogenic sources on above canopy fluxes of SOA precursors in an isoprene emission dominated landscape in the unique atmospheric chemical environment of the southeastern United States. In particular, levels of background NOx concentrations are found to significantly influence both the magnitude and chemical composition of fluxes of SOA precursors from the canopy.

  19. SEASONAL AND REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: SEMI-EMPIRICAL ESTIMATES AND MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal and regional variations of primary (OCpri) and secondary (OCsec) organic carbon aerosols across the continental U.S. for the year 2001 were examined by a semi-empirical technique using observed OC and elemental carbon (EC) data from 142 routine moni...

  20. Of Literary Import: A Case of Cross-National Similarities in the Secondary English Curriculum in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the selection and distribution of literary texts in the English programs of two diverse secondary schools, one in Massachusetts, USA, the other in Ontario, Canada. Analysis of the departments' curriculum documents, state/provincial curriculum policies, and teacher interviews indicated that at both schools,…

  1. The Impact on Final Year Pre-Service Secondary Teachers of a Unit in Teaching Literacy and Numeracy across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Cranitch, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Addressing literacy and numeracy as social practices in different teaching content areas create challenges for teachers and teacher education. Literacy and numeracy skills and understandings are generally addressed incidentally in teacher education courses and often overlooked by teachers in secondary schools. This paper reports on a study which…

  2. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  3. SEASONAL AND REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: OBSERVATION-BASED ESTIMATES AND MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the lack of an analytical technique for directly quantifying the atmospheric concentrations of primary (OCpri) and secondary (OCsec) organic carbon aerosols, different indirect methods have been developed to estimate their concentrations. In this stu...

  4. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for...

  5. Build an Ensemble-based Remote-Sensing Driven Coupled Flash Flood and Landslide Warning System and Its Evaluation Across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Vergara, H. J.; Xue, X.; Lu, N.; Wooten, R.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding and flash flooding are the most costly weather-related natural hazards in the United States and world. Heavy rainfall-triggered landslides are often associated with flash flood events and cause additional loss of life and property. Therefore, it is important to understand the linkage and interaction between flash flood events and landslides. It is also pertinent to build a robust coupled flash flood and landslide disaster early warning system for disaster preparedness and hazard management. In this study, we built a coupled flash flood and landslide disaster early warning system, which is aimed for operational use by the US National Weather Service, based on an existing ensemble framework by extending the model ensemble and coupling a set of distributed hydrologic models, the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) model and the SACramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, with two physically based landslide prediction models, the SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium (SLIDE) model and the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model. We tested this prototype warning system by conducting multi-year simulations driven by the Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) rainfall estimates at selected basins across the United States. We then comprehensively evaluated the predictive capabilities of this system against observed and reported flood and landslides events. Our results show that the system is generally capable of making accurate predictions of flash flood and landslide events in terms of their locations and time of occurrence. The recently developed ensemble framework also enables us to quantify the uncertainty of the predictions and the probabilities of anticipated disaster events.

  6. Assessment of primary and secondary ambient particle trends using satellite aerosol optical depth and ground speciation data in the New England region, United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent A; Bell, Michelle L; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by examining ambient pollutant concentration trends that are observed at a large number of ground monitoring sites over time. In this paper, we used ground monitoring measurements in conjunction with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to investigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) trends and their spatial patterns over a large U.S. region, New England, during 2000-2008. We examined the trends in rural and urban areas to get a better insight about the trends of regional and local source emissions. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations (µg/m(3)) were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural ones. In addition, the highest and lowest PM2.5 decreases (µg/m(3)) were observed for winter and summer, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary ones. This is also supported by the analysis of the speciation data which showed that downward trends of primary pollutants including black carbon were stronger than those of secondary pollutants including sulfate. Furthermore, this study found that ambient primary pollutants decreased at the same rate as their respective source emissions. This was not the case for secondary pollutants which decreased at a slower rate than that of their precursor emissions. This indicates that concentrations of secondary pollutants depend not only on the primary emissions but also on the availability of atmospheric oxidants which might not change during the study period. This novel approach of investigating spatially varying concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 species trends, can be of substantial regulatory importance. PMID:24906074

  7. Assessment of primary and secondary ambient particle trends using satellite aerosol optical depth and ground speciation data in the New England region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by examining ambient pollutant concentration trends that are observed at a large number of ground monitoring sites over time. In this paper, we used ground monitoring measurements in conjunction with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to investigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) trends and their spatial patterns over a large U.S. region, New England, during 2000–2008. We examined the trends in rural and urban areas to get a better insight about the trends of regional and local source emissions. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3) were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural ones. In addition, the highest and lowest PM2.5 decreases (μg/m3) were observed for winter and summer, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary ones. This is also supported by the analysis of the speciation data which showed that downward trends of primary pollutants including black carbon were stronger than those of secondary pollutants including sulfate. Furthermore, this study found that ambient primary pollutants decreased at the same rate as their respective source emissions. This was not the case for secondary pollutants which decreased at a slower rate than that of their precursor emissions. This indicates that concentrations of secondary pollutants depend not only on the primary emissions but also on the availability of atmospheric oxidants which might not change during the study period. This novel approach of investigating spatially varying concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 species trends, can be of substantial regulatory importance. PMID:24906074

  8. Equity Lessons for Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Secondary students will develop an awareness of the many facets of sex-role stereotyping through these mini-unit activities. The units can serve as the basis for a mini-course or can be integrated into social studies courses, especially U.S. history. The foci of the mini-units are reflected in their titles: (1) Recognizing and Challenging…

  9. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  10. Optimized planning of in-service inspections of local flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based units at the Novovoronezh NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Budanov, V. A.; Golubeva, T. N.

    2015-03-01

    Matters concerned with making efficient use of the information-analytical system on the flow-accelerated corrosion problem in setting up in-service examination of the metal of pipeline elements operating in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered. The principles used to select samples of pipeline elements in planning ultrasonic thickness measurements for timely revealing metal thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion along with reducing the total amount of measurements in the condensate-feedwater path are discussed.

  11. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  13. How Secondary School Principals Build Trust in Kenyan Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaya, Joel Ondieki

    2011-01-01

    The most successful school leaders are those who have been able to transform their schools into centers of deep and ongoing learning by managing relationships (Kaser & Halbert, 2009). Consequently, strong levels of trust are preconditions for successful school improvement initiative. Research confirms that no cooperation strategy works in high…

  14. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

  15. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  16. Cascading the Use of Web 2.0 Technology in Secondary Schools in the United Kingdom: Identifying the Barriers beyond Pre-Service Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Helen; Hramiak, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on research that took place at two universities in the United Kingdom, over two years. The research focuses on the use of Web 2.0 technology, specifically blogs, with pre-service teachers, both during their university programme and the first year of teaching as full-time newly qualified teachers (NQTs). The purpose of this…

  17. Cascading the Use of Web 2.0 Technology in Secondary Schools in the United Kingdom: Identifying the Barriers beyond Pre-Service Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Helen; Hramiak, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on research that took place at two universities in the United Kingdom, over two years. The research focuses on the use of Web 2.0 technology, specifically blogs, with pre-service teachers, both during their university programme and the first year of teaching as full-time newly qualified teachers (NQTs). The purpose of this

  18. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-312

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Hoffman, Lee

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership) in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense schools, Puerto Rico, and four outlying areas: American Samoa, Guam,…

  19. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beth Aronstamm

    This publication provides basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership) in the United States and jurisdictions (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Schools, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Marianas, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands). Almost one in every four public-school…

  20. Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling

    PubMed Central

    Meraner, Andreas; Cornetti, Luca; Gandolfi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The definition of conservation units is crucial for the sustainable management of endangered species, though particularly challenging when recent and past anthropogenic and natural gene flow might have played a role. The conservation of the European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of anthropogenic disturbance, intensive stocking and potentially widespread genetic introgression. We provide mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data of 683 grayling from 30 sites of Adriatic as well as Danubian and Atlantic origin. We apply Bayesian clustering and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to detect microgeographic population structure and to infer the demographic history of the Adriatic populations, to define appropriate conservation units. Varying frequencies of indigenous genetic signatures of the Adriatic grayling were revealed, spanning from marginal genetic introgression to the collapse of native gene pools. Genetic introgression involved multiple exotic source populations of Danubian and Atlantic origin, thus evidencing the negative impact of few decades of stocking. Within the Adige River system, a contact zone of western Adriatic and eastern Danubian populations was detected, with ABC analyses suggesting a historical anthropogenic origin of eastern Adige populations, most likely founded by medieval translocations. Substantial river-specific population substructure within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit points to the definition of different conservation units. We finally propose a catalog of management measures, including the legal prohibition of stocking exotic grayling and the use of molecular markers in supportive- and captive-breeding programs. PMID:24834328

  1. Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling.

    PubMed

    Meraner, Andreas; Cornetti, Luca; Gandolfi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    The definition of conservation units is crucial for the sustainable management of endangered species, though particularly challenging when recent and past anthropogenic and natural gene flow might have played a role. The conservation of the European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of anthropogenic disturbance, intensive stocking and potentially widespread genetic introgression. We provide mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data of 683 grayling from 30 sites of Adriatic as well as Danubian and Atlantic origin. We apply Bayesian clustering and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to detect microgeographic population structure and to infer the demographic history of the Adriatic populations, to define appropriate conservation units. Varying frequencies of indigenous genetic signatures of the Adriatic grayling were revealed, spanning from marginal genetic introgression to the collapse of native gene pools. Genetic introgression involved multiple exotic source populations of Danubian and Atlantic origin, thus evidencing the negative impact of few decades of stocking. Within the Adige River system, a contact zone of western Adriatic and eastern Danubian populations was detected, with ABC analyses suggesting a historical anthropogenic origin of eastern Adige populations, most likely founded by medieval translocations. Substantial river-specific population substructure within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit points to the definition of different conservation units. We finally propose a catalog of management measures, including the legal prohibition of stocking exotic grayling and the use of molecular markers in supportive- and captive-breeding programs. PMID:24834328

  2. Secondary Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... but there are usually clues in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can ...

  3. [Secondary dressings].

    PubMed

    Philippe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Wound management imposes a defined approach to each phase of healing and thereby the need for in-depth knowledge of the various medical devices available: primary and secondary dressings. Secondary dressings are essential as they have an impact on the efficacy of the primary dressing. Their role is to protect, reinforce and cover the primary dressing. In practice, it is usually nurses who have the responsibility of selecting and prescribing the most suitable dressing for the wound. PMID:26763570

  4. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the July 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 0360 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-02-002-0308, Underground Discharge Point. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above the risk-based FALs. Requirements for inspecting and maintaining this UR will be canceled, and the postings and signage at this site will be removed. Fencing and posting may be present at this site that are unrelated to the FFACO UR such as for radiological control purposes as required by the NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual (NNSA/NSO, 2004f). This modification will not affect or modify any non-FFACO requirements for fencing, posting, or monitoring at this site.

  5. HIV, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Primary and Secondary Syphilis among American Indians and Alaska Natives Within Indian Health Service Areas in the United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Walker, Frances J; Llata, Eloisa; Doshani, Mona; Taylor, Melanie M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Weinstock, Hillard S; Hall, H Irene

    2015-06-01

    National rates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) surveillance may not effectively convey the impact of HIV and STDs on American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. Instead, we compared average annual diagnosis rates per 100,000 population of HIV, chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis, from 2007 to 2010, among AI/AN aged ≥ 13 years residing in 625 counties in the 12 Indian Health Service Areas, all AI/AN, and all races/ethnicities to address this gap. AI/AN comprised persons reported as AI/AN only, with or without Hispanic ethnicity. Out of 12 IHS Areas, 10 had higher case rates for CT, 3 for GC, and 4 for P&S syphilis compared to rates for all races/ethnicities. Eight Areas had higher HIV diagnosis rates than for all AI/AN, but HIV rates for all IHS Areas were lower than national rates for all races/ethnicities. Two IHS Areas ranking highest in rates of CT and GC and four Areas with highest P&S syphilis also had high HIV rates. STD and HIV rates among AI/AN were greater in certain IHS Areas than expected from observing national rates for AI/AN. Integrated surveillance of overlapping trends in STDs and HIV may be useful in guiding prevention efforts for AI/AN populations. PMID:25371109

  6. Nodular secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shriya; Gopinath, Deepthy V; Thappa, Devinder M M

    2003-02-01

    Secondary syphilis can have protean clinical manifestations and may present with unusual lesions, which may go unrecognized. We report a case of secondary syphilis with nodular lesions. A 22 year old male presented with nodular and annular skin lesions over the face, back and limbs and condylomata lata lesion at the penoscrotal junction associated with generalized lymphadenopathy, fever and malaise. Prior to onset of these lesions the patient also had history of a painless genital sore, which healed within two weeks. The serology revealed a reactive VDRL(1:64) and positive TPHA. The HIV serology was non-reactive. The patient responded to a single dose of benzathine penicillin, 2.4 million units, given intramuscularly. This case highlights that secondary syphilis may present with nodular lesions and should be suspected in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:12639467

  7. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; Fisher, J. A.; Travis, K.; Yu, K.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Arkinson, H. L.; Pye, H. O. T.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2016-02-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (γ) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) over the southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of total fine organic aerosol (OA) and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). Isoprene SOA production is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 %) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease more strongly as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of 34 % for NOx (leading to a 7 % increase in isoprene SOA) and 48 % for SO2 (35 % decrease in isoprene SOA). Reducing SO2 emissions decreases sulfate and isoprene SOA by a similar magnitude, representing a factor of 2 co-benefit for PM2.5 from SO2 emission controls.

  8. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the Southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; Fisher, J. A.; Travis, K.; Yu, K.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Arkinson, H. L.; Pye, H. O. T.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake probabilities (γ) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the Southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) over the Southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of OA and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). The yield is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 %) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the indirect effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume, rather than a direct mechanistic role for sulfate. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume). The US EPA projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of 34 % for NOx (leading to 7 % increase in isoprene SOA) and 48 % for SO2 (35 % decrease in isoprene SOA). The combined projected decreases in NOx and SO2 emissions reduce isoprene SOA yields from 3.3 to 2.3 %. Reducing SO2 emissions decreases sulfate and isoprene SOA by a similar magnitude, representing a factor of 2 co-benefit for PM2.5 from SO2 emission controls.

  9. 11. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING), CENTER, IN RELATION TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING), CENTER, IN RELATION TO BUILDING NO. 19 (BENDING SHOP AND OVEN) AT FAR LEFT, AND TO THE WET BASIN AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  10. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  11. Science: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews and compares five recent secondary science texts: Addison-Wesley Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Prentice-Hall Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Scott Foresman Biology (Gr. 9-12); Biology: Living Systems (Gr. 10-12); and Biology: The Science of Life (Gr. 10-12). (SJL)

  12. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance - United States Pacific Command (PACOM) Guam, Task 3.3: Building Retuning Training

    SciTech Connect

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2010-09-30

    Document describes an onsite workshop and building retuning training conducted in Guam in August 2010. Document reports on issues identified during an audit of several buildings and recommendations to save energy throughout the site. During the workshop, it became apparent that as site personnel maintain the facilities at Guam, the following retuning efforts and strategies should be prioritized: (1) Controlling the mechanical systems operational hours and zone temperature set points appeared to present the best opportunities for savings; (2) Zone temperature set points in some buildings are excessively low, especially at night, when the zone temperatures are so cold that they approached the dewpoint; and (3) Manually-set outside air dampers are providing excessive outside air, especially for spaces that are unoccupied. Two of the larger schools, one on the Naval Base and one on Anderson AFB, are in need of a significant recommissioning effort. These facilities are relatively new, with direct digital controls (DDC) but are significantly out of balance. The pressure in one school is extremely negative, which is pulling humid air through the facility each time a door is opened. The draft can be felt several feet down the halls. The pressure in the other school is extremely positive relative to the outside, and you can stand 20-feet outside and still feel cool drafts of air exiting the building. It is recommended that humidity sensors be installed in all new projects and retrofitted into exist facilities. In this humid climate, control of humidity is very important. There are significant periods of time when the mechanical systems in many buildings can be unloaded and dehumidification is not required. The use of CO{sub 2} sensors should also be considered in representative areas. CO{sub 2} sensors determine whether spaces are occupied so that fresh air is only brought into the space when needed. By reducing the amount of outside air brought into the space, the humidity load is also substantially reduced. CO{sub 2} and humidity sensors, combined with outside air sensors, can be used to predict whether conditions are amenable to mold growth and to automatically adjust systems to help prevent mold without using extra energy. The goal of this training is to give the building operators the knowledge needed to make positive changes in the operation of building systems. As class participants apply this knowledge, building systems will run more efficiently, occupant comfort should improve, while saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Building America Puts Residential Research Results To Work; Building America Research That Works (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Residential buildings use more than 20% of the energy consumed annually in the United States. To help reduce that energy use, the Department of Energy (DOE) and its Building America partners conduct research to develop advanced building energy systems tha

  14. The Desolate Desert Controversy: Should Presto Power Company Build a Nuclear Plant? Instructor's Guide [and] Student Materials. A Business-in-the-Classroom Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    One of a series of units designed to acquaint secondary school students with business issues, this packet focuses on the complex and controversial topic of energy technology. In a 5-day simulation, students play the roles of energy commission members, and business, local, and public interest group witnesses who must determine whether to build a…

  15. Secondary atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guildenbecher, D. R.; López-Rivera, C.; Sojka, P. E.

    2009-03-01

    When a drop is subjected to a surrounding dispersed phase that is moving at an initial relative velocity, aerodynamic forces will cause it to deform and fragment. This is referred to as secondary atomization. In this paper, the abundant literature on secondary atomization experimental methods, breakup morphology, breakup times, fragment size and velocity distributions, and modeling efforts is reviewed and discussed. Focus is placed on experimental and numerical results which clarify the physical processes that lead to breakup. From this, a consistent theory is presented which explains the observed behavior. It is concluded that viscous shear plays little role in the breakup of liquid drops in a gaseous environment. Correlations are given which will be useful to the designer, and a number of areas are highlighted where more work is needed.

  16. Building Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

  17. Impact of 2004 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Buildings-Related Projects on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, David M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2003-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of projects on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 37 buildings-related projects reported to the Office of Management and Budget on February 3, 2003 for inclusion in the revised FY 2004 budget request. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by project for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these projects have the potential of creating a total of 297,000 jobs and about $4.16 billion in earned income (2002$) by the year 2030.

  18. Partnerships in Pharma--An Economist Intelligence Unit Seminar--Building Innovation into Alliances and Business Models. 1 October 2010, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Kibble, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    The Partnerships in Pharma seminar, held in London, included topics related to building innovation into alliances and business models within the pharmaceutical industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on strategies for successful partnering, partnering alongside an evolving CRO industry, considering the pharma value chain, and partnerships between industry and academia. Approaches used by Ipsen, Merck Serono, Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare are also described. PMID:21154130

  19. Secondary Syphilitic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baughn, Robert E.; Musher, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    An important theme that emerges from all early historical accounts is that in addition to the decreased virulence of Treponema pallidum, the incidence of secondary syphilis has decreased drastically over the past three centuries. Even in the early 20th century, most syphilologists were of the opinion that the disease had undergone changes in its manifestations and that they were dealing with an attenuated form of the spirochete. Such opinions were based primarily on the observations that violent cutaneous reactions and fatalities associated with the secondary stage had become extremely rare. The rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States increased in 2002 for the second consecutive year. After a decade-long decline that led to an all-time low in 2000, the recent trend is attributable, to a large extent, by a increase in reported syphilis cases among men, particularly homosexual and bisexual men having sex with men. The present review addresses the clinical and diagnostic criteria for the recognition of secondary syphilis, the clinical course and manifestations of the disease if allowed to proceed past the primary stage of disease in untreated individuals, and the treatment for this stage of the disease. PMID:15653827

  20. Reflections of Post-Secondary Educational Experiences of Selected Women of the United Arab Emirates (UAE): A Qualitative Analysis Investigating the Motivations, Supports, Rewards, and Challenges Encountered by Seven Emirati Women in the Year 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daleure, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the post-secondary experiences of seven Emirati women to investigate reasons for the female dominated post-secondary educational persistence which was at the time of the study 65% female to 35% male. The study used internet text messaging to interview the women about issues surrounding their post-secondary educational…

  1. Youth United through Health Education: Building Capacity through a Community Collaborative Intervention to Prevent HIV/STD in Adolescents Residing in a High STD Prevalent Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverding, John; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Siller, Jacqueline; Gallaread, Alonzo; Krone, Melissa; Chang, Y. Jason

    2005-01-01

    The early detection and treatment of STDs is an effective strategy for slowing the sexual transmission of HIV. The goal of the YUTHE (Youth United Through Health Education) program, a collaborative effort between the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, is to increase sexually…

  2. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK,

  3. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK,…

  4. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  5. Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces, with Emphasis on Less Privileged Areas, Particularly in the United Kingdom. A Seminar (London, England, United Kingdom, April 13, 1989). Educational Buildings and Equipment 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union of Architects, Paris (France).

    This collection was gathered from a seminar entitled "Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces," which was the result of cooperation between the Sports, Leisure, and Tourism Work Group of the International Union of Architects and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Papers were given by…

  6. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building. Volume VI

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate nonuniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for nonuniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed - leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels.

  7. Technicoeconomic analysis of purification buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Alipova, L.P.; Afonskaya, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    A fundamental scheme consisting of blocks of mechanical and biological purification methods for the sewage from coking plants has been set up. Each purification block would consist of a set of principal and secondary buildings, the size and type of buildings depend upon the specific undertaking of the block. Capital expenditures and purification costs have been estimated and used to calculate the economic efficiency of the purification buildings. The cost for the purification of coking sewage as a function of the output of the purification buildings and as a function of the amount of contaminants extracted using predominant-quality indicators is presented in tabular form.

  8. Moon Munchies: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge--A Standards-Based Elementary School Model Unit Guide--Design, Build, and Evaluate (Lessons 1-6). Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-92-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kim M.

    2005-01-01

    In this unit, elementary students design and build a lunar plant growth chamber using the Engineering Design Process. The purpose of the unit is to help students understand and apply the design process as it relates to plant growth on the moon. This guide includes six lessons, which meet a number of national standards and benchmarks in…

  9. Decomposing Uncertainty in Climate, Socioeconomics and Technological Change for a Decision to Impose Aggressive Building Energy Standards across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M. J.; Daly, D. S.; Lansing, C. S.; McJeon, H. C.; Patel, P. L.; Peterson, M. J.; Rice, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This analysis presents quantification and decomposition of key sources of uncertainty associated with state-level decisions on whether to impose aggressive building energy standards. The research compares uncertainty in future climate model projections, national and international emissions policy, population and economic growth, and technology cost and performance across several states and focuses on three decision criteria--energy savings, savings in greenhouse gas emissions, and costs of the standards. The research utilizes a version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model that has been regionalized to represent energy demand and supply within each of the 50 U.S. states. A Monte Carlo sampling approach provides 12,000 GCAM runs that are post-processed to provide a rigorous comparison of the relative importance of the modeled sources of uncertainty at the state level when aggressive standards are imposed and identifies the key 'game changers.'

  10. [Secondary Career Education Activities: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  11. Improving Citizenship Education: Secondary Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edwin L., Ed.

    Designed to enrich secondary level social studies education, this manual provides teaching strategies and units on local, state, and federal government; global education; law and individual rights; and citizenship skills. Teaching strategies include case studies, using community resources, using the newspaper, quantitative inquiry, simulation

  12. Improving Citizenship Education: Secondary Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edwin L., Ed.

    Designed to enrich secondary level social studies education, this manual provides teaching strategies and units on local, state, and federal government; global education; law and individual rights; and citizenship skills. Teaching strategies include case studies, using community resources, using the newspaper, quantitative inquiry, simulation…

  13. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  14. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone through glazing and the study of zone model is conducted in this direction to modify the existing zone model. In this research project, the following tasks are completed and summarized in this report: 1. Develop dynamic simulation models in the HVACSIM+ environment for common fan coil unit and dual duct system configurations. The developed simulation models are able to produce both fault-free and faulty operational data under a wide variety of faults and severity levels for advanced control, operation, and AFDD technology development and evaluation purposes; 2. Develop a model structure, which includes the grouping of blocks and superblocks, treatment of state variables, initial and boundary conditions, and selection of equation solver, that can simulate a dual duct system efficiently with satisfactory stability; 3. Design and conduct a comprehensive and systematic validation procedure using collected experimental data to validate the developed simulation models under both fault-free and faulty operational conditions; 4. Conduct a numerical study to compare two solution techniques: Powell's Hybrid (PH) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) in terms of their robustness and accuracy. 5. Modification of the thermal state of the existing building zone model in HVACSIM+ library of component. This component is revised to consider the transmitted heat through glazing as a heat source for transient building zone load prediction In this report, literature, including existing HVAC dynamic modeling environment and models, HVAC model validation methodologies, and fault modeling and validation methodologies, are reviewed. The overall methodologies used for fault free and fault model development and validation are introduced. Detailed model development and validation results for the two secondary systems, i.e., fan coil unit and dual duct system are summarized. Experimental data mostly from the Iowa Energy Center Energy Resource Station are used to validate the models developed in this project. Satisfactory model performance in both fault free and fault simulation studies is observed for all studied systems.

  15. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  16. Intelligent buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The term intelligent buildings refers to today's sophisticated living environments that must support communication, energy, fire and security protection systems. This book examines a variety of topics including building automation, information technology, and systems and facilities management.

  17. Building a pediatric neurocritical care program: a multidisciplinary approach to clinical practice and education from the intensive care unit to the outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark S; Grimason, Michele; Goldstein, Joshua; Smith, Craig M; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine; Revivo, Gadi; Noah, Zehava L; Harris, Zena L; Epstein, Leon G

    2014-12-01

    We describe our 10-year experience developing the Ruth D. & Ken M. Davee Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. The neurocritical care team includes intensivists, neurologists, and an advanced practice nurse who have expertise in critical care neurology and who continue care in long-term follow-up of intensive care unit patients in a dedicated neurocritical care outpatient clinic. Brain-directed critical care requires collaboration between intensivists and neurologists with specific expertise in neurocritical care, using protocol-directed consistent care, and physiological measures to protect brain function. The heterogeneity of neurologic disorders in the pediatric intensive care unit requires a background in the relevant basic science and pathophysiology that is beyond the scope of standard neurology or critical care fellowships. To address this need, we also created a fellowship in neurocritical care for intensivists, neurologists, and advanced practice nurses. Last, we discuss the implications for pediatric neurocritical care from the experience of management of pediatric stroke and the development of stroke centers. PMID:25727506

  18. 7. Office and warehouse building. South side. View to northeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Office and warehouse building. South side. View to northeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  19. 10. Office and warehouse building. Detail of window at office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Office and warehouse building. Detail of window at office area, north side wall. View to southwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  20. 4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Office and warehouse building. North side and rear (west) elevation. View to south. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  1. 8. Office and warehouse building. South side and front elevation. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Office and warehouse building. South side and front elevation. View to north. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  2. 2. Office and warehouse building. Front elevation and north side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Office and warehouse building. Front elevation and north side. View to west. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  3. 6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation and south side. View to east. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  4. 5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Office and warehouse building. Rear elevation. View to southeast. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  5. 1. Office and warehouse building. Front (east) elevation. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Office and warehouse building. Front (east) elevation. View to northwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  6. 3. Office and warehouse building. North side. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Office and warehouse building. North side. View to southwest. - Conrad Refining Company Oil Refinery, Office & Warehouse Building, 60 feet northwest of centerline at Montana Secondary Highway 219, Conrad, Pondera County, MT

  7. Collapsed Building

    This masonry office building in the downtown area of Concepcion, Chile collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. The construction of this building predates the establishment of strict building codes in Chile, put in place following the devastating earthquake of 1960. ...

  8. Healthy Buildings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  9. Consensus Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Erickson, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of a Multi-Attribute Consensus Building (MACB) technique to build consensus on a national model of educational outcomes and indicators. Describes the stages of consensus building and the tasks mandated in each stage, including the generation of input, the consensus conference, and the synthesis of consensus. (RJM)

  10. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES UP IN BACKGROUND AS WORKERS PLACE A SECTION OF WATER LINE THAT WILL CARRY SECONDARY COOLANT BETWEEN HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING AND THE COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2205. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/28/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Labour Studies Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Eric; And Others

    The nine units highlight the history, activities, values, and aspirations of the Canadian labor force. The program's purpose is to help secondary school social studies students develop a more objective appreciation of labor and of labor's role in Canadian social history. The first unit, "Union Today," analyzes contemporary union activity and…

  12. Lighting for Tomorrow: Building on the results of the first national energy-efficient lighting fixture design competition in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Foster, Rebecca; McGowan, Terry

    2005-05-09

    Lighting for Tomorrow was the first residential lighting fixture design competition conducted in the United States to focus on energy-efficient light sources. Sponsored by the American Lighting Association, the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, and the U.S. Department of Energy, the competition was carried out in two phases between 2002 and 2004. Five winning fixture designs were selected from a field of 24 finalists. The paper describes the competition in detail, including its origins, sponsors, structure and rules, timeline, prizes, selection criteria, and judges. The paper describes the results of the competition, including industry response, promotion and publicity efforts, technical and design innovations demonstrated by the winners, and retail placements to date. Finally, the paper offers several lessons learned that are instructive for future efforts to promote high-efficiency lighting through the design competition approach.

  13. Building national public health capacity for managing chemical events: A case study of the development of health protection services in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen; Coleman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (2005) require that countries develop plans for chemical threats. In 2012, the World Health Assembly reported that most countries had not yet achieved ‘adequate capacity'. We review the evolution of chemical hazards services in the United Kingdom, the result of 15 years of grass-roots pressure and an accumulating weight of chemical incidents that eventually convinced the UK Department of Health of the need for a new national public health function, culminating, in 2003, in the creation of the Chemical Hazards Division of the new Health Protection Agency. Ten years later, public health services are again being radically reorganized with the creation of Public Health England, potentially destabilizing health protection arrangements and creating confusion among roles in managing chemical emergencies. Incorporating health protection into a broader public health organization, however, offers a new opportunity to broaden the scope of health protection services to embrace prevention of non-infectious environmental diseases. PMID:23447032

  14. VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE TRANSPORT MODIFICATION CENTER, CONSISTS OF FOUR HIGH-BAY CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURES. BUILDING 440 WAS USED FOR PACKAGING AND STAGING SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND DEPLETED URANIUM FOR SHIPMENT AND TO MODIFY VEHICLES TO MEET SPECIFIC UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS. (2/8/84) - Rocky Flats Plant, Transport Modification Center, North of Cactus Avenue, approximately 400 feet east of Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Assessment Practices of Secondary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joshua A.; Austin, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey assessment and grading practices employed by secondary music teachers throughout the southwestern region of the United States. Three main research questions guided the study: (1) What types of school district frameworks and classroom contexts are secondary music teachers operating within? (2) Which specific

  16. Assessment Practices of Secondary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joshua A.; Austin, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey assessment and grading practices employed by secondary music teachers throughout the southwestern region of the United States. Three main research questions guided the study: (1) What types of school district frameworks and classroom contexts are secondary music teachers operating within? (2) Which specific…

  17. Building safer structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Page, Robert A.; Seekins, Linda

    1995-01-01

    In this century, major earthquakes in the United States have damaged or destroyed numerous buildings, bridges, and other structures. By monitoring how structures respond to earthquakes and applying the knowledge gained, scientists and engineers are improving the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Many lives and millions of dollars have already been saved by this ongoing research.

  18. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  19. A new family of Ni4 and Ni6 aggregates from the self-assembly of [Ni2] building units: role of carboxylate and carbonate bridges.

    PubMed

    Pait, Moumita; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Colacio, Enrique; Ray, Debashis

    2015-05-18

    Carboxylato (R = (t)Bu and Et) and carbonato bridges have been utilized for nickel(II)-based aggregates [Ni4(μ-H2L)2(μ3-OH)2(μ1,3-O2CBu(t))2](NO3)2·H2O·2DMF (1·H2O·2DMF), Ni4(μ-(hy)HL)2(μ3-OMe)2(μ1,1-N3)2(μ1,3-O2CEt)2]·4H2O (2·4H2O), and Ni6(μ4-L)(μ3-L)2(μ6-CO3)(H2O)8](ClO4)·9H2O (3·9H2O). Building blocks [Ni2(μ-H2L)](3+), [Ni2(μ-(hy)HL)](3+), and [Ni2(μ-L)](+) originating from [Ni2(μ-H2L)](3+) have been trapped in these complexes. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) analysis. In 1, the magnetic interactions are transmitted through the μ3-phenoxido/μ3-hydroxido/syn-syn-(t)BuCO2(-), μ3-phenoxido/μ3- hydroxido, and double μ3-phenoxido/double μ3-hydroxido bridges with J = +11.4 cm(-1), J1 = -2.1 cm(-1), and J2 = -2.8 cm(-1), respectively. In 2, the interactions are ferromagnetic, with J1 = +27.5 cm(-1), J2 = +20.62 cm(-1), and J3 = +1.52 cm(-1) describing the magnetic couplings through the μ-phenoxidoo/μ3-methoxido, μ-azido/μ3-methoxido, and μ3-methoxido/μ3-methoxido exchange pathways, respectively. Complex 3 gives J1 = -3.30 cm(-1), J2 = +1.7 cm(-1), and J3 = -12.8 cm(-1) for exchange pathways mediated by μ-phenoxido/μ-carbonato, μ-alkoxido/μ-alkooxido/μ-syn-syn-carbonato, and the μ-phenoxido/μ-carbonato, respectively. Interestingly, 1 and 3 below 20 K and 35 K, respectively, show an abrupt increase of the χMT product to reach a magnetic-field-dependent maximum, which is associated with a slightly frequency-dependent out-of-phase alternating-current peak. DFT calculations have also been performed on 1-3 to explain the exchange interaction mechanisms and to support the magnitude and sign of the magnetic coupling constants between the Ni(II) ions. PMID:25933286

  20. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  1. Building digests: cooling of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V.V.; Agarwal, K.N.; Chadra, P.; Jain, S.P.; Sharma, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    Nine bulletins are compiled covering: Control of Solar Heat Gain through Glass Windows; Simple and Effective Roof Spraying System of Cooling Buildings in Hot Dry Climates; Shading Devices for Glass Openings in Air-conditioned Buildings; Cooling of Buildings by Roof Surface Evaporation; Roof-surface Evaporative Cooling of Buildings by Water Soaked Gunny Bags; Loose Fill Materials for Cold Storage Insulation; Cooling Load and Indoor Air Temperature of Office Buildings under Tropical Climate; Thermal Design of Potato Cold Storage; and Suitability of Rice-husk and Saw-dust as a Cold Storage Insulation. These bulletins provide comprehensive, step-by-step instructions on how to use the materials and techniques covered.

  2. Training and Capacity Building in LMIC for Research in Heart and Lung Diseases: The NHLBI-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence Program.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Xavier, Denis; Belis, Deshirée; Alam, Dewan; Davis, Patricia; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ghannem, Hassen; Gilman, Robert H; Kamath, Deepak; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Levitt, Naomi; Martinez, Homero; Mejicano, Gabriela; Miranda, J Jaime; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Steyn, Krisela; Tandon, Nikhil; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Wolbach, Tracy; Wu, Yangfeng; Yan, Lijing L

    2016-03-01

    Stemming the tide of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide requires a multipronged approach. Although much attention has been paid to disease control measures, there is relatively little consideration of the importance of training the next generation of health-related researchers to play their important role in this global epidemic. The lack of support for early stage investigators in low- and middle-income countries interested in the global NCD field has resulted in inadequate funding opportunities for research, insufficient training in advanced research methodology and data analysis, lack of mentorship in manuscript and grant writing, and meager institutional support for developing, submitting, and administering research applications and awards. To address this unmet need, The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-UnitedHealth Collaborating Centers of Excellence initiative created a Training Subcommittee that coordinated and developed an intensive, mentored health-related research experience for a number of early stage investigators from the 11 Centers of Excellence around the world. We describe the challenges faced by early stage investigators in low- and middle-income countries, the organization and scope of the Training Subcommittee, training activities, early outcomes of the early stage investigators (foreign and domestic) and training materials that have been developed by this program that are available to the public. By investing in the careers of individuals in a supportive global NCD network, we demonstrate the impact that an investment in training individuals from low- and middle-income countries can have on the preferred future of or current efforts to combat NCDs. PMID:27102019

  3. Building Mainteance Module I: Orientation to Building Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eck, Francis

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-lesson Missouri secondary education course on building maintenance fundamentals. The document begins with an explanation of its components and how to use them. Next is a table that associates individual instructional materials in the lessons with the competencies they teach. The lessons are:…

  4. Building Mainteance Module I: Orientation to Building Maintenance. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eck, Francis

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-lesson Missouri secondary education course on building maintenance fundamentals. The document begins with an explanation of its components and how to use them. Next is a table that associates individual instructional materials in the lessons with the competencies they teach. The lessons are:

  5. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  6. Secondary systemic amyloidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - secondary systemic ... is unknown. You are more likely to develop secondary systemic amyloidosis if you have a long-term ... Symptoms of secondary systemic amyloidosis depend on which body ... by the protein deposits. These deposits damage normal tissues, ...

  7. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  8. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  9. Seismically radiated energy per unit area remains constant for families of volcanic hybrid earthquakes associated with the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens dome building eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, R. M.; Kwiatek, G.

    2011-12-01

    The extrusion of several Dacite spines during the 2004-2008 eruption at Mount St. Helens produced new faulting surfaces, exhibiting many features commonly observed in shallow faulting zones, such as gouge, striations, and fault-zone cataclasite. Much of the seismicity associated with the solid rock spine extrusions occurred at shallow depths, suggesting that the majority of events occurred at the base of the extruding spines. Many of the events exhibited features commonly attributed to volcanic hybrid earthquakes, namely high-frequency onsets which transition to low-frequency ringing, and long durations relative to event size. Here we show using new data from a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers in 2006 that a group of hybrid earthquakes associated with the spine extrusion exhibit a constant ratio of radiated seismic energy to earthquake size. We manually search the waveforms of 11 broadband stations installed on the Mount St. Helens edifice at distances of less than 2 km from the crater for seismic events from the 6th to the 9th of September in 2006. We cross-correlate events on the individual stations in order to find event pairs with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 or higher. The similarity of waveforms suggests that the selected events form families of co-located earthquakes with similar focal mechanisms. We first estimate the size, and duration (i.e., long-period spectral amplitude, and spectral corner frequency) of the largest events with a high signal-to-noise ratio in a given family by fitting the displacement spectra. Next, we calculate the source parameters of the smaller events in the family by fitting spectral ratios of large and small events. Fitting the spectral ratios provides more accurate estimations of spectral characteristics for the smaller events, as the spectral ratio suppresses the influence of non-source related effects on the signal such as travel path attenuation, and site response. The spectral amplitude and corner frequency values provide a size-duration scaling relationship from which the proportion of radiated seismic energy is calculated, assuming a Haskell source model. We observe a size-duration scaling corresponding to a constant energy-moment ratio. Such scaling suggests that the seismic energy radiated per unit area does not vary for the hybrid events occurring on the fresh faulting surface at the base of the extruding spine.

  10. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  11. Sampling variability for redesign buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-05

    Estimates of the relative sampling variability of budget percentiles for building type HDD/CDD matrices are presented for small and large offices, elementary and secondary schools, clinics, gyms, community centers, theaters, stores, shopping centers, storage, nursing homes, hotels, motels, high- and low-rise apartments. (MCW)

  12. Building Maintenance. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains one module for completing a course in building maintenance. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. The module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student

  13. 3. ROADWAY TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING NO. 1. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ROADWAY TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING NO. 1. AT FAR LEFT IS THE SHADOW OF BUILDING NO. 6 (WAREHOUSE). ALSO VISIBLE AT THE LEFT IS BUILDING NO. 4 (BOILER HOUSE), BUILDING NO. 3 (GATE HOUSE), AND BUILDING NO. 2 (OFFICE BUILDING). IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND IS BUILDING NO. 10 (ELECTRICAL SERVICES AND SWITCHING STATION). - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  14. Learn Japanese: Secondary School Text, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Bernice; And Others

    This is the fifth in a series of ten texts designed for teaching Japanese at the secondary level. Also available are supplementary instructional materials and teacher's guides. Throughout the two units of four lessons each, the theme centers around life in Japan as seen through the eyes of an American student. Each unit contains conversations,…

  15. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  16. Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection. Images PMID:6702190

  17. Dismantling of the nuclear power plant Gundremmingen Unit A

    SciTech Connect

    Eickelpasch, N.; Steiner, H.

    1995-12-31

    The BWR Gundremmingen unit A has been under decommissioning since 1983. The dismantling work of the contaminated systems and components resulted in out 5,200 tons of material with a rather low amount of waste, especially due to optimized decontamination techniques. For the dismantling of three secondary steam generators in the reactor building the ice-sawing technique was developed. Further work has been done to qualify underwater cutting and handling techniques in preparation of the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and its internals.

  18. Secondary Schools: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaverde, Leila E.

    This book attempts to serve as a compendium and a chronology of secondary education in the United States, taking a broad rather than a narrow approach and touching on a great many topics and issues. Chapters 1 and 2 present a history of secondary schools and a discussion of adolescence. Chapter 3 discusses curriculum in secondary schools,…

  19. The State of Music in Secondary Schools: The Principal's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abril, Carlos R.; Gault, Brent M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile secondary school music programs in the United States and investigate principals' perceptions of those curricula. A survey form was sent to 1,000 secondary school principals, yielding a 54% response rate. That form was designed to answer the following questions: What is the profile of secondary music…

  20. 340 Facility secondary containment and leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-31

    This document presents a preliminary safety evaluation for the 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Containment system, Project W-302. Project W-302 will construct Building 340-C which has been designed to replace the current 340 Building and vault tank system for collection of liquid wastes from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory buildings in the 300 Area. This new nuclear facility is Hazard Category 3. The vault tank and related monitoring and control equipment are Safety Class 2 with the remainder of the structure, systems and components as Safety Class 3 or 4.

  1. Reducing the embodied energy of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mumma, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major uses for energy is building construction and operation, including both operating energy and energy embodied in the physical structure. Embodied energy is an assessment that includes the energy required to extract raw materials from nature, plus theenergyy used in primary and secondary manufacturing activities to provide a finished product. As the operating energy required for buildings declines, the embodied energy they represent becomes a more significant percentages of the total energy. This article discusses reducing embodied energy of buildings.

  2. Building Skills to Build Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Communities are at the heart of the government's vision for the Big Society. And it's the author's strongly held view that skills should be at the heart of each and every one of those communities. If one grows the skills of an individual then the community will flourish. There is a job to be done in building skills to build communities--skilled…

  3. Intelligent Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2001-01-01

    The topic of "intelligent buildings" (IBs) emerged in the early 1980s. Since, the term has been used to represent a variety of related, yet differing topics, each with a slightly different focus and purpose. Wiring and networking-infrastructure companies emphasize the cabling requirements for communication in intelligent buildings and the need to accommodate future needs for higher-speed broadband. Lucent (Lucent 2000) for example, defines an IB as "...one with a completely integrated wiring architecture. A single cabling system that handles all information traffic - voice, data, video, even the big building management systems."

  4. Nuclear Arms Education in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The conference-based report is designed to help secondary school educators with the difficult and important task of deciding how and what to teach about nuclear arms and national security. The booklet intends to build a rationale and to develop a context or framework to assist in selecting approaches, teaching strategies, and appropriate materials…

  5. Educational Technology. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, on Examining Legislation Authorizing Funds for the Elementary Secondary Education Act, Focusing on Education Technology Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.

    This hearing before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions on examining legislation authorizing funds for the Elementary Secondary Education Act, focusing on educational technology programs, contains statements by: James M Jeffords, Chairman, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions; Barbara Means, Assistant…

  6. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE UNITED STATES: ESTIMATES ON THE BASIS OF OBSERVED ORGANIC CARBON (OC) AND ELEMENTAL CARBON (EC), AND AIR QUALITY MODELED PRIMARY (OC/EC) RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal and spatial distributions of primary and secondary organic carbon aerosols (OC) over the continental US during June 15 to August 31, 1999, were estimated by using observational OC and elemental carbon (EC) data from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environm...

  7. The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…

  8. Perceptions of Jordanian Secondary Schools Teachers towards Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bataineh, Osamah; Alazzi, Khaled F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover themes or concepts, generated from the collected data, that formed building blocks of grounded theory in the study of secondary school social studies teachers' perspectives. This research study was conducted in Jordan, where secondary school social studies teachers were interviewed regarding their

  9. Perceptions of Jordanian Secondary Schools Teachers towards Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bataineh, Osamah; Alazzi, Khaled F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover themes or concepts, generated from the collected data, that formed building blocks of grounded theory in the study of secondary school social studies teachers' perspectives. This research study was conducted in Jordan, where secondary school social studies teachers were interviewed regarding their…

  10. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  11. Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE): A Focus on Climate Change-related Dialogs with Faith-Based Groups as a form of Network Building in the Southeast United States - Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, F. J.; McNeal, K. S.; Hammerman, J.; Christiansen, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE, http://CLiPSE-project.org), funded through the National Science Foundation Climate Change Education Partnership program, is dedicated to improving climate literacy in the Southeastern United States (SE US). By promoting science-based formal and informal educational resources, CLiPSE works through a diverse network of key partner organizations in the SE US to conduct effective public dialogues that address diverse audiences and support learning about climate, climate change, and its impact on human and environmental systems. The CLiPSE project successfully created partnerships with more than fifty key stakeholders, including agriculture, education, leisure, and religious organizations, along with culturally diverse communities. This presentation will explain the CLiPSE model for reaching key publics who hold traditional ideologies typically perceived as incompatible with climate change science. We will discuss the results of our interactions with the leaders of our partnering organizations, their knowledge, perceptions, needs, and input in crafting effective messages for their audiences, through addressing both learners' affective and cognitive domains. For the informal education sector, CLiPSE utilized several open discussion and learning forums aimed to promote critical thinking and civil conversation about climate change. Focusing on Faith-based audiences, a key demographic, in the Southeast US, CLiPSE also conducted an online, moderated, author-attended book study, discussing the thoughts and ideas contained in the work, "Green Like God," by Jonathan Merritt. We will share the questions we faced as we focused on and learned about faith-based audiences, such as: What are the barriers and opportunities?; How do we break out of the assumptions that we have to find the common ground?; How do the audiences understand the issues?; How do we understand the issues?; What common language can we find?; What happens when we bringing the multiple the multiple identities of faith and science together within ourselves and those we are trying to build relationships with? We will also share the lessons we learned while attempting to answer these questions, such as the role of trust and key influentials/leaders in talking with target audiences, the importance of face-to-face dialog and relationships in trust building.

  12. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  13. Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs on Oversight Hearing on the Title and Provisions in the Draft Reauthorization for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony on proposed amendments to the Indian provisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The proposals include amendments to the ESEA amendments of 1978 related to Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools and amendments to the Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988. Both sets of proposals…

  14. El Dia de la Raza Module. Secondary Level. [The Day of the Race Module. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Gloria; Lizcano, Jeanette

    "El Dia de la Raza", considered the birthday of the mestizo, is the topic of this unit for the secondary level. As unit objectives, the students are to demonstrate (1) their comprehension by stating 3 major areas of contributions the Indians and the Spaniards gave the mestizo culture and (2) their concept of mestizaje by participating in oral…

  15. Teaching with Secondary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Jeff

    1981-01-01

    Presents a general overview of the use of secondary data in teaching sociology on the college level. Topics discussed include potential for additional applications, sources which constitute secondary data, reasons for using secondary data in the classroom, information about computing, and potential problems. (Author/DB)

  16. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM…

  17. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM

  18. [Secondary iron overload].

    PubMed

    Galactéros, F

    2000-05-01

    Secondary iron overload (SIO) constitutes a growing clinical problem, particularly in haematological diseases in which the improvements of life expectancy give the iron overload enough duration to play its own prognostic role. Iron may accumulate by two ways: transfusion and/(or) digestive hyperabsorption which is proportional to erythroïd plasma iron turnover. To properly evaluate the iron overloading one must be able to appreciate the cumulative red blood cell transfusion volumes. That is to say: weighting and counting red blood cell units. The magnitude of red blood cell precursor mass might be conveniently but indirectly evaluated by the measurement of the plasma transferrin receptor concentration. The group of haematological diseases, complicated by SIO to the contrary of primary haemochromatosis, is very heterogeneous. Some of them like hereditary dyserythropoiesis may not be obviously detectable on standard haematological observation. They can combine or not with hereditary haemochromatosis. A SIO must be treated when it may add a specific prognostic effect. In some cases, regular blood letting are usable without major problems. In all other cases iron chelation therapy is an effective way to reduce SIO, provided long term compliance is obtained. PMID:10865498

  19. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  20. Building Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Mara G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge…