Science.gov

Sample records for secondary building units

  1. Computational design of metal-organic frameworks with paddlewheel-type secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschlogl, Udo; Peskov, Maxim V.; Masghouni, Nejib

    We employ the TOPOS package to study 697 coordination polymers containing paddlewheel-type secondary building units. The underlying nets are analyzed and 3 novel nets are chosen as potential topologies for paddlewheel-type metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Dicarboxylate linkers are used to build basic structures for novel isoreticular MOF series, aiming at relatively compact structures with a low number of atoms per unit cell. The structures are optimized using density functional theory. Afterwards the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo approach is employed to generate adsorption isotherms for CO2, CO, and CH4 molecules. We utilize the universal forcefield for simulating the interaction between the molecules and hosting MOF. The diffusion behavior of the molecules inside the MOFs is analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Construction of a polyhedron decorated MOF with a unique network through the combination of two classic secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guo-Jian; Chang, Ze; Xu, Jian; Hu, Zhenpeng; Liu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Yue-Ling; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-02-01

    A novel decorated metal-organic polyhedron (MOP) based metal-organic framework with a unique 4,9-connected network is successfully constructed, which displays a relatively strong interaction toward H2 and CO2 probably due to the existence of open metal sites in the secondary building units. PMID:26685714

  4. Secondary structure of short β-peptides as the chiral expression of monomeric building units: a rational and predictive model.

    PubMed

    Gorrea, Esther; Pohl, Gábor; Nolis, Pau; Celis, Sergio; Burusco, Kepa K; Branchadell, Vicenç; Perczel, András; Ortuño, Rosa M

    2012-11-01

    Chirality of the monomeric residues controls and determines the prevalent folding of small oligopeptides (from di- to tetramers) composed of 2-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (ACBA) derivatives with the same or different absolute and relative configuration. The cis-form of the monomeric ACBA gives rise to two conformers, namely, Z6 and Z8, while the trans-form manifests uniquely as an H8 structure. By combining these subunits in oligo- and polypeptides, their local structural preference remains, thus allowing the rational design of new short foldamers. A lego-type molecular architecture evolves; the overall look depends only on the conformational properties of the structural building units. A versatile and efficient method to predict the backbone folds of designed cyclobutane β-peptides is based on QM calculations. Predictions are corroborated by high-resolution NMR studies on selected stereoisomers, most of them being new foldamers that have been synthesized and characterized for the first time. Thus, the chiral expression of monomeric building units results in the defined secondary structures of small oligomers. As a result of this study, a new set of chirality controlled foldamers is provided to probe as biocompatible biopolymers. PMID:23030251

  5. Two Principles of Reticular Chemistry Uncovered in a Metal-Organic Framework of Heterotritopic Linkers and Infinite Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Catarineu, Noelle R; Schoedel, Alexander; Urban, Philipp; Morla, Maureen B; Trickett, Christopher A; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-31

    Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto. Our study suggests that simple, symmetric linkers are not a necessity for formation of crystalline extended structures and that new, more complex topologies are attainable with irregular, heterotopic linkers. This work illustrates two principles of reticular chemistry: first, selectivity for helical over straight rod secondary building units (SBUs) is achievable with polyheterotopic linkers, and second, the pitch of the resulting helical SBUs may be fine-tuned based on the metrics of the polyheterotopic linker. PMID:27517606

  6. Construction of magnet-type coordination polymers using high-spin {Ni4}-citrate cubane as secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Wang, Yanyan; Qin, Lei; Han, Tian; Ding, You-Song; Hu, Yue-Qiao; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-06-28

    Three potassium(i)-nickel(ii)-citrate coordination polymers, [K4Ni6(cit)4(H2O)8]n (), [K14Ni17(cit)12(H2O)33]n·10nH2O () and [K8Ni12(cit)8(H2O)15]n·2nH2O (), have been self-assembled in a solvothermal synthesis. Interestingly, these three polymers share the common {Ni4(cit)4}(8-) cubane ({Ni4}-cit-cub) secondary building units. The diverse ways of linking the {Ni4}-cit-cubs and additional isolated octahedral Ni(ii) ions lead to disparate magnetic exchange-coupling interactions, namely ferromagnetic for and and antiferromagnetic for . More importantly, the weak ferromagnetic interactions do not lead to long-range magnetic ordering above 2 K in or , whereas the strong antiferromagnetic interaction in leads to uncompensated magnetic moment due to the non-collinear alignment of the spins. Further magnetic characterization confirms the coexistence of spin-canted antiferromagnetism and spin glass behaviour in . PMID:27294693

  7. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  8. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal−organic framework based on Co–carboxylate secondary building units

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; Đaković, Marijana

    2015-03-15

    A metal–organic framework [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group with a=13.989(3) Å, b=9.6728(17) Å, c=16.707(3) Å, and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co–O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected. - Graphical abstract: A metal–organic framework of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was synthesized by hydrothermal method. This 2D-periodic framework is constructed from the infinite Co–O–C secondary building units and crystallizes in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group based on Co(II)–carboxylate units. The catalytic oxidation of various olefins was effectively carried out with [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} catalyst by TBHP as oxidant. - Highlights: • A metal–organic framework of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] is prepared by hydrothermal method. • The [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} is constructed from Co–carboxylate secondary building units. • This coordination polymer displayed high catalytic activity for olefin oxidation reactions. • The catalytic reaction is heterogeneous and catalyst can be simply separated. • The heterogeneous catalyst can be reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  9. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  10. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework based on Co-carboxylate secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; Đaković, Marijana

    2015-03-01

    A metal-organic framework [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P21/n space group with a=13.989(3) Å, b=9.6728(17) Å, c=16.707(3) Å, and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co-O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2]n for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected.

  11. Buildings As Secondary Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semblat, J.-F.; Kham, M.; Guéguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.

    At the scale of a city, surface structures like buildings can modify the seismic free- field and behave as secondary seismic sources. At a local scale, some experimental evidences of the site-structure interaction were previously given (Guéguen, 2000). Thanks to the boundary element method, the global problem of site-city interaction is herein investigated in two dimensions at the scale of an alluvial deposit and an entire city considering a whole building network. An alluvial deposit located in the center of Nice (France) was firstly considered for the analysis of free-field amplification (Semblat, 2000). The amplification factor was estimated by the boundary element method and compared with experimental results (SSR, HVSR). Starting from these free-field simulations, several site-city models were considered which describe both superficial soil layers and surface structures. We in- vestigate herein the influence of both building type and building density on the modi- fication of free-field amplification. To compare free-field amplification and amplification in urban configurations, sur- face amplification is compared in both cases for a specific uniform building type and various building densities at differents frequencies. Depending on these various pa- rameters, the free-field amplification level could be increased by 20 to 50%. Other urban configurations are considered with various building types in uniform and inho- mogeneous arrangements. For the specific site considered, the various site-city BEM models show that site-city interaction can lead to a strong increase of the free-field am- plification factor. Around the fundamental frequency of a specific building type, for a homogeneous urban configuration, particular resonance effects are observed. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental and local scale numerical results (Guéguen, 2000) and show that the coincidence of the respective eigenfre- quencies of both alluvial deposit and

  12. Building a secondary containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  13. Solvent-induced secondary building unit (SBU) variations in a series of Cu(II) metal-organic frameworks derived from a bifunctional ligand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ming; Ma, Jian-Gong; Cheng, Peng

    2015-05-21

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been studied for a series of copper-based framework systems. Herein we show the formation of three different 3D ordered frameworks with the formulae {[Cu4(cpt)4Cl4]·2DMF·dioxane·3H2O}n (1), {[Cu8(cpt)4(Hcpt)2Cl7(μ3-OH)2(H2O)4]Cl3·4CH3CN}n (2), and {[Cu8(cpt)4Cl4(μ3-OH)2(μ4-O)2]Cl2·4H2O·2CH3CN·3MeOH}n (3) [Hcpt = 4-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole], respectively, from the same reaction mixture through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium. These MOFs were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting secondary building unit (SBU) variations. The varied SBUs not only bring different framework architectures to these MOFs, but also affect their framework stability. Gas sorption studies of MOF 3 reveal high CO2-N2 selectivity at 298 K and 0.16 bar (a typical partial pressure of CO2 in an industrial flue gas). A high isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) at zero loading (53 kJ mol(-1)) was also observed in MOF 3. PMID:25873315

  14. Designing Knowledge Building Communities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, sixteen senior secondary classes participated in this study, with eight of them being distance classes. Approximately 220 Year 11-13 students and 8 teachers took part in this study. This project aimed at designing and evaluating a computer-supported knowledge building community in senior secondary classes. Researchers sought to…

  15. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Building Trades (Program CIP: 46.0490--Building Trades, General). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in the building trades: building trades I and…

  16. Unique anisotropic optical properties of a highly stable metal-organic framework based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units linked by tetracarboxylic linkers with an anthracene core.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, A V; Milichko, V A; Zaake-Hertling, H; Aleksovska, A; Gruschinski, S; Schmorl, S; Kersting, B; Zolnhofer, E M; Sutter, J; Meyer, K; Lönnecke, P; Hey-Hawkins, E

    2016-05-01

    A highly stable metal-organic framework, [{Fe3(ACTBA)2}X·6DEF]n (1; X = monoanion), based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units connected by tetracarboxylates with an anthracene core, 2,6,9,10-tetrakis(p-carboxylatophenyl)anthracene (ACTBA), is reported. Depending on the direction of light polarisation, crystals of 1 exhibit anisotropic optical properties with birefringence Δn = 0.3 (λ = 590 nm). PMID:26906040

  17. Extraordinary Separation of Acetylene-Containing Mixtures with Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open O Donor Sites and Tunable Robustness through Control of the Helical Chain Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zizhu; Zhang, Zhangjing; Liu, Lizhen; Li, Ziyin; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin; Krishna, Rajamani; Xiang, Shengchang

    2016-04-11

    Acetylene separation is a very important but challenging industrial separation task. Here, through the solvothermal reaction of CuI and 5-triazole isophthalic acid in different solvents, two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, FJU-21 and FJU-22) with open O donor sites and controllable robustness have been obtained for acetylene separation. They contain the same paddle-wheel {Cu2 (COO2 )4 } nodes and metal-ligand connection modes, but with different helical chains as secondary building units (SBUs), leading to different structural robustness for the MOFs. FJU-21 and FJU-22 are the first examples in which the MOFs' robustness is controlled by adjusting the helical chain SBUs. Good robustness gives the activated FJU-22 a, which has higher surface area and gas uptakes than the flexible FJU-21 a. Importantly, FJU-22 a shows extraordinary separation of acetylene mixtures under ambient conditions. The separation capacity of FJU-22 a for 50:50 C2 H2 /CO2 mixtures is about twice that of the high-capacity HOF-3, and its actual separation selectivity for C2 H2 /C2 H4 mixtures containing 1 % acetylene is the highest among reported porous materials. Based on first-principles calculations, the extraordinary separation performance of C2 H2 for FJU-22 a was attributed to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the C2 H2 molecules with the open O donors on the wall, which provide better recognition ability for C2 H2 than other functional sites, including open metal sites and amino groups. PMID:26934040

  18. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of different topological coordination polymers based on tunable Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} secondary building units and macrocyclic azacalixaromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li-Xia; Zhao, Liang; Wang, De-Xian; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2010-12-15

    The coordination self-assembly between the macrocyclic ligand tetraazacalix[4]pyrimidine (TAPM) with cubane-like copper halides (Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}) produced five coordination polymers 1-5 {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m}(TAPM){r_brace}{sub n} (m=0 (1), 1 (2), 2 (3), 3 (4) and 4 (5)). X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the Br:I ratio in the Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} cores serves as a controlling factor to fine-tune the geometries of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} and therefore induce the conformation variation of tetraazacalix[4]pyrimidine. Consequently, two different topological nets, dia and lcs, were successfully constructed based on tetrahedrally coordinated Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} secondary building units and the flexible macrocyclic quadridentate ligand TAPM. The structure details of 1-5 as porous materials are analyzed, which shows a solvent accessible volume within the range of 27-35%. Compounds 1-5 exhibit luminescence properties with the peak maximum at around 476-488 nm. -- Graphical Abstract: Five luminescent coordination polymers 1-5 were obtained via the reaction of tetrahedral Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} SBUs and a flexible macrocyclic ligand tetraazacalix[4] pyrimidine (TAPM), wherein the Br/I ratio serves as a controlling factor to fine-tune the geometries of Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} and induce the conformation variation of TAPM, thus constructing two different dia and lcs topological nets. Display Omitted Research highlights: > The ratio of Br/I in the Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} cores fine-tunes the geometries of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}. > Variation of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} induces the conformation change of the ligand TAPM. > Two different coordination polymeric structures were successfully constructed. > The five coordination polymers show good luminescent properties.

  20. Better Science: Building Primary-Secondary Links. Curriculum Guide 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brenda, Comp.; Michell, Mick, Comp.

    This publication is one in a series of 12 giving the recommendations that were made for a broad and balanced education program in science for young people. This guide attempts to answer the questions regarding what science is taught in primary schools, what skills good primary science gives children, and how secondary schools build on primary…

  1. Microworlds: Building Powerful Ideas in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Craig William

    2012-01-01

    In the 1960s, the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) developed a programming language called LOGO. Underpinning this invention was a profound new philosophy of how learners learn. This paper reviews research in the area and asks how one notion in particular, that of a microworld, may be used by secondary school educators to build powerful…

  2. Interior of secondary building, first floor, ceilingmounted drive belt wheels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of secondary building, first floor, ceiling-mounted drive belt wheels, bevel gears and open pigment conveyor (center). Desk with paint labels below, vaulted brick ceiling above. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  3. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  4. Career Education Teacher's Guide [Secondary Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockland County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, West Nyack, NY.

    The four teacher's guides, emphasizing career education and its infusion into existing curriculum, are for the following units of instruction and suggested grade levels: entering the world of work, 5-12; making money with a classroom store, 8-12; meteorologist/radio station, 9; and banking, 9-10. Each unit is organized under several strategies and…

  5. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    PubMed

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species. PMID:24891425

  6. Torture: A Unit for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Torture is a worldwide, not an isolated, phenomenon. It is epidemic in the world. A human rights unit for high school students on torture as a tool of the state is presented. An interdisciplinary approach, involving social studies and language arts, is used. (RM)

  7. Aerospace-Oriented Units for Use in Secondary School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; And Others

    This set of nine units is intended to furnish aerospace-oriented resource material to help teachers include recent scientific and technological advances in the secondary school science curriculum. The units provided are as follows: history of astronomy, the solar system, beyond the solar system, history of flight, spaceflight facts, aerology,…

  8. 11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING I, 2); SOUTH AND EAST FRONTS OF SEED STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 21); EAST FRONT OF GREENHOUSE #1 (BUILDING 5) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  9. 12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March 11, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ROOM. June 5, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  12. Design and preliminary tests of the VLT secondary mirror unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Manil, Emmanuel; Schmid, M.; Dost, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The mechanics of the secondary unit are located behind the secondary mirror as seen from the telescope focus. The secondary is undersized and defines the pupil of the telescope. There is a focusing and centering drive for slow adjustments of the secondary mirror. In addition, the secondary mirror has a fast beam steering mechanism for chopping and rapid guiding to remove atmospheric wavefront tilt during observations. The specified square wave chopping frequency is 5 Hz with a duty cycle larger than 80%. To achieve a high bandwidth, the secondary mirror is manufactured of light-weighted beryllium coated with nickel. The beam steering mechanism has a counter-vibrating mass to compensate for dynamic forces and moments. The chopping mechanism has been successfully tested. The code of the digital control used during the tests was generated using Matlab real time toolbox. The servos were implemented on a digital signal processor card equipped with a TMS 320C40. To compensate for resonances inside the bandwidth of the servos, a special filter is applied in the velocity loop. The design of the secondary unit is now completed and fabrication and assembly have begun.

  13. LBT adaptive secondary units final design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Anaclerio, Enzo; Lazzarini, Paolo G.; Ripamonti, Angelo; Spairani, Roberto; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Salinari, Piero; Riccardi, Armando; Stefanini, Paolo; Biasi, Roberto

    2003-02-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope will perform its first level AO correction at visual wavelengths by the two Gregorian secondary mirrors. Each unit is made by a 911 mm diameter and 1.6 mm thick Zerodur shell which shape is controlled by 672 electromagnetic actuators at 1 kHz rate. The shape of each mirror is referred to a Zerodur 50 mm thick backplate through a set of capacitive sensors co-located with the actuators. Each adaptive secondary unit embeds its real time computer for actuator control and communication. Each unit is aligned into the secondary hub by a 6 d.o.f. hexapod system. The construction of the AO units started this year, while the hexapods have been completed in 2001. We present in this paper the final design of the adaptive secondary systems with particular emphasis on the modifications that we made based on the MMT adaptive secondary experience. We will also report the first results of the subsystems development tests.

  14. Putting the Unit in Pre-Service Secondary Teachers' Unit Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin C.; LaForest, Kevin R.; Kim, Hee Jung

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a teaching experiment that explored two pre-service secondary teachers' meanings for the unit circle. Our analyses suggest that the participants' initial unit circle meanings predominantly consisted of calculational strategies for relating a given circle to what they called "the unit circle." These strategies did not entail…

  15. [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) A, V=9742(8) A{sup 3}, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[F{sup 2}>2sigma(F{sup 2})]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material. - Graphical abstract: The metal-organic framework [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (MFU-5) is constructed from a molecular precursor containing {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units which become cross-linked into a 3D zeolite-type network with hexagonal symmetry by linear DABCO ligands (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

  16. Developing an Appropriate Goalball Unit for Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.; Happel, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Goalball, a sport designed for those with visual impairments, is a competitive and recreational sport enjoyed by athletes around the world. Students with and without visual impairments can experience positive outcomes when teachers appropriately include a goalball unit as part of their inclusive secondary physical education curriculum. This…

  17. [Cu4OCl6(DABCO)2]·0.5DABCO·4CH3OH (“MFU-5”): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {Cu4OCl6} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying-Ya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias; Volkmer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu 4OCl 6(DABCO) 2] ·0.5DABCO ·4CH 3OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {Cu 4OCl 6} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/ mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) Å, V=9742(8) Å 3, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[ F2>2 σ( F2)]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material.

  18. Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of…

  19. "Three-unit" muscle reconstruction in secondary cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qi; Li, Yu; Danning, Zheng; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Siqi; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background :  Secondary deformities are common in people born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. In recent years, more and more attempts and efforts have been directed toward muscle reconstruction. The authors present a new method of orbicularis oris repair in correction of secondary cleft lip deformities. Methods :  From April 2009 to April 2013, a total of 28 patients underwent this procedure in the authors' department and had a follow-up with a minimum length of 1 year. Muscle reconstruction was divided into three units that deal with the nasal floor, white lip, and red lip. Common anatomical pathologies including a deviated columella, blunted alar-facial groove, lack of philtral column, "free border" deficiency, and unapparent vermilion tubercle can be corrected in a single operation. Results :  The average follow-up period was 14.6 months (range, 12 to 24 months). Contractubex gel (Merz Pharma, Frankfurt, Germany) was used to treat prominent or reddish scars in 16 patients. No major complications occurred. All the patients were satisfied with their nasolabial appearance. Conclusions :  "Three-unit" muscle repair was found to be effective and practical in secondary repair. Improved aesthetic and functional results can be achieved with this comprehensive procedure. PMID:24443976

  20. Courting Controversy: How to Build Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jackie; Reynolds, Terry Deal

    1993-01-01

    By focusing on a polluted river and a visit to a rural Tennessee town, sixth-grade students from suburban Asheville, North Carolina, learned more about this controversy than many of their well-informed parents and teachers. Steps for creating similar interdisciplinary thematic units are described, along with the benefits of team teaching and…

  1. Lightweighted secondary mirror for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Pitz, Eckhart; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Rees, Nicholas P.; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Kaufmann, Horst W.; Schmadel, Lutz

    1999-10-01

    The paper describes the manufacture and testing of a lightweighted Zerodur secondary mirror for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The 313 mm diameter mirror is mounted on a Piezo platform for fast tip/tilt corrections. Therefore, the mirror mass has to be minimized to achieve high dynamic properties of the adaptive tip/tilt platform. The goal was to test the convex secondary without large auxiliary optics (Hindle sphere). We measured the mirror through the back surface using a small null lens system. A special transparent and highly homogeneous Zerodur was used for this purpose. We demonstrate that grinding a honeycomb structure and acid-etching of the back side of the mirror does not affect the figure of the polished convex surface.

  2. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  3. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  4. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  5. STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plan, elevations, sections, details. Austin Willmott Earl, Consulting Engineer, 233 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. Drawing no. 504. Various scales. January 20, 1945, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, amendments 4 & 5. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Electrical Services & Switching Station, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-02-24

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies. Summary of technical progress is presented for: Well drilling and completion; seismic data acquisition; and geologic and engineering interpretation.

  7. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 8: Building Construction Versus Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the eighth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 9-11). The objective of this module is to train students…

  8. An examination of reasoning and proof opportunities in three differently organized secondary mathematics textbook units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jon D.

    2012-12-01

    Students' struggles in learning reasoning and proof (RP) in mathematics are well known. Despite the instantiation of RP opportunities in mathematics textbooks in the USA and the important role that textbooks play in teachers' instructional decisions, little research has been conducted on analyzing student textbook tasks and narrative sections of mathematics textbooks in the USA. One polynomial functions unit located within a reform-oriented, conventional, and hybrid secondary mathematics textbook was examined for RP instances. RP tasks comprised 4, 9, and 22 % of the student tasks in the conventional, hybrid, and reform-oriented textbook units, respectively. The textbook exposition of all three textbook units promoted the presentation of proof building blocks (e.g., definitions) with no occurrences of conjecture development or testing. Overall, only 19 % of the learning objectives across the three textbook units were validated. The conventional and hybrid textbook units had the potential to promote an authoritative proof scheme in students while the reform-oriented textbook unit had the potential to promote an empirical proof scheme in students.

  9. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. Preservation Building Survey Form for Freestanding Library Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Susan M.

    A modification of a University of Michigan form, this survey form is designed to obtain information on a freestanding library unit for preservation. The questionnaire covers the following areas: (1) library facility construction--e.g., primary building materials, characteristics of the foundation and roof, recent problems; (2) heating and cooling…

  11. A Porous Metal-Organic Framework with Helical Chain Building Units Exhibiting Facile Transition from Micro- to Meso-porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinhee; Li, Jian-Rong; Carolina Sañudo, E.; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) with helical channels has been constructed by bridging helical chain secondary building units with 2,6-di-p-carboxyphenyl-4,4'-bipyridine ligands. The activated MOF shows permanent porosity and gas adsorption selectivity. Remarkably, the MOF exhibits a facile transition from micro- to meso-porosity.

  12. 158. ARAIII Reactor building (ARA608) Secondary cooling loop and piping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. ARA-III Reactor building (ARA-608) Secondary cooling loop and piping plan. This drawing was selected as a typical example of piping arrangements within reactor building. Aerojet/general 880-area/GCRE-608-P-16. Date: February 1958. INeel index code no. 063-0608-50-013-102641. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Secondary Students Learning Mathematics through Digital Game Building: A Study of the Effects and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing; Vandermeiden, Elise; Lemieux, Collette; Nathoo, Shahista

    2016-01-01

    This study explored secondary students' learning experiences in mathematics through digital game building. In this study, students were asked to become designers and builders in order to coauthor their own mathematics learning. Grounded in enactivism, this study examined the impact of game building on students' achievement. In addition, it…

  14. Building Bridges: Transitions from Elementary to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Most young people leave elementary school and move into some form of secondary school during early adolescence. At precisely the time that young people are navigating multiple developmental challenges (social, intellectual, academic, physical), they are expected to move between these intuitions of public education. The transition is commonly…

  15. Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Bradford

    This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of…

  16. Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1983-05-09

    A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

  17. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with how to test and service the secondary ignition circuit. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 215-216. An introduction tells how this unit fits into the total…

  18. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 214. Focus of the posttests is testing and servicing the secondary ignition circuit. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in the unit. (No…

  19. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, S.

    2002-06-13

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site.

  20. Indigenous Secondary Education in the Northern Territory: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Jeannie; McInerney, Dennis M.; Fasoli, Lyn; Stephenson, Peter; Ford, Lysbeth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an Australian Research Council (ARC) funded research project, "Building the future for Indigenous students", an investigation of the hopes and dreams for the future of over 1,000 secondary students, 733 of whom were Indigenous, living in very remote, remote, and urban locations in the Northern…

  1. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary coolant flowed through carbon steel pipe; primary coolant, through stainless steel. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: April 30, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2080 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models. PMID:15053116

  3. Truth: Humanities Unit (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Barbara; Kolman, Peter

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, this booklet describes a humanities unit for students in middle and secondary grades. The specific focus of the unit is on truth as it is perceived and expressed in philosophy, literature, art, music, drama, and the social sciences. The study of truth and its surrounding concepts…

  4. A Collection of Teaching Units about Japan for Secondary Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce, Comp; Christian, Duane, Comp.

    This document contains a collection of eight selected secondary level units of study about Japan. Individual units were planned and written by teachers who participated in the first Southwest Program for Teaching about Japan (SPTAJ) study tour to that country during 1987. Unit topics include: (1) "An Introduction To Japanese Medicine" (G. Adams);…

  5. Model Spacecraft Construction, Units for Secondary School Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, C. Thomas; And Others

    This publication provides twelve model spacecraft construction plans for use by secondary school teachers in industrial arts classes. These models were adopted and developed from plans supplied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and are representative selections from the many spacecraft used in space exploration programs. Some…

  6. Violence Prevention in United States Society of Jesus Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Thomas Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…

  7. United States History in the Secondary Schools. Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. One of the most important developments in the recent interpretations of American economic history has been the emphasis placed on business. The specific objectives of this unit are enumerated: 1) to realize that all resources are limited and the utilization of these resources is determined by…

  8. United States History in the Secondary School. Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. To insure that his unit will go beyond the general treatment of government thought in Civics or American History classes, emphasis has been placed on the methods of inquiry which will help the student achieve the self-realization of his own role in government. An examination is made into the…

  9. United States History in the Secondary School. Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. Agriculture is the broad term applied to such widely divergent topics as America's settlement, the West in American History, rural culture and philosophy, and government planning as it affects the American Farmer. The specific objectives of this unit are to help students to understand these…

  10. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 214. Focus of the exercises and pretests is testing and servicing the secondary ignition circuit. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the seven…

  11. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

  12. Heterogeneity within a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework with Three Distinct Metal-Containing Building Units.

    PubMed

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Ning, Erlong; Yan, Wenqing; Qi, Yi; Wu, Doufeng; Li, Qiaowei

    2015-10-28

    Materials built from multiple constituents have revealed emerging properties that are beyond linear integration of those from single components. We report a mesoporous metal-organic framework made from three geometrically distinct metal-containing secondary building units (SBUs) as a result of topological induction. The combinations of the Cu-based triangular, Zn-based octahedral, and Zn-based square pyramidal SBUs have created four types of cages in the network, despite that only one organic linker pyrazolecarboxylate was used. The longest distance for molecules maneuvering inside the largest cage is 5.2 nm. Furthermore, the complex and diversified pore environments allow the installation of various new functionalities in the framework as well as the expedited Ag nanoparticle formation in the pores. As presented in the molecule movement diagram, the crystal has provided specific arrangements of cages and apertures with distinct chemical features for guests transporting between the pores. PMID:26335899

  13. Nigeria: Teaching Resource Units for Use in American Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, Joshua A.

    Twenty social studies units present an in-depth investigation of Nigerian geography, culture, history, and government. The guide is intended for use by elementary and secondary classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Nigeria. Providing general background information, the first two units focus on African geography…

  14. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  15. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  16. Electrical. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This teaching guide on electrical building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of electricity in order to know how to make basic repairs to the electrical systems in a building. Introductory material provides teachers with information…

  17. Energy efficiency as a commodity: The emergence of a secondary market for efficiency savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, G.H.; Rosenfield, A.H.; McIntosh, T.A.; McGaraghan, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    The energy efficiency industry is constrained by lack of financing. For example, in the United States, commercial and public buildings need an investment of $100 billion for cost-effective retrofits with an average payback of about four years. But the current level of financing is stagnant at only about 34% of this level per year. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has led the development of the North American Energy Measurement and Verification Protocol (NEMVP). This Protocol will increase the reliability and quality of estimated efficiency savings and improve realized savings. A critical element in the development of low cost financing and a secondary market--whether for homes or credit card debt--is the adoption of protocols to provide uniformity and reliability of the product. This is also true of energy efficiency installations, which have been characterized by inconsistency in the installation methodologies and, frequently, unreliability of savings. This Protocol, published in April 1996, is a DOE-led effort involving American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE, National Association of Energy Service Companies NAESCO, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners NARUC, National Association of State Energy Officials NASEO, US Environmental Protection Agency EPA, Canada`s Canadian Association of Energy Service Companies CAESCO, and Mexico`s Comision Nacional Para El Ahorro De Energia CONAE and Fideicomiso De Apoyo Al Programa De Ahorro De Energia Del Sector Electrico FIDE. DOE has begun to build on this Protocol to develop new forms of lower-cost financing including, ultimately, development of a secondary market for energy efficiency. This could double financing for building energy efficiency within five years.

  18. Robust Cluster Building Unit: Icosanuclear Heteropolyoxocopperate Templated by Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Ling; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Strauch, Peter; Zhuang, Gui-Lin; Guo, Ling-Yu; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Di

    2015-12-14

    The encapsulation of carbonate derived from atmospheric CO2 has resulted in an icosanuclear heteropolyoxocopperate, isolated as a metal-organic 1D chain, 2D sheet, or 3D framework, in which the Cu20 nanocluster represents the first eight-capped α-Keggin polyoxometalate with the late-transition-metal Cu(II) as the polyatom, CO3(2-) as the heteroanion, and OH(-) and suc(2-) or glu(2-) (H2suc=succinic acid; H2glu=glutaric acid) as the terminal ligands, which suggests a conceptual similarity to classical polyoxometalates. Even in the presence of competitive SO4(2-) in the assembly system, the CO3(2-) anion is still captured as a template to direct the formation of the Cu20 nanocluster, which indicates the stronger templation ability of CO3(2-) compared with SO4(2-). When other aliphatic dicarboxylates, such as glutaric acid, were used as ligands, the CO3(2-)-templated Cu20 nanocluster was maintained and acted as a cluster building unit (CBU) to be linked by two glutarate bridges to generate a distinct 1D metal-organic chain. This report presents not only a rare example of a huge anion-templated transition-metal cluster, but also its use as a robust CBU to construct novel coordination architectures. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies revealed that an antiferromagnetic interaction exists within the Cu20 nanocluster. The correlation between the coordination structure and the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra recorded of both powder and single-crystal samples are discussed in detail. PMID:26541877

  19. Mandating better buildings: a global review of building codes and prospects for improvement in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Xiaojing; Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Jackson, Roderick

    2015-03-11

    This paper provides a global overview of the design, implementation, and evolution of building energy codes. Reflecting alternative policy goals, building energy codes differ significantly across the United States, the European Union, and China. This review uncovers numerous innovative practices including greenhouse gas emissions caps per square meter of building space, energy performance certificates with retrofit recommendations, and inclusion of renewable energy to achieve “nearly zero-energy buildings”. These innovations motivated an assessment of an aggressive commercial building code applied to all US states, requiring both new construction and buildings with major modifications to comply with the latest version of themore » ASHRAE 90.1 Standards. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), we estimate that by 2035, such building codes in the United States could reduce energy for space heating, cooling, water heating and lighting in commercial buildings by 16%, 15%, 20% and 5%, respectively. Impacts on different fuels and building types, energy rates and bills as well as pollution emission reductions are also examined.« less

  20. Mandating better buildings: a global review of building codes and prospects for improvement in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaojing; Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Jackson, Roderick

    2015-03-11

    This paper provides a global overview of the design, implementation, and evolution of building energy codes. Reflecting alternative policy goals, building energy codes differ significantly across the United States, the European Union, and China. This review uncovers numerous innovative practices including greenhouse gas emissions caps per square meter of building space, energy performance certificates with retrofit recommendations, and inclusion of renewable energy to achieve “nearly zero-energy buildings”. These innovations motivated an assessment of an aggressive commercial building code applied to all US states, requiring both new construction and buildings with major modifications to comply with the latest version of the ASHRAE 90.1 Standards. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), we estimate that by 2035, such building codes in the United States could reduce energy for space heating, cooling, water heating and lighting in commercial buildings by 16%, 15%, 20% and 5%, respectively. Impacts on different fuels and building types, energy rates and bills as well as pollution emission reductions are also examined.

  1. Sharing British Columbia's Water Resources. A Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Angus M.

    Seventeen student worksheets form a secondary school unit which focuses on the challenge of shared usage of water resources. Pressure currently exists for a more balanced approach in which all legitimate interests in a water source are served. The worksheets include readings which focus on enough water for all, the water cycle (including a…

  2. Assessing the Impact of a Secondary School Ethnic Relations Unit: Results and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Benjamin I., Jr.

    The research reported assesses the impact of a program on the change of ethnic attitudes of students. The Anthropology Curriculum Project's "Race, Caste and Prejudice," designed to enhance intergroup attitudes and behavior, is a supplementary secondary school unit of study, text and handbook, dealing with race, caste and prejudice from a…

  3. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  4. Australians All: A Study Unit on Contemporary Australia for Secondary Schools [and] Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This document presents a study unit on Australia for secondary school students. A student reading examines Australia's cultural conflicts, history, 20th century development, and recent government policy. Australia's commitment to multiculturalism, the benefits of immigration, and the prospects for the future are also explored. The teacher's…

  5. The Supply and Demand of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Said

    This Digest examines U.S. teacher supply and demand, including projections for the next 10 years. For the past 10 years, the supply of public elementary and secondary school teachers has grown. Currently, the number of teachers in the United States is 3.1 million, 2,666,034 of whom teach in public schools. The number is projected to increase by…

  6. Overcoming Resistance to Achievement-based Unit Grading in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randall

    2008-01-01

    Achievement-based unit grading in secondary physical education is not commonly practiced due to resistance to grading students based on learning, performance, or achievement. Traditional grading practices based on managerial factors, such as attendance and good behavior, and on "pseudo-accountability" do little to make students accountable for…

  7. Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Mandler, J.W.; Duce, S.W.; Motes, B.G.

    1981-05-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized.

  8. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  9. Secondary migration and relocation among African refugee families in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Hoffman, Yael; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweigh, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the secondary migration and relocation of African refugees resettled in the United States. Secondary migration refers to moves out of state, while relocation refers to moves within state. Of 73 recently resettled refugee families from Burundi and Liberia followed for 1 year through ethnographic interviews and observations, 13 instances of secondary migration and 9 instances of relocation were identified. A family ecodevelopmental framework was applied to address: Who moved again, why, and with what consequences? How did moving again impact family risk and protective factors? How might policies, researchers, and practitioners better manage refugees moving again? Findings indicated that families undertook secondary migration principally for employment, affordable housing, family reunification, and to feel more at home. Families relocated primarily for affordable housing. Parents reported that secondary migration and relocation enhanced family stability. Youth reported disruption to both schooling and attachments with peers and community. In conclusion, secondary migration and relocation were family efforts to enhance family and community protective resources and to mitigate shortcomings in resettlement conditions. Policymakers could provide newly resettled refugees jobs, better housing and family reunification. Practitioners could devise ways to better engage and support those families who consider moving. PMID:21361922

  10. 40 CFR 165.92 - What if I need both a containment pad and a secondary containment unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What if I need both a containment pad... Containment Structures § 165.92 What if I need both a containment pad and a secondary containment unit? You may combine containment pads and secondary containment units as an integrated system provided...

  11. 22. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 2. United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 2. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plans, section, & detail. Alben Froberg, Architect, 3454 Harlan Street, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 2. Plan no. 10,525. Various scales. March 1, 1942, last revised 3/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. 23. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 3. United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 3. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plans, section, & detail. Alben Froberg, Architect, 3454 Harlan Street, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 3. Plan no. 10,525. Various scales. March 1, 1943, last revised 3/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  13. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-30

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

  14. Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5μm diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0μm size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

  15. Nation-Building: Tanzania and the World. Through African Eyes: Cultures in Change, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    The process of nation building in Tanzania is the topic of this book, the sixth in a series dealing with African culture and intended for secondary level students. Almost all of the selections in the book were written by Africans, and they come from a variety of sources including speeches, government documents, newspaper and magazine articles,…

  16. Constructing Wood Agricultural Buildings. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Paul; Carpenter, Bruce

    This 5-week unit on constructing wood agricultural buildings is designed for the junior or senior year of the regular agribusiness course of study or as part of the agricultural mechanics program. In outline form, the unit is divided into eight major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested…

  17. Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jianjun; Hong, Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng, Wei; Yang, Le; Im, Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-10-30

    Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

  18. A two-dimensional homospin Cu(II) ferrimagnet featuring S-shaped hexanuclear secondary building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zilu; Liu, Long; Wang, Yifei; Zou, Huahong; Zhang, Zhong; Liang, Fupei

    2014-06-14

    The decomposition of 2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl-imino)-1,2-diphenylethanone in the presence of copper acetate promoted the formation of a two-dimensional homospin Cu(II) ferrimagnet featuring S-shaped hexanuclear secondary building blocks and a new pentanodal topology. PMID:24676556

  19. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  20. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  1. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  2. A nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry study of dinoflagellate functional diversity in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R; Tonk, Linda; Dove, Sophie; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoppe, Peter; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Meibom, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional interactions between corals and symbiotic dinoflagellate algae lie at the heart of the structural foundation of coral reefs. Whilst the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium has attracted particular interest because of its contribution to the sensitivity of corals to environmental changes and bleaching (i.e. disruption of coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis), very little is known about the in hospite metabolic capabilities of different Symbiodinium types. Using a combination of stable isotopic labelling and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we investigated the ability of the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Isopora palifera, and Symbiodinium C or D types, to assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (via photosynthesis) and nitrogen (as ammonium). Our results indicate that Symbiodinium types from two clades naturally associated with I. palifera possess different metabolic capabilities. The Symbiodinium C type fixed and passed significantly more carbon and nitrogen to its coral host than the D type. This study provides further insights into the metabolic plasticity among different Symbiodinium types in hospite and strengthens the evidence that the more temperature-tolerant Symbiodinium D type may be less metabolically beneficial for its coral host under non-stressful conditions. PMID:24902979

  3. MODELING THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE EMISSIONS ON ATMOSPHERIC OZONE AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the modeled effects of natural and anthropogenic chlorine emissions on the atmospheric concentrations of ozone and secondary organic aerosol across the United States. The model calculations include anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypo...

  4. Assessment of Service Delivery in Guidance and Counselling Units in Selected Secondary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owino, Elizabeth Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the type of services delivered by the existing Guidance and Counselling units in secondary schools in Kenya based on a survey conducted in Eldoret Municipality in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design the target population being all secondary schools in the Municipality where a sample was…

  5. The Theological Literacy, Beliefs, and Practices of Lay Administrators of Marianist-Sponsored Secondary Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 45 years, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of religious and priests working in Catholic schools in the United States. Currently, 96% of all elementary and secondary faculties are comprised of lay men and women (McDonald, 2010). This same phenomenon can be found in Marianist-sponsored secondary schools in the United…

  6. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol over the United States: Comparison of climatological simulations with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong; Henze, Daven K.; Seinfeld, John H.; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2007-03-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate change on regional air quality is central in future air quality planning. We report here on the use of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) III to drive the GEOS-CHEM global atmospheric chemical transport model to simulate climatological present-day aerosol levels over the United States. Evaluation of model predictions using surface measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network indicates that the GISS GCM III/GEOS-CHEM model is a suitable tool for simulating aerosols over the United States in the present climate. The model reproduces fairly well the concentrations of sulfate (mean bias of -0.36 μg m-3, normalized mean bias (NMB) of -25.9%), black carbon (-0.004 μg m-3, -1.9%), organic carbon that comprises primary and secondary components (-0.56 μg m-3, -34.2%), and PM2.5 (-0.87 μg m-3, -20.4%). Nitrate concentrations are overpredicted in the western United States (west of 95°W) with a NMB of +75.6% and underestimated in the eastern United States with a NMB of -54.4%. Special attention is paid to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The highest predicted seasonal mean SOA concentrations of 1-2 μg m-3 and 0.5-1.5 μg m-3 are predicted over the northwestern and southeastern United States, respectively, in the months of June-July-August. Isoprene is predicted to contribute 49.5% of the biogenic SOA burden over the United States, with the rest explained by the oxidation of terpenes. Predicted biogenic SOA concentrations are in reasonable agreement with inferred SOA levels from IMPROVE measurements. On an annual basis, SOA is predicted to contribute 10-20% of PM2.5 mass in the southeastern United States, as high as 38% in the northwest and about 5-15% in other regions, indicating the important role of SOA in understanding air quality and visibility over the United States.

  7. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  8. THE GREAT RECESSION AND RECENT EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession had substantial effects on the labor market in the United States, as elsewhere. To what extent did secondary students’ employment decline during this time? Which students are leaving the labor market? Are reductions in employment concentrated in particular jobs? To answer these questions, we use data from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing study of secondary students in the United States. More specifically, we examine recent trends in teenage employment using 6 cohorts each of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (from 2006 to 2011, spanning before, during and after the Great Recession). Results show a gradual decline in school year employment since 2006, including the years after the official end of the recession. Employment during the school year is especially low among 8th and 10th graders, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black youth, and students from disadvantaged backgrounds (based upon parental education), though the recent drop in work has varied little by population subgroups. The decline in employment is, however, concentrated among the oldest students, and working intensely (over 20 hours per week) has dropped more than working moderate hours. Students are more likely to babysit and do lawn work and less likely to hold jobs in office, clerical, and sales positions than in years past. These patterns and recent shifts in job type suggest some degree of job replacement by older workers. PMID:25642296

  9. 40 CFR 267.1105 - What do I do if my containment building contains areas both with and without secondary containment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... buildings § 267.1105 What do I do if my containment building contains areas both with and without secondary containment? For these containment buildings, you must: (a) Design and operate each area in accordance with... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I do if my...

  10. 24 CFR 983.56 - Cap on number of PBV units in each building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cap on number of PBV units in each building. 983.56 Section 983.56 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  11. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Evaluation of three common green building materials for ozone removal, and primary and secondary emissions of aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Elliott; Darling, Erin; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Morrison, Glenn C.; Corsi, Richard L.

    2013-10-01

    Ozone reactions that occur on material surfaces can lead to elevated concentrations of oxidized products in the occupied space of buildings. However, there is little information on the impact of materials at full scale, especially for green building materials. Experiments were completed in a 68 m3 climate-controlled test chamber with three certified green building materials that can cover large areas in buildings: (1) recycled carpet, (2) perlite-based ceiling tile and (3) low-VOC paint and primer on recycled drywall. Ozone deposition velocity and primary and secondary emission rates of C1 to C10 saturated carbonyls were determined for two chamber mixing conditions and three values of relative humidity. A direct comparison was made between ozone deposition velocities and carbonyl yields observed for the same materials analyzed in small (10 L) chambers. Total primary carbonyl emission rates from carpet, ceiling tile and painted drywall ranged from 27 to 120 μg m-2 h-1, 13 to 40 μg m-2 h-1, 3.9 to 42 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Ozone deposition velocity to these three materials averaged 6.1 m h-1, 2.3 m h-1 and 0.32 m h-1, respectively. Total secondary carbonyl emissions from these materials ranged from 70 to 276 μg m-2 h-1, 0 to 12 μg m-2 h-1, and 0 to 30 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Carbonyl emissions were determined with a transient approximation, and were found to be in general agreement with those found in the literature. These results suggest that care should be taken when selecting green building materials due to potentially large differences in primary and secondary emissions.

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: building trades I and II. The eight units in building trades I are as follows: safety; measurement; tools, equipment, and hardware; building plans and blueprints; introduction to carpentry; introduction to plumbing; introduction to…

  14. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, October 1992--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-02-24

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies. Summary of technical progress is presented for: Well drilling and completion; seismic data acquisition; and geologic and engineering interpretation.

  15. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, February--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-05-20

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies.

  16. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian E. . E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine

    2006-12-15

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

  17. Self-Assembly and Tissue Fusion of Toroid-Shaped Minimal Building Units

    PubMed Central

    Livoti, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    A significant challenge of tissue engineering is to build tissues whose size is not limited by diffusion. We are investigating the use of scaffold-free lumen containing toroid-shaped microtissues as minimal building units. Monodispersed H35 cells, a rat hepatocyte cell line, were seeded onto micromolded agarose, forming self-assembled multicellular toroids within 48 h. Toroid and lumen diameter were easily controlled by micromold design, and toroid thickness was controlled by seeding density. When harvested, toroids were stable, but underwent predictable changes over time with their lumens narrowing. When brought into contact, these building units fused in the x–y plane, forming a double-lumen structure, as well as the z plane, forming a tubular structure, which completed within 72 h. Large, multi-luminal structures were assembled by multidimensional fusion of many toroids. Toroid settling was not entirely random, with most toroids lying flat with their lumens oriented along the z axis. The rapid production of toroid building units of controlled dimension and lumen size that undergo predictable changes and that can be fused to form larger structures is a step closer to tissue engineering large porous three-dimensional tissues with high cell density. PMID:20109063

  18. Building Bridges: Effective Post-Secondary Transitions for Girls in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Transitions between education cycles represent one of the greatest hazards for girls in their educational journey throughout the developing world. It is not uncommon across sub-Saharan Africa for girls' secondary enrollment rates to drop 75% from primary enrollment rates. Between the secondary level and the tertiary level, enrollment rates often…

  19. Unspeciated Organic Emissions From Combustion Sources And Their Influence On The Secondary Organic Aerosol Budget In The United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S.; Gordon, T.; Hennigan, C. J.; Pye, H. O.; Donahue, N. M.; Adams, P. J.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Combustion sources are a major source of organic emissions and therefore a potentially important source for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Although speciated organic emissions from combustion sources are considered in models to form SOA, a large fraction of the organics are unspeciated. In this work, we analyze data from numerous smog chamber experiments, which photo-oxidized dilute emissions from different combustion sources (on-road gasoline vehicles, aircraft, on-road diesel vehicles, wood burning and open biomass burning), to determine the contribution that unspeciated emissions make to SOA formation. An SOA model based on speciated organics is able to explain, on average, 8-31% of the SOA measured in the experiments. We hypothesize that the remainder results from the gas-phase oxidation of unspeciated emissions, which account on average for 25-75% of the non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. Using the SOA data, we develop, for the first time, source-specific parameterizations to model SOA from unspeciated emissions; all sources seem to have median SOA yields similar to large n-alkanes (C12+). To assess the influence of unspeciated emissions on SOA formation regionally, we use the parameterization to predict SOA production in the United States. Using emissions data collected during the smog chamber experiments and data available in literature, we build a gross inventory for unspeciated emissions in the United States. We discover that unspeciated organics might be included in the current generation of SOA models but misallocated in terms of its SOA potential. The top six combustion sources (on- and off-road gasoline, on- and off-road diesel, open biomass and wood burning) emit 2.61 Tg yr-1 of unspeciated emissions (20% of US anthropogenic VOC emissions from combustion sources) and are estimated to form a minimum of 0.68 Tg yr-1 of SOA; the estimate is a third of the biogenic SOA produced in the US. We predict that accounting for

  20. TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1: Building units and crystal growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Colmont, Marie Terasaki, Osamu

    2007-03-15

    Surface fine structure and structural defects in the open framework material VSB-1 have been investigated by electron microscopy. Crystal growth phenomena are proposed by a building unit model: (i) a unit is formed by two building units; (ii) they are linked to form first channels; and (iii) the whole network is grown via a layer-by-layer growth mechanism. A planar defect was observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image taken with the [0001] incidence, and diffuse streaks related to the presence of defects were observed in a series of electron diffraction (ED) patterns. The microstructure model derived from the defect structure gives information on crystal growth. These defects highlight an open site that could be the pillar of a new crystal growth process. The study of defects and crystal growth is important in understanding physical properties such as catalytic or magnetic properties, and in synthesising a new open framework structure. - Graphical abstract: TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1 evidenced defects and information about building units and crystal growth. As usually observed for microporous materials, the crystal growth via a layer by layer mechanism.

  1. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  2. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    SciTech Connect

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured.

  3. Investigation of hydrogen-burn damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Eidem, G.R.

    1982-06-01

    About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 Loss-of-Coolant Accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2, a hydrogen deflagration of undetermined extent occurred inside the reactor building. Examinations of photographic evidence, available from the first fifteen entries into the reactor building, yielded preliminary data on the possible extent and range of hydrogen burn damage. These data, although sparse, contributed to development of a possible damage path and to an estimate of the extent of damage to susceptible reactor building items. Further information gathered from analysis of additional photographs and samples can provide the means for estimating hydrogen source and production rate data crucial to developing a complete understanding of the TMI-2 hydrogen deflagration. 34 figures.

  4. Profiles of Airborne Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Brian G.; Kirkland, Kimberly H.; Flanders, W. Dana; Morris, George K.

    2002-01-01

    We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable airborne fungal concentrations in indoor air were lower than those in outdoor air. The fungal levels were highest in the fall and summer and lowest in the winter and spring. Geographically, the highest fungal levels were found in the Southwest, Far West, and Southeast. The most common culturable airborne fungi, both indoors and outdoors and in all seasons and regions, were Cladosporium, Penicillium, nonsporulating fungi, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys chartarum was identified in the indoor air in 6% of the buildings studied and in the outdoor air of 1% of the buildings studied. This study provides industrial hygienists, allergists, and other public health practitioners with comparative information on common culturable airborne fungi in the United States. This is the largest study of airborne indoor and outdoor fungal species and concentrations conducted with a standardized protocol to date. PMID:11916692

  5. Significant Contributions of Isoprene to Summertime Secondary Organic Aerosol in Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ying, Qi; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha

    2015-07-01

    A modified SAPRC-11 (S11) photochemical mechanism with more detailed treatment of isoprene oxidation chemistry and additional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through surface-controlled reactive uptake of dicarbonyls, isoprene epoxydiol and methacrylic acid epoxide was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to quantitatively determine contributions of isoprene to summertime ambient SOA concentrations in the eastern United States. The modified model utilizes a precursor-origin resolved approach to determine secondary glyoxal and methylglyoxal produced by oxidation of isoprene and other major volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Predicted OC concentrations show good agreement with field measurements without significant bias (MFB ∼ 0.07 and MFE ∼ 0.50), and predicted SOA reproduces observed day-to-day and diurnal variation of Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) determined by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) at two locations in Houston, Texas. On average, isoprene SOA accounts for 55.5% of total predicted near-surface SOA in the eastern U.S., followed by aromatic compounds (13.2%), sesquiterpenes (13.0%) and monoterpenes (10.9%). Aerosol surface uptake of isoprene-generated glyoxal, methylglyoxal and epoxydiol accounts for approximately 83% of total isoprene SOA or more than 45% of total SOA. A domain wide reduction of NOx emissions by 40% leads to a slight decrease of domain average SOA by 3.6% and isoprene SOA by approximately 2.6%. Although most of the isoprene SOA component concentrations are decreased, SOA from isoprene epoxydiol is increased by ∼16%. PMID:26029963

  6. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  7. United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools 1995-96. The Annual Statistical Report on Schools, Enrollment, and Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X., Comp.; Milks, Mary Jo, Comp.

    Since 1969-70, the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) has published a statistical report on Catholic elementary and secondary schools in the United States. This report contains the core school enrollment and staffing data of the NCEA historical file for 1995-96. Data were collected on Title I services, extended-care programs, school…

  8. Serving Students, Science, or Society? The Secondary School Physics Curriculum in the United States, 1930-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the reform of secondary school physics in the United States from the 1930s through the mid-1960s. Describes the impact of progressive education, World War II, and the post-Sputnik reforms. Points out differences between past reform efforts and the current Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (CFR)

  9. Secondary organic aerosol characterization at field sites across the United States during the spring-summer period

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of secondary organic carbon at 15 field sites across the United States (U.S.) during the years 2003-2010 have been examined. Filter samples have been taken for 24-h at a site in Research Triangle Park, NC; at SEARCH sites in southeastern U.S. during May and August 2005; ...

  10. National Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. Jacobs and Kritsonis say the time is now for educators to be recognizant of…

  11. Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America: National Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for the secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. The time is now for educators to be recognizant of these changes.…

  12. A report of fluorosis in the United States secondary to drinking well water.

    PubMed

    Felsenfeld, A J; Roberts, M A

    A 54-year-old female resident of Wellston, Okla, was found to have osteosclerosis on a routine chest roentgenogram. Subsequent investigation disclosed the cause of her osteosclerosis to be fluorosis secondary to the ingestion of well water containing 429 mumol/L of fluoride (recommended levels, 11 to 58 mumol/L). Water samples were also obtained from the 12 wells on properties adjacent to the index case. In three other wells, all at similar depths as the well of the index case, the fluoride concentration of the water was greater than 212 mumol/L. Urine samples from members of the four households who obtain their drinking water from these wells contained elevated urinary fluoride levels. Thus, fluorosis may develop in certain areas of the United States as a result of the natural occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater. Consequently, in known endemic areas, it would appear reasonable to measure the fluoride concentration of the well water at the time of drilling. PMID:1985235

  13. Critical Care for Multiple Organ Failure Secondary to Ebola Virus Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Johnson, Daniel W.; Weinstein, Gary L.; Connor, Michael J.; Crozier, Ian; Liddell, Allison M.; Franch, Harold A.; Wall, Bruce R.; Kalil, Andre C.; Feldman, Mark; Lisco, Steven J.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This report describes three patients with Ebola virus disease who were treated in the United States and developed for severe critical illness and multiple organ failure secondary to Ebola virus infection. The patients received mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, invasive monitoring, vasopressor support, and investigational therapies for Ebola virus disease. Data Sources Patient medical records from three tertiary care centers (Emory University Hospital, University of Nebraska Medical Center, and Texas Health Presbyterian Dallas Hospital). Study Selection Not applicable. Data Extraction Not applicable. Data Synthesis Not applicable. Conclusion In the severe form, patients with Ebola virus disease may require life-sustaining therapy, including mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. In conjunction with other reported cases, this series suggests that respiratory and renal failure may occur in severe Ebola virus disease, especially in patients burdened with high viral loads. Ebola virus disease complicated by multiple organ failure can be survivable with the application of advanced life support measures. This collective, multicenter experience is presented with the hope that it may inform future treatment of patients with Ebola virus disease requiring critical care treatment. PMID:26196353

  14. Building Bridges between Primary and Secondary Science for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra; Davies, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the Improving Science Together (IST) project (2000-2002), funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. The project was a partnership between 20 primary and 4 secondary schools in Bristol and South Gloucestershire, LEA advisory staff, BAE Systems, and the primary science team at Bath Spa University…

  15. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Building Trades. (Program CIP: 46.0000 - Construction Trades, General)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, Jarvis; Manning, Phillip; Matkins, Billy

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  16. Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young People: A New Agenda for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra, Ernesto; Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to set forth policy options for supporting developing countries and transition economies in adapting their secondary education systems to demands arising from the successful expansion of primary education and the socioeconomic challenges presented by globalization and the knowledge-based economy. The report analyzes…

  17. Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-09-25

    The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

  18. The Role of Theory Building in the Teaching of Secondary Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Herbst, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Although mathematical practice has traditionally valued two distinct kinds of mathematical work--referred to by Gowers (2000) as theory building and problem solving--activity in classrooms appears to be organized largely around the latter, rather than the former. This study takes up the question of whether there is a customary role for theory…

  19. Reading for Deep Understanding: Knowledge Building and Conceptual Artifacts in Secondary English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachowitz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this design-based experiment is two-fold: to see if classroom pedagogies can be developed to improve student achievement in English literature as well as prepare them for 21st Century literacies. Applying Bereiter and Scardamalia's theory of Knowledge Building to English curricula, this experiment tracked the progress of a…

  20. Peace Education in Secondary Schools: A Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubogu, Rowell

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses Peace Education as Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria. This was prompted by the inherent incompatibility between the objectives of individuals, ethnic/social groups in Nigeria. The research question addresses Normative and Ethical issues regarding peace, the absence of violence/hostility and its…

  1. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  2. Halogen dependent symmetry change in two series of wheel cluster organic frameworks built from La18 tertiary building units.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-01-25

    Two series of wheel cluster organic frameworks (WCOFs) built from La18 tertiary building units are hydrothermally made, which show halogen-dependent structural symmetry, and demonstrate different chiral performances. PMID:26647832

  3. Expanded Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks by SCSC: Organic Building Units Modifying and Enhanced Gas-Adsorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weidong; Lin, Huan; Yuan, Xue; Dai, Fangna; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liangliang; Luo, Liwen; Wang, Rongming

    2016-07-01

    Two amino-functional copper metal-organic frameworks of formula [Cu3(ATTCA)2(H2O)3]·2DMF·11H2O·12EtOH (1) (H3ATTCA = 2-amino-[1,1:3,1-terphenyl]-4,4,5-tricarboxylic acid, pyz = pyrazine, DMF = dimethylformamide) and [Cu3(ATTCA)2(pyz)(H2O)]·2DMF·12H2O·8EtOH (2) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, and powder X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both complexes 1 and 2 are built of the Cu2(COO)4 paddlewheel secondary building units with an fmj topology. Importantly, complex 1 can be transformed into complex 2 by the single-crystal to single-crystal transformation of which the coordinated water molecules are replaced with pyz molecules. However, the adsorption abilities of 2 are obviously lower than those of 1, as its pores are partially blocked by pyz molecules. Moreover, gas-adsorption analysis showed that the amino-functional 1 possesses higher gas-adsorption capacity than UMCM-151 for N2, H2, CH4, and C2H2, especially for CO2. PMID:27315443

  4. What is Matter? Teacher's Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  6. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  7. Milestones in the Secondary English Curriculum in the United States. ICTE Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Lou Ann

    Written for students pursuing graduate study, this chronological table lists landmark publications in the secondary English curriculum occurring between 1893 and 1971. For each of the 27 milestones--e.g., "Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies" (1893), "Teaching Creative Writing" by Lawrence Conrad (1937), "The Uses of…

  8. Competitive Foods and Beverages Available for Purchase in Secondary Schools--Selected Sites, United States, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, L.; Grunbaum, J.; McKenna, M. L.; Wechsler, H.; Galuska, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school,…

  9. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an

  12. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  13. Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

  14. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  15. Secondary use of electronic health records for building cohort studies through top-down information extraction.

    PubMed

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Berghold, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Controlled clinical trials are usually supported with an in-front data aggregation system, which supports the storage of relevant information according to the trial context within a highly structured environment. In contrast to the documentation of clinical trials, daily routine documentation has many characteristics that influence data quality. One such characteristic is the use of non-standardized text, which is an indispensable part of information representation in clinical information systems. Based on a cohort study we highlight challenges for mining electronic health records targeting free text entry fields within semi-structured data sources. Our prototypical information extraction system achieved an F-measure of 0.91 (precision=0.90, recall=0.93) for the training set and an F-measure of 0.90 (precision=0.89, recall=0.92) for the test set. We analyze the obtained results in detail and highlight challenges and future directions for the secondary use of routine data in general. PMID:25451102

  16. Building an organized knowledge base: Concept mapping and achievement in secondary school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, William J.

    Direct teaching of problem-solving methods to high school physics students met with little success. Expert problem solving depended upon an organized knowledge base. Concept mapping was found to be a key to organizing an effective knowledge base. The investigation of the effect of the degree of concept mapping on achievement was the purpose of this study. Six intact high school physics classes, taught by this investigator, took part in the study. Two classes were control groups and received standard instruction. Four classes received six weeks of concept-mapping instruction prior to the unit under study. Two of these four classes were the low-level treatment group and were required to submit concept maps at the conclusion of the instruction. The other two classes were the high-level treatment group and were required to submit concept maps at the beginning and at the conclusion of the unit under study. One class from each treatment group took a pretest prior to instruction. An analysis of the posttest results revealed no pretest sensitization. A one-way analysis of covariance indicated a significant main effect for the treatment level at the p < 0.05 level. A pair of single-df comparisons of the adjusted treatment means resulted in significant differences (p < 0.05) between the control group and the average of the treatment means as well as between the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that for this sample (upper-middle-class high school physics students) mapping concepts prior to, during, and subsequent to instruction led to greater achievement as measured by posttest scores.

  17. Development of 20 IEER Rooftop Units System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith; Vineyard, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Based on detailed steady-state system and component modeling, we developed a rooftop unit system design, which is able to achieve IEER (Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio) higher than 20. We modeled fin-&-tube and micro-channel heat exchangers using segment-to-segment approach, and use AHRI 10-coefficient compressor map to simulate compressor performance. The system modeling is based on a component-based modeling approach, which facilitates flexible simulation of complicated system configurations. Starting with a baseline system having IEER of 16.6, we extensively investigated numerous technical options, i.e. varying compressor sizes, heat exchanger fin densities, fin-&-tube or micro-channel heat exchanger, suction line heat exchanger, desiccant wheel, tandem compressor, variable-speed compressor, and condenser evaporative pre-cooling; and developed an innovative system configuration combining a tandem compression system with a variable-speed compression system. The combined system can achieve high IEER as well as process the outdoor ventilation air over an extensive range. We successfully evaluated the design concept for a 20-ton (70.4 kW) unit as well as a 10-ton (35.2 kW) unit. All the selected components are readily accessible on the market, and we validated the performance predictions against existing Rooftop Unit (RTU) products at the rating condition. This paper illustrates a potentially cost-effective high IEER RTU design. In addtion, we conducted extensive building energy simulations using EnergyPlus to predict seasonal energy saving potentials and peak power reductions using the High IEER RTU in sixteen US cities, in comparison to a RTU with a minimum efficiency.

  18. Saturn V Instrument Unit for the Apollo 4 Mission in the Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly operation of the Saturn V launch vehicle for the Apollo 4 (SA 501) mission. The instrument unit (IU) was mated atop the S-IC/S-II assembly in the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay at the Kennedy Space Center. The Apollo 4 mission was the first launch of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Objectives of the unmanned Apollo 4 test flight were to obtain flight information on launch vehicle and spacecraft structural integrity and compatibility, flight loads, stage separation, and subsystems operation including testing of restart of the S-IVB stage, and to evaluate the Apollo command module heat shield. The Apollo 4 was launched on November 9, 1967 from KSC.

  19. Saturn V Instrument Unit for the Apollo 4 Mission in the Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly operation of the Saturn V launch vehicle for the Apollo 4 (SA 501) mission. The instrument unit (IU) was hoisted to be mated to the S-IC/S-II assembly in the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay at the Kennedy Space Center. The Apollo 4 mission was the first launch of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Objectives of the unmanned Apollo 4 test flight were to obtain flight information on launch vehicle and spacecraft structural integrity and compatibility, flight loads, stage separation, and subsystems operation including testing of restart of the S-IVB stage, and to evaluate the Apollo command module heat shield. The Apollo 4 was launched on November 9, 1967 from KSC.

  20. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast...-key selection procedures to enter into fixed-price design-build contracts in accordance with 14...

  1. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast...-key selection procedures to enter into fixed-price design-build contracts in accordance with 14...

  2. Novel building units with bimetallic rings in inorganic/organic hybrid chains and layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahenthirarajah, Thushitha; Li Yang; Lightfoot, Philip

    2009-11-15

    Hydrothermal synthesis has produced three new compounds constructed from novel building units containing vanadium-oxide (or oxyfluoride) subunits linked together via covalently bound cationic copper complexes. Each new compound exhibits novel structural features: [Cu(dipa)][VOF{sub 4}] (1) incorporates a corner-sharing octahedral vanadium(IV) oxyfluoride chain decorated by copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes which form intra-chain bridges. Within a similar reactant system [Cu(dipa)]{sub 2}[V{sub 6}O{sub 17}] (2) is produced, the structure of which exhibits edge-sharing trigonal bipyramidal vanadium(V) 'ladder-like' double chains which are bridged into layers by tetrahedral pyrovanadate dimers together with the copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes. [Cu(py){sub 4}]{sub 2}[V{sub 4}O{sub 12}] (3), is a 2-D structure featuring exclusively tetrahedral vanadium(V) in four-membered ring building blocks, linked through octahedral copper-pyridine complexes to form two crystallographically different bimetallic layers. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis is used to prepare hybrid mixed metal oxides and oxyfluorides with novel extended connectivities

  3. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-09-30

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or “clean,” building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, “Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201”) was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room

  4. A Comparison of Adolescent Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Grenada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Richard M.

    The effects of the recently expanded educational services in Grenada have not yet been determined. In 1984 a questionnaire was administered to 729 Grenadian secondary school students to compare their educational and vocational aspirations; attitudes toward family, school, work, and military experience; family backgrounds; subject preferences;…

  5. There's Madness in These Methods: Teaching Secondary Methods Students to Develop Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dorie; White, Rodney

    2000-01-01

    Discusses interdisciplinary instruction at the high school level, examines the imperatives of statewide reform in Kentucky, and outlines how and when interdisciplinary instruction improves learning. Describes an interdisciplinary learning project taught in secondary methods classes at Eastern Kentucky University in which students experience…

  6. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL IN THE UNITED STATES USING MODELS AND MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, three diagnostic evaluation methods of model performance for carbonaceous aerosol are reviewed. The EC-tracer method is used to distinguish primary and secondary carbon, radiocarbon data are used to distinguish fossil-fuel and contemporary carbon, and organ...

  7. A Job Satisfaction Profile of the Female Secondary School Principal in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fansher, Ted A.; Buxton, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Researchers studied 266 women in secondary school principalships to learn more about female principals. Some findings include overall level of job satisfaction is high, most are 40-60 years of age, many were vice-principals first, their school faculties have more women, and myths and discrimination about women still abound. (MD)

  8. Public Education in the United States. A Modularized Course. Elementary Education 3010. Secondary Education 3040.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joyce V.; Mamola, Claire Z.

    This modularized, self-paced study program in Elementary and Secondary Education for K-12 majors is an evolving course of study designed for responsible students. The course is organized into six modules: Trends and Issues in Contemporary Education, Philosophical and Historical Foundations of Education, Administrative Structure and Financing of…

  9. Functions in Contemporary Secondary Mathematics Textbook Series in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks play a central role in US mathematics classrooms (Stein, Remillard, & Smith, 2007) and functions are a key topic in secondary mathematics (Carlson, Jacobs, Coe, Larsen, & Hsu, 2002). This study presents results from an analysis of this essential topic in the latest editions of three textbook series: the Glencoe Mathematics…

  10. Japan Meets the West: A Case Study of Perceptions. A Secondary Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for grades 9-12, includes a teacher's guide and 30 accompanying slides. Teachers don't need special knowledge of Japanese history; sufficient background information is provided. The activities can be adapted for other grade levels. The unit is intended for five class periods of 50-minutes each with supplementary activities to…

  11. To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 300 Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, North Carolina, as the "Jesse Helms Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ellmers, Renee L. [R-NC-2

    2012-11-27

    11/28/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-03-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  13. Combination of an electrolytic pretreatment unit with secondary water reclamation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Bonura, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight concept prototype electrolytic pretreatment unit (EPU) and of a contractor-furnished air evaporation unit (AEU) are described. The integrated EPU and AEU potable water recovery system is referred to as the Electrovap and is capable of processing the urine and flush water of a six-man crew. Results of a five-day performance verification test of the Electrovap system are presented and plans are included for the extended testing of the Electrovap to produce data applicable to the combination of electrolytic pretreatment with most final potable water recovery systems. Plans are also presented for a program to define the design requirements for combining the electrolytic pretreatment unit with a reverse osmosis final processing unit.

  14. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.

    PubMed

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. PMID:23102641

  15. Delivery of the Second Generation VLT Secondary Mirror (M2) Unit to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Vernet, E.; Madec, P.-Y.; Lizon, J.-L.; Duhoux, P.; Conzelmann, R.; Hubin, N.; Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Pescoller, D.; Mair, C.; Picin, F.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Fumi, L.; Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Poutriquet, F.; Ruch, E.; Rinchet, A.; Carré, J.-F.; Fappani, D.

    2013-03-01

    The deformable secondary mirror (DSM), one of the key systems of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF), has been delivered to ESO. It has been fully qualified in standalone mode and has successfully passed the technical acceptance Europe. Recently it was installed on ASSIST, the test bench for the AOF, and will undergo optical tests, which will complete its preliminary acceptance in Europe. With its 1170 actuators and 1.1-metre thin-shell mirror, it constitutes the largest adaptive optics mirror ever produced. The DSM constitutes a fine accomplishment by European industry and is set to become the "flagship" of the AOF on Paranal.

  16. Inconsistencies among secondary sources of Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) introductions to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cropper, Wendell P.; Broz, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The propagule pressure hypothesis asserts that the number of individuals released is the key determinant of whether an introduction will succeed or not. It remains to be shown whether propagule pressure is more important than either species-level or site-level factors in determining the fate of an introduction. Studies claiming to show that propagule pressure is the primary determinant of introduction success must assume that the historical record as reported by secondary sources is complete and accurate. Here, examine a widely introduced game bird, the Chukar (Alectoris chukar), to the USA. We compare the records reported by two secondary sources (Long, 1981; Lever, 1987) to those in a primary source (Christensen, 1970) and to a recent study by Sol et al. (2012). Numerous inconsistencies exist in the records reported by Sol et al. (2012), Long (1981) and Lever (1987) when compared to the primary record of Christensen (1970). As reported by Christensen (1970), very large numbers of Chukars were released unsuccessfully in some states. Our results strongly imply that factors other than sheer numbers are more important. Site-to-site differences are the most likely explanation for the variation in success. PMID:26644981

  17. The Impact of Accountability on Student Performance in a Secondary Physical Education Badminton Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn; Shanklin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of accountability on the quality of student motor responses during a 10-day badminton unit with female high school students enrolled in a required physical education class. Students in the control class participated in the same learning activities taught by the same teacher as the treatment…

  18. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. Annual report, October 1992--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-diciplinary approach to targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management. The first phase involves geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquisition and analysis to identify optimum well sites and to develop a reservoir operations plan. This report summarizes activities concerned with phase I of the Sooner Unit Project.

  19. Factor Label Method of Units Analysis: A Learning Package for Secondary Mathematics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoile, Margaret Ann

    In an attempt to prepare students for units analysis in the solution of problems in high school chemistry and physics, the author developed learning packets on the factor label method. Thirty-three students used these packets individually during a regular tenth-grade geometry class. There were two packets, each to be used for two days. Prior to…

  20. United States History in the Secondary School. Comparative Ways of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. No longer can we remain in isolation. It has become necessary to cope with revolutionary forces at work at home as well as abroad in man's struggle for independence, to understand the common elements of states whether they be free or under the reigns of a dictatorship, and to determine the…

  1. Teaching and Learning about the United States Constitution in American Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontz, Thomas S.

    This master's thesis synthesizes literature on the teaching of the United States Constitution, analyzes the Supreme Court case of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens, 1990, and provides lesson plans for teaching the constitutional significance of this case. The thesis argues that because of the poor quality of textbooks and the inadequate…

  2. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Houts, Michael; Pearson, Boise; Webster, Kenny; Gibson, Marc; Qualls, Lou; Poston, Dave; Werner, Jim; Radel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and Mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program, which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter for tests at MSFC. When tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumentation (temperature, pressure, flow) for data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  3. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, T.; Dickens, R.; Houts, M.; Pearson, B.; Webster, K.; Gibson, M.; Qualls, L.; Poston, D.; Werner, J.; Radel, R.

    The Nuclear Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter when being tested at MSFC. When tested at GRC the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumenta- tion (temperature, pressure, flow) data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  4. Alcohol-soluble bis(tpy)thiophenes: new building units for constitutional dynamic conjugated polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Štenclová-Bláhová, Pavla; Svoboda, Jan; Šloufová, Ivana; Vohlídal, Jiří

    2015-05-28

    New building units (unimers) for metallo-supramolecular polymers 2,5-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-4'-yl)thiophene, M, and 5,5'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-4'-yl)(2,2'-bithiophene), B, with ionic groups attached to thiophene rings are prepared by the modification of corresponding bromo-precursors and assembled with Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) ions into alcohol-soluble conjugated constitutional-dynamic polyelectrolytes (polyelectrolyte dynamers). Ionization of side groups only slightly affects the absorption spectra of unimers as well as dynamers but dramatically changes their solubility. Cyclic conformations of unimer molecules resulting from intramolecular interactions between tpy end-groups and cationic or polar (-CH2Br) side groups are proposed to explain the spectral conformity of the M- and B-type unimers and their dynamers and also inhibition of the ionization reaction with tpy end-groups. The absorption spectra and excitation profiles of Raman spectra show that mainly the red arm of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band of Fe-dynamers is significantly contributed with transitions involving thiophene rings. The constitutional dynamics of Zn-dynamers is fast while that of Fe-dynamers is so slow that it allows effective separation of the dynamer to fractions in SEC columns. Electronic spectra and viscosity measurements proved that excess of Fe(2+) ions results in shortening of the dynamer chains and their end-capping by these ions. PMID:25941777

  5. 3D Sensing Algorithms Towards Building an Intelligent Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Lea, Colin; Facker, James; Hager, Gregory; Taylor, Russell; Saria, Suchi

    2013-01-01

    Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are chaotic places where hundreds of tasks are carried out by many different people. Timely and coordinated execution of these tasks are directly related to quality of patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the current care process can aid in improving quality. Our goal is to build towards a system that automatically catalogs various tasks being performed by the bedside. We propose a set of techniques using computer vision and machine learning to develop a system that passively senses the environment and identifies seven common actions such as documenting, checking up on a patient, and performing a procedure. Preliminary evaluation of our system on 5.5 hours of data from the Pediatric ICU obtains overall task recognition accuracy of 70%. Furthermore, we show how it can be used to summarize and visualize tasks. Our system provides a significant departure from current approaches used for quality improvement. With further improvement, we think that such a system could realistically be deployed in the ICU. PMID:24303253

  6. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

  7. Advanced secondary recovery project for the Sooner D Sand Unit, Weld County, Colorado: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this project was to increase production at the Sooner D Sand Unit through geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management of waterflood operations. The Sooner D Sand Unit demonstration project should be an example for other operators to follow for reservoir characterization and exploitation methodologies to increase production by waterflood from the Cretaceous D Sandstone in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. This project involved multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization using high-density 3D seismic, detailed stratigraphy and reservoir simulation studies. Infill drilling, water-injection conversion and re-completing some wells to add short-radius laterals were based on the results of the reservoir characterization studies. Production response were evaluated using reservoir simulation and production tests. Technology transfer utilized workshops, presentations and technical papers which emphasized the economic advantages of implementing the demonstrated technologies.

  8. Local source impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exhibits heterogeneity in composition across urban areas, leading to poor representation of outdoor air pollutants in human exposure assessments. To examine heterogeneity in PM composition and sources across an urban area, fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5) were chemically profiled in Iowa City, IA from 25 August to 10 November 2011 at two monitoring stations. The urban site is the federal reference monitoring (FRM) station in the city center and the peri-urban site is located 8.0 km to the west on the city edge. Measurements of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol, inorganic ions, molecular markers for primary sources, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers were used to assess statistical differences in composition and sources across the two sites. PM2.5 mass ranged from 3 to 26 μg m-3 during this period, averaging 11.2 ± 4.9 μg m-3 (n = 71). Major components of PM2.5 at the urban site included organic carbon (OC; 22%), ammonium (14%), sulfate (13%), nitrate (7%), calcium (2.9%), and elemental carbon (EC; 2.2%). Periods of elevated PM were driven by increases in ammonium, sulfate, and SOA tracers that coincided with hot and dry conditions and southerly winds. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to apportion OC to primary sources; biomass burning, vegetative detritus, diesel engines, and gasoline engines accounted for 28% of OC at the urban site and 24% of OC at the peri-urban site. Secondary organic carbon from isoprene and monoterpene SOA accounted for an additional 13% and 6% of OC at the urban and peri-urban sites, respectively. Differences in biogenic SOA across the two sites were associated with enhanced combustion activities in the urban area and higher aerosol acidity at the urban site. Major PM constituents (e.g., OC, ammonium, sulfate) were generally well-represented by a single monitoring station, indicating a regional source influence. Meanwhile, nitrate, biomass burning, food cooking, suspended dust, and

  9. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  10. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036.104-90... 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  11. The role of polar, lamdba (Λ)-shaped building units in noncentrosymmetric inorganic structures.

    PubMed

    Donakowski, Martin D; Gautier, Romain; Yeon, Jeongho; Moore, Donald T; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2012-05-01

    A methodology for the design of polar, inorganic structures is demonstrated here with the packing of lambda (Λ)-shaped basic building units (BBUs). Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) solids with interesting physical properties can be created with BBUs that lack an inversion center and are likely to pack into a polar configuration; previous methods to construct these solids have used NCS octahedra as BBUs. Using this methodology to synthesize NCS solids, one must increase the coordination of the NCS octahedra with maintenance of the noncentrosymmetry of the bulk. The first step in this progression from an NCS octahedron to an inorganic NCS solid is the formation of a bimetallic BBU. This step is exemplified with the compound CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7): this compound, presented here, crystallizes in an NCS structure with ordered, isolated [Cu(H(2)O)(5)](2+) cations and [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) anions into Λ-shaped, bimetallic BBUs to form CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(6)·H(2)O, owing to the Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu(2+). Conversely, the centrosymmetric heterotypes with the same formula MVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) (M(II) = Co, Ni, and Zn) exhibit ordered, isolated [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) and [M(H(2)O)(6)](2+) ionic species in a hydrogen bond network. CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) exhibits a net polar moment while the heterotypes do not; this demonstrates that Λ-shaped BBUs give a greater probability for and, in this case, lead to NCS structures. PMID:22335338

  12. Assessing awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry among secondary mathematics teachers in the United States and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suanrong

    Fractal geometry has gained great attention from mathematicians and scientists in the past three decades (Fraboni & Moller, 2008). As a new geometry language and subject, fractal geometry has significant value in teaching and learning secondary mathematics. The present study focused on investigating the current state of mathematics teachers' awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry in the United States (U.S.) and China, as well as the factors that influence them. The instrument of the study included a survey and a test designed by the researcher and validated by five experts. The results of the study indicated that secondary math teachers in the U.S. and China had very low levels of awareness of fractals and lack the knowledge and skills of solving fractal problems, but they had a higher level of interest in fractals related to classroom teaching and professional development as compared with their levels of awareness. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the factor 'experience of learning fractals' had the most positive effect on the average score of awareness. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most positive effect on the average score of interest. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most negative effect on the average score of knowledge.

  13. Constructions of two polycatenanes and one polypseudo-rotaxane by discrete tetrahedral cages and stool-like building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Ju, Ping; Meng, Xian-Rui; Kuang, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2012-09-01

    Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols.

  14. A structure-directing method to prepare semiconductive zeolitic cluster-organic frameworks with Cu3I4 building units.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yao; Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-28

    Two semiconductive cluster-organic frameworks based on Cu4I4 and Cu3I4 building units were obtained by the use of different organic structure-directing agents; the latter Cu3I4 nodes are tetrahedrally connected through 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) linkers and Cu-I bridges, giving rise to a zeolitic framework with SOD topology. PMID:25940240

  15. Anderson-like alkoxo-polyoxovanadate clusters serving as unprecedented second building units to construct metal-organic polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Teng; Wang, Xin-Long; Li, Shuang-Bao; Gong, Ya-Ru; Song, Bai-Qiao; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min

    2016-08-11

    Unprecedented Anderson-like alkoxo-polyoxovanadate [V6O6(OCH3)9(μ6-SO4)(COO)3](2-) polyanions can serve as 3-connected second building units (SBUs) that assemble with dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate ligands to form a new family of metal organic tetrahedrons of V4E6 and V4F4 type (V = vertex, E = edge, and F = face). To our knowledge, this alkoxo-polyoxovanadate-based SBU is the first ever reported. PMID:27363544

  16. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Gordon, Timothy D; Hennigan, Christopher J; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George; Adams, Peter J; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-07-22

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and biomass burning. About 10-20% of NMOG emissions from these major combustion sources are not routinely speciated and therefore are currently misclassified in emission inventories and chemical transport models. The smog chamber data demonstrate that this misclassification biases model predictions of SOA production low because the unspeciated NMOG produce more SOA per unit mass than the speciated NMOG. We present new source-specific SOA yield parameterizations for these unspeciated emissions. These parameterizations and associated source profiles are designed for implementation in chemical transport models. Box model calculations using these new parameterizations predict that NMOG emissions from the top six combustion sources form 0.7 Tg y(-1) of first-generation SOA in the United States, almost 90% of which is from biomass burning and gasoline vehicles. About 85% of this SOA comes from unspeciated NMOG, demonstrating that chemical transport models need improved treatment of combustion emissions to accurately predict ambient SOA concentrations. PMID:25002466

  17. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Pouliot, George; Adams, Peter J.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and biomass burning. About 10–20% of NMOG emissions from these major combustion sources are not routinely speciated and therefore are currently misclassified in emission inventories and chemical transport models. The smog chamber data demonstrate that this misclassification biases model predictions of SOA production low because the unspeciated NMOG produce more SOA per unit mass than the speciated NMOG. We present new source-specific SOA yield parameterizations for these unspeciated emissions. These parameterizations and associated source profiles are designed for implementation in chemical transport models. Box model calculations using these new parameterizations predict that NMOG emissions from the top six combustion sources form 0.7 Tg y−1 of first-generation SOA in the United States, almost 90% of which is from biomass burning and gasoline vehicles. About 85% of this SOA comes from unspeciated NMOG, demonstrating that chemical transport models need improved treatment of combustion emissions to accurately predict ambient SOA concentrations. PMID:25002466

  18. CHSalign: A Web Server That Builds upon Junction-Explorer and RNAJAG for Pairwise Alignment of RNA Secondary Structures with Coaxial Helical Stacking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Laing, Christian; Wang, Jason T. L.; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    RNA junctions are important structural elements of RNA molecules. They are formed when three or more helices come together in three-dimensional space. Recent studies have focused on the annotation and prediction of coaxial helical stacking (CHS) motifs within junctions. Here we exploit such predictions to develop an efficient alignment tool to handle RNA secondary structures with CHS motifs. Specifically, we build upon our Junction-Explorer software for predicting coaxial stacking and RNAJAG for modelling junction topologies as tree graphs to incorporate constrained tree matching and dynamic programming algorithms into a new method, called CHSalign, for aligning the secondary structures of RNA molecules containing CHS motifs. Thus, CHSalign is intended to be an efficient alignment tool for RNAs containing similar junctions. Experimental results based on thousands of alignments demonstrate that CHSalign can align two RNA secondary structures containing CHS motifs more accurately than other RNA secondary structure alignment tools. CHSalign yields a high score when aligning two RNA secondary structures with similar CHS motifs or helical arrangement patterns, and a low score otherwise. This new method has been implemented in a web server, and the program is also made freely available, at http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/CHSalign/. PMID:26789998

  19. Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C. ); Abel, F.H. ); Nicholls, A.K. ); Millhone, J.P. . Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

  20. Impact of 2003 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2002-07-08

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs for improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, this report uses the ImBuild II model to assess the future economic impacts of Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) FY 2003 portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The energy savings expected to be created by market penetration of the BTS programs have the potential of creating nearly 270,000 jobs and about $3.41 billion in wage income(1999$) by the year 2030.

  1. Analysis of theoretical and real values of heat consumption in units of the apartment building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavloková, Petra; Richter, Aleš; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is focused on heat consumption in the apartment building and the factors affecting it. The apartment building has three entrances and four over ground floors and one underground floor. In the entire apartment building there are 24 flats, which they are identical (kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom). In flats on radiators were installed the ratio heat meters according to Act 318/2012 Coll. by the Metrology Act. The ratio heat meters are used for fair billing of the heat costs for all owners. Continuous monitoring of the actual heat consumption in the flats were collected data of the real heat consumption. The theoretical values of heat consumption were counted in software ENERGIE. The apartment building is divided into24 flats and the calculation was made for each of them. The theoretical and real heat consumption was compared.

  2. Impact of building technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Elliott, D.B.; Schultz, R.W.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. This assessment is being done for the first time in FY99 as a supplement to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA--formerly, Quality Metrics) estimates of primary energy savings and environmental and direct financial benefits of the BTS programs. The programmatic needs of BTS suggest that a simple, flexible, user-friendly method is needed to derive national employment and income impacts of individual BTS programs. Therefore, BTS funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a special-purpose version of the Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) national input-output model (Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. 1997) specifically to estimate the employment and income effects of building energy technologies. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. Extensive documentation and a user`s guide are provided in Scott et al. (1998). Compared with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as the published multipliers from the Department of Commerce Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS 2), ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. In this report, the authors use the ImBuild model to calculate the impact of all 32 BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997.

  3. Aerosol Precursor Emissions, Secondary Aerosol Production, and Climate-Forcing Gas Exchange in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol precursors in the Midwest are generated from a myriad of sources including biogenic emissions of terpenes from the Ozarks region, anthropogenic emissions of volatile and semivolatile aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from the St. Louis airshed, and agricultural emissions of ammonia (NH3), amines, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from animal husbandry and cropping systems of the Midwest Corn Belt. The deciduous and coniferous forests of the Ozarks region are significant sources of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes that are sensitive to rising CO2 levels and temperature and generate light-scattering, secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Application of nitrogen fertilizers stimulates emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural soils and crops. Nitric acid, generated through photooxidation of NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion in urban air and from soil emissions in agroecosystems, reacts rapidly with NH3 to generate light-scattering, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA). The atmospheric lifetime of N2O is about 120 years, making the substance a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 290 for a time horizon of 20 years relative to CO2. Emissions of CO2, N2O, and SIA precursors from the Midwest Corn Belt and surrounding areas are likely to increase in the near future as pastureland and prairie is converted to grow corn and other biofuel crops to meet the demand for renewable fuels. Several large river systems transport nutrients from fertilized fields of the Midwest agroecosystem to the Gulf of Mexico where plankton growth is accelerated. Microbial decomposition of plankton detritus consumes oxygen and creates a hypoxic zone, which might be a significant source of N2O.The presentation will discuss gaps in our knowledge of the production of climate-forcing species in the Midwestern United States.

  4. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  5. The United Nations at Work: The Challenge of Building Global Peace [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tim; Edwards, Amy N.; Larbalestier, Tiffany Farrell

    This booklet for juvenile readers describes the creation, structure, and activities of the United Nations. The book also examines how the role of the United Nations has changed since the end of the Cold War, citing specific UN actions and the issues surrounding difficult and expensive operations. The booklet provides an overview of ideas about how…

  6. Building a Unit Assessment System: Creating Quality Evaluation of Candidate Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Pamela A.; Wigle, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the expectations of NCATE's Standard 2, a unit must create quality evaluations of candidate performance. In order to accomplish this goal, a unit must incorporate the principles of performance-based teacher education (PBTE) and the use of authentic assessments into its assessment system. The purpose of this paper will be to…

  7. Putting "Energy" in Your Course: 1978. A Collection of Energy Teaching Units Designed by the Participants of the Energy Institute for Secondary Science and Social Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Harold E., Ed.

    This collection of energy teaching units is the contribution of participants in a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored institute for secondary science and social studies teachers. The objectives of the Institute were to: (1) provide an overview of past, present, and future energy problems, and (2) stimulate teachers to use this information in their…

  8. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-301

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris; Mitchell, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  9. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1934-1936. Bulletin, 1937, No. 2. Volume I. Chapter II: Trends in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessen, Carl A.

    1937-01-01

    Education in the United States faces important problems in the large and increasing enrollments in secondary schools, in the wide variety of interests and the extensive range of capacities represented in the pupils coming to these schools, and in the peculiar needs by pupils of early adolescent age for advice and guidance on social, moral,…

  10. Post-Secondary Education Attainment in Canada and the United States in the 1990s. Technical Paper Series. T-02-2E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlby, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    With the North American Free Trade Agreement and today's knowledge-based economy, there is a premium placed on post-secondary education and the need to retain graduates in Canada. The share of graduates in the Canadian and the United States labour pools are key to competitiveness. This paper examines Canada's performance relative to the U.S. in…

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  12. "Boss of the United States" Kindergarteners' Concept of Voting: Five Scaffolded Lessons that Build Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulrey, Betty C.; Ackerman, Ann T.; Howson, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In any U.S. presidential election year, classroom teachers integrate lessons into their curriculum that help students understand their privileges, responsibilities, and rights as good citizens. Teaching about the electoral process and voting in primary classrooms is one way to build a foundation that promotes civic engagement. In this article, the…

  13. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

    2009-08-31

    Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and

  14. The Design of Industrial Arts Workshops for Secondary General Schools in the Asian Region. School Building Digest 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, D. J.

    The curricula of industrial arts courses in the Asian Region are changing to a more general approach to arouse interest in, and simple understanding of, industry and industrial processes. Spaces for industrial arts should be less tightly tailored to the needs of specific subject fields than was the case in the past. In secondary general schools,…

  15. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Wage Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1999$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  16. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  17. Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

  18. Building a Better Halide Receptor: Optimum Choice of Spacer, Binding Unit, and Halosubstitution.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Binod; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-03-16

    Quantum calculations are used to measure the binding of halides to a number of bipodal dicationic receptors, constructed as a pair of binding units separated by a spacer group. A number of variations are studied. A H atom on each binding unit (imidazolium or triazolium) is replaced by Br or I. Benzene, thiophene, carbazole, and dimethylnaphthalene are considered as spacer groups. Each receptor is paired with halides F(-) , Cl(-) , Br(-) , and I(-) . Substitution with I on the binding unit yields a large enhancement of binding, as much as 13 orders of magnitude; a much smaller increase occurs for substitution with Br. Imidazolium is a more effective binding agent than is triazolium. Benzene and dimethylnaphthalene represent the best spacers, followed by thiophene and carbazole. F(-) binds much more strongly than do the other halides, which obey the order Cl(-) >Br(-) >I(-) . PMID:26676206

  19. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  20. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciTech Connect

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Ersen, Ovidiu; Bats, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

  1. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  2. United We Learn: Team Effort Builds a Path to Equity and Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a plan to create a united approach to improve high quality instruction in Robbinsdale Cooper High School in New Hope, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Professional learning communities were in their infancy, conversations around data were about autopsies of annual standardized tests, and there was no description of what…

  3. Why We Need to Build a Culture of Health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2015-07-01

    The United States spends $2.7 trillion a year on health care, more than any other country by far, and yet the U.S. population is not healthy. In fact, the United States loses $227 billion in productivity each year because of poor health. This is not sustainable-and it is the reason behind the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Culture of Health initiative. Culture of Health means so much more than simply not being sick. It means embracing a definition of health as outlined by the World Health Organization-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. And it means shifting the values-and the actions-in the United States so that health becomes a part of everything we do. Health is the bedrock of personal fulfillment. It is the backbone of prosperity and the key to creating a strong and competitive nation. With health, children can grow up making the most of life's opportunities. Businesses can rely on the vitality of workers to stay competitive, and the military can perform at its highest level. But there is no single way to cultivate health. This Commentary explores the principles behind the Culture of Health initiative and examines the role of academic medicine in achieving this vision. Different communities must come up with the approaches that serve them best. Only by working toward a common goal in unique ways will a true Culture of Health be attainable in the United States. PMID:26414053

  4. Building Bridges of Understanding in the Middle Grades: A Unit Approach to China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Phillip; Weible, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unit of study on China for use with students in the middle grades. Students research topics such as Chinese transportation and sports, reproduce Chinese characters, construct a relief map of China, prepare Chinese food, and solve a Chinese puzzle. (RM)

  5. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  6. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  8. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  10. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  12. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  13. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  14. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  15. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  16. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  17. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  18. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  19. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  20. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  1. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  3. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  7. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  8. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  13. Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-06-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

  14. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles,...

  15. Building a "geologic Library" of the Major Lithologic Units in the EL Paso Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, J.; Sanderson, E.; Cancellare, J.; Caskey, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mineralogy and Introduction to Petrology, a sophomore level course, is being offered at El Paso Community College for the first time in the spring semester, 2014. To prepare for this, several geology major students have been establishing a "Geologic Library" to include a comprehensive accumulation of material covering the major lithologic units in the El Paso area. Students associated with the Mineralogy SOLARIS project, funded by the National Science Foundation, began this summer by collecting, cutting, slabbing, and polishing rock samples, doing geochemical analyses of all samples using the microprobe, and making petrographic thin sections of each unit collected. In addition, other SOLARIS students have been taking Giga-pan photos of the outcrops where the samples were collected, and Giga-pan photos of the polished slabs. The goal of this "Geologic Library" is to put all of this information on a website, allowing students to observe each outcrop from the Giga-pans, scroll to a close-up of the polished section, link to the geochemical analysis, and then link to photomicrographs of the thin sections.

  16. Building Program Acceptability: Perceptions of Gay and Bisexual Men on Peer or Prevention Case Manager Relationships in Secondary HIV Prevention Counseling

    PubMed Central

    DRISKELL, JEFFREY R.; O’CLEIRIGH, CONALL; COVAHEY, CHARLES; RIPTON, JESSICA; MAYER, KENNETH; PERRY, D’HANA; SALOMON, ELIZABETH; SAFREN, STEVEN

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in integrating HIV prevention counseling for HIV-infected gay and bisexual men into HIV primary care. HIV-infected peers and professionally trained prevention case managers (PCMs) have been used to provide prevention counseling services. The current qualitative study seeks to examine participant perceptions of the acceptability of HIV-infected peer counselors and of trained prevention case managers from the perspective of 41 HIV-infected gay and bisexual men. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HIV-infected men who were currently receiving primary HIV health care. Positive peer counselor themes included shared experiences and para-professional. Positive themes specific to the PCM relationships included were provision of resources and professional skills and knowledge. Common themes identified across both peer and PCM counselor relationships were creating a comfortable environment, non-judgmental stance, and rapport building/communication skills. Recommendations for HIV secondary prevention interventions are presented. PMID:23710120

  17. Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Susan; Pathak, Jyotishman; Savova, Guergana; Oniki, Thomas A.; Westberg, Les; Beebe, Calvin E.; Tao, Cui; Parker, Craig G.; Haug, Peter J.; Huff, Stanley M.; Chute, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Projects (SHARP) Program, established by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology in 2010 supports research findings that remove barriers for increased adoption of health IT. The improvements envisioned by the SHARP Area 4 Consortium (SHARPn) will enable the use of the electronic health record (EHR) for secondary purposes, such as care process and outcomes improvement, biomedical research and epidemiologic monitoring of the nation’s health. One of the primary informatics problem areas in this endeavor is the standardization of disparate health data from the nation’s many health care organizations and providers. The SHARPn team is developing open source services and components to support the ubiquitous exchange, sharing and reuse or ‘liquidity’ of operational clinical data stored in electronic health records. One year into the design and development of the SHARPn framework, we demonstrated end to end data flow and a prototype SHARPn platform, using thousands of patient electronic records sourced from two large healthcare organizations: Mayo Clinic and Intermountain Healthcare. The platform was deployed to (1) receive source EHR data in several formats, (2) generate structured data from EHR narrative text, and (3) normalize the EHR data using common detailed clinical models and Consolidated Health Informatics standard terminologies, which were (4) accessed by a phenotyping service using normalized data specifications. The architecture of this prototype SHARPn platform is presented. The EHR data throughput demonstration showed success in normalizing native EHR data, both structured and narrative, from two independent organizations and EHR systems. Based on the demonstration, observed challenges for standardization of EHR data for interoperable secondary use are discussed. PMID:22326800

  18. Secondary stroke in patients with polytrauma and traumatic brain injury treated in an Intensive Care Unit, Karlovac General Hospital, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Belavić, M; Jančić, E; Mišković, P; Brozović-Krijan, A; Bakota, B; Žunić, J

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into primary and secondary brain injury. Primary brain injury occurs at the time of injury and is the direct consequence of kinetic energy acting on the brain tissue. Secondary brain injury occurs several hours or days after primary brain injury and is the result of factors including shock, systemic hypotension, hypoxia, hypothermia or hyperthermia, intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema, intracranial bleeding or inflammation. The aim of this retrospective analysis of a prospective database was to determine the prevalence of secondary stroke and stroke-related mortality, causes of secondary stroke, treatment and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. This study included patients with TBI with or without other injuries who were hospitalised in a general ICU over a five-year period. The following parameters were assessed: demographics (age, sex), scores (Glasgow Coma Score, APACHE II, SOFA), secondary stroke (prevalence, time of occurrence after primary brain injury, causes of stroke and associated mortality), length of stay in the ICU and hospital, vital parameters (state of consciousness, cardiac function, respiration, circulation, thermoregulation, diuresis) and laboratory values (leukocytes, C-reactive protein [CRP], blood glucose, blood gas analysis, urea, creatinine). Medical data were analysed for 306 patients with TBI (median age 56 years, range 18-93 years) who were treated in the general ICU. Secondary stroke occurred in 23 patients (7.5%), 10 of whom died, which gives a mortality rate of 43.4%. Three patients were excluded as the cause of the injury was missile trauma. The study data indicate that inflammation is the most important cause of secondary insults. Levels of CRP were elevated in 65% of patients with secondary brain injury; leukocytosis was present in 87% of these patients, and blood glucose was elevated in 73%. The lungs and urinary tract were the most common sites of infection. In conclusion

  19. Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

  20. Integration of Photovoltaics into Building Energy Usage through Advanced Control of Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Nutaro, James J; Irminger, Philip; Ollis, Benjamin; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Fugate, David L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to forecast photovoltaic (PV) power in kW based on a neural network linkage of publicly available cloud cover data and on-site solar irradiance sensor data. We also describe a control approach to utilize rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) to support renewable integration. The PV forecasting method is validated using data from a rooftop PV panel installed on the Distributed Energy, Communications, and Controls (DECC) laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The validation occurs in multiple phases to ensure that each component of the approach is the best representation of the actual expected output. The control of the RTU is based on model predictive methods.

  1. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    PubMed Central

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E.; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future. PMID:25749320

  2. Future premature mortality due to O3, secondary inorganic aerosols and primary PM in Europe--sensitivity to changes in climate, anthropogenic emissions, population and building stock.

    PubMed

    Geels, Camilla; Andersson, Camilla; Hänninen, Otto; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Schwarze, Per E; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Brandt, Jørgen

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000-2009, 2050-2059 and 2080-2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future. PMID:25749320

  3. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  4. The Evolution of Building a Diverse Geosciences in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Christopher; Houlton, Heather; Leahy, P. Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1960s, the United States has had numerous systematic efforts to support diversity in all parts of society. The American Geosciences Institute has had active ongoing research and diversity promotion programs in the geosciences since 1972. Over this time, the drivers and goals of promoting a diverse discipline have evolved, including in the scope and definition of diversity. The success of these efforts have been mixed, largely driven by wildly different responses by specific gender and racial subsets of the population. Some critical cultural barriers have been solidly identified and mitigation approaches promoted. For example, the use of field work in promotion of geoscience careers and education programs is viewed as a distinct negative by many African American and Hispanic communities as it equates geoscience as non-professional work. Similarly, efforts at improving gender diversity have had great success, especially in the private sector, as life-balance policies and mitigations of implicit biases have been addressed. Yet success in addressing some of these cultural and behavioral issues has also started to unveil other overarching factors, such as the role of socio-economic and geographic location. Recent critical changes in the definition of diversity that have been implemented will be discussed. These include dropping Asian races as underrepresented, the introduction of the multiracial definition, evolution of the nature of gender, and the increased awareness of persons with disabilities as a critical diverse population. This has been coupled with dramatic changes in the drivers for promoting diversity in the geosciences in the U.S. from a moral and ethical good to one of economic imperative and recognizing the way to access the best talent in the population as the U.S. rapidly approaches being a majority minority society. These changes are leading to new approaches and strategies, for which we will highlight specific programmatic efforts both by AGI

  5. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  6. Open frameworks based on mono-lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminate building units: Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Cheng, Lin; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2013-07-15

    Metal-substituted polyoxometalates are one of the most important research branch in polyoxometalate chemistry and have attached an increasing attention due to not only their intriguing structural diversity but also their special properties applicable to material science. In this paper, A series of novel lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates (LSPs), K{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}[Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]·nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Pr 1, Nd 2, Sm 3, Eu 4, Gd 5, Tb 6; for 1, n=8; for 2,4,5,6, n=7; for 3, n=9), have been hydrothermally made and characterized by infrared (IR) spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The experimental results indicate these compounds exhibit 3-D frameworks with Gra-type topology constructed by lanthanide cations, mono- lanthanide-substituted [Gd(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 5−} cluster units and K{sup +} cations. The photoluminescence measurements show that Compounds 2, 4, 6 exhibit the characteristic emission for Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} cations, respectively. In addition, this series of LSPs show weak second harmonic generation effects and ferroelectric properties. The success in making 1−6 not only provides innovative examples in search of new POM species, but also may open up possibilities for the design of LSP-based materials with related functions. - Graphical abstract: A series of lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates have been hydrothermally made and their photoluminescence, non-linear optical and ferroelectricity properties have also been investigated, respectively. - Highlights: • Six lanthanide-substituted Al-based polyoxometalates have first been made. • Eu/Nd/Tb-based compounds display photoluminescence property. • The nonlinear optical and ferroelectricity properties have been investigated.

  7. Promoting Secondary Teachers' Diagnostic Competence with Respect to Functions: Development of a Scalable Unit in Continuous Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Julia; Barzel, Bärbel; Leuders, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing student achievement in a formative way is a crucial skill for planning and carrying out effective mathematics lessons. This study takes a subject-specific view and aims at investigating diagnostic competence in the field of mathematical functions at secondary level and how to improve it. Following three evidence-based design principles,…

  8. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part II, Strategies for Teaching Economics: United States History (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.

    This guide contains 13 concept-based lessons in economics for use in secondary U.S. history courses. One component of a two part publication, the guide demonstrates how the conceptual structure of the economics discipline presented in the first publication (ED 148 648) can be used to help students develop basic economic concepts. Each lesson is…

  9. Putting Professionalism Back into Teaching: Secondary Preservice and In-Service Teachers Engaging in Interdisciplinary Unit Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolle, Elizabeth Petroelje; Frambaugh-Kritzer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Recently, interdisciplinary instruction has come back to the educational scene, specifically supported through the Common Core State Standards. As teacher educators and former middle-level teachers, the authors see this as a positive move to enhance learning for adolescents. This qualitative study sought to answer: How do secondary preservice and…

  10. The Effects of an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Unit on the Environmental Decision-Making of Secondary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Amanda W.; And Others

    In the first phase of this study an interdisciplinary curriculum unit was developed centered on the concept of sustainable development in tropical rainforests. The centerpiece of the interdisciplinary unit was the investigation of a simulated environmental problem which required students to develop and then decide on a solution, having weighed a…

  11. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2014-07-01

    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  12. Decreased mortality in patients hospitalized due to respiratory diseases after installation of an intensive care unit in a secondary hospital in the interior of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Luciano Passamani; Bahlis, Laura Fuchs; Wajner, André; Waldemar, Fernando Starosta

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the in-hospital mortality of patients hospitalized due to respiratory diseases and the availability of intensive care units. Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated a database from a hospital medicine service involving patients hospitalized due to respiratory non-terminal diseases. Data on clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality, such as Charlson score and length of hospital stay, were collected. The following analyses were performed: univariate analysis with simple stratification using the Mantel Haenszel test, chi squared test, Student’s t test, Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression. Results Three hundred thirteen patients were selected, including 98 (31.3%) before installation of the intensive care unit and 215 (68.7%) after installation of the intensive care unit. No significant differences in the clinical and anthropometric characteristics or risk factors were observed between the groups. The mortality rate was 18/95 (18.9%) before the installation of the intensive care unit and 21/206 (10.2%) after the installation of the intensive care unit. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the probability of death after the installation of the intensive care unit decreased by 58% (OR: 0.42; 95%CI 0.205 -0.879; p = 0.021). Conclusion Considering the limitations of the study, the results suggest a benefit, with a decrease of one death per every 11 patients treated for respiratory diseases after the installation of an intensive care unit in our hospital. The results corroborate the benefits of the implementation of intensive care units in secondary hospitals. PMID:26465244

  13. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036.104-90 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SPECIAL CATEGORIES...

  14. BUILD Program. Businesses United To Increase Literacy Development. National Workplace Literacy Program. Final Performance Report, March 1991-December 1992. [Workplace Education Program Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jean E.

    The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. During the project, staff were hired, equipment was ordered and installed, literacy task analyses were…

  15. Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Rupert Herrenkohl, Leslie; Yeary, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments ( Brown 1992 , Collins 1990 )…

  16. Theory Building and Modeling in a Sinking and Floating Unit: A Case Study of Third and Fourth Grade Students' Developing Epistemologies of Science. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990)…

  17. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  18. Truth-Beauty-Goodness: Philosophy Units for Gifted Students (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolman, Peter

    This document, one in a series of nine units of study developed for middle and junior high school gifted students outlines an introduction to philosophy based on Mortimer Adler's conceptions. Adler simplified the study of logic into the study of truth, the study of aesthetics to that of beauty, and distilled the study of ethics to the study of…

  19. Musical Preference, Identification, and Familiarity: A Multicultural Comparison of Secondary Students from Singapore and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Hargreaves, David J.; Lee, June

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate whether there were significant differences in preferences for, familiarity with, and identification of Chinese, Malay, and Indian music between adolescent students from Singapore (n = 78) and the United Kingdom (n = 53). Also explored are the relationships among these three variables. Students were asked to rate their…

  20. Development of Knowledge Frameworks and Higher Order Cognitive Operations among Secondary School Students Who Studied a Unit on Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Anderson, O. Roger

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 9th and 10th grade students (n=13) who studied an ecology unit and analyzed tape-recorded data for changes in organization of knowledge, represented by ideational networks and the development of higher cognitive operations. Provides insights into how students developed knowledge schemata, ideational networks, and the capacity to express…

  1. An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedrak, Luke J.

    2012-01-01

    This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study addressed how allocations were being made by state…

  2. A new chiral uranyl phosphonate framework consisting of achiral building units generated from ionothermal reaction: structure and spectroscopy characterizations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tao; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lanhua; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2015-11-01

    The ionothermal reactions of uranyl nitrate and 1,3-pbpH4 (1,3-pbpH4 = 1,3-phenylenebis(phosphonic acid) ligand in ionic liquids of [C4mim][Dbp], [C4mpyr][Br], and [Etpy][Br], respectively, afforded three new uranyl phosphonates, namely [C4mim][(UO2)2(1,3-pbpH)(1,3-pbpH)·Hmim] (1), [UO2(1,3-pbpH2)H2O·mpr] (2), and [Etpy][UO2(1,3-pbpH2)F] (3). Compound 1 exhibits a rare example of a chiral uranyl phosphonate 3D framework structure built from achiral building units of tetragonal bipyramidal uranium polyhedra and 1,3-pbp ligands. The structure adopts a network with channels extending along the b axis, which are filled with C4mim(+) and protonated 1-methylimidazole. In sharp contrast, compounds 2 & 3 both show pillared topology composed of uranyl pentagonal bipyramid polyhedra and phosphonate ligands. The layers are neutral in compound 2 with N-methylpyrrole molecules in the interlayer space, while compound 3 adopts anionic layer, and the charge is compensated with N-ethyl-pyridinium cations between the layers. Although compounds 1, 2, and 3 were synthesized under identical conditions with sole variation of the ionic liquid species, the resulting structures show a rich diversity in the local coordination environment of uranyl ions, the protonation of the phosphonate ligand, the conformation of ionic liquid ions, and the overall arrangement of the structure. All compounds were characterized by absorption, temperature dependent fluorescence, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopies. PMID:26419426

  3. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  4. The building of knowledge, language, and decision-making about climate change science: a cross-national program for secondary students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Diana; Maul, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The United Nations' declaration on climate change education in December 2014 has sparked a renewal of policies and programs initiated during the 'Decade of Education for Sustainable Development' (DESD, 2005-2014), aimed at promoting awareness, understanding, and civic action for environmental sustainability within learning communities all around the world. We present findings from a dialogic, multimodal, and literacies-based educational project designed to provide secondary students (N = 141) from four countries with the resources to read about and discuss evidence regarding climate change from seminal studies with peers and a core group of scientists (N = 7). Post-program interviews revealed a significant increase in language use related to evidence-based reasoning. Students also demonstrated an increased propensity to recycle. These findings support the hypothesis that providing opportunities for students to read and discuss seminal scientific sources incites positive changes in beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to climate change and climate science, and understandings of the nature of scientific evidence and argumentation.

  5. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program: Using Goal-Oriented Applied Research as a Means of Building Comprehensive and Integrated Scientific Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, B. C.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, E.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional instruction in science often proceeds from the general to the specific and from text to action. Fundamental terminologies, concepts, and ideas that are often abstract are taught first and only after such introductory processes can a student engage in research. Many students struggle to find relevance when presented information without context specific to their own experiences. This challenge is exacerbated for students whose social circles do not include adults who can validate scientific learning from their own experiences. Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program inverts the standard paradigm and places small groups of students in research projects where they begin by performing manageable tasks on complex applied research projects. These tasks are supplemented with informal mentoring and relevant articles (~1 per week). Quantitative metrics suggest the approach is highly successful—most participants report a dramatic increase in their enthusiasm for science, 100% attend college, and approximately 50% declare majors in science or technology. We use one project, the construction of a microbial battery, to illustrate this novel model of science learning and argue that it should be considered a best practice for project-based science education. The goal of this project was to build a rechargeable battery for a mobile phone based on a geochemical cycle, to generate and store electricity. The students, mostly from ethnic groups under-represented in the STEM fields, combined concepts and laboratory methods from biology, chemistry and physics to isolate photosynthetic bacteria from a natural salt marsh, and made an in situ device capable of powering a light bulb. The younger participants had been exposed to neither high school chemistry nor physics at the start of the project, yet they were able to use the project as a platform to deepen their science knowledge and their desire for increased participation in formal science education.

  6. Long-Term Electronic Technology Trends: Forecasted Impacts on Education. Paper presented to Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education (April 25, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    The technological-driven future will evolve through the next decades to massively impact elementary and secondary education, starting in the 1980 decade and building toward revolutionizing education in the 1990 decade. The evolving "silicon revolution" is producing a continuing list of new electronic technology poised at the threshold for massive…

  7. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  8. To designate the Federal Building and United States Courthouse located at 1125 Chapline Street in Wheeling, West Virginia, as the "Frederick P. Stamp, Jr. Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. McKinley, David B. [R-WV-1

    2013-02-12

    02/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. To designate the Federal Building and United States Courthouse located at 1125 Chapline Street in Wheeling, West Virginia, as the "Frederick P. Stamp, Jr. Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. McKinley, David B. [R-WV-1

    2011-11-17

    11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Improved secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. The Sooner Unit Field is located about 100 miles northeast from Denver, Colorado and produces from the fluvial-deltaic Cretaceous {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand formation at an average depth of 6,200 ft. The first phase of the project will involve multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization and recovery identification in which high-density 3-D seismic. detailed stratigraphy and engineering analysis will be used to identify optimum infill well sites and production/withdrawal schedules. One well will be drilled during this phase to obtain data pertinent to seismic activities. The second phase will involve implementation of the selected technologies by drilling geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Evaluation of results from the second phase will be performed using reservoir simulation. transient well tests and careful production tests of producing wells. The objective will be to compare the prediction of ultimate recovery resulting from the implementation of these technologies with that which would have occurred in the absence of these technologies. The third phase of the project will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and implemented technologies. Small to medium sized independents will be targeted. The success of this project and effective technology transfer should prompt-re-appraisal of older waterflood projects and implementation of new projects in oil provinces such as the D-J Basin.

  11. Evaluation of Photoneutron Dose Measured by Bubble Detectors in Conventional Linacs and Cyberknife Unit: Effective Dose and Secondary Malignancy Risk Estimation.

    PubMed

    Biltekin, Fatih; Yeginer, Mete; Ozyigit, Gokhan

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to reduce the uncertainty about the photoneutron dose produced over a course of radiotherapy with high-energy photon beams and evaluate photoneutron contamination-based secondary malignancy risk for different treatment modalities. Dosimetric measurements were taken in Philips SL25/75, Elekta Synergy Platform (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden), Varian Clinac DHX High Performance systems (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), and Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery Unit (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) using bubble detector for neutron dosimetry. The measurement data were used to determine in-field and out-of-field neutron equivalent dose in 6-MV 3D conformal radiotherapy, sliding window-intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and stereotactic body radiotherapy and to calculate the effective dose in 18-MV 3D conformal radiotherapy and sliding window-intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for patients with prostate cancer undergoing a standard treatment. For the 18-MV treatment techniques, the secondary malignancy risk due to the neutron contamination was estimated using the risk factors published by The International Commission on Radiological Protection. The neutron contamination-based secondary malignancy risk for the 18-MV 3D conformal radiotherapy and sliding window-intensity-modulated radiotherapy modalities was found to be 0.44% and 1.45% for Elekta Synergy Platform and 0.92% and 3.0% for the Varian Clinac DHX High Performance, respectively. For 6-MV 3D conformal radiotherapy, sliding window-intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment techniques, neutron equivalent doses inside the treatment field were found to be lower than 40 mSv. Our measurements reveal that equivalent dose and effective dose due to the neutron contamination are at a considerable level for 18-MV sliding window-intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatments, while 6-MV photon beams used in different modalities still induce only negligible photoneutrons

  12. Design and implementation of a structural health monitoring and alerting system for hospital buildings in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Friberg, Paul; Leith, W. K.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current progress in the development of a structural health monitoring and alerting system to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to monitor hospital buildings instrumented in high and very high seismic hazard regions in the U.S. The system, using the measured vibration data, is primarily designed for post-earthquake condition assessment of the buildings. It has two essential components – sensing and analysis. The sensing component includes all necessary firmware and sensors to measure the response of the building; while the analysis component consists of several data processing modules integrated into an open source software package which compresses a large amount of measured data into useful information to assess the building’s condition before and after an event. The information can be used for a rapid building safety assessment, and to support decisions for necessary repairs, replacements, and other maintenance and rehabilitation measures.

  13. To amend title 40, United States Code, to require that restrooms in public buildings be equipped with baby changing facilities.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Kildee, Dale E. [D-MI-5

    2010-01-27

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  15. Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Secondary Structural Components for the Habitat Demonstration Unit-Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Russell W.; Langford, William M.

    2012-01-01

    In support of NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Prototype, a number of evolved structural sections were designed, fabricated, analyzed and installed in the 5 meter diameter prototype. The hardware consisted of three principal structural sections, and included the development of novel fastener insert concepts. The articles developed consisted of: 1) 1/8th of the primary flooring section, 2) an inner radius floor beam support which interfaced with, and supported (1), 3) two upper hatch section prototypes, and 4) novel insert designs for mechanical fastener attachments. Advanced manufacturing approaches were utilized in the fabrication of the components. The structural components were developed using current commercial aircraft constructions as a baseline (for both the flooring components and their associated mechanical fastener inserts). The structural sections utilized honeycomb sandwich panels. The core section consisted of 1/8th inch cell size Nomex, at 9 lbs/cu ft, and which was 0.66 inches thick. The facesheets had 3 plys each, with a thickness of 0.010 inches per ply, made from woven E-glass with epoxy reinforcement. Analysis activities consisted of both analytical models, as well as initial closed form calculations. Testing was conducted to help verify analysis model inputs, as well as to facilitate correlation between testing and analysis. Test activities consisted of both 4 point bending tests as well as compressive core crush sequences. This paper presents an overview of this activity, and discusses issues encountered during the various phases of the applied research effort, and its relevance to future space based habitats.

  16. The predictors of chemistry achievement of 12th grade students in secondary schools in the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Ali Khalfan

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore variables related to chemistry achievement of 12th grade science students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The focus is to identify student, teacher, and school variables that predict chemistry achievement. The analysis sample included 204 males and 252 females in 66 classes in 60 schools from 10 districts or bureaus of education in the UAE. Thirty-two male and 33 female chemistry teachers and 60 school principals were included. The Khalaf Chemistry Achievement Test, GALT, the Student Questionnaire, Teacher Questionnaire, and School Information Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics, correlations, analyses of variance, factor analysis, and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were done. The results indicate that demographic, home environment, prior knowledge, scholastic ability, attitudes and perceptions related to chemistry and science, and student perception of instructional practices variables correlated with student chemistry achievement. The amount of help teachers received from the supervisor, class size, and courses in geology were teacher variables that correlated with class chemistry achievement. Nine school variables involving school, division, and class sizes correlated with school chemistry achievement. Analyses of variance revealed significant interaction effects: district by school size and district by student gender. In two districts, students in small schools achieved better than those in large schools. Generally female students achieved equal to or better than males. Three factors from the factor analysis: School Size, Prior Student Achievement, and Student Perception of Teacher Effectiveness, correlated with school chemistry achievement. The results of the multiple linear regression indicated that the factors of Prior Student Achievement, Student Perception of Teacher Effectiveness, and Teacher Experience and Expertise accounted for 45% of the variance in school chemistry

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  18. To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 217 West King Street, Martinsburg, West Virginia, as the "W. Craig Broadwater Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Capito, Shelley Moore [R-WV-2

    2011-02-08

    02/09/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.307, which became Public Law 112-11 on 4/25/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

  20. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  1. Assessment of thermal damage to polymeric materials by hydrogen deflagration in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.

    1985-05-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible material in accessible regions of the reactor building was distributed in non-uniform patterns. No clear explanation for non-uniformity was found in examined evidence, e.g., burned materials were adjacent to materials that appear similar but were not burned. Because these items were in proximity to vertical openings that extend the height of the reactor building, we assume the unburned materials preferentially absorbed water vapor during periods of high, local steam concentration. Simple hydrogen-fire-exposure tests and heat transfer calculations duplicate the degree of damage found on inspected materials from the containment building. These data support estimated 8% pre-fire hydrogen concentration predictions based on various hydrogen production mechanisms.

  2. Responding To Changes in the Decommissioning Plans for Demolition of a Former Active Handling Building at The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2006-07-01

    The full decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset is being carried out by RWE NUKEM Limited under contract from the site owners and nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Following recent government changes, the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has now set up contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. The building contains two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements together with other supporting facilities. The original intention was to demolish the caves ahead of the building but after detailed consideration it was concluded that demolition of the building in advance of the caves was more operationally effective. As a result, the original decommissioning plan had to be reworked to reflect these changes. The paper briefly explains how this situation arose and the means by which the problems experienced were overcome by a complete revision to the decommissioning programme. The updated plan has been adopted by UKAEA and work is now proceeding apace to clear the building of redundant items, to complete decontamination of all remaining areas and facilities and to carry out detailed radiological surveys to confirm that the building structure is clean and ready for demolition. Both cave lines have been completely decontaminated to low residual levels of activity and are essentially ready for controlled demolition. This paper describes some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year with particular reference to the decommissioning techniques that gave the greatest success and the limitations of others originally considered. Some of these processes were aimed at minimising the volume of low level waste (LLW) generated by using standard off-the-shelf equipment to remove contamination from {approx}5 Ton concrete blocks recovered from both cave line structures. A

  3. How to Build a 5Why Scaffolding Guided Questioning Teaching Case Film? Campus Insects Unit as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chow-Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to set up a 5Why scaffolding guided questioning teaching case film for student teachers. The case can provide complete 5Why scaffolding guided questioning science teaching unit (campus insect unit) for the student teachers to observe and learn the curriculum design, teaching didactics and problem solving method. In…

  4. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Y; Nakata, M; Higashimura, K; Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Akimoto, M; Ono, T; Mukumoto, N; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was −0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=−0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=−0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful.

  5. The thermal process diagram and equipment of the secondary coolant circuit of a nuclear power station unit based on the BREST-OD-300 reactor installation for subcritical steam conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, Yu. V.; Lisyanskii, A. S.; Makarova, E. I.; Bal'Va, L. Ya.; Prikhod'Ko, P. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    The 300-MWe power unit based on an experimental-demonstration two-circuit 700-MWt reactor installation with lead coolant is briefly described. The thermal process diagram of the secondary coolant circuit for the subcritical steam conditions 17 MPa and 505°C at the outlet from steam generators is presented.

  6. An Electron-Deficient Building Block Based on the B←N Unit: An Electron Acceptor for All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Dou, Chuandong; Long, Xiaojing; Ding, Zicheng; Xie, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2016-01-22

    A double B←N bridged bipyridyl (BNBP) is a novel electron-deficient building block for polymer electron acceptors in all-polymer solar cells. The B←N bridging units endow BNBP with fixed planar configuration and low-lying LUMO/HOMO energy levels. As a result, the polymer based on BNBP units (P-BNBP-T) exhibits high electron mobility, low-lying LUMO/HOMO energy levels, and strong absorbance in the visible region, which is desirable for polymer electron acceptors. Preliminary all-polymer solar cell (all-PSC) devices with P-BNBP-T as the electron acceptor and PTB7 as the electron donor exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.38%, which is among the highest values of all-PSCs with PTB7 as the electron donor. PMID:26663513

  7. The dimeric [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} anion: Structural characterization of a magnetic basic-building-unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongcheng; Gautier, Romain; Li, Zuo-Xi; Jie, Wanqi; Liu, Zhengtang; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2013-04-15

    New materials built from the [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} anionic basic-building-unit (BBU) exhibit interesting magnetic properties owing to the proximity of the two d{sup 1} V(IV) cations and the orbital interactions of fluoride and oxide ligands. In our search to target such materials, the vanadium oxide–fluoride compound [dpaH{sub 2}]{sub 2}[V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}] in which a dimeric anion [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} is isolated in a hydrogen bond network was hydrothermally synthesized (dpa=2,2′-dipyridylamine). This hydrogen bond network is able to stabilize the highly ionic species [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} as demonstrated with bond valence calculations. The coordination of the O{sup 2−}/F{sup −} ordered ligands was investigated and antiferromagnetic coupling of the isolated BBU was measured. - The new hybrid compound [dpaH{sub 2}]{sub 2}[V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}] built from the interesting [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} magnetic basic-building-unit (BBU) was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coordination of the O{sup 2−}/F{sup −} ordered ligands was investigated by BVS calculations and antiferromagnetic coupling was measured. Highlights: ► A new vanadium oxyfluoride was synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► The Dimeric [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} basic building unit is isolated in the hydrogen bond networks. ► The coordination of [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units to the extended structure is investigated. ► Isolated [V{sub 2}O{sub 2}F{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling.

  8. Secondary power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    In aeronautical engineering secondary power systems have long played second fiddle to the airframe, the engine, and indeed, the avionics. This collection of papers is thus timely, and its publication by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers appropriate, as secondary power systems in modern aircraft present challenging mechanical engineering problems. In military aircraft demands for electrical and hydraulic power and high pressure air have grown over the past two decades. To these basic needs are added requirements for emergency power, ground power, and independent engine starting. Additionally increased reliability and maintainability is demanded from all secondary power systems. Complete contents: What is a secondary power system. Modern technology secondary power systems for next generation military aircraft; Integrated power units; Secondary power system gearbox; Starting the system - air turbine starters; Auxiliary and emergency power system; Secondary hydraulic power generation; Advanced technology electrical power generation equipment.

  9. Contributions of Selected Biogenic and Aromatic Compounds to the Formation of Tropospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol over Several Sites in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaoui, M.; Kleindienst, T. E.; Lewandowski, M.; Offenberg, J. H.; Corse, E. W.; Gerald, T.; Edney, E.

    2009-12-01

    believed to be the major emitters of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol into the atmosphere. The ratios of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to OC for these locations ranged from 20% during the winter to 50% and occasionally higher during the summer. In addition, during the winter season, levoglucosan (a biomass burning tracer) appeared to be a dominant contributor to ambient PM2.5 OC concentrations, while the SOA contributions remained low. However, during the summer, the SOA contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons along with OC concentrations increased, while the biomass burning contribution decreased. The limitations of these methods will also be addressed. Disclaimer: This work has been funded wholly or in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Contract EP-D-05-065 to Alion Science and Technology. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.

  10. Acción Mutua (Shared Action): a multipronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance to agencies serving Latino communities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ayala, George; Chión, Miguel; Díaz, Rafael M; Heckert, Andrea L; Nuño, Monica; del Pino, Homero E; Rodríguez, Claudia; Schroeder, Kurt; Smith, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Culturally appropriate, theory-based capacity-building assistance can serve a vital role in helping HIV prevention providers remain up-to-date, effective, and responsive to those they serve. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS Project Los Angeles, in collaboration with San Francisco State University's César E. Chávez Institute, conducted full-day site visits and qualitative interviews in 2005 with mid-level management staff of CDC-funded community-based organizations delivering HIV prevention services to Latino communities in the western region of the United States. We found that agencies we visited (1) had not yet adapted the evidence-based interventions they were using at the time of our visit and (2) requested technical assistance and training in the areas of program development, evaluation, group facilitation techniques, consumer recruitment, client retention, intervention adaptation, and materials development. Findings from this needs assessment were used to inform our seven-pronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance entitled "Acción Mutua" (Shared Action). The approach emphasizes strategic partnerships, stakeholder involvement, organizational self-assessment, culturally appropriate materials development, interactive training, tailored onsite technical assistance, and professional networking opportunities. This article describes our approach in detail, the assessment process we used to develop it, and its implications for capacity-building practice. PMID:17159465

  11. Closure report for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) category, Corrective Action Unit 95, EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The EPA Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 was located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95, Corrective Action Site 15-41-01, in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order and was assigned to Functional Category 41 (Decontamination and Decommissioning [D and D] Facility.) In August 1997, the Department of Energy/Nevada (DOE/NV) accelerated the corrective actions for CAU 95. A final Corrective Action Decision Document and a draft Corrective Action Plan were submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and notification was made to the NDEP that work would proceed at the site while the documents were reviewed. The NDEP approved the decontamination and demolition of the Laboratory Building as the corrective action alternative most suitable for the closure of CAU 95. Closure activities were initiated on September 2, 1997 and completed October 23, 1997. The decontamination of Building 15-06 was accomplished in conference with the D and D Subproject Characterization Work Plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  12. Isomerization of the prenucleation building unit during crystallization of AlPO{sub 4}-CJ2: An MQMAS, CP-MQMAS, and HETCOR NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Taulelle, F.; Pruski, M.; Amoureux, J.P.

    1999-12-29

    The structure of AlPO{sub 4}-CJ2 aluminophosphate has been reinvestigated by MAS, MQMAS (multiple quantum magic angle spinning), CP-MQMAS (cross polarization-MQMAS), and HETCOR (heteronuclear correlation) NMR spectroscopy. The CP-MQMAS method showed that the sample, when not allowed adequate time for crystallization, included a substantial concentration of amorphous species. The crystalline component was cleanly singled out by this technique. The authors discuss the relative populations and the distributions of F and OH groups within the structural building units (SBUs) and the distribution of various SBUs within the crystalline structure of AlPO{sub 4}-CJ2. For the latter case, a mixture of SBUs is demonstrated from the {sup 19}F {r{underscore}arrow} {sup 31}P HETCOR spectrum. Prenucleation building units (PNBUs) are the principal objects used for efficient crystal formation. They may undergo an isomerization to reach the proper configuration to integrate into the solid network. The isomerization implies formation of a bridge within the PNBU, probably at random with respect to OH or F. As integration in the network is taking place parallel to isomerization, the network forms as domains containing a mixture of the different types of SBUs.

  13. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

  14. Building a World Fit for Children: The United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children, 8-10 May, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    The United Nations Special Session on Children in May, 2002, was a landmark for children and human developmentthe first Special Session of the General Assembly devoted exclusively to children and the first to include them as official delegates. Participants came together to assess the progress made toward achieving the goals of the 1990 World…

  15. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  16. Classroom Temperature, Clothing and Thermal Comfort -- A Study of Secondary School Children in Summertime. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 22/74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a study of summertime classroom temperature and its relationship to the clothing worn by English secondary school children. Data on classroom temperatures and children's clothing were recorded during one summer for a total of 987 lessons. Analysis of the data showed that the strong clothing-temperature correlation could be…

  17. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Secondary and Vocational Programs: Classroom, Building, Equipment and Instructional Modifications and Adaptations. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janice; Parks, A. Lee

    This manuscript, provided in a format that lends itself to workshop presentation, contains materials for vocational and secondary educators on curriculum and classroom modifications for handicapped learners. Content is divided into seven areas. The first section discusses overall curricular modification and adaptation for handicapped students. In…

  18. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  19. Secondary infection and clinical aspects after pandemic swine–origin influenza a (H1N1) admission in an Iranian critical care unite

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza; Tabarsi, Payam; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Shamaee, Massoud; Chitsazan, Mandana; Radmand, Golnar; Maadani, Mohammadreza; Mansouri, Seyed Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A new flu virus (H1N1) swine origin and cause of human infection with acute lung disease was published in the world and led to many patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, all ICU patients in a pulmonary disease specialist hospital between April 2010 and July 2011 with confirmed infection (H1N1) were evaluated. Information including demographic, clinical and microbiology using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 was studied and classified. Results: Of 46 patients hospitalized with confirmed diagnosis of swine flu pneumonia (H1N1), 20 cases (43.7%) admitted in ICU out of which 10 cases were males (50%), the mean age was 36.9 and the range was 21-66 years. Nine patients (45%) had underlying diseases. Most underlying disease was respiratory disease in which four cases (20%) were of asthma and one patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). No admission of pregnant patient with swine flu was reported in the ICU. Cough and sputum were the most frequent symptoms (19 patients equal 95%). Four patients (20%) were admitted with decreased level of consciousness and five cases (25%) died during hospitalization. Conclusion: It seems, swine flu with high mortality and transfer rates is a worldwide health problem. Because of limited treatment regimen, the risk of secondary infection and high need to intensive care in H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high risk people and public announcement, make determining role in controlling of this disease. PMID:25625063

  20. Building a genomic framework for prospective MRSA surveillance in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Sandra; Török, M. Estée; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Reynolds, Rosy; Raven, Kathy E.; Blane, Beth; Donker, Tjibbe; Bentley, Stephen D.; Aanensen, David M.; Grundmann, Hajo; Feil, Edward J.; Spratt, Brian G.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomes drawn from England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Republic of Ireland over a decade. We sequenced 1013 MRSA submitted to the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy by 46 laboratories between 2001 and 2010. Each isolate was assigned to a regional healthcare referral network in England and was otherwise grouped based on country of origin. Phylogenetic reconstructions were used to contextualize MRSA outbreak investigations and to detect the spread of resistance. The majority of isolates (n = 783, 77%) belonged to CC22, which contains the dominant United Kingdom epidemic clone (EMRSA-15). There was marked geographic structuring of EMRSA-15, consistent with widespread dissemination prior to the sampling decade followed by local diversification. The addition of MRSA genomes from two outbreaks and one pseudo-outbreak demonstrated the certainty with which outbreaks could be confirmed or refuted. We identified local and regional differences in antibiotic resistance profiles, with examples of local expansion, as well as widespread circulation of mobile genetic elements across the bacterial population. We have generated a resource for the future surveillance and outbreak investigation of MRSA in the United Kingdom and Ireland and have shown the value of this during outbreak investigation and tracking of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26672018

  1. Factors that Influence Participation of Students in Secondary Science and Mathematics Subjects in IB Schools Outside of the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straffon, Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (p<.01). Home region was the most important factor affecting participation in both math and science. Students from East, Southeast and South-Central Asia; and Eastern Europe have greater participation in math. The highest science participation came from students in East, Southern and Western Africa; and Southeast Asia. Top participators in science came from Australia/New Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of

  2. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties. PMID:26851528

  3. 31. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING AT INTERIOR - BACK OF POWER SUPPLY UNITS 3045-17 AND 3046-29. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 23. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING RADAR CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - RADAR CONTROL INTERFACE "RCL NO. 2" WITH COMPUTER CONTROL DISC DRIVE UNITS IN FOREGROUND. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. An unusual hybrid fluoride featuring a [V{sub 7}F{sub 27}]{sup 6-} chain motif based on a pyrochlore-like building unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aldous, David W.; Slawin, Alexandra M.Z.; Lightfoot, Philip

    2008-11-15

    A new hybrid vanadium (III) fluoride [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[V{sub 7}F{sub 27}] has been synthesised solvothermally. The crystal structure (trigonal, R3-bar c; a=17.367(2) A, c=19.604(2) A) reveals an unusual and novel chain motif consisting of pyrochlore-like heptameric units of corner-sharing octahedra, which are further linked into linear chains of alternating triple and single octahedral groups. The chains are separated by hydrogen-bonded piperazinium moieties. Magnetic susceptibility data show moderate antiferromagnetic interactions but no long-range order above 2 K, consistent with pronounced one-dimensional character, as well as frustration arising within the triangular units of magnetic ions in the chains. - Graphical abstract: A unique chain-structure vanadium(III) fluoride [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[V{sub 7}F{sub 27}], based on a pyrochlore-like building unit, has been prepared solvothermally. Despite antiferromagnetic interactions, no long-range magnetic order occurs above 2 K, suggesting possible frustration.

  6. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  7. Building Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    The purpose of this eight-unit course is to explore the values and issues of modern urban neighborhoods. It focuses on how community leaders can apply the broad principle of justice to problems of security, reciprocity, and fellowship that face most neighborhoods today. The course is intended for use by community leaders in building community…

  8. Prevention and recovery in early psychosis (PREP(®)): building a public-academic partnership program in Massachusetts, United States.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Brina; Zimmet, Suzanna V; Meyer, Eric C; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Monteleone, Thomas; Jude Leung, Y; Guyer, Margaret E; Rood, Laura Logue; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing emphasis on early intervention (EI) for psychotic disorders. EI programs in public mental health settings have been established in countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. However, there are relatively few EI programs in the United States (U.S.). Here we describe the conceptual origins and practical development of the PREP program, i.e., Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis, as it evolved in a public academic psychiatry setting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. PREP developed over a decade through a partnership between the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health and academic institutions within the Harvard Department of Psychiatry. We discuss the evolution, programmatic features, funding mechanisms, staffing, and the role of clinical training in PREP. The key principles in developing the PREP Program include the focus on early, evidence based, person-centered and phase-specific, integrated and continuous, comprehensive care. This program has served as a foundation for the emergence of related services at our institution, including a research clinic treating those at clinical high risk or within the putative "prodromal" period preceding frank psychosis. This account offers one possible blueprint for the development of EI programs despite the lack in the U.S. of a national mandate for EI or prevention-based mental health programs. PMID:23466116

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department Of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-02-24

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 266 consists of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-09 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 266. Corrective Action Unit 266 is located southwest of Building 3124 which is located southwest and adjacent to Test Cell A. Test Cell A was operational during the 1960s to test nuclear rocket reactors in support of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Operations within Building 3124 from 1962 through the early 1990s resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations, various laboratories including a high-level radioactivity environmental sample handling laboratory, and possibly the Treatability Test Facility. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include radionuclides, oil/diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act characteristic volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and metals. Samples will also be analyzed for radionuclides and polychlorinated biphenyls not

  10. Computational Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Stable Zirconium Building Units for Storage and Delivery of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Gutov, OV; Krungleviciute, V; Borah, B; Mondloch, JE; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Snurr, RQ

    2014-10-14

    A metal organic framework (MOF) with high volumetric deliverable capacity for methane was synthesized after being identified by computational screening of 204 hypothetical MOF structures featuring (Zr6O4)(OH)(4)(CO2)(n) inorganic building blocks. The predicted MOF (NU-800) has an fcu topology in which zirconium nodes are connected via ditopic 1,4-benzenedipropynoic acid linkers. Based on our computer simulations, alkyne groups adjacent to the inorganic zirconium nodes provide more efficient methane packing around the nodes at high pressures. The high predicted gas uptake properties of this new MOF were confirmed by high-pressure isotherm measurements over a large temperature and pressure range. The measured methane deliverable capacity of NU-800 between 65 and 5.8 bar is 167 cc(STP)/cc (0.215 g/g), the highest among zirconium-based MOFs. High-pressure uptake values of H-2 and CO2 are also among the highest reported. These high gas uptake characteristics, along with the expected highly stable structure of NU-800, make it a promising material for gas storage applications.

  11. Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

  12. (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y} alloys assembled on Si(100) from Al-P-Si{sub 3} building units

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.; Chizmeshya, A. V. G.; Kouvetakis, J.; Jiang, L.; Xu, C.; Smith, D. J.; Menendez, J.

    2012-01-09

    An original class of IV/III-V hybrid (Si){sub 5-2y}(AlP){sub y}/Si(100) semiconductors have been produced via tailored interactions of molecular P(SiH{sub 3}){sub 3} and atomic Al yielding tetrahedral ''Al-P-Si{sub 3}'' building blocks. Extensive structural, optical, and vibrational characterization corroborates that these units condense to assemble single-phase, monocrystalline alloys containing 60%-90% Si (y = 0.3-1.0) as nearly defect-free layers lattice-matched to Si. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and density functional theory band structure calculations indicate mild compositional bowing of the band gaps, suggesting that the tuning needed for optoelectronic applications should be feasible.

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  14. The Role of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in Building Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans

    The Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) will provide an overview of achievements of UN- COPUOS, UNISPACE Conferences, particularly the establishment of the Programme on Space Applications and its priority thematic areas, UN-affiliated Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education, the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), the UN Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-Spider), and legal framework governing space activities of UN Member States. OOSA will review results of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative, particularly the development of networks of astronomical telescope facilities, planetariums, and instrument arrays for space research in developing nations. The mission of OOSA, implemented through on-going programmes developed for the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (IHY2007) and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) will be highlighted.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  16. Water uptake by organic aerosol and its influence on gas/particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Asher, William E.; Pankow, James F.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) is at least partly hygroscopic, i.e., water partitions into the organic phase to a degree determined by the relative humidity (RH), the organic chemical composition, and the particle size. This organic-phase water increases the aerosol mass and provides a larger absorbing matrix while decreasing its mean molecular weight, which can encourage additional condensation of semi-volatile organic compounds. Most regional and global atmospheric models account for water uptake by inorganic salts but do not explicitly account for organic-phase water and its subsequent impact on gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile OA. In this work, we incorporated the organic-phase water model described by Pankow et al. (2015) into the UCD/CIT air quality model to simulate water uptake by OA and assessed its influence on total OA mass concentrations. The model was run for one summer month over two distinct regions: South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) surrounding Los Angeles, California and the eastern United States (US). In SoCAB where the OA was dominated by non-hygroscopic primary OA (POA), there was very little organic-phase water uptake (0.1-0.2 μg m-3) and consequently very little enhancement (or growth) in total OA concentrations (OA + organic-phase water): a 3% increase in total OA mass was predicted for a 0.1 increase in relative humidity. In contrast, in the eastern US where secondary OA (SOA) from biogenic sources dominated the OA, substantial organic-phase water uptake and enhancement in total OA concentrations was predicted, even in urban locations. On average, the model predicted a 20% growth in total OA mass for a 0.1 increase in relative humidity; the growth was equivalent to a 250 nm particle with a hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of 0.15. Further, for the same relative humidity, the exact extent of organic-phase water uptake and total OA enhancement was found to be dependent on the particle mixing state. When the source-oriented mixing state of aerosols

  17. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  18. Water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit of unit 3 at the rovno nuclear power station involving correction treatment of working medium with lithium hydroxide and ethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. Ya.; Vlasenko, N. I.; Kozlova, T. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    The all-volatile water chemistry used in the secondary coolant circuit involving correction treatment of the steam generator's boiler water with lithium hydroxide and the ethanolamine water chemistry are analyzed from the viewpoint of their effect on the erosion-corrosion wear of equipment used in the secondary coolant system and damageability of heat-transfer tubes used in PGV-1000M steam generators.

  19. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers. PMID:16021938

  20. Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-03-01

    Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

  1. Theory building and modeling in a sinking and floating unit: a case study of third and fourth grade students' developing epistemologies of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Keiko; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Yeary, Sherry A.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the evolution of students' theory building and modeling, critical components of scientific epistemologies, over a unit of study on sinking and floating in one third/fourth grade classroom. The study described in this paper follows in the tradition of Design Experiments (Brown 1992, Collins 1990) and employs discourse analytic methods in order to examine epistemological development in the dynamic swirl of talk, text and other representations, and social interaction in the classroom. In order to examine students' epistemological development, we draw on the work of Driver et al. (1996) who found that students' use of "theory" falls into three general categories: (1) a descriptive state, or phenomenon-based reasoning, where ideas are not different from experiments, (2) relation-based reasoning, where students come to believe that one can find ultimate proof for particular theories, and (3) model-based reasoning, where students recognize that theories might need to be changed in light of new evidence. Through following students across the unit and examining changes in student participation within discussions and analyzing the quality and content of these discussions, we argue that they are developing a powerful epistemology of science that is more commensurate with the work of actual scientists.

  2. The Building of Knowledge, Language, and Decision-Making about Climate Change Science: A Cross-National Program for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Diana; Maul, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations' declaration on climate change education in December 2014 has sparked a renewal of policies and programs initiated during the "Decade of Education for Sustainable Development" (DESD, 2005-2014), aimed at promoting awareness, understanding, and civic action for environmental sustainability within learning communities…

  3. Solvent-mediated secondary building units (SBUs) diversification in a series of MnII-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yan-Fei; Cui, Li-Ting; Han, Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Li

    2016-09-01

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of MOFs has been investigated for a series of MnII-based framework systems. Reactions of 4,4‧,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3L) with MnII through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear MnII subunits in four new coordination polymers: [Mn3(L)(HCOO)3(DEF)3] (1), [Mn3(L)2(EtOH)2]·DMF (2), [Mn5(L)4(H2O)2]·2(H2NMe2)+·4DMF·2H2O (3), and [Mn3(L)2(py)4(H2O)]·H2O (4) (H3L=4,4‧,4‧-nitrilotribenzoic acid, DMF=dimethylformamide, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide, py=pyridine). These four compounds were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting SBUs variations. For compound 1, it displays a (3,6)-connected kgd net with wheel [Mn6] cluster serving as SBU, whereas in 2, the sequence of Mn3(COO)9(EtOH)2 is repeated by inversion centers located between Mn1 and Mn3 to form an infinite Mn-carboxylate chain, which are further interlinked by L3- ligands to form a 3D architecture. In 3, the pentanuclear Mn5(CO2)12 clusters are interlinked to form a layer, which are further pillared by L3- to generate a 3D network. Compound 4 has a (3,6)-connected network in which the SBU is a linear trimeric Mn3(COO)6(py)4(H2O) cluster. In addition, the thermal stabilities, X-ray powder diffraction of all the compounds were studied, photoluminescence behaviors of compounds 1, 3 and 4 are discussed.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 263, Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nevada and includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 25-05-04 Leachfield. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action for CAU 263 is necessary. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the April 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. The purpose of the CAI was to identify the presence and the vertical and lateral extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), specifically volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivola tile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as 1,4-dichlorobenzene and p-isopropyl toluene. The subsequent investigation included direct-push environmental soil samples from within the leachfield using a Geoprobe{reg_sign} unit; field screening of soil samples for radiological constituents and VOCs; submittal of environmental and quality control samples for testing for total VOCs, total SVOCs, and gamma spectrometry; and collection of soil samples from both the liquid phase and the underlying sludge of the septic tank contents. The CAI activities determined that: (1) all total VOC and total SVOC results were below the preliminary action levels outlined in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), and (2) radiological results were not distinguishable from background concentrations identified in the CAIP. Therefore, the DOE/NV recommended that no corrective action was required at CAU 263. No use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU because the investigation showed no

  5. The 2nd United Kingdom Extracellular Vesicle Forum Meeting Abstracts: 15 December 2015, Hadyn Ellis Building, Cardiff University.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Aled; Lawson, Charlotte; Gardiner, Chris; Harrison, Paul; Carter, David

    2016-01-01

    The UK Extracellular Vesicles (UKEV) Forum meetings were born of the realization that there were a number of UK laboratories studying extracellular vesicle biology and using similar techniques but without a regular national meeting dedicated to EVs at which to share their findings. This was compounded by the fact that many of these labs were working in different fields and thus networking and sharing of ideas and best practice was sometimes difficult. The first workshop was organized in 2013 by Dr Charlotte Lawson, under the auspices of the Society for Endocrinology, led to the founding of the UKEV Forum and the organization of a British Heart Foundation sponsored 1-day conference held in London in December 2014. Although growing in size every year, the central aims of these workshops have remained the same: to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas, to allow young scientists to present their data in the form of short talks and poster presentations and to discuss their work with more established scientists in the field. Here we include the presented abstracts for the 2015 1-day conference hosted by Cardiff University. This meeting was attended by approximately 130 delegates throughout the United Kingdom, but also attended by delegates from Belgium, Netherlands, France, Ireland and other nations. The day composed of plenary presentations from Prof Matthias Belting, Lund University, Sweden and Dr Guillaume van Niel, Institut Curie, Paris together with 10 short presentations from submitted abstracts. The topics covered were broad, with sessions on Mechanisms of EV production, EVs in Infection, EVs in Cancer and in Blood and Characterizing EVs in Biological fluids. This hopefully gives a reflection of the range of EV-related studies being conducted currently in the UK. There were also 33 poster presentations equally broad in subject matter. The organizers are grateful to the Life Science Research Network Wales - a Welsh government-funding scheme that part

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfields, Nevada Test Site, Revision 0, DOE/NV--535 UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  7. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  8. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  9. The Influence of Anthropogenic Sources on Fluxes of Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors From a Deciduous Forest in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, R. D.; Stein, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    The dynamic, bi-directional exchange of trace chemical species between forests and the atmosphere has important impacts on both the forest ecosystem and atmospheric composition, with potentially profound consequences on air quality, climate and global ecosystem functioning. Forests are a dominant source of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions into the earth's atmosphere and thus play an important role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). To arrive at a better scientific understanding of the complex chemical and physical processes of forest-atmosphere exchange and provide a platform for robust analysis of field measurements of these processes, a process-level, multiphase model of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of forest canopies is being developed. This model, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Canopy Exchange Simulation System (ACCESS) is being used to investigate various aspects of forest-atmosphere exchange and chemistry including gas, aqueous and aerosol phases. ACCESS currently includes processes accounting for the emission of BVOCs from the canopy, turbulent vertical transport within and above the canopy and throughout the height of the planetary boundary layer, detailed chemical reactions, mixing with the background atmosphere and bi-directional exchange between the atmosphere and the canopy and the forest floor. The Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) is a dedicated ecosystem research area on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in eastern Tennessee. The 97.5 ha watershed has been the site of long-term ecosystem and atmospheric research activities since the mid-1960's. A flux tower located within the watershed (35°57'30"N, 84°17'15"W; 365 m above mean sea level) and 10 km southwest of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has served as a focal point for previous atmospheric turbulence and chemical flux measurements and the canopy morphology of the forest surrounding the flux tower has been extensively documented. The forest is

  10. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  11. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy's Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  12. Secondary Market Activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association. Report to the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Lending and secondary market activities of the Student Loan Marketing Association (Sallie Mae) since it began operations in 1973 were reviewed. Specific areas of review were: the Association's legislative development and financial activities, its profitability compared to commercial banks and other government-sponsored enterprises that provide…

  13. A Causal Analysis of Satisfaction, Performance, Work Environment and Leadership in Selected Secondary Schools. A Study of Schooling in the United States. Technical Report Series, No. 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Richard E.

    This study investigated the concept of organizational effectiveness as proposed by Rensis Likert and his colleagues at the University of Michigan. The study focused on the causal relationship between the model's variables and on how the model could be used to analyze problems in secondary school educational administration. Data for this study were…

  14. Metrics for the Consumer. A Teacher Inservice Module for Secondary Level Consumer Education Units in Home Economics, Business Education, Social Studies and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Eunice

    This teacher-oriented learning module for secondary level consumer education teachers, the last in a series of three, was developed to provide information on the metric system and ideas for conveying this content to students. The module begins with a definition and general goals of consumer education, a rationale, an overview, ten module…

  15. Life Insurance for Consumers: A Teacher's Guide. A Teacher Inservice Module for Secondary Level Consumer Education Units in Home Economics, Business Education, Social Studies and Related Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Judith

    This teacher-oriented learning module for secondary level consumer education teachers, the first in a series of three, was developed to provide information on life insurance and ideas for conveying this content to students. The module begins with a definition and general goals of consumer economics, an overview, a pre-test, a performance objective…

  16. SEASONAL AND REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: SEMI-EMPIRICAL ESTIMATES AND MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal and regional variations of primary (OCpri) and secondary (OCsec) organic carbon aerosols across the continental U.S. for the year 2001 were examined by a semi-empirical technique using observed OC and elemental carbon (EC) data from 142 routine moni...

  17. Class, Race, and Gender and the Construction of Post-Secondary Curricula in the United States: Social Movement, Professionalization, and Political Economic Theories of Curricular Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    Challenges the current belief that post-secondary curricula is defined by faculty and institutions in response to demographic shifts. Maintains that a complex interweaving of social movements, class structures, political, and economic forces influences the adaptation and implementation of curricula. Criticizes the establishment and the recognition…

  18. SEASONAL AND REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES: OBSERVATION-BASED ESTIMATES AND MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the lack of an analytical technique for directly quantifying the atmospheric concentrations of primary (OCpri) and secondary (OCsec) organic carbon aerosols, different indirect methods have been developed to estimate their concentrations. In this stu...

  19. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for...

  20. Field Testing and Evaluation of a Research and Instructional Unit for Increasing the Utilization of Research and Development Information and Techniques in a Secondary School System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, Robert D.

    In order to determine the effectiveness of a Research and Instructional Unit (R & I Unit) in promoting increased use of research data and methodology in curricular decisionmaking at the classroom level, the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, in cooperation with Tamalpais Union High School District, conducted a pilot…

  1. Build an Ensemble-based Remote-Sensing Driven Coupled Flash Flood and Landslide Warning System and Its Evaluation Across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Hong, Y.; Gourley, J. J.; Vergara, H. J.; Xue, X.; Lu, N.; Wooten, R.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding and flash flooding are the most costly weather-related natural hazards in the United States and world. Heavy rainfall-triggered landslides are often associated with flash flood events and cause additional loss of life and property. Therefore, it is important to understand the linkage and interaction between flash flood events and landslides. It is also pertinent to build a robust coupled flash flood and landslide disaster early warning system for disaster preparedness and hazard management. In this study, we built a coupled flash flood and landslide disaster early warning system, which is aimed for operational use by the US National Weather Service, based on an existing ensemble framework by extending the model ensemble and coupling a set of distributed hydrologic models, the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) model and the SACramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, with two physically based landslide prediction models, the SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium (SLIDE) model and the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model. We tested this prototype warning system by conducting multi-year simulations driven by the Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) rainfall estimates at selected basins across the United States. We then comprehensively evaluated the predictive capabilities of this system against observed and reported flood and landslides events. Our results show that the system is generally capable of making accurate predictions of flash flood and landslide events in terms of their locations and time of occurrence. The recently developed ensemble framework also enables us to quantify the uncertainty of the predictions and the probabilities of anticipated disaster events.

  2. Equity Lessons for Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Secondary students will develop an awareness of the many facets of sex-role stereotyping through these mini-unit activities. The units can serve as the basis for a mini-course or can be integrated into social studies courses, especially U.S. history. The foci of the mini-units are reflected in their titles: (1) Recognizing and Challenging…

  3. Assessment of primary and secondary ambient particle trends using satellite aerosol optical depth and ground speciation data in the New England region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Kang, Choong-Min; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution emission control policies can be evaluated by examining ambient pollutant concentration trends that are observed at a large number of ground monitoring sites over time. In this paper, we used ground monitoring measurements in conjunction with satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to investigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) trends and their spatial patterns over a large U.S. region, New England, during 2000–2008. We examined the trends in rural and urban areas to get a better insight about the trends of regional and local source emissions. Decreases in PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3) were more pronounced in urban areas than in rural ones. In addition, the highest and lowest PM2.5 decreases (μg/m3) were observed for winter and summer, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that primary particle concentrations decreased more relative to secondary ones. This is also supported by the analysis of the speciation data which showed that downward trends of primary pollutants including black carbon were stronger than those of secondary pollutants including sulfate. Furthermore, this study found that ambient primary pollutants decreased at the same rate as their respective source emissions. This was not the case for secondary pollutants which decreased at a slower rate than that of their precursor emissions. This indicates that concentrations of secondary pollutants depend not only on the primary emissions but also on the availability of atmospheric oxidants which might not change during the study period. This novel approach of investigating spatially varying concentration trends, in combination with ground PM2.5 species trends, can be of substantial regulatory importance. PMID:24906074

  4. Optimized planning of in-service inspections of local flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based units at the Novovoronezh NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Budanov, V. A.; Golubeva, T. N.

    2015-03-01

    Matters concerned with making efficient use of the information-analytical system on the flow-accelerated corrosion problem in setting up in-service examination of the metal of pipeline elements operating in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered. The principles used to select samples of pipeline elements in planning ultrasonic thickness measurements for timely revealing metal thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion along with reducing the total amount of measurements in the condensate-feedwater path are discussed.

  5. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  6. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  7. Spatial and seasonal variations of fine particle water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) over the Southeastern United States: implications for secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, Z.; Hecobian, A.; Zheng, M.; Frank, N. H.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the Southeastern US is investigated by analyzing the spatial-temporal distribution of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and other PM2.5 components from 900 archived 24 h Teflon filters collected at 15 urban or rural EPA Federal Reference Method (FRM) network sites throughout 2007. Online measurements of WSOC at an urban/rural-paired site in Georgia in the summer of 2008 are contrasted to the filter data. Based on FRM filters, excluding biomass-burning events (levoglucosan < 50 ng m-3), WSOC and sulfate were highly correlated with PM2.5 mass and both comprised a large mass fraction of PM2.5 (13% and 35%, respectively). Sulfate and WSOC both tracked ambient temperature throughout the year, suggesting the temperature effects were mainly on the photochemical processes that lead to secondary formation. FRM WSOC, and to a lesser extent sulfate, were spatially homogeneous throughout the region, yet WSOC was moderately enhanced (27%) in locations of greater predicted isoprene emissions in summer. A Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis identified two major source types for the summer WSOC; 22% of the WSOC were associated with ammonium sulfate, and 56% of the WSOC was associated with brown carbon and oxalate. A small urban excess of FRM WSOC (10%) was observed in the summer of 2007, however, comparisons of online WSOC measurements at one urban/rural pair (Atlanta/Yorkville) in August 2008 showed substantially greater difference in WSOC (31%) relative to the FRM data, suggesting a low bias for urban filters. The measured Atlanta urban excess, combined with the estimated boundary layer heights, gave an estimated Atlanta daily WSOC production rate in August of 0.55 mg C m-2 h-1 between mid-morning and mid-afternoon. This study characterizes the regional nature of fine particles in the Southeastern US, confirming the importance of secondary organic aerosol and the roles of both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions.

  8. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  10. [Secondary traumatization/trauma among employees in palliative care units--the products of prolonged repeated exposure to suffering and death].

    PubMed

    Samson, Tali; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2012-11-01

    The palliative care philosophy accepts the dying process as a natural phase in the life cycle and provides quality end of life care for terminal patients and their family members. Prolonged exposure to the physical symptoms and pain, as well as the psychological, spiritual, and existential suffering of the dying patient, may be fertile ground for the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms among palliative care teams. Work-related positive outcomes (such as compassion, satisfaction and meaning) and work-related negative outcomes (such as compassion fatigue, secondary traumatization and burnout) can exist side by side, and the unique balance between them will determine the quality of life of the worker. This review presents the current knowledge about the prevalence and causes of work-related stress outcomes among palliative care teams and measurement tools that are available. The literature review discusses secondary traumatization in palliative care teams and relevant messages for the development of treatment options, burnout prevention programs and support interventions for professionals who lead the care for terminal patients in Israel. PMID:23367727

  11. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  12. Cascading the Use of Web 2.0 Technology in Secondary Schools in the United Kingdom: Identifying the Barriers beyond Pre-Service Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Helen; Hramiak, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on research that took place at two universities in the United Kingdom, over two years. The research focuses on the use of Web 2.0 technology, specifically blogs, with pre-service teachers, both during their university programme and the first year of teaching as full-time newly qualified teachers (NQTs). The purpose of this…

  13. Escalating the use of Web 2.0 Technology in Secondary Schools in the United Kingdom: Barriers and Enablers beyond Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hramiak, Alison; Boulton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on research that took place at Nottingham Trent University (NTU) and Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), United Kingdom, over two years. The project formed the basis of an iterative, interpretive, action research study focussing on a particular set of participants--trainee teachers. The insights gained from the initial cycle fed…

  14. Defining conservation units in a stocking-induced genetic melting pot: unraveling native and multiple exotic genetic imprints of recent and historical secondary contact in Adriatic grayling

    PubMed Central

    Meraner, Andreas; Cornetti, Luca; Gandolfi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The definition of conservation units is crucial for the sustainable management of endangered species, though particularly challenging when recent and past anthropogenic and natural gene flow might have played a role. The conservation of the European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is particularly complex in its southern distribution area, where the Adriatic evolutionary lineage is endangered by a long history of anthropogenic disturbance, intensive stocking and potentially widespread genetic introgression. We provide mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data of 683 grayling from 30 sites of Adriatic as well as Danubian and Atlantic origin. We apply Bayesian clustering and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to detect microgeographic population structure and to infer the demographic history of the Adriatic populations, to define appropriate conservation units. Varying frequencies of indigenous genetic signatures of the Adriatic grayling were revealed, spanning from marginal genetic introgression to the collapse of native gene pools. Genetic introgression involved multiple exotic source populations of Danubian and Atlantic origin, thus evidencing the negative impact of few decades of stocking. Within the Adige River system, a contact zone of western Adriatic and eastern Danubian populations was detected, with ABC analyses suggesting a historical anthropogenic origin of eastern Adige populations, most likely founded by medieval translocations. Substantial river-specific population substructure within the Adriatic grayling Evolutionary Significant Unit points to the definition of different conservation units. We finally propose a catalog of management measures, including the legal prohibition of stocking exotic grayling and the use of molecular markers in supportive- and captive-breeding programs. PMID:24834328

  15. How Secondary School Principals Build Trust in Kenyan Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaya, Joel Ondieki

    2011-01-01

    The most successful school leaders are those who have been able to transform their schools into centers of deep and ongoing learning by managing relationships (Kaser & Halbert, 2009). Consequently, strong levels of trust are preconditions for successful school improvement initiative. Research confirms that no cooperation strategy works in high…

  16. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  17. To designate the buildings occupied by the Department of Transportation located at 1200 New Jersey Avenue, Southeast, in the District of Columbia as the "James L. Oberstar United States Department of Transportation Building Complex".

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lipinski, Daniel [D-IL-3

    2014-05-09

    05/12/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. World Concerns and the United Nations: Model Teaching Units for Primary, Secondary and Teacher Educators Based on the Work of Participants in the UN Fellowship Programme for Educators (1975-1981) and the UNESCO Associated Schools Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    This sourcebook is designed to provide prototype materials on world issues suitable for adaptation to national and regional needs. Materials can also be adapted for many curriculum subjects at levels ranging from kindergarten to grade 12. A total of 26 units are organized into five sections. Following a foreword, introduction, and guidelines, a…

  19. A new family of 1D, 2D and 3D frameworks aggregated from Ni5, Ni4 and Ni7 building units: synthesis, structure, and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Hui; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Miao-Li; Feng, Si-Si; Su, Feng

    2016-05-31

    Three new Ni(ii)-clusters based on a Y-shaped ligand (biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate, H3BPT), [Ni5(HBPT)4(OH)2(H2O)12]n (), [Ni4(BPT)2(OH)2(H2O)6]n·4nH2O (), and [Ni7(BPT)2(1,4-bib)2(OH)6(HCO2)2]n·3nH2O () (1,4-bib = 1,4-bi(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. They were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and magnetochemistry. The complexes contain low nuclear Ni-clusters as building units (BUs). Structurally, in , the cluster BUs of [Ni5(μ3-OH)2](8+) can be viewed as two reverse triangles sharing a common vertex, which are connected by the partially deprotonated μ2-η(1):η(1)-HBPT(2-) forming 1D chains. The BUs of [Ni4(μ3-OH)2](6+) clusters in can be considered as two reverse triangles sharing a common edge and extended by deprotonated μ6-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(2)-BPT(3-) constructing a 2D framework. The 3D framework of complex consists of a [Ni7(μ3-OH)4(R-COO)7(HCO2)3] cluster BUs with fully deprotonated μ5-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1)-BPT(3-) and 1,4-bib ligands. In addition, TGA reveals that the complexes are stable in the range of 293-548 K. Magnetostructural analyses indicate ferromagnetic coupling of J1 = 1.85(3) and J2 = 2.25(4) cm(-1) in and J = 5.76(6) cm(-1) in , whereas magnetic parameters J1 = -2.64(3), J2 = -23.22(19) and J3 = 12.02(5) cm(-1) indicate an alternating magnetic chain (AF/F) in . PMID:27180871

  20. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the July 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 423: Area 3 Building 0360 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-02-002-0308, Underground Discharge Point. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the

  1. Secondary Health Occupations Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzen, Shelley; Muhl, V. Jane

    This color coded curriculum guide for secondary health occupations in Iowa provides units for the first phase of the curriculum, career exploration of the health occupations. The nine units cover the following topics: (1) introduction to health occupations; (2) health occupations career exploration; (3) communication skills; (4) self-care and…

  2. China Curriculum for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Marjorie; And Others

    Designed to assist secondary teachers in teaching about China, this guide presents six units about the cultural and political patterns of Chinese life. Following a list of resources and audiovisual distributors, unit 1 provides opportunities to examine similarities and differences in Chinese and American world views, particularly attitudes of…

  3. To provide for the conveyance of the David W. Dyer Federal Building and United States Courthouse in Miami, Florida, to Miami Dade College in Miami Dade County, Florida.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Mica, John L. [R-FL-7

    2013-04-17

    04/18/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the Southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; Fisher, J. A.; Travis, K.; Yu, K.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Arkinson, H. L.; Pye, H. O. T.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake probabilities (γ) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the Southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) over the Southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of OA and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). The yield is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 %) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the indirect effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume, rather than a direct mechanistic role for sulfate. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume). The US EPA projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of 34 % for NOx (leading to

  5. Spatial and seasonal variations of fine particle water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) over the southeastern United States: implications for secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, Z.; Hecobian, A.; Zheng, M.; Frank, N. H.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2012-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the southeastern US is investigated by analyzing the spatial-temporal distribution of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and other PM2.5 components from 900 archived 24-h Teflon filters collected at 15 urban or rural EPA Federal Reference Method (FRM) network sites throughout 2007. Online measurements of WSOC at an urban/rural-paired site in Georgia in the summer of 2008 are contrasted to the filter data. Based on FRM filters, excluding biomass-burning events (levoglucosan < 50 ng m-3), WSOC and sulfate were highly correlated with PM2.5 mass (r2~0.7). Both components comprised a large mass fraction of PM2.5 (13% and 31%, respectively, or ~25% and 50% for WSOM and ammonium sulfate). Sulfate and WSOC both tracked ambient temperature throughout the year, suggesting the temperature effects were mainly linked to faster photochemistry and/or synoptic meteorology and less due to enhanced biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. FRM WSOC, and to a lesser extent sulfate, were spatially homogeneous throughout the region, yet WSOC was moderately enhanced (27%) in locations of greater predicted isoprene emissions in summer. A Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis identified two major source types for the summer WSOC; 22% of the WSOC were associated with ammonium sulfate, and 56% of the WSOC were associated with brown carbon and oxalate. A small urban excess of FRM WSOC (10%) was observed in the summer of 2007, however, comparisons of online WSOC measurements at one urban/rural pair (Atlanta/Yorkville) in August 2008 showed substantially greater difference in WSOC (31%) relative to the FRM data, suggesting a low bias for urban filters. The measured Atlanta urban excess, combined with the estimated boundary layer heights, gave an estimated Atlanta daily WSOC production rate in August of 0.55 mgC m-2 h-1 between mid-morning and mid-afternoon. This study characterizes the regional nature of fine particles in the southeastern US, confirming the

  6. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Krechmer, J.; Zhu, L.; Kim, P. S.; Miller, C. C.; Fisher, J. A.; Travis, K.; Yu, K.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Arkinson, H. L.; Pye, H. O. T.; Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; McNeill, V. F.

    2016-02-01

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (γ) for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations over the southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) over the southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2) react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway) and HO2 (low-NOx pathway), leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of total fine organic aerosol (OA) and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation). Isoprene SOA production is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA) from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 %) from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation), but decrease more strongly as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) projects 2013-2025 decreases in anthropogenic emissions of

  7. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  8. 11. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING), CENTER, IN RELATION TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING), CENTER, IN RELATION TO BUILDING NO. 19 (BENDING SHOP AND OVEN) AT FAR LEFT, AND TO THE WET BASIN AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  9. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance - United States Pacific Command (PACOM) Guam, Task 3.3: Building Retuning Training

    SciTech Connect

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2010-09-30

    Document describes an onsite workshop and building retuning training conducted in Guam in August 2010. Document reports on issues identified during an audit of several buildings and recommendations to save energy throughout the site. During the workshop, it became apparent that as site personnel maintain the facilities at Guam, the following retuning efforts and strategies should be prioritized: (1) Controlling the mechanical systems operational hours and zone temperature set points appeared to present the best opportunities for savings; (2) Zone temperature set points in some buildings are excessively low, especially at night, when the zone temperatures are so cold that they approached the dewpoint; and (3) Manually-set outside air dampers are providing excessive outside air, especially for spaces that are unoccupied. Two of the larger schools, one on the Naval Base and one on Anderson AFB, are in need of a significant recommissioning effort. These facilities are relatively new, with direct digital controls (DDC) but are significantly out of balance. The pressure in one school is extremely negative, which is pulling humid air through the facility each time a door is opened. The draft can be felt several feet down the halls. The pressure in the other school is extremely positive relative to the outside, and you can stand 20-feet outside and still feel cool drafts of air exiting the building. It is recommended that humidity sensors be installed in all new projects and retrofitted into exist facilities. In this humid climate, control of humidity is very important. There are significant periods of time when the mechanical systems in many buildings can be unloaded and dehumidification is not required. The use of CO{sub 2} sensors should also be considered in representative areas. CO{sub 2} sensors determine whether spaces are occupied so that fresh air is only brought into the space when needed. By reducing the amount of outside air brought into the space, the humidity

  10. The Desolate Desert Controversy: Should Presto Power Company Build a Nuclear Plant? Instructor's Guide [and] Student Materials. A Business-in-the-Classroom Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    One of a series of units designed to acquaint secondary school students with business issues, this packet focuses on the complex and controversial topic of energy technology. In a 5-day simulation, students play the roles of energy commission members, and business, local, and public interest group witnesses who must determine whether to build a…

  11. Secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is -2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  12. Secondary osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  13. Liquid vs Solid Culture Medium to Evaluate Proportion and Time to Change in Management of Suspects of Tuberculosis—A Pragmatic Randomized Trial in Secondary and Tertiary Health Care Units in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Adriana da Silva Rezende; Huf, Gisele; Vieira, Maria Armanda Monteiro da Silva; da Costa, Paulo Albuquerque; Aguiar, Fábio; Marsico, Anna Grazia; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Ricks, Mônica; Oliveira, Martha Maria; Detjen, Anne; Fujiwara, Paula Isono; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Kritski, Afranio Lineu

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of liquid medium (MGIT960) for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis was recommended by WHO in 2007. However, there has been no evaluation of its effectiveness on clinically important outcomes. Methods and Findings A pragmatic trial was carried out in a tertiary hospital and a secondary health care unit in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil. Participants were 16 years or older, suspected of having TB. They were excluded if only cerebral spinal fluid or blood specimens were available for analysis. MGIT960 technique was compared with the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) method for laboratory diagnosis of active TB. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had their initial medical management changed within 2 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were: mean time for changing the procedure, patient satisfaction with the overall treatment and adverse events. Data were analysed by intention-to-treat. Between April 2008 and September 2011, 693 patients were enrolled (348 to MGIT, 345 to LJ). Smear and culture results were positive for 10% and 15.7% of participants, respectively. Patients in the MGIT arm had their initial medical management changed more frequently than those in the LJ group (10.1% MGIT vs 3.8% LJ, RR 2.67 95% CI 1.44–.96, p = 0.002, NNT 16, 95% CI 10–39). Mean time for changing the initial procedure was greater in LJ group at both sites: 20.0 and 29.6 days in MGIT group and 52.2 and 64.3 in LJ group (MD 33.5, 95% CI 30.6–36.4, p = 0.0001). No other important differences were observed. Conclusions This study suggests that opting for the MGIT960 system for TB diagnosis provides a promising case management model for improving the quality of care and control of TB. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN79888843 PMID:26046532

  14. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

  15. Building Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

  16. Secondary Syphilitic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baughn, Robert E.; Musher, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    An important theme that emerges from all early historical accounts is that in addition to the decreased virulence of Treponema pallidum, the incidence of secondary syphilis has decreased drastically over the past three centuries. Even in the early 20th century, most syphilologists were of the opinion that the disease had undergone changes in its manifestations and that they were dealing with an attenuated form of the spirochete. Such opinions were based primarily on the observations that violent cutaneous reactions and fatalities associated with the secondary stage had become extremely rare. The rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States increased in 2002 for the second consecutive year. After a decade-long decline that led to an all-time low in 2000, the recent trend is attributable, to a large extent, by a increase in reported syphilis cases among men, particularly homosexual and bisexual men having sex with men. The present review addresses the clinical and diagnostic criteria for the recognition of secondary syphilis, the clinical course and manifestations of the disease if allowed to proceed past the primary stage of disease in untreated individuals, and the treatment for this stage of the disease. PMID:15653827

  17. Reflections of Post-Secondary Educational Experiences of Selected Women of the United Arab Emirates (UAE): A Qualitative Analysis Investigating the Motivations, Supports, Rewards, and Challenges Encountered by Seven Emirati Women in the Year 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daleure, Georgia

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the post-secondary experiences of seven Emirati women to investigate reasons for the female dominated post-secondary educational persistence which was at the time of the study 65% female to 35% male. The study used internet text messaging to interview the women about issues surrounding their post-secondary educational…

  18. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  19. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  20. Youth United through Health Education: Building Capacity through a Community Collaborative Intervention to Prevent HIV/STD in Adolescents Residing in a High STD Prevalent Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverding, John; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Siller, Jacqueline; Gallaread, Alonzo; Krone, Melissa; Chang, Y. Jason

    2005-01-01

    The early detection and treatment of STDs is an effective strategy for slowing the sexual transmission of HIV. The goal of the YUTHE (Youth United Through Health Education) program, a collaborative effort between the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) and the University of California, San Francisco, is to increase sexually…

  1. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK,…

  2. Conformational properties of 1,4- and 1,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole amino acids – building units for peptidic foldamers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables on the RHF/3-21G conformers, NMR spectra and analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4ob02359e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peptidic foldamers have recently emerged as a novel class of artificial oligomers with properties and structural diversity similar to that of natural peptides, but possessing additional interesting features granting them great potential for applications in fields from nanotechnology to pharmaceuticals. Among these, foldamers containing 1,4- and 1,5-substitued triazole amino acids are easily prepared via the Cu- and Ru-catalyzed click reactions and may offer increased side chain variation, but their structural capabilities have not yet been widely explored. We here describe a systematic analysis of the conformational space of the two most important basic units, the 1,4-substitued (4Tzl) and the 1,5-substitued (5Tzl) 1,2,3-triazole amino acids, using quantum chemical calculations and NMR spectroscopy. Possible conformations of the two triazoles were scanned and their potential minima were located using several theoretical approaches (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p), ωB97X-D/6-311++G(2d,2p), M06-2X/6-311++G(2d,2p) and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p)) in different solvents. BOC-protected versions of 4Tzl and 5Tzl were also prepared via one step transformations and analyzed by 2D NOESY NMR. Theoretical results show 9 conformers for 5Tzl derivatives with relative energies lying close to each other, which may lead to a great structural diversity. NMR analysis also indicates that conformers preferring turn, helix and zig-zag secondary structures may coexist in solution. In contrast, 4Tzl has a much lower number of conformers, only 4, and these lack strong intraresidual interactions. This is again supported by NMR suggesting the presence of both extended and bent conformers. The structural information provided on these building units could be employed in future design of triazole foldamers. PMID:25605623

  3. Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces, with Emphasis on Less Privileged Areas, Particularly in the United Kingdom. A Seminar (London, England, United Kingdom, April 13, 1989). Educational Buildings and Equipment 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union of Architects, Paris (France).

    This collection was gathered from a seminar entitled "Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces," which was the result of cooperation between the Sports, Leisure, and Tourism Work Group of the International Union of Architects and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Papers were given by…

  4. Moon Munchies: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge--A Standards-Based Elementary School Model Unit Guide--Design, Build, and Evaluate (Lessons 1-6). Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-92-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Kim M.

    2005-01-01

    In this unit, elementary students design and build a lunar plant growth chamber using the Engineering Design Process. The purpose of the unit is to help students understand and apply the design process as it relates to plant growth on the moon. This guide includes six lessons, which meet a number of national standards and benchmarks in…

  5. Assessment of extent and degree of thermal damage to polymeric materials in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building. Volume VI

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thermal damage to susceptible materials in accessible regions shows damage-distribution patterns that indicate nonuniform intensity of exposure. No clear explanation for nonuniformity is found in existing evidence; e.g., in some regions a lack of thermally susceptible materials frustrates analysis. Elsewhere, burned materials are present next to materials that seem similar but appear unscathed - leading to conjecture that the latter materials preferentially absorb water vapor during periods of high local steam concentration. Most of the polar crane pendant shows heavy burns on one half of its circumferential surface. This evidence suggests that the polar crane pendant side that experienced heaviest burn damage was exposed to intense radiant energy from a transient fire plume in the reactor containment volume. Tests and simple heat-transfer calculations based on pressure and temperature records from the accident show that the atmosphere inside the reactor building was probably 8% hydrogen in air, a value not inconsistent with the extent of burn damage. Burn-pattern geography indicates uniform thermal exposure in the dome volume to the 406-ft level (about 6 ft below the polar crane girder), partial thermal exposure in the volume between the 406- and 347-ft levels as indicated by the polar crane cable, and lack of damage to most thermally susceptible materials in the west quadrant of the reactor building; some evidence of thermal exposure is seen in the free volume between the 305- and 347-ft levels.

  6. Improving Citizenship Education: Secondary Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Edwin L., Ed.

    Designed to enrich secondary level social studies education, this manual provides teaching strategies and units on local, state, and federal government; global education; law and individual rights; and citizenship skills. Teaching strategies include case studies, using community resources, using the newspaper, quantitative inquiry, simulation…

  7. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  8. Optimizing secondary tailgate support selection

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, C.; Karmis, M.; Haycocks, C.; Luo, J.

    1996-12-01

    A model was developed to facilitate secondary tailgate support selection based on analysis of over 100 case studies, compiled from two different surveys of operating longwall coal mines in the United States. The ALPS (Analysis of Longwall Pillar Stability) program was used to determine adequacy of pillar design for the successful longwall case histories. A relationship was developed between the secondary support density necessary to maintain a stable tailgate entry during mining and the CMRR (Coal Mine Roof Rating). This relationship defines the lower bound of secondary support density currently used in longwall mines. The model used only successful tailgate case history data, with adequate ALPS SF according to the CMRR for each case. This model facilitates mine design by predicting secondary support density required for a tailgate entry depending on the ALPS SF and CMRR, which can result in significant economic benefits.

  9. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  10. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  11. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  12. Assessment Practices of Secondary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joshua A.; Austin, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey assessment and grading practices employed by secondary music teachers throughout the southwestern region of the United States. Three main research questions guided the study: (1) What types of school district frameworks and classroom contexts are secondary music teachers operating within? (2) Which specific…

  13. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  14. Intelligent buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The term intelligent buildings refers to today's sophisticated living environments that must support communication, energy, fire and security protection systems. This book examines a variety of topics including building automation, information technology, and systems and facilities management.

  15. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. METAL FRAME OF BUILDING GOES UP IN BACKGROUND AS WORKERS PLACE A SECTION OF WATER LINE THAT WILL CARRY SECONDARY COOLANT BETWEEN HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING AND THE COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2205. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/28/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Healthy Buildings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  17. Building national public health capacity for managing chemical events: A case study of the development of health protection services in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen; Coleman, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (2005) require that countries develop plans for chemical threats. In 2012, the World Health Assembly reported that most countries had not yet achieved ‘adequate capacity'. We review the evolution of chemical hazards services in the United Kingdom, the result of 15 years of grass-roots pressure and an accumulating weight of chemical incidents that eventually convinced the UK Department of Health of the need for a new national public health function, culminating, in 2003, in the creation of the Chemical Hazards Division of the new Health Protection Agency. Ten years later, public health services are again being radically reorganized with the creation of Public Health England, potentially destabilizing health protection arrangements and creating confusion among roles in managing chemical emergencies. Incorporating health protection into a broader public health organization, however, offers a new opportunity to broaden the scope of health protection services to embrace prevention of non-infectious environmental diseases. PMID:23447032

  18. VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE TRANSPORT MODIFICATION CENTER, CONSISTS OF FOUR HIGH-BAY CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURES. BUILDING 440 WAS USED FOR PACKAGING AND STAGING SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND DEPLETED URANIUM FOR SHIPMENT AND TO MODIFY VEHICLES TO MEET SPECIFIC UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS. (2/8/84) - Rocky Flats Plant, Transport Modification Center, North of Cactus Avenue, approximately 400 feet east of Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Building safer structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Page, Robert A.; Seekins, Linda

    1995-01-01

    In this century, major earthquakes in the United States have damaged or destroyed numerous buildings, bridges, and other structures. By monitoring how structures respond to earthquakes and applying the knowledge gained, scientists and engineers are improving the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Many lives and millions of dollars have already been saved by this ongoing research.

  20. Building Migratory Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Michael; Doss, Laurie K.

    2007-01-01

    The Building Migratory Bridges (BOMB) program--a collaboration between the Marvel wood School and Audubon Sharon in Connecticut and Conservation Research Education Action (CR EA), a U.S. not-for-profit in Panama--uses nontropical migratory bird research in the United States and Panama to demonstrate how negative environmental impacts in one…

  1. Nido-Carborane building-block reagents. 3. Cyclic and open-chain oligomers incorporating -CB/sub 4/H/sub 6/C - units. Crown carboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Boyter, H.A. Jr.; Grimes, R.N.

    1988-09-07

    The open-chain dialkynes EtC/identical to/C(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/C/identical to/CEt (n = 4, 6), the trialkyne HC/identical to/C(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/C/identical to/CH, and the cyclic dialkynes CH/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/C/identical to/C(CH/sub 2/)/sub n/C/identical to/C (n = 4-6) were treated with B/sub 5/H/sub 9/ and (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/ to give the corresponding nido-carborane oligomers, in which the original -C/identical to/C- units are converted to -CB/sub 4/H/sub 6/C- nido-carborane cages. In each case, all available -C/identical to/C- groups were transformed to carborane moieties. No partially converted products (having both carborane and -C/identical to/C- groups in the chain) were found; when the B/sub 5/H/sub 9//-C/identical to/C- ratio employed was < 1, only completely converted products and unreacted starting materials were recovered at the end of the reaction. The open-chain carborane oligomers are viscous air-sensitive liquids that under undergo bridge deprotonation on treatment with NaH in THF solution; with excess NaH, one proton per carborane unit is removed. The resulting ionic species undergo complexation with Fe/sup 2+/ and oxidative fusion, forming products incorporating C/sub 4/B/sub 8/ cages. The cyclic bis(carborane) CH/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 4/CB/sub 4/H/sub 6/C(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/CB/sub 4/H/sub 6/C is an air-stable oil that can be deprotonated but does not under metal-promoted oxidative fusion. All products were characterized by /sup 11/B and /sup 1/H NMR, infrared, visible-uv, and mass spectroscopy, and the /sup 13/C NMR spectra of linear bis(carboranes) are reported. 9 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Building Trades 1. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clair S.

    Intended to assist building trades instructors, this course outline to a prevocational building trades program for junior and senior high school students covers four occupational areas: carpentry, masonry, plumbing, and electricity. Specific notes to the administrator and teacher and the course goals precede the four occupational units. Each unit…

  3. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  4. A new family of Ni4 and Ni6 aggregates from the self-assembly of [Ni2] building units: role of carboxylate and carbonate bridges.

    PubMed

    Pait, Moumita; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Colacio, Enrique; Ray, Debashis

    2015-05-18

    Carboxylato (R = (t)Bu and Et) and carbonato bridges have been utilized for nickel(II)-based aggregates [Ni4(μ-H2L)2(μ3-OH)2(μ1,3-O2CBu(t))2](NO3)2·H2O·2DMF (1·H2O·2DMF), Ni4(μ-(hy)HL)2(μ3-OMe)2(μ1,1-N3)2(μ1,3-O2CEt)2]·4H2O (2·4H2O), and Ni6(μ4-L)(μ3-L)2(μ6-CO3)(H2O)8](ClO4)·9H2O (3·9H2O). Building blocks [Ni2(μ-H2L)](3+), [Ni2(μ-(hy)HL)](3+), and [Ni2(μ-L)](+) originating from [Ni2(μ-H2L)](3+) have been trapped in these complexes. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) analysis. In 1, the magnetic interactions are transmitted through the μ3-phenoxido/μ3-hydroxido/syn-syn-(t)BuCO2(-), μ3-phenoxido/μ3- hydroxido, and double μ3-phenoxido/double μ3-hydroxido bridges with J = +11.4 cm(-1), J1 = -2.1 cm(-1), and J2 = -2.8 cm(-1), respectively. In 2, the interactions are ferromagnetic, with J1 = +27.5 cm(-1), J2 = +20.62 cm(-1), and J3 = +1.52 cm(-1) describing the magnetic couplings through the μ-phenoxidoo/μ3-methoxido, μ-azido/μ3-methoxido, and μ3-methoxido/μ3-methoxido exchange pathways, respectively. Complex 3 gives J1 = -3.30 cm(-1), J2 = +1.7 cm(-1), and J3 = -12.8 cm(-1) for exchange pathways mediated by μ-phenoxido/μ-carbonato, μ-alkoxido/μ-alkooxido/μ-syn-syn-carbonato, and the μ-phenoxido/μ-carbonato, respectively. Interestingly, 1 and 3 below 20 K and 35 K, respectively, show an abrupt increase of the χMT product to reach a magnetic-field-dependent maximum, which is associated with a slightly frequency-dependent out-of-phase alternating-current peak. DFT calculations have also been performed on 1-3 to explain the exchange interaction mechanisms and to support the magnitude and sign of the magnetic coupling constants between the Ni(II) ions. PMID:25933286

  5. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  6. Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Hearing on Examination of Recommendations and Proposals by the Administration and Various Organizations on the Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session (Montpelier, VT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities.

    These hearings transcripts present testimony concerning the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education (ESA) Act, which, since 1965, has provided the bulk of federal aid to elementary and secondary schools and related programs. Much of the testimony was from Vermont education officials, school administrators, teachers, consultants,…

  7. Training and Capacity Building in LMIC for Research in Heart and Lung Diseases: The NHLBI-UnitedHealth Global Health Centers of Excellence Program.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Xavier, Denis; Belis, Deshirée; Alam, Dewan; Davis, Patricia; Dorairaj, Prabhakaran; Ghannem, Hassen; Gilman, Robert H; Kamath, Deepak; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Levitt, Naomi; Martinez, Homero; Mejicano, Gabriela; Miranda, J Jaime; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Steyn, Krisela; Tandon, Nikhil; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Wolbach, Tracy; Wu, Yangfeng; Yan, Lijing L

    2016-03-01

    Stemming the tide of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide requires a multipronged approach. Although much attention has been paid to disease control measures, there is relatively little consideration of the importance of training the next generation of health-related researchers to play their important role in this global epidemic. The lack of support for early stage investigators in low- and middle-income countries interested in the global NCD field has resulted in inadequate funding opportunities for research, insufficient training in advanced research methodology and data analysis, lack of mentorship in manuscript and grant writing, and meager institutional support for developing, submitting, and administering research applications and awards. To address this unmet need, The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-UnitedHealth Collaborating Centers of Excellence initiative created a Training Subcommittee that coordinated and developed an intensive, mentored health-related research experience for a number of early stage investigators from the 11 Centers of Excellence around the world. We describe the challenges faced by early stage investigators in low- and middle-income countries, the organization and scope of the Training Subcommittee, training activities, early outcomes of the early stage investigators (foreign and domestic) and training materials that have been developed by this program that are available to the public. By investing in the careers of individuals in a supportive global NCD network, we demonstrate the impact that an investment in training individuals from low- and middle-income countries can have on the preferred future of or current efforts to combat NCDs. PMID:27102019

  8. To amend title VIII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to provide financial assistance to local educational agencies that educate alien children admitted to the United States as citizens of one of the Freely Associated States.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Bordallo, Madeleine Z. [D-GU-At Large

    2011-03-02

    03/21/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Directory of Asian Studies in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleski, Ronald, Ed.

    This listing of schools that offer curriculum units dealing with Asia was compiled for the purpose of advancing the teaching of Asian Studies in schools throughout the United States, particularly at the secondary level. A total of 691 entries are included, the majority of which are from public or private junior or senior high schools within the…

  11. Learn Japanese: Secondary School Text, Volume VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasegawa, Nobuko; And Others

    This is the sixth in a series of ten texts designed for teaching Japanese at the secondary level. Also available are supplementary instructional materials and teacher's guides. Throughout the two units of four lessons each, the theme centers around life in Japan as seen through the eyes of an American student. Each unit contains conversations,…

  12. Learn Japanese: Secondary School Text, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Bernice; And Others

    This is the fifth in a series of ten texts designed for teaching Japanese at the secondary level. Also available are supplementary instructional materials and teacher's guides. Throughout the two units of four lessons each, the theme centers around life in Japan as seen through the eyes of an American student. Each unit contains conversations,…

  13. Sampling variability for redesign buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-05

    Estimates of the relative sampling variability of budget percentiles for building type HDD/CDD matrices are presented for small and large offices, elementary and secondary schools, clinics, gyms, community centers, theaters, stores, shopping centers, storage, nursing homes, hotels, motels, high- and low-rise apartments. (MCW)

  14. Building Maintenance. Student Learning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains one module for completing a course in building maintenance. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. The module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student…

  15. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  16. 3. ROADWAY TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING NO. 1. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ROADWAY TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING NO. 1. AT FAR LEFT IS THE SHADOW OF BUILDING NO. 6 (WAREHOUSE). ALSO VISIBLE AT THE LEFT IS BUILDING NO. 4 (BOILER HOUSE), BUILDING NO. 3 (GATE HOUSE), AND BUILDING NO. 2 (OFFICE BUILDING). IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND IS BUILDING NO. 10 (ELECTRICAL SERVICES AND SWITCHING STATION). - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  17. Secondary Schools: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaverde, Leila E.

    This book attempts to serve as a compendium and a chronology of secondary education in the United States, taking a broad rather than a narrow approach and touching on a great many topics and issues. Chapters 1 and 2 present a history of secondary schools and a discussion of adolescence. Chapter 3 discusses curriculum in secondary schools,…

  18. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  19. 340 Facility secondary containment and leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-31

    This document presents a preliminary safety evaluation for the 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Containment system, Project W-302. Project W-302 will construct Building 340-C which has been designed to replace the current 340 Building and vault tank system for collection of liquid wastes from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory buildings in the 300 Area. This new nuclear facility is Hazard Category 3. The vault tank and related monitoring and control equipment are Safety Class 2 with the remainder of the structure, systems and components as Safety Class 3 or 4.

  20. Evaluating Montbrillant Lower Secondary School in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simioni, Sandro

    2004-01-01

    Does Geneva's Montbrillant lower secondary school, which has now been in use for one year, meet the objectives targeted when it was designed? Does the new school respond to the needs and expectations of staff and students? Questions such as these serve to evaluate the quality of a school building once in use and tie in with work supported by PEB…

  1. Building Change into New Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William S.

    1997-01-01

    Whether renovating or constructing a school building, planners must give serious thought to how a building might accommodate different instructional approaches and avoid traffic or supervision nightmares. Planners must also consider aesthetics, community-school partnerships, and educational technology's role. A sidebar by James Fox and Kay Psencik…

  2. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS OVER THE UNITED STATES: ESTIMATES ON THE BASIS OF OBSERVED ORGANIC CARBON (OC) AND ELEMENTAL CARBON (EC), AND AIR QUALITY MODELED PRIMARY (OC/EC) RATIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal and spatial distributions of primary and secondary organic carbon aerosols (OC) over the continental US during June 15 to August 31, 1999, were estimated by using observational OC and elemental carbon (EC) data from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environm...

  3. The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…

  4. A Survey of Science Teaching in the Public Secondary Schools of the Plains, Rocky Mountain, and Southeast Regions of the United States in the 1970-71 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, James Houston

    The purpose of the study was to obtain information relevant to the practices, policies, and conditions related to the teaching of science in the public secondary schools. Subproblems investigated selected material characteristics, selected teacher characteristics as they related to science teachers, to the selection of specific learning…

  5. Building Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Management, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The combination of a prefabricated building system and a clustered terrace design has resulted in economical and aesthetically pleasing housing for students at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. (Author)

  6. Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE): A Focus on Climate Change-related Dialogs with Faith-Based Groups as a form of Network Building in the Southeast United States - Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, F. J.; McNeal, K. S.; Hammerman, J.; Christiansen, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE, http://CLiPSE-project.org), funded through the National Science Foundation Climate Change Education Partnership program, is dedicated to improving climate literacy in the Southeastern United States (SE US). By promoting science-based formal and informal educational resources, CLiPSE works through a diverse network of key partner organizations in the SE US to conduct effective public dialogues that address diverse audiences and support learning about climate, climate change, and its impact on human and environmental systems. The CLiPSE project successfully created partnerships with more than fifty key stakeholders, including agriculture, education, leisure, and religious organizations, along with culturally diverse communities. This presentation will explain the CLiPSE model for reaching key publics who hold traditional ideologies typically perceived as incompatible with climate change science. We will discuss the results of our interactions with the leaders of our partnering organizations, their knowledge, perceptions, needs, and input in crafting effective messages for their audiences, through addressing both learners' affective and cognitive domains. For the informal education sector, CLiPSE utilized several open discussion and learning forums aimed to promote critical thinking and civil conversation about climate change. Focusing on Faith-based audiences, a key demographic, in the Southeast US, CLiPSE also conducted an online, moderated, author-attended book study, discussing the thoughts and ideas contained in the work, "Green Like God," by Jonathan Merritt. We will share the questions we faced as we focused on and learned about faith-based audiences, such as: What are the barriers and opportunities?; How do we break out of the assumptions that we have to find the common ground?; How do the audiences understand the issues?; How do we understand the issues?; What common language can we find?; What

  7. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  8. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  9. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000700.htm Neuropathy secondary to drugs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation ...

  10. Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs on Oversight Hearing on the Title and Provisions in the Draft Reauthorization for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony on proposed amendments to the Indian provisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The proposals include amendments to the ESEA amendments of 1978 related to Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools and amendments to the Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1988. Both sets of proposals…

  11. El Dia de la Raza Module. Secondary Level. [The Day of the Race Module. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Gloria; Lizcano, Jeanette

    "El Dia de la Raza", considered the birthday of the mestizo, is the topic of this unit for the secondary level. As unit objectives, the students are to demonstrate (1) their comprehension by stating 3 major areas of contributions the Indians and the Spaniards gave the mestizo culture and (2) their concept of mestizaje by participating in oral…

  12. Teaching with Secondary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobol, Jeff

    1981-01-01

    Presents a general overview of the use of secondary data in teaching sociology on the college level. Topics discussed include potential for additional applications, sources which constitute secondary data, reasons for using secondary data in the classroom, information about computing, and potential problems. (Author/DB)

  13. MMT adaptive secondary prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele

    1998-09-01

    We designed and manufacture dan 'Adaptive Secondary Mirror 30 Actuators Prototype' that represents as much as possible the final MMT adaptive optics unit for what concerns mechanical, electronic and cooling system issues. Moreover, different actuator designs have been tested by using the same test bench. The adaptive secondary is based on a thin continuous facesheet mirror moved by electromagnetic actuators. Permanent magnets are glued on the mirror, while voice coils are connected to the support structure by cold fingers. A capacitive sensor co-located with each actuator measures the local gap between the mirror and a reference back plate. Voice coil motors allow to perform chopping and tip-tilt correction by using directly the deformable mirror. Actuators pitch is set to achieve high order correction in the visible wavelength.

  14. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Green Building Certification: The BIM-LEED Application Model Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) and green building are currently two major trends in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. This research recognizes the market demand for better solutions to achieve green building certification such as LEED in the United States. It proposes a new strategy based on the integration of BIM…

  15. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. WORKERS CHECK INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE TWELVE HEAT EXCHANGER UNITS. COOLANT FROM ETR WILL ENTER EXCHANGERS AT TEMPERATURE OF 137.5 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE THE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. SECONDARY WATER WILL ENTER AT 78 DEGREES F. AND LEAVE SYSTEM AT 110 DEGREES F. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3712. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 6. A VIEW TOWARD THE EAST SIDE OF BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. A VIEW TOWARD THE EAST SIDE OF BUILDING NO. 1, SHOWING THE OFFICE SECTION AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 18 (ENGINEERING BUILDING) IS VISIBLE IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, AND BUILDING NO. 12 (OFFICE/SUBSTATION) AT THE RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  17. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  18. Building Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Mara G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge…

  19. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  20. Building Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Describes how an initial $1,500 grant helped build a desperately needed health clinic on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Provides the history of the clinic, from its beginning as a small grant to its ultimate development into a $400,000 solar-heated health clinic with a staff of 9 people, including a full-time physician. (MAB)

  1. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 11: Economics of Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the eleventh in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on energy conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 8, 9, and 10). The objective of this module is…

  2. Unit Resource Book on Slavery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    This integrated social studies and English resource unit for secondary students on plantation slavery in the United States contains readings which provide an opportunity for the student to learn in an effective way how enslavement feels. In Part One, Social Studies, historical source materials are offered consisting of essays of slaves and freemen…

  3. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  4. Nigeria: Teaching Plans and Materials for Secondary Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriot, Karen; And Others

    This publication contains teacher developed units of study to teach secondary students about Nigerian history, government, geography, industry, and family life. The units are: Sources of Historical Information; History of Benin; Constitutions; Nigeria and the United States; Elections in Nigeria; Nigerian Diplomacy; and Family in Nigeria.…

  5. New Mexico State Secondary School Science-Based Nutrition Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Susan, Ed.; Smalley, Katherine, Ed.

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials for a 10-unit secondary-level science-based nutrition course. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: a summary sheet for each function, including generalizations with corresponding objectives, additional learning activities, and additional resources; unit outline; pretest;…

  6. Teaching Economics in the Secondary Social Studies Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    The nine instructional units presented in this publication are designed to teach basic economic concepts to secondary students. The units can stand alone and are arranged so that they do not have to be taught in any particular sequence. They range in order from less to more difficult. Topics of units are: economic wants; productive resources;…

  7. A Radial Profile of Tycho Secondary Crater Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Kassandra; Campbell, D. B.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.; Anderson, R. F.

    2009-09-01

    Determining the typical secondary crater production of individual primary events is an important step in gauging the extent of secondary crater contamination of crater-counting derived ages. Previous lunar observations of secondary crater production from individual primary events have focused on secondary craters near the parent primary and extrapolated to larger radial distances where morphological identification of secondaries is more difficult [Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, E03005, doi:10.1029/2005JE002484, 2006]. As some workers suggest that more distant secondaries may constitute much of the total secondary crater population [McEwen et al., Icarus, 176, 2005; Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, E03005, doi:10.1029/2005JE002484, 2006], lunar observational evidence in this regime is critical to building a robust picture of secondary crater production on the Moon. We present preliminary results of a survey of Tycho secondaries ranging in distance from 1-25 crater radii from the parent crater. Secondary craters in this study lie along a ray extending south from Tycho across Clavius crater and are identified by characteristic, asymmetric ejecta blankets visible in 2.38 GHz (12.6 cm) radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) images acquired during bi-static observations with the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes. In addition to presenting the size-frequency distributions of these secondary craters and implications thereof, we compare the population of Tycho secondaries identified in the radar CPR near Pictet crater to that identified via morphology in optical images by Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, 2006.

  8. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  9. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  10. 4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL ALONG WEST SIDE, SHOWING EXTERIOR STAIRWAY, BUILDING NO. 1 IN THE CENTER DISTANCE, AND ONE OF THE BENDING SHOPS AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  12. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  14. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  15. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  16. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  19. Social Studies: Secondary Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    This course of study guide describes the social studies curriculum to be offered by Idaho schools for secondary students. The guide puts forth content requirements that local school districts need to meet. The following courses are covered: United States history, American government, and economics. The information for the courses includes a…

  20. Fish: Form and Function. Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    The New England Aquarium Education Department offers a series of curriculum units and field trip guides for teachers of all grade levels on aquatic biology and ecology topics. Fish characteristics and behaviors are explained in this packet for secondary science teachers. Pre-trip materials include factsheets and worksheets on fish: (1)…

  1. Whales of New England. Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Aquarium, Boston, MA.

    Instructional materials and suggestions for conducting a whale watching field trip are contained in this curriculum packet for secondary science teachers. It is one unit in a series of curricular programs developed by the New England Aquarium Education Department. Activities and information are organized into three sections: (1) pre-trip…

  2. [Secondary Career Education Activities: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford City Schools, VA.

    The guide is one of a series developed in a pilot project to integrate career education concepts with subject matter in secondary grades. The units are designed to reveal career orientation aspects of traditional topics within five major subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, and health and physical education. The lesson…

  3. Cocurricular Activity Programs in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Ronald E.; Buser, Robert L.

    This booklet provides a history of the role played by extracurricular activities in American secondary education, summarizing their objectives, principles, and problems, and classifying their types. The student-activity concept is traced through four stages of historical development in the United States. Noting that the objectives of cocurricular…

  4. Secondary German Guidelines: Levels I, II, III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klipple, Sitha; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist schools in developing their German curriculum and to assist teachers in planning courses, units of work, and daily classroom activities. These guidelines for the teaching of German in secondary schools are based on the premises that language is communication and that language and culture are interrelated. The…

  5. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  6. EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskett, Scott A.; Weis, Steven C.; Doggrell, Leslie J.; Sciulli, Dino; Meink, Troy E.; Ganley, Jeff T.; Maly, Joseph R.; Jurisson, Karl

    2000-11-01

    Despite growing international interest in small satellites, high dedicated expendable launch vehicle costs and the lack of secondary launch opportunities continue to hinder the full exploitation of small satellite technology. In the United States, the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, other government agencies, commercial companies, and many universities use small satellites to perform space experiments, demonstrate new technology, and test operational prototype hardware. In addition, the DoD continues to study the role of small satellites in fulfilling operational mission requirements. However, the US lacks sufficient small satellite launch capacity. Furthermore, US government agencies are restricted to the use of US launch vehicles, which eliminates many affordable launch opportunities. In an effort to increase the number of space experiments that can be flown with a small, fixed budget, the DoD Space Test Program (STP) has teamed with the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VS) to develop a low-cost solution for the small satellite launch program. Our solution, which can be implemented on both Boeing and Lockheed-Martin Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle-Medium (EELV-M) boosters, is called the EELV Secondary Payload Adaptor (ESPA). ESPA will increase the number of launch opportunities for 180kg-class (or smaller) satellites at prices highly competitive with other secondary launch services worldwide.

  7. Creating Energy-Efficient Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Donald F.

    This paper was presented during the time the author was president of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, (CEFP/I). The presentation begins with a summary of the state of the world's natural gas and petroleum supplies and states that since one-third of all energy consumed in the United States is to heat and cool buildings,…

  8. Building the VLT with CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattri, M.; Brunetto, E.

    1989-06-01

    The Euclid Computer Aided Design (CAD) system from MATRA-Data, installed at ESO Headquarters, is an indispensable tool for VLT design studies. It also allows to "build" the VLT mechanical structure, as shown on these pictures, of an 8 m unit telescope.

  9. Humanizing the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Norman K., Ed.; Saylor, J. Galen, Ed.

    These papers, presented during ASCD-sponsored conference, confront educators with issues in and alternatives for making secondary schools a more humanizing experience for students. The contributors and their articles are: Norman K. Hamilton, "Alternatives in Secondary Education"; Thornton B. Monez and Norman L. Bussiere, "The High School in Human…

  10. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 SANSON STREET FACADE, DETAIL. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 GENERAL VIEW, WEST ELEVATION. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 DETAIL OF COLUMN CAPITALS. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 DETAIL OF FIREPLACE. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 CENTER PORTION, EAST FACADE. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 LEFT PORTION, WEST ELEVATION. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 DETAIL OF GREAT HALL. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH ELEVATION. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 CENTRAL PORTION, WEST ELEVATION. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Frederick D. Nichols, Photographer June, 1939 GENERAL VIEW, SOUTH FACADE. - Second Bank of the United States, 420 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: engraving published by Myer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: engraving published by Myer, 1851 - United States General Post Office, Between Seventh, Eighth, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC