Science.gov

Sample records for secondary building units

  1. Computational design of metal-organic frameworks with paddlewheel-type secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschlogl, Udo; Peskov, Maxim V.; Masghouni, Nejib

    We employ the TOPOS package to study 697 coordination polymers containing paddlewheel-type secondary building units. The underlying nets are analyzed and 3 novel nets are chosen as potential topologies for paddlewheel-type metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Dicarboxylate linkers are used to build basic structures for novel isoreticular MOF series, aiming at relatively compact structures with a low number of atoms per unit cell. The structures are optimized using density functional theory. Afterwards the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo approach is employed to generate adsorption isotherms for CO2, CO, and CH4 molecules. We utilize the universal forcefield for simulating the interaction between the molecules and hosting MOF. The diffusion behavior of the molecules inside the MOFs is analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations.

  2. Formation mechanism of the secondary building unit in a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu Cantu, David; McGrail, B. Peter; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra

    2014-09-18

    Based on density functional theory calculations and simulation, a detailed mechanism is presented on the formation of the secondary building unit (SBU) of MIL-101, a chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework (MOF). SBU formation is key to MOF nucleation, the rate-limiting step in the formation process of many MOFs. A series of reactions that lead to the formation of the SBU of MIL-101 is proposed in this work. Initial rate-limiting reactions form the metal cluster with three chromium (III) atoms linked to a central bridging oxygen. Terephthalate linkers play a key role as chromium (III) atoms are joined to linker carboxylate groups prior to the placement of the central bridging oxygen. Multiple linker addition reactions, which follow in different paths due to structural isomers, are limited by the removal of water molecules in the first chromium coordination shell. The least energy path is identified were all linkers on one face of the metal center plane are added first. A simple kinetic model based on transition state theory shows the rate of secondary building unit formation similar to the rate metal-organic framework nucleation. The authors are thankful to Dr. R. Rousseau for a critical reading of the manuscript. This research would not have been possible without the support of the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the PNNL Institutional Computing (PIC) program located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Construction of a polyhedron decorated MOF with a unique network through the combination of two classic secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guo-Jian; Chang, Ze; Xu, Jian; Hu, Zhenpeng; Liu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Yue-Ling; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-02-01

    A novel decorated metal-organic polyhedron (MOP) based metal-organic framework with a unique 4,9-connected network is successfully constructed, which displays a relatively strong interaction toward H2 and CO2 probably due to the existence of open metal sites in the secondary building units. PMID:26685714

  4. Secondary structure of short β-peptides as the chiral expression of monomeric building units: a rational and predictive model.

    PubMed

    Gorrea, Esther; Pohl, Gábor; Nolis, Pau; Celis, Sergio; Burusco, Kepa K; Branchadell, Vicenç; Perczel, András; Ortuño, Rosa M

    2012-11-01

    Chirality of the monomeric residues controls and determines the prevalent folding of small oligopeptides (from di- to tetramers) composed of 2-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (ACBA) derivatives with the same or different absolute and relative configuration. The cis-form of the monomeric ACBA gives rise to two conformers, namely, Z6 and Z8, while the trans-form manifests uniquely as an H8 structure. By combining these subunits in oligo- and polypeptides, their local structural preference remains, thus allowing the rational design of new short foldamers. A lego-type molecular architecture evolves; the overall look depends only on the conformational properties of the structural building units. A versatile and efficient method to predict the backbone folds of designed cyclobutane β-peptides is based on QM calculations. Predictions are corroborated by high-resolution NMR studies on selected stereoisomers, most of them being new foldamers that have been synthesized and characterized for the first time. Thus, the chiral expression of monomeric building units results in the defined secondary structures of small oligomers. As a result of this study, a new set of chirality controlled foldamers is provided to probe as biocompatible biopolymers. PMID:23030251

  5. Two Principles of Reticular Chemistry Uncovered in a Metal-Organic Framework of Heterotritopic Linkers and Infinite Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Catarineu, Noelle R; Schoedel, Alexander; Urban, Philipp; Morla, Maureen B; Trickett, Christopher A; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-31

    Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto. Our study suggests that simple, symmetric linkers are not a necessity for formation of crystalline extended structures and that new, more complex topologies are attainable with irregular, heterotopic linkers. This work illustrates two principles of reticular chemistry: first, selectivity for helical over straight rod secondary building units (SBUs) is achievable with polyheterotopic linkers, and second, the pitch of the resulting helical SBUs may be fine-tuned based on the metrics of the polyheterotopic linker. PMID:27517606

  6. Construction of magnet-type coordination polymers using high-spin {Ni4}-citrate cubane as secondary building units.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng; Wang, Yanyan; Qin, Lei; Han, Tian; Ding, You-Song; Hu, Yue-Qiao; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2016-06-28

    Three potassium(i)-nickel(ii)-citrate coordination polymers, [K4Ni6(cit)4(H2O)8]n (), [K14Ni17(cit)12(H2O)33]n·10nH2O () and [K8Ni12(cit)8(H2O)15]n·2nH2O (), have been self-assembled in a solvothermal synthesis. Interestingly, these three polymers share the common {Ni4(cit)4}(8-) cubane ({Ni4}-cit-cub) secondary building units. The diverse ways of linking the {Ni4}-cit-cubs and additional isolated octahedral Ni(ii) ions lead to disparate magnetic exchange-coupling interactions, namely ferromagnetic for and and antiferromagnetic for . More importantly, the weak ferromagnetic interactions do not lead to long-range magnetic ordering above 2 K in or , whereas the strong antiferromagnetic interaction in leads to uncompensated magnetic moment due to the non-collinear alignment of the spins. Further magnetic characterization confirms the coexistence of spin-canted antiferromagnetism and spin glass behaviour in . PMID:27294693

  7. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  8. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal−organic framework based on Co–carboxylate secondary building units

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; Đaković, Marijana

    2015-03-15

    A metal–organic framework [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group with a=13.989(3) Å, b=9.6728(17) Å, c=16.707(3) Å, and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co–O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected. - Graphical abstract: A metal–organic framework of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] was synthesized by hydrothermal method. This 2D-periodic framework is constructed from the infinite Co–O–C secondary building units and crystallizes in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group based on Co(II)–carboxylate units. The catalytic oxidation of various olefins was effectively carried out with [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} catalyst by TBHP as oxidant. - Highlights: • A metal–organic framework of [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] is prepared by hydrothermal method. • The [Co{sub 3}(BDC){sub 3}(DMF){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} is constructed from Co–carboxylate secondary building units. • This coordination polymer displayed high catalytic activity for olefin oxidation reactions. • The catalytic reaction is heterogeneous and catalyst can be simply separated. • The heterogeneous catalyst can be reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  9. Synthesis, characterizations and catalytic studies of a new two-dimensional metal-organic framework based on Co-carboxylate secondary building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Ashouri, Fatemeh; Đaković, Marijana

    2015-03-01

    A metal-organic framework [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2] was synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the framework contains a 2D polymeric chain through coordination of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linker ligand to cobalt centers. The polymer crystallize in monoclinic P21/n space group with a=13.989(3) Å, b=9.6728(17) Å, c=16.707(3) Å, and Z=2. The polymer features a framework based on the perfect octahedral Co-O6 secondary building units. The catalytic activities of [Co3(BDC)3(DMF)2(H2O)2]n for olefins oxidation was conducted. The heterogeneous catalyst could be facilely separated from the reaction mixture, and reused three times without significant degradation in catalytic activity. Furthermore, no contribution from homogeneous catalysis of active species leaching into reaction solution was detected.

  10. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  11. Buildings As Secondary Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semblat, J.-F.; Kham, M.; Guéguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.

    At the scale of a city, surface structures like buildings can modify the seismic free- field and behave as secondary seismic sources. At a local scale, some experimental evidences of the site-structure interaction were previously given (Guéguen, 2000). Thanks to the boundary element method, the global problem of site-city interaction is herein investigated in two dimensions at the scale of an alluvial deposit and an entire city considering a whole building network. An alluvial deposit located in the center of Nice (France) was firstly considered for the analysis of free-field amplification (Semblat, 2000). The amplification factor was estimated by the boundary element method and compared with experimental results (SSR, HVSR). Starting from these free-field simulations, several site-city models were considered which describe both superficial soil layers and surface structures. We in- vestigate herein the influence of both building type and building density on the modi- fication of free-field amplification. To compare free-field amplification and amplification in urban configurations, sur- face amplification is compared in both cases for a specific uniform building type and various building densities at differents frequencies. Depending on these various pa- rameters, the free-field amplification level could be increased by 20 to 50%. Other urban configurations are considered with various building types in uniform and inho- mogeneous arrangements. For the specific site considered, the various site-city BEM models show that site-city interaction can lead to a strong increase of the free-field am- plification factor. Around the fundamental frequency of a specific building type, for a homogeneous urban configuration, particular resonance effects are observed. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental and local scale numerical results (Guéguen, 2000) and show that the coincidence of the respective eigenfre- quencies of both alluvial deposit and

  12. Building a secondary containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Retail fertilizer and pesticide dealers across the United States are installing secondary containment at their facilities or are seriously considering it. Much of this work is in response to new state regulations; however, many dealers not facing new regulations are upgrading their facilities to reduce their liability, lower their insurance costs, or comply with anticipated regulations. The Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has assisted dealers in 22 states in retrofitting containment to their facilities. Simultaneous improvements in the operational efficiency of the facilities have been achieved at many of the sites. This paper is based on experience gained in that work and details the rationale used in planning secondary containment and facility modifications.

  13. Solvent-induced secondary building unit (SBU) variations in a series of Cu(II) metal-organic frameworks derived from a bifunctional ligand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ming; Ma, Jian-Gong; Cheng, Peng

    2015-05-21

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been studied for a series of copper-based framework systems. Herein we show the formation of three different 3D ordered frameworks with the formulae {[Cu4(cpt)4Cl4]·2DMF·dioxane·3H2O}n (1), {[Cu8(cpt)4(Hcpt)2Cl7(μ3-OH)2(H2O)4]Cl3·4CH3CN}n (2), and {[Cu8(cpt)4Cl4(μ3-OH)2(μ4-O)2]Cl2·4H2O·2CH3CN·3MeOH}n (3) [Hcpt = 4-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole], respectively, from the same reaction mixture through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium. These MOFs were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting secondary building unit (SBU) variations. The varied SBUs not only bring different framework architectures to these MOFs, but also affect their framework stability. Gas sorption studies of MOF 3 reveal high CO2-N2 selectivity at 298 K and 0.16 bar (a typical partial pressure of CO2 in an industrial flue gas). A high isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) at zero loading (53 kJ mol(-1)) was also observed in MOF 3. PMID:25873315

  14. Designing Knowledge Building Communities in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing

    2014-01-01

    In 2012-2013, sixteen senior secondary classes participated in this study, with eight of them being distance classes. Approximately 220 Year 11-13 students and 8 teachers took part in this study. This project aimed at designing and evaluating a computer-supported knowledge building community in senior secondary classes. Researchers sought to…

  15. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Building Trades (Program CIP: 46.0490--Building Trades, General). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for two secondary-level courses in the building trades: building trades I and…

  16. Unique anisotropic optical properties of a highly stable metal-organic framework based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units linked by tetracarboxylic linkers with an anthracene core.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, A V; Milichko, V A; Zaake-Hertling, H; Aleksovska, A; Gruschinski, S; Schmorl, S; Kersting, B; Zolnhofer, E M; Sutter, J; Meyer, K; Lönnecke, P; Hey-Hawkins, E

    2016-05-01

    A highly stable metal-organic framework, [{Fe3(ACTBA)2}X·6DEF]n (1; X = monoanion), based on trinuclear iron(iii) secondary building units connected by tetracarboxylates with an anthracene core, 2,6,9,10-tetrakis(p-carboxylatophenyl)anthracene (ACTBA), is reported. Depending on the direction of light polarisation, crystals of 1 exhibit anisotropic optical properties with birefringence Δn = 0.3 (λ = 590 nm). PMID:26906040

  17. Extraordinary Separation of Acetylene-Containing Mixtures with Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open O Donor Sites and Tunable Robustness through Control of the Helical Chain Secondary Building Units.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zizhu; Zhang, Zhangjing; Liu, Lizhen; Li, Ziyin; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Chen, Banglin; Krishna, Rajamani; Xiang, Shengchang

    2016-04-11

    Acetylene separation is a very important but challenging industrial separation task. Here, through the solvothermal reaction of CuI and 5-triazole isophthalic acid in different solvents, two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, FJU-21 and FJU-22) with open O donor sites and controllable robustness have been obtained for acetylene separation. They contain the same paddle-wheel {Cu2 (COO2 )4 } nodes and metal-ligand connection modes, but with different helical chains as secondary building units (SBUs), leading to different structural robustness for the MOFs. FJU-21 and FJU-22 are the first examples in which the MOFs' robustness is controlled by adjusting the helical chain SBUs. Good robustness gives the activated FJU-22 a, which has higher surface area and gas uptakes than the flexible FJU-21 a. Importantly, FJU-22 a shows extraordinary separation of acetylene mixtures under ambient conditions. The separation capacity of FJU-22 a for 50:50 C2 H2 /CO2 mixtures is about twice that of the high-capacity HOF-3, and its actual separation selectivity for C2 H2 /C2 H4 mixtures containing 1 % acetylene is the highest among reported porous materials. Based on first-principles calculations, the extraordinary separation performance of C2 H2 for FJU-22 a was attributed to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the C2 H2 molecules with the open O donors on the wall, which provide better recognition ability for C2 H2 than other functional sites, including open metal sites and amino groups. PMID:26934040

  18. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of different topological coordination polymers based on tunable Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} secondary building units and macrocyclic azacalixaromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li-Xia; Zhao, Liang; Wang, De-Xian; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2010-12-15

    The coordination self-assembly between the macrocyclic ligand tetraazacalix[4]pyrimidine (TAPM) with cubane-like copper halides (Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}) produced five coordination polymers 1-5 {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m}(TAPM){r_brace}{sub n} (m=0 (1), 1 (2), 2 (3), 3 (4) and 4 (5)). X-ray single crystal analysis revealed that the Br:I ratio in the Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} cores serves as a controlling factor to fine-tune the geometries of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} and therefore induce the conformation variation of tetraazacalix[4]pyrimidine. Consequently, two different topological nets, dia and lcs, were successfully constructed based on tetrahedrally coordinated Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} secondary building units and the flexible macrocyclic quadridentate ligand TAPM. The structure details of 1-5 as porous materials are analyzed, which shows a solvent accessible volume within the range of 27-35%. Compounds 1-5 exhibit luminescence properties with the peak maximum at around 476-488 nm. -- Graphical Abstract: Five luminescent coordination polymers 1-5 were obtained via the reaction of tetrahedral Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} SBUs and a flexible macrocyclic ligand tetraazacalix[4] pyrimidine (TAPM), wherein the Br/I ratio serves as a controlling factor to fine-tune the geometries of Cu{sub 4}Br{sub 4-m}I{sub m} and induce the conformation variation of TAPM, thus constructing two different dia and lcs topological nets. Display Omitted Research highlights: > The ratio of Br/I in the Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} cores fine-tunes the geometries of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4}. > Variation of Cu{sub 4}X{sub 4} induces the conformation change of the ligand TAPM. > Two different coordination polymeric structures were successfully constructed. > The five coordination polymers show good luminescent properties.

  20. Better Science: Building Primary-Secondary Links. Curriculum Guide 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brenda, Comp.; Michell, Mick, Comp.

    This publication is one in a series of 12 giving the recommendations that were made for a broad and balanced education program in science for young people. This guide attempts to answer the questions regarding what science is taught in primary schools, what skills good primary science gives children, and how secondary schools build on primary…

  1. Microworlds: Building Powerful Ideas in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Craig William

    2012-01-01

    In the 1960s, the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) developed a programming language called LOGO. Underpinning this invention was a profound new philosophy of how learners learn. This paper reviews research in the area and asks how one notion in particular, that of a microworld, may be used by secondary school educators to build powerful…

  2. Interior of secondary building, first floor, ceilingmounted drive belt wheels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of secondary building, first floor, ceiling-mounted drive belt wheels, bevel gears and open pigment conveyor (center). Desk with paint labels below, vaulted brick ceiling above. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  3. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  4. Career Education Teacher's Guide [Secondary Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockland County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, West Nyack, NY.

    The four teacher's guides, emphasizing career education and its infusion into existing curriculum, are for the following units of instruction and suggested grade levels: entering the world of work, 5-12; making money with a classroom store, 8-12; meteorologist/radio station, 9; and banking, 9-10. Each unit is organized under several strategies and…

  5. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium corylophilum isolated from damp buildings.

    PubMed

    McMullin, David R; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Miller, J David

    2014-01-01

    Indoor exposure to the spores and mycelial fragments of fungi that grow on damp building materials can result in increased non-atopic asthma and upper respiratory disease. The mechanism appears to involve exposure to low doses of fungal metabolites. Penicillium corylophilum is surprisingly common in damp buildings in USA, Canada and western Europe. We examined isolates of P. corylophilum geographically distributed across Canada in the first comprehensive study of secondary metabolites of this fungus. The sesquiterpene phomenone, the meroterpenoids citreohybridonol and andrastin A, koninginin A, E and G, three new alpha pyrones and four new isochromans were identified from extracts of culture filtrates. This is the first report of koninginins, meroterpenoids and alpha pyrones from P. corylophilum. These secondary metabolite data support the removal of P. corylophilum from Penicillium section Citrina and suggest that further taxonomic studies are required on this species. PMID:24891425

  6. Torture: A Unit for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Torture is a worldwide, not an isolated, phenomenon. It is epidemic in the world. A human rights unit for high school students on torture as a tool of the state is presented. An interdisciplinary approach, involving social studies and language arts, is used. (RM)

  7. Aerospace-Oriented Units for Use in Secondary School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; And Others

    This set of nine units is intended to furnish aerospace-oriented resource material to help teachers include recent scientific and technological advances in the secondary school science curriculum. The units provided are as follows: history of astronomy, the solar system, beyond the solar system, history of flight, spaceflight facts, aerology,…

  8. 11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN OFFICE UNIT (BUILDING I, 2); SOUTH AND EAST FRONTS OF SEED STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 21); EAST FRONT OF GREENHOUSE #1 (BUILDING 5) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  9. 13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. DETAILS OF HOT ROOM AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ROOM. June 5, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BUILDING 106. PACKAGING UNIT. FLOOR PLAN AND ADDITION. March 11, 1944 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 106, South of Tacony Street between Bridge Street & tracks of former Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  12. Design and preliminary tests of the VLT secondary mirror unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Manil, Emmanuel; Schmid, M.; Dost, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The mechanics of the secondary unit are located behind the secondary mirror as seen from the telescope focus. The secondary is undersized and defines the pupil of the telescope. There is a focusing and centering drive for slow adjustments of the secondary mirror. In addition, the secondary mirror has a fast beam steering mechanism for chopping and rapid guiding to remove atmospheric wavefront tilt during observations. The specified square wave chopping frequency is 5 Hz with a duty cycle larger than 80%. To achieve a high bandwidth, the secondary mirror is manufactured of light-weighted beryllium coated with nickel. The beam steering mechanism has a counter-vibrating mass to compensate for dynamic forces and moments. The chopping mechanism has been successfully tested. The code of the digital control used during the tests was generated using Matlab real time toolbox. The servos were implemented on a digital signal processor card equipped with a TMS 320C40. To compensate for resonances inside the bandwidth of the servos, a special filter is applied in the velocity loop. The design of the secondary unit is now completed and fabrication and assembly have begun.

  13. LBT adaptive secondary units final design and construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Anaclerio, Enzo; Lazzarini, Paolo G.; Ripamonti, Angelo; Spairani, Roberto; Del Vecchio, Ciro; Salinari, Piero; Riccardi, Armando; Stefanini, Paolo; Biasi, Roberto

    2003-02-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope will perform its first level AO correction at visual wavelengths by the two Gregorian secondary mirrors. Each unit is made by a 911 mm diameter and 1.6 mm thick Zerodur shell which shape is controlled by 672 electromagnetic actuators at 1 kHz rate. The shape of each mirror is referred to a Zerodur 50 mm thick backplate through a set of capacitive sensors co-located with the actuators. Each adaptive secondary unit embeds its real time computer for actuator control and communication. Each unit is aligned into the secondary hub by a 6 d.o.f. hexapod system. The construction of the AO units started this year, while the hexapods have been completed in 2001. We present in this paper the final design of the adaptive secondary systems with particular emphasis on the modifications that we made based on the MMT adaptive secondary experience. We will also report the first results of the subsystems development tests.

  14. Putting the Unit in Pre-Service Secondary Teachers' Unit Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin C.; LaForest, Kevin R.; Kim, Hee Jung

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a teaching experiment that explored two pre-service secondary teachers' meanings for the unit circle. Our analyses suggest that the participants' initial unit circle meanings predominantly consisted of calculational strategies for relating a given circle to what they called "the unit circle." These strategies did not entail…

  15. Developing an Appropriate Goalball Unit for Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.; Happel, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Goalball, a sport designed for those with visual impairments, is a competitive and recreational sport enjoyed by athletes around the world. Students with and without visual impairments can experience positive outcomes when teachers appropriately include a goalball unit as part of their inclusive secondary physical education curriculum. This…

  16. [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH ('MFU-5'): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) A, V=9742(8) A{sup 3}, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[F{sup 2}>2sigma(F{sup 2})]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material. - Graphical abstract: The metal-organic framework [Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}(DABCO){sub 2}].0.5DABCO.4CH{sub 3}OH (MFU-5) is constructed from a molecular precursor containing {l_brace}Cu{sub 4}OCl{sub 6}{r_brace} secondary building units which become cross-linked into a 3D zeolite-type network with hexagonal symmetry by linear DABCO ligands (DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane).

  17. [Cu4OCl6(DABCO)2]·0.5DABCO·4CH3OH (“MFU-5”): Modular synthesis of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework constructed from tetrahedral {Cu4OCl6} secondary building units and linear organic linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying-Ya; Grzywa, Maciej; Weil, Matthias; Volkmer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) based on a tetranuclear copper cluster and a linear organic ligand formulated as [Cu 4OCl 6(DABCO) 2] ·0.5DABCO ·4CH 3OH (denoted as MFU-5, MFU=Metal-Organic Framework, Ulm University; DABCO=1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), was prepared via solvothermal synthesis. In contrast with common MOF synthesis strategies, MFU-5 is assembled from pre-defined molecular secondary building units, i.e. {Cu 4OCl 6} moieties, which become the nodes of the coordination framework. The title compound was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, variable temperature powder diffraction (VT-XRPD), thermal analysis, as well as IR- and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Crystal data for MFU-5: hexagonal, P6/ mcc (no. 192), a=25.645(9), c=17.105(11) Å, V=9742(8) Å 3, Z=12, 1690 structure factors, R[ F2>2 σ( F2)]=0.049. MFU-5 is a 3D metal-organic framework with 1D channels running along the c-axis hosting DABCO and methanol solvent molecules. The framework displays a zeolite-like structure constructed from mso cages, which represents the composite building units in the zeolites SSF, MSO and SZR. Two-fold interpenetration is observed between these building units. TG/DTA-MS and VT-XRPD characterization reveal a stepwise release of methanol and DABCO molecules upon heating, eventually resulting in a structural change into a non-porous material.

  18. "Three-unit" muscle reconstruction in secondary cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qi; Li, Yu; Danning, Zheng; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Siqi; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background :  Secondary deformities are common in people born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. In recent years, more and more attempts and efforts have been directed toward muscle reconstruction. The authors present a new method of orbicularis oris repair in correction of secondary cleft lip deformities. Methods :  From April 2009 to April 2013, a total of 28 patients underwent this procedure in the authors' department and had a follow-up with a minimum length of 1 year. Muscle reconstruction was divided into three units that deal with the nasal floor, white lip, and red lip. Common anatomical pathologies including a deviated columella, blunted alar-facial groove, lack of philtral column, "free border" deficiency, and unapparent vermilion tubercle can be corrected in a single operation. Results :  The average follow-up period was 14.6 months (range, 12 to 24 months). Contractubex gel (Merz Pharma, Frankfurt, Germany) was used to treat prominent or reddish scars in 16 patients. No major complications occurred. All the patients were satisfied with their nasolabial appearance. Conclusions :  "Three-unit" muscle repair was found to be effective and practical in secondary repair. Improved aesthetic and functional results can be achieved with this comprehensive procedure. PMID:24443976

  19. Masonry. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    This teaching guide on masonry building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of masonry construction. Introductory material provides teachers with information on use of the units of instruction and personalization and localization of…

  20. Lightweighted secondary mirror for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Pitz, Eckhart; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Rees, Nicholas P.; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Kaufmann, Horst W.; Schmadel, Lutz

    1999-10-01

    The paper describes the manufacture and testing of a lightweighted Zerodur secondary mirror for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The 313 mm diameter mirror is mounted on a Piezo platform for fast tip/tilt corrections. Therefore, the mirror mass has to be minimized to achieve high dynamic properties of the adaptive tip/tilt platform. The goal was to test the convex secondary without large auxiliary optics (Hindle sphere). We measured the mirror through the back surface using a small null lens system. A special transparent and highly homogeneous Zerodur was used for this purpose. We demonstrate that grinding a honeycomb structure and acid-etching of the back side of the mirror does not affect the figure of the polished convex surface.

  1. Courting Controversy: How to Build Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jackie; Reynolds, Terry Deal

    1993-01-01

    By focusing on a polluted river and a visit to a rural Tennessee town, sixth-grade students from suburban Asheville, North Carolina, learned more about this controversy than many of their well-informed parents and teachers. Steps for creating similar interdisciplinary thematic units are described, along with the benefits of team teaching and…

  2. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  3. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  4. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-02-24

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies. Summary of technical progress is presented for: Well drilling and completion; seismic data acquisition; and geologic and engineering interpretation.

  5. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  6. STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STATION BUILDING. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plan, elevations, sections, details. Austin Willmott Earl, Consulting Engineer, 233 Sansome Street, San Francisco, California. Drawing no. 504. Various scales. January 20, 1945, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, amendments 4 & 5. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Electrical Services & Switching Station, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  7. Energy Conservation Curriculum for Secondary and Post-Secondary Students. Module 8: Building Construction Versus Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro Coll., Corsicana, TX.

    This module is the eighth in a series of eleven modules in an energy conservation curriculum for secondary and postsecondary vocational students. It is designed for use by itself or as part of a sequence of four modules on conservation in building construction and operation (see also modules 9-11). The objective of this module is to train students…

  8. An examination of reasoning and proof opportunities in three differently organized secondary mathematics textbook units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jon D.

    2012-12-01

    Students' struggles in learning reasoning and proof (RP) in mathematics are well known. Despite the instantiation of RP opportunities in mathematics textbooks in the USA and the important role that textbooks play in teachers' instructional decisions, little research has been conducted on analyzing student textbook tasks and narrative sections of mathematics textbooks in the USA. One polynomial functions unit located within a reform-oriented, conventional, and hybrid secondary mathematics textbook was examined for RP instances. RP tasks comprised 4, 9, and 22 % of the student tasks in the conventional, hybrid, and reform-oriented textbook units, respectively. The textbook exposition of all three textbook units promoted the presentation of proof building blocks (e.g., definitions) with no occurrences of conjecture development or testing. Overall, only 19 % of the learning objectives across the three textbook units were validated. The conventional and hybrid textbook units had the potential to promote an authoritative proof scheme in students while the reform-oriented textbook unit had the potential to promote an empirical proof scheme in students.

  9. Preservation Building Survey Form for Freestanding Library Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Susan M.

    A modification of a University of Michigan form, this survey form is designed to obtain information on a freestanding library unit for preservation. The questionnaire covers the following areas: (1) library facility construction--e.g., primary building materials, characteristics of the foundation and roof, recent problems; (2) heating and cooling…

  10. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. A Porous Metal-Organic Framework with Helical Chain Building Units Exhibiting Facile Transition from Micro- to Meso-porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinhee; Li, Jian-Rong; Carolina Sañudo, E.; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A metal–organic framework (MOF) with helical channels has been constructed by bridging helical chain secondary building units with 2,6-di-p-carboxyphenyl-4,4'-bipyridine ligands. The activated MOF shows permanent porosity and gas adsorption selectivity. Remarkably, the MOF exhibits a facile transition from micro- to meso-porosity.

  12. 158. ARAIII Reactor building (ARA608) Secondary cooling loop and piping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. ARA-III Reactor building (ARA-608) Secondary cooling loop and piping plan. This drawing was selected as a typical example of piping arrangements within reactor building. Aerojet/general 880-area/GCRE-608-P-16. Date: February 1958. INeel index code no. 063-0608-50-013-102641. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Secondary Students Learning Mathematics through Digital Game Building: A Study of the Effects and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing; Vandermeiden, Elise; Lemieux, Collette; Nathoo, Shahista

    2016-01-01

    This study explored secondary students' learning experiences in mathematics through digital game building. In this study, students were asked to become designers and builders in order to coauthor their own mathematics learning. Grounded in enactivism, this study examined the impact of game building on students' achievement. In addition, it…

  14. Building Bridges: Transitions from Elementary to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Most young people leave elementary school and move into some form of secondary school during early adolescence. At precisely the time that young people are navigating multiple developmental challenges (social, intellectual, academic, physical), they are expected to move between these intuitions of public education. The transition is commonly…

  15. Building Type Basics for Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Bradford

    This book provides the essential information architects need to fast-start a school design process and shares what leading architects have learned about elementary and secondary school design. It provides critical information on the process, potential problems, design concerns, and recent trends in school design, along with complete coverage of…

  16. Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1983-05-09

    A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

  17. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with how to test and service the secondary ignition circuit. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 215-216. An introduction tells how this unit fits into the total…

  18. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 214. Focus of the posttests is testing and servicing the secondary ignition circuit. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in the unit. (No…

  19. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Fraley, S.

    2002-06-13

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site.

  20. Indigenous Secondary Education in the Northern Territory: Building for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Jeannie; McInerney, Dennis M.; Fasoli, Lyn; Stephenson, Peter; Ford, Lysbeth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an Australian Research Council (ARC) funded research project, "Building the future for Indigenous students", an investigation of the hopes and dreams for the future of over 1,000 secondary students, 733 of whom were Indigenous, living in very remote, remote, and urban locations in the Northern…

  1. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary coolant flowed through carbon steel pipe; primary coolant, through stainless steel. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: April 30, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2080 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models. PMID:15053116

  3. Truth: Humanities Unit (Middle and Secondary Grade Levels). Programs for Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Barbara; Kolman, Peter

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, this booklet describes a humanities unit for students in middle and secondary grades. The specific focus of the unit is on truth as it is perceived and expressed in philosophy, literature, art, music, drama, and the social sciences. The study of truth and its surrounding concepts…

  4. A Collection of Teaching Units about Japan for Secondary Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce, Comp; Christian, Duane, Comp.

    This document contains a collection of eight selected secondary level units of study about Japan. Individual units were planned and written by teachers who participated in the first Southwest Program for Teaching about Japan (SPTAJ) study tour to that country during 1987. Unit topics include: (1) "An Introduction To Japanese Medicine" (G. Adams);…

  5. Violence Prevention in United States Society of Jesus Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Thomas Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…

  6. Model Spacecraft Construction, Units for Secondary School Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, C. Thomas; And Others

    This publication provides twelve model spacecraft construction plans for use by secondary school teachers in industrial arts classes. These models were adopted and developed from plans supplied by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and are representative selections from the many spacecraft used in space exploration programs. Some…

  7. United States History in the Secondary School. Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. To insure that his unit will go beyond the general treatment of government thought in Civics or American History classes, emphasis has been placed on the methods of inquiry which will help the student achieve the self-realization of his own role in government. An examination is made into the…

  8. United States History in the Secondary Schools. Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. One of the most important developments in the recent interpretations of American economic history has been the emphasis placed on business. The specific objectives of this unit are enumerated: 1) to realize that all resources are limited and the utilization of these resources is determined by…

  9. United States History in the Secondary School. Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. Agriculture is the broad term applied to such widely divergent topics as America's settlement, the West in American History, rural culture and philosophy, and government planning as it affects the American Farmer. The specific objectives of this unit are to help students to understand these…

  10. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 4: Secondary Circuit. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 4, Secondary Circuit, available separately as CE 031 214. Focus of the exercises and pretests is testing and servicing the secondary ignition circuit. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the seven…

  11. Health Experiences, Concerns, and Interactions with Effectiveness of Secondary Agriculture Teachers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jasper S.; Westrom, Lyle E.

    This publication summarizes the findings of several initiatives in studying the health aspects of secondary agriculture teachers in the United States. The study was specifically conducted to determine the health experiences of secondary agriculture teachers, the health problems that cause them to miss work, their health care concerns, personal…

  12. Nigeria: Teaching Resource Units for Use in American Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, Joshua A.

    Twenty social studies units present an in-depth investigation of Nigerian geography, culture, history, and government. The guide is intended for use by elementary and secondary classroom teachers as they develop and implement educational programs on Nigeria. Providing general background information, the first two units focus on African geography…

  13. Post-Secondary Educational Experiences in the Acculturation of Resettled Refugees in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tara W.

    2013-01-01

    A global refugee crisis necessitates an understanding of policymaking governing the resettlement of refugees in the United States. Resettling more refugees than all other countries combined, the United States emphasizes rapid employment over post-secondary education for adult resettled refugees in order to compel their self-sufficiency. However,…

  14. Heterogeneity within a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework with Three Distinct Metal-Containing Building Units.

    PubMed

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Ning, Erlong; Yan, Wenqing; Qi, Yi; Wu, Doufeng; Li, Qiaowei

    2015-10-28

    Materials built from multiple constituents have revealed emerging properties that are beyond linear integration of those from single components. We report a mesoporous metal-organic framework made from three geometrically distinct metal-containing secondary building units (SBUs) as a result of topological induction. The combinations of the Cu-based triangular, Zn-based octahedral, and Zn-based square pyramidal SBUs have created four types of cages in the network, despite that only one organic linker pyrazolecarboxylate was used. The longest distance for molecules maneuvering inside the largest cage is 5.2 nm. Furthermore, the complex and diversified pore environments allow the installation of various new functionalities in the framework as well as the expedited Ag nanoparticle formation in the pores. As presented in the molecule movement diagram, the crystal has provided specific arrangements of cages and apertures with distinct chemical features for guests transporting between the pores. PMID:26335899

  15. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  16. Energy efficiency as a commodity: The emergence of a secondary market for efficiency savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, G.H.; Rosenfield, A.H.; McIntosh, T.A.; McGaraghan, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    The energy efficiency industry is constrained by lack of financing. For example, in the United States, commercial and public buildings need an investment of $100 billion for cost-effective retrofits with an average payback of about four years. But the current level of financing is stagnant at only about 34% of this level per year. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has led the development of the North American Energy Measurement and Verification Protocol (NEMVP). This Protocol will increase the reliability and quality of estimated efficiency savings and improve realized savings. A critical element in the development of low cost financing and a secondary market--whether for homes or credit card debt--is the adoption of protocols to provide uniformity and reliability of the product. This is also true of energy efficiency installations, which have been characterized by inconsistency in the installation methodologies and, frequently, unreliability of savings. This Protocol, published in April 1996, is a DOE-led effort involving American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE, National Association of Energy Service Companies NAESCO, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners NARUC, National Association of State Energy Officials NASEO, US Environmental Protection Agency EPA, Canada`s Canadian Association of Energy Service Companies CAESCO, and Mexico`s Comision Nacional Para El Ahorro De Energia CONAE and Fideicomiso De Apoyo Al Programa De Ahorro De Energia Del Sector Electrico FIDE. DOE has begun to build on this Protocol to develop new forms of lower-cost financing including, ultimately, development of a secondary market for energy efficiency. This could double financing for building energy efficiency within five years.

  17. Electrical. Teacher's Guide. Building Maintenance Units of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This teaching guide on electrical building maintenance, one in a series of six publications designed for building maintenance instructors in Texas, is designed to give students an understanding of electricity in order to know how to make basic repairs to the electrical systems in a building. Introductory material provides teachers with information…

  18. Robust Cluster Building Unit: Icosanuclear Heteropolyoxocopperate Templated by Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Ling; Kozlevčar, Bojan; Strauch, Peter; Zhuang, Gui-Lin; Guo, Ling-Yu; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Di

    2015-12-14

    The encapsulation of carbonate derived from atmospheric CO2 has resulted in an icosanuclear heteropolyoxocopperate, isolated as a metal-organic 1D chain, 2D sheet, or 3D framework, in which the Cu20 nanocluster represents the first eight-capped α-Keggin polyoxometalate with the late-transition-metal Cu(II) as the polyatom, CO3(2-) as the heteroanion, and OH(-) and suc(2-) or glu(2-) (H2suc=succinic acid; H2glu=glutaric acid) as the terminal ligands, which suggests a conceptual similarity to classical polyoxometalates. Even in the presence of competitive SO4(2-) in the assembly system, the CO3(2-) anion is still captured as a template to direct the formation of the Cu20 nanocluster, which indicates the stronger templation ability of CO3(2-) compared with SO4(2-). When other aliphatic dicarboxylates, such as glutaric acid, were used as ligands, the CO3(2-)-templated Cu20 nanocluster was maintained and acted as a cluster building unit (CBU) to be linked by two glutarate bridges to generate a distinct 1D metal-organic chain. This report presents not only a rare example of a huge anion-templated transition-metal cluster, but also its use as a robust CBU to construct novel coordination architectures. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies revealed that an antiferromagnetic interaction exists within the Cu20 nanocluster. The correlation between the coordination structure and the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra recorded of both powder and single-crystal samples are discussed in detail. PMID:26541877

  19. Overcoming Resistance to Achievement-based Unit Grading in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Randall

    2008-01-01

    Achievement-based unit grading in secondary physical education is not commonly practiced due to resistance to grading students based on learning, performance, or achievement. Traditional grading practices based on managerial factors, such as attendance and good behavior, and on "pseudo-accountability" do little to make students accountable for…

  20. Sharing British Columbia's Water Resources. A Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Angus M.

    Seventeen student worksheets form a secondary school unit which focuses on the challenge of shared usage of water resources. Pressure currently exists for a more balanced approach in which all legitimate interests in a water source are served. The worksheets include readings which focus on enough water for all, the water cycle (including a…

  1. Assessing the Impact of a Secondary School Ethnic Relations Unit: Results and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Benjamin I., Jr.

    The research reported assesses the impact of a program on the change of ethnic attitudes of students. The Anthropology Curriculum Project's "Race, Caste and Prejudice," designed to enhance intergroup attitudes and behavior, is a supplementary secondary school unit of study, text and handbook, dealing with race, caste and prejudice from a…

  2. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  3. The Supply and Demand of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Said

    This Digest examines U.S. teacher supply and demand, including projections for the next 10 years. For the past 10 years, the supply of public elementary and secondary school teachers has grown. Currently, the number of teachers in the United States is 3.1 million, 2,666,034 of whom teach in public schools. The number is projected to increase by…

  4. Australians All: A Study Unit on Contemporary Australia for Secondary Schools [and] Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This document presents a study unit on Australia for secondary school students. A student reading examines Australia's cultural conflicts, history, 20th century development, and recent government policy. Australia's commitment to multiculturalism, the benefits of immigration, and the prospects for the future are also explored. The teacher's…

  5. Mandating better buildings: a global review of building codes and prospects for improvement in the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Xiaojing; Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Jackson, Roderick

    2015-03-11

    This paper provides a global overview of the design, implementation, and evolution of building energy codes. Reflecting alternative policy goals, building energy codes differ significantly across the United States, the European Union, and China. This review uncovers numerous innovative practices including greenhouse gas emissions caps per square meter of building space, energy performance certificates with retrofit recommendations, and inclusion of renewable energy to achieve “nearly zero-energy buildings”. These innovations motivated an assessment of an aggressive commercial building code applied to all US states, requiring both new construction and buildings with major modifications to comply with the latest version of themore » ASHRAE 90.1 Standards. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), we estimate that by 2035, such building codes in the United States could reduce energy for space heating, cooling, water heating and lighting in commercial buildings by 16%, 15%, 20% and 5%, respectively. Impacts on different fuels and building types, energy rates and bills as well as pollution emission reductions are also examined.« less

  6. Mandating better buildings: a global review of building codes and prospects for improvement in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaojing; Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Jackson, Roderick

    2015-03-11

    This paper provides a global overview of the design, implementation, and evolution of building energy codes. Reflecting alternative policy goals, building energy codes differ significantly across the United States, the European Union, and China. This review uncovers numerous innovative practices including greenhouse gas emissions caps per square meter of building space, energy performance certificates with retrofit recommendations, and inclusion of renewable energy to achieve “nearly zero-energy buildings”. These innovations motivated an assessment of an aggressive commercial building code applied to all US states, requiring both new construction and buildings with major modifications to comply with the latest version of the ASHRAE 90.1 Standards. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), we estimate that by 2035, such building codes in the United States could reduce energy for space heating, cooling, water heating and lighting in commercial buildings by 16%, 15%, 20% and 5%, respectively. Impacts on different fuels and building types, energy rates and bills as well as pollution emission reductions are also examined.

  7. A case study of secondary teachers facilitating a historical problem-based learning instructional unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecore, John L.

    Current curriculum trends promote inquiry-based student-centered strategies as a way to foster critical thinking and learning. Problem-based learning (PBL), a type of inquiry focusing on an issue or "problem," is an instructional approach taught on the basis that science reform efforts increase scientific literacy. PBL is a constructivist approach to learning real life problems where understanding is a function of content, context, experiences, and learner goals; historical PBL situates the lesson in a historical context and provides opportunities for teaching NOS concepts. While much research exists on the benefits of historical PBL to student learning in general, more research is warranted on how teachers implement PBL in the secondary science curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the classroom-learning environment of four science teachers implementing a historical PBL instructional unit to identify the teachers' understandings, successes and obstacles. By identifying teachers' possible achievements and barriers with implementing a constructivist philosophy when executing historical PBL, educators and curriculum designers may improve alignment of the learning environment to constructivist principles. A qualitative interpretive case study guided this research study. The four participants of this study were purposefully and conveniently selected from biology teachers with at least three years of teaching experience, degrees in education, State Licensure, and completion of a PBL workshop. Data collection consisted of pre and post questionnaires, structured interviews, a card sort activity in which participants categorized instructional outcomes, and participant observations. Results indicated that the four teachers assimilated reform-based constructivist practices to fit within their preexisting routines and highlighted the importance of incorporating teachers' current systems into reform-based teacher instruction. While participating teachers

  8. Characterization of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere prior to the reactor building purge

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Mandler, J.W.; Duce, S.W.; Motes, B.G.

    1981-05-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit-2 reactor building atmosphere was sampled prior to the reactor building purge. Samples of the containment atmosphere were obtained using specialized sampling equipment installed through penetration R-626 at the 358-foot (109-meter) level of the TMI-2 reactor building. The samples were subsequently analyzed for radionuclide concentration and for gaseous molecular components (O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, etc.) by two independent laboratories at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sampling procedures, analysis methods, and results are summarized.

  9. Secondary migration and relocation among African refugee families in the United States.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Hoffman, Yael; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweigh, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the secondary migration and relocation of African refugees resettled in the United States. Secondary migration refers to moves out of state, while relocation refers to moves within state. Of 73 recently resettled refugee families from Burundi and Liberia followed for 1 year through ethnographic interviews and observations, 13 instances of secondary migration and 9 instances of relocation were identified. A family ecodevelopmental framework was applied to address: Who moved again, why, and with what consequences? How did moving again impact family risk and protective factors? How might policies, researchers, and practitioners better manage refugees moving again? Findings indicated that families undertook secondary migration principally for employment, affordable housing, family reunification, and to feel more at home. Families relocated primarily for affordable housing. Parents reported that secondary migration and relocation enhanced family stability. Youth reported disruption to both schooling and attachments with peers and community. In conclusion, secondary migration and relocation were family efforts to enhance family and community protective resources and to mitigate shortcomings in resettlement conditions. Policymakers could provide newly resettled refugees jobs, better housing and family reunification. Practitioners could devise ways to better engage and support those families who consider moving. PMID:21361922

  10. 40 CFR 165.92 - What if I need both a containment pad and a secondary containment unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What if I need both a containment pad... Containment Structures § 165.92 What if I need both a containment pad and a secondary containment unit? You may combine containment pads and secondary containment units as an integrated system provided...

  11. 22. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 2. United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 2. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plans, section, & detail. Alben Froberg, Architect, 3454 Harlan Street, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 2. Plan no. 10,525. Various scales. March 1, 1942, last revised 3/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. 23. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 3. United Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 22L, SHEET NO. 3. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard, Ship Repair Facilities. Plans, section, & detail. Alben Froberg, Architect, 3454 Harlan Street, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 3. Plan no. 10,525. Various scales. March 1, 1943, last revised 3/15/43. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Engineering Building, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  13. Generation of sub-micron particles and secondary pollutants from building materials by ozone reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Taisuke; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    This study reports results from two different experiments examining reactions between ozone and common building materials that can lead to the formation of secondary products and particulate-phase materials. Monitored species include sub-micron particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the first set of experiments, various building materials were placed in a 20 L stainless-steel chamber and exposed to ozone. The materials included expanded polystyrene, a natural rubber adhesive, cedar board, Japanese Cyprus board and silver fir board, as well as d-limonene, which is a known constituent of certain woods and cleaning products. The combination of ozone and either d-limonene, cedar board or cypress board produced sub-micron particles, with most of the increase occurring in the size range of 0.01- 0.5μm diameter. This was not observed for the other materials. In the case of cedar board, the consequence of ozone exposure over an extended time interval was monitored. As the exposure time elapsed, the concentration of sub-micron particles moderately decreased. In the second set of experiments, unwaxed or waxed plastic tiles were placed in the 20 L chamber and exposed to ozone. Sub-micron particles and organic compounds were measured during the course of the experiments. In the case of the waxed tile, the number of 0.01- 1.0μm size particles grew about 50×108particlesm-3; particle growth was significantly less for the un-waxed tile. For both the waxed and un-waxed tiles, the emission rates of heptane, nonane, nonanal, and decanal increased after ozone was added to the supply air. (However, it is not clear if some or all of this production was due to ozone reacting with the sorbent used for sampling or with compounds captured by the sorbent.) This study provides further evidence that ozone-initiated reactions with building materials can be a significant source of both sub-micron particles and secondary organic compounds in indoor environments.

  14. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-30

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada'' Revision 0

  15. Nation-Building: Tanzania and the World. Through African Eyes: Cultures in Change, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    The process of nation building in Tanzania is the topic of this book, the sixth in a series dealing with African culture and intended for secondary level students. Almost all of the selections in the book were written by Africans, and they come from a variety of sources including speeches, government documents, newspaper and magazine articles,…

  16. Constructing Wood Agricultural Buildings. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Paul; Carpenter, Bruce

    This 5-week unit on constructing wood agricultural buildings is designed for the junior or senior year of the regular agribusiness course of study or as part of the agricultural mechanics program. In outline form, the unit is divided into eight major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested…

  17. Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jianjun; Hong, Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng, Wei; Yang, Le; Im, Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-10-30

    Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

  18. A two-dimensional homospin Cu(II) ferrimagnet featuring S-shaped hexanuclear secondary building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zilu; Liu, Long; Wang, Yifei; Zou, Huahong; Zhang, Zhong; Liang, Fupei

    2014-06-14

    The decomposition of 2-(1-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl-imino)-1,2-diphenylethanone in the presence of copper acetate promoted the formation of a two-dimensional homospin Cu(II) ferrimagnet featuring S-shaped hexanuclear secondary building blocks and a new pentanodal topology. PMID:24676556

  19. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  20. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  1. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  2. MODELING THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE EMISSIONS ON ATMOSPHERIC OZONE AND SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS ACROSS THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the modeled effects of natural and anthropogenic chlorine emissions on the atmospheric concentrations of ozone and secondary organic aerosol across the United States. The model calculations include anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypo...

  3. The Theological Literacy, Beliefs, and Practices of Lay Administrators of Marianist-Sponsored Secondary Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 45 years, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of religious and priests working in Catholic schools in the United States. Currently, 96% of all elementary and secondary faculties are comprised of lay men and women (McDonald, 2010). This same phenomenon can be found in Marianist-sponsored secondary schools in the United…

  4. Assessment of Service Delivery in Guidance and Counselling Units in Selected Secondary Schools in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owino, Elizabeth Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the type of services delivered by the existing Guidance and Counselling units in secondary schools in Kenya based on a survey conducted in Eldoret Municipality in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design the target population being all secondary schools in the Municipality where a sample was…

  5. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol over the United States: Comparison of climatological simulations with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong; Henze, Daven K.; Seinfeld, John H.; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2007-03-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate change on regional air quality is central in future air quality planning. We report here on the use of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) III to drive the GEOS-CHEM global atmospheric chemical transport model to simulate climatological present-day aerosol levels over the United States. Evaluation of model predictions using surface measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network indicates that the GISS GCM III/GEOS-CHEM model is a suitable tool for simulating aerosols over the United States in the present climate. The model reproduces fairly well the concentrations of sulfate (mean bias of -0.36 μg m-3, normalized mean bias (NMB) of -25.9%), black carbon (-0.004 μg m-3, -1.9%), organic carbon that comprises primary and secondary components (-0.56 μg m-3, -34.2%), and PM2.5 (-0.87 μg m-3, -20.4%). Nitrate concentrations are overpredicted in the western United States (west of 95°W) with a NMB of +75.6% and underestimated in the eastern United States with a NMB of -54.4%. Special attention is paid to biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The highest predicted seasonal mean SOA concentrations of 1-2 μg m-3 and 0.5-1.5 μg m-3 are predicted over the northwestern and southeastern United States, respectively, in the months of June-July-August. Isoprene is predicted to contribute 49.5% of the biogenic SOA burden over the United States, with the rest explained by the oxidation of terpenes. Predicted biogenic SOA concentrations are in reasonable agreement with inferred SOA levels from IMPROVE measurements. On an annual basis, SOA is predicted to contribute 10-20% of PM2.5 mass in the southeastern United States, as high as 38% in the northwest and about 5-15% in other regions, indicating the important role of SOA in understanding air quality and visibility over the United States.

  6. A nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry study of dinoflagellate functional diversity in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R; Tonk, Linda; Dove, Sophie; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoppe, Peter; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Meibom, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional interactions between corals and symbiotic dinoflagellate algae lie at the heart of the structural foundation of coral reefs. Whilst the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium has attracted particular interest because of its contribution to the sensitivity of corals to environmental changes and bleaching (i.e. disruption of coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis), very little is known about the in hospite metabolic capabilities of different Symbiodinium types. Using a combination of stable isotopic labelling and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we investigated the ability of the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Isopora palifera, and Symbiodinium C or D types, to assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (via photosynthesis) and nitrogen (as ammonium). Our results indicate that Symbiodinium types from two clades naturally associated with I. palifera possess different metabolic capabilities. The Symbiodinium C type fixed and passed significantly more carbon and nitrogen to its coral host than the D type. This study provides further insights into the metabolic plasticity among different Symbiodinium types in hospite and strengthens the evidence that the more temperature-tolerant Symbiodinium D type may be less metabolically beneficial for its coral host under non-stressful conditions. PMID:24902979

  7. THE GREAT RECESSION AND RECENT EMPLOYMENT TRENDS AMONG SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession had substantial effects on the labor market in the United States, as elsewhere. To what extent did secondary students’ employment decline during this time? Which students are leaving the labor market? Are reductions in employment concentrated in particular jobs? To answer these questions, we use data from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing study of secondary students in the United States. More specifically, we examine recent trends in teenage employment using 6 cohorts each of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (from 2006 to 2011, spanning before, during and after the Great Recession). Results show a gradual decline in school year employment since 2006, including the years after the official end of the recession. Employment during the school year is especially low among 8th and 10th graders, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black youth, and students from disadvantaged backgrounds (based upon parental education), though the recent drop in work has varied little by population subgroups. The decline in employment is, however, concentrated among the oldest students, and working intensely (over 20 hours per week) has dropped more than working moderate hours. Students are more likely to babysit and do lawn work and less likely to hold jobs in office, clerical, and sales positions than in years past. These patterns and recent shifts in job type suggest some degree of job replacement by older workers. PMID:25642296

  8. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  9. 40 CFR 267.1105 - What do I do if my containment building contains areas both with and without secondary containment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... buildings § 267.1105 What do I do if my containment building contains areas both with and without secondary containment? For these containment buildings, you must: (a) Design and operate each area in accordance with... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do I do if my...

  10. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 24 CFR 983.56 - Cap on number of PBV units in each building.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cap on number of PBV units in each building. 983.56 Section 983.56 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  12. Evaluation of three common green building materials for ozone removal, and primary and secondary emissions of aldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Elliott; Darling, Erin; Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Morrison, Glenn C.; Corsi, Richard L.

    2013-10-01

    Ozone reactions that occur on material surfaces can lead to elevated concentrations of oxidized products in the occupied space of buildings. However, there is little information on the impact of materials at full scale, especially for green building materials. Experiments were completed in a 68 m3 climate-controlled test chamber with three certified green building materials that can cover large areas in buildings: (1) recycled carpet, (2) perlite-based ceiling tile and (3) low-VOC paint and primer on recycled drywall. Ozone deposition velocity and primary and secondary emission rates of C1 to C10 saturated carbonyls were determined for two chamber mixing conditions and three values of relative humidity. A direct comparison was made between ozone deposition velocities and carbonyl yields observed for the same materials analyzed in small (10 L) chambers. Total primary carbonyl emission rates from carpet, ceiling tile and painted drywall ranged from 27 to 120 μg m-2 h-1, 13 to 40 μg m-2 h-1, 3.9 to 42 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Ozone deposition velocity to these three materials averaged 6.1 m h-1, 2.3 m h-1 and 0.32 m h-1, respectively. Total secondary carbonyl emissions from these materials ranged from 70 to 276 μg m-2 h-1, 0 to 12 μg m-2 h-1, and 0 to 30 μg m-2 h-1, respectively. Carbonyl emissions were determined with a transient approximation, and were found to be in general agreement with those found in the literature. These results suggest that care should be taken when selecting green building materials due to potentially large differences in primary and secondary emissions.

  13. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, October 1992--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-02-24

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies. Summary of technical progress is presented for: Well drilling and completion; seismic data acquisition; and geologic and engineering interpretation.

  14. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. [Quarterly] report, February--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.; Hardage, B.

    1993-05-20

    The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management to obtain maximum oil recovery from the Sooner Unit field using water injection and gas recycling as secondary methods. The first phase of the project involves an integrated multi-discipline approach to identify optimum well sites and development of a reservoir operations plan. The second phase will involve drilling of up to three geologically targeted infill wells and establishing production/injection schedules. Reservoir simulation, transient well tests and careful production monitoring will be used to evaluate the results. The third phase will involve technology transfer through a series of technical papers and presentations of a short course. Emphasis will be on the economics of the project and the implemented technologies.

  15. Unit-cell intergrowth of pyrochlore and hexagonal tungsten bronze structures in secondary tungsten minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Grey, Ian E. . E-mail: ian.grey@csiro.au; Birch, William D.; Bougerol, Catherine

    2006-12-15

    Structural relations between secondary tungsten minerals with general composition A{sub x}[(W,Fe)(O,OH){sub 3}]{sub .y}H{sub 2}O are described. Phyllotungstite (A=predominantly Ca) is hexagonal, a=7.31(3)A, c=19.55(1)A, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc. Pittongite, a new secondary tungsten mineral from a wolframite deposit near Pittong in Victoria, southeastern Australia (A=predominantly Na) is hexagonal, a=7.286(1)A, c=50.49(1)A, space group P-6m2. The structures of both minerals can be described as unit-cell scale intergrowths of (111){sub py} pyrochlore slabs with pairs of hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) layers. In phyllotungstite, the (111){sub py} blocks have the same thickness, 6A, whereas pittongite contains pyrochlore blocks of two different thicknesses, 6 and 12A. The structures can alternatively be described in terms of chemical twinning of the pyrochlore structure on (111){sub py} oxygen planes. At the chemical twin planes, pairs of HTB layers are corner connected as in hexagonal WO{sub 3}.

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: building trades I and II. The eight units in building trades I are as follows: safety; measurement; tools, equipment, and hardware; building plans and blueprints; introduction to carpentry; introduction to plumbing; introduction to…

  17. Unspeciated Organic Emissions From Combustion Sources And Their Influence On The Secondary Organic Aerosol Budget In The United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S.; Gordon, T.; Hennigan, C. J.; Pye, H. O.; Donahue, N. M.; Adams, P. J.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Combustion sources are a major source of organic emissions and therefore a potentially important source for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Although speciated organic emissions from combustion sources are considered in models to form SOA, a large fraction of the organics are unspeciated. In this work, we analyze data from numerous smog chamber experiments, which photo-oxidized dilute emissions from different combustion sources (on-road gasoline vehicles, aircraft, on-road diesel vehicles, wood burning and open biomass burning), to determine the contribution that unspeciated emissions make to SOA formation. An SOA model based on speciated organics is able to explain, on average, 8-31% of the SOA measured in the experiments. We hypothesize that the remainder results from the gas-phase oxidation of unspeciated emissions, which account on average for 25-75% of the non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. Using the SOA data, we develop, for the first time, source-specific parameterizations to model SOA from unspeciated emissions; all sources seem to have median SOA yields similar to large n-alkanes (C12+). To assess the influence of unspeciated emissions on SOA formation regionally, we use the parameterization to predict SOA production in the United States. Using emissions data collected during the smog chamber experiments and data available in literature, we build a gross inventory for unspeciated emissions in the United States. We discover that unspeciated organics might be included in the current generation of SOA models but misallocated in terms of its SOA potential. The top six combustion sources (on- and off-road gasoline, on- and off-road diesel, open biomass and wood burning) emit 2.61 Tg yr-1 of unspeciated emissions (20% of US anthropogenic VOC emissions from combustion sources) and are estimated to form a minimum of 0.68 Tg yr-1 of SOA; the estimate is a third of the biogenic SOA produced in the US. We predict that accounting for

  18. Building Bridges: Effective Post-Secondary Transitions for Girls in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Transitions between education cycles represent one of the greatest hazards for girls in their educational journey throughout the developing world. It is not uncommon across sub-Saharan Africa for girls' secondary enrollment rates to drop 75% from primary enrollment rates. Between the secondary level and the tertiary level, enrollment rates often…

  19. Self-Assembly and Tissue Fusion of Toroid-Shaped Minimal Building Units

    PubMed Central

    Livoti, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    A significant challenge of tissue engineering is to build tissues whose size is not limited by diffusion. We are investigating the use of scaffold-free lumen containing toroid-shaped microtissues as minimal building units. Monodispersed H35 cells, a rat hepatocyte cell line, were seeded onto micromolded agarose, forming self-assembled multicellular toroids within 48 h. Toroid and lumen diameter were easily controlled by micromold design, and toroid thickness was controlled by seeding density. When harvested, toroids were stable, but underwent predictable changes over time with their lumens narrowing. When brought into contact, these building units fused in the x–y plane, forming a double-lumen structure, as well as the z plane, forming a tubular structure, which completed within 72 h. Large, multi-luminal structures were assembled by multidimensional fusion of many toroids. Toroid settling was not entirely random, with most toroids lying flat with their lumens oriented along the z axis. The rapid production of toroid building units of controlled dimension and lumen size that undergo predictable changes and that can be fused to form larger structures is a step closer to tissue engineering large porous three-dimensional tissues with high cell density. PMID:20109063

  20. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  1. TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1: Building units and crystal growth mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Colmont, Marie Terasaki, Osamu

    2007-03-15

    Surface fine structure and structural defects in the open framework material VSB-1 have been investigated by electron microscopy. Crystal growth phenomena are proposed by a building unit model: (i) a unit is formed by two building units; (ii) they are linked to form first channels; and (iii) the whole network is grown via a layer-by-layer growth mechanism. A planar defect was observed in high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image taken with the [0001] incidence, and diffuse streaks related to the presence of defects were observed in a series of electron diffraction (ED) patterns. The microstructure model derived from the defect structure gives information on crystal growth. These defects highlight an open site that could be the pillar of a new crystal growth process. The study of defects and crystal growth is important in understanding physical properties such as catalytic or magnetic properties, and in synthesising a new open framework structure. - Graphical abstract: TEM investigation of the microporous compound VSB-1 evidenced defects and information about building units and crystal growth. As usually observed for microporous materials, the crystal growth via a layer by layer mechanism.

  2. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    SciTech Connect

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured.

  3. Significant Contributions of Isoprene to Summertime Secondary Organic Aerosol in Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ying, Qi; Li, Jingyi; Kota, Sri Harsha

    2015-07-01

    A modified SAPRC-11 (S11) photochemical mechanism with more detailed treatment of isoprene oxidation chemistry and additional secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation through surface-controlled reactive uptake of dicarbonyls, isoprene epoxydiol and methacrylic acid epoxide was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to quantitatively determine contributions of isoprene to summertime ambient SOA concentrations in the eastern United States. The modified model utilizes a precursor-origin resolved approach to determine secondary glyoxal and methylglyoxal produced by oxidation of isoprene and other major volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Predicted OC concentrations show good agreement with field measurements without significant bias (MFB ∼ 0.07 and MFE ∼ 0.50), and predicted SOA reproduces observed day-to-day and diurnal variation of Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) determined by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) at two locations in Houston, Texas. On average, isoprene SOA accounts for 55.5% of total predicted near-surface SOA in the eastern U.S., followed by aromatic compounds (13.2%), sesquiterpenes (13.0%) and monoterpenes (10.9%). Aerosol surface uptake of isoprene-generated glyoxal, methylglyoxal and epoxydiol accounts for approximately 83% of total isoprene SOA or more than 45% of total SOA. A domain wide reduction of NOx emissions by 40% leads to a slight decrease of domain average SOA by 3.6% and isoprene SOA by approximately 2.6%. Although most of the isoprene SOA component concentrations are decreased, SOA from isoprene epoxydiol is increased by ∼16%. PMID:26029963

  4. Investigation of hydrogen-burn damage in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Eidem, G.R.

    1982-06-01

    About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 Loss-of-Coolant Accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2, a hydrogen deflagration of undetermined extent occurred inside the reactor building. Examinations of photographic evidence, available from the first fifteen entries into the reactor building, yielded preliminary data on the possible extent and range of hydrogen burn damage. These data, although sparse, contributed to development of a possible damage path and to an estimate of the extent of damage to susceptible reactor building items. Further information gathered from analysis of additional photographs and samples can provide the means for estimating hydrogen source and production rate data crucial to developing a complete understanding of the TMI-2 hydrogen deflagration. 34 figures.

  5. Profiles of Airborne Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Brian G.; Kirkland, Kimberly H.; Flanders, W. Dana; Morris, George K.

    2002-01-01

    We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable airborne fungal concentrations in indoor air were lower than those in outdoor air. The fungal levels were highest in the fall and summer and lowest in the winter and spring. Geographically, the highest fungal levels were found in the Southwest, Far West, and Southeast. The most common culturable airborne fungi, both indoors and outdoors and in all seasons and regions, were Cladosporium, Penicillium, nonsporulating fungi, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys chartarum was identified in the indoor air in 6% of the buildings studied and in the outdoor air of 1% of the buildings studied. This study provides industrial hygienists, allergists, and other public health practitioners with comparative information on common culturable airborne fungi in the United States. This is the largest study of airborne indoor and outdoor fungal species and concentrations conducted with a standardized protocol to date. PMID:11916692

  6. Expanding Options. A Model to Attract Secondary Students into Nontraditional Vocational Programs. For Emphasis in: Building Trades, Electronics, Health Services, Machine Shop, Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, James D.; DeVore, Mary Ann

    This model has been designed for use by Missouri secondary schools in attracting females and males into nontraditional occupational programs. The research-based strategies are intended for implementation in the following areas: attracting females into building trades, electronics, machine shop, and welding; and males into secondary health…

  7. Serving Students, Science, or Society? The Secondary School Physics Curriculum in the United States, 1930-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the reform of secondary school physics in the United States from the 1930s through the mid-1960s. Describes the impact of progressive education, World War II, and the post-Sputnik reforms. Points out differences between past reform efforts and the current Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (CFR)

  8. United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools 1995-96. The Annual Statistical Report on Schools, Enrollment, and Staffing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Frank X., Comp.; Milks, Mary Jo, Comp.

    Since 1969-70, the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) has published a statistical report on Catholic elementary and secondary schools in the United States. This report contains the core school enrollment and staffing data of the NCEA historical file for 1995-96. Data were collected on Title I services, extended-care programs, school…

  9. National Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. Jacobs and Kritsonis say the time is now for educators to be recognizant of…

  10. Strategies for Implementing Postmodern Thinking for Improving Secondary Education in Public Education in the United States of America: National Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss strategies for the secondary, public school educators to implement postmodern thinking in the United States of America. Postmodernism is a set of strategic practices that erase limits or norms to abide by placed upon people in society. The time is now for educators to be recognizant of these changes.…

  11. Secondary organic aerosol characterization at field sites across the United States during the spring-summer period

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sources of secondary organic carbon at 15 field sites across the United States (U.S.) during the years 2003-2010 have been examined. Filter samples have been taken for 24-h at a site in Research Triangle Park, NC; at SEARCH sites in southeastern U.S. during May and August 2005; ...

  12. A report of fluorosis in the United States secondary to drinking well water.

    PubMed

    Felsenfeld, A J; Roberts, M A

    A 54-year-old female resident of Wellston, Okla, was found to have osteosclerosis on a routine chest roentgenogram. Subsequent investigation disclosed the cause of her osteosclerosis to be fluorosis secondary to the ingestion of well water containing 429 mumol/L of fluoride (recommended levels, 11 to 58 mumol/L). Water samples were also obtained from the 12 wells on properties adjacent to the index case. In three other wells, all at similar depths as the well of the index case, the fluoride concentration of the water was greater than 212 mumol/L. Urine samples from members of the four households who obtain their drinking water from these wells contained elevated urinary fluoride levels. Thus, fluorosis may develop in certain areas of the United States as a result of the natural occurrence of fluoride in the groundwater. Consequently, in known endemic areas, it would appear reasonable to measure the fluoride concentration of the well water at the time of drilling. PMID:1985235

  13. Critical Care for Multiple Organ Failure Secondary to Ebola Virus Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Johnson, Daniel W.; Weinstein, Gary L.; Connor, Michael J.; Crozier, Ian; Liddell, Allison M.; Franch, Harold A.; Wall, Bruce R.; Kalil, Andre C.; Feldman, Mark; Lisco, Steven J.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This report describes three patients with Ebola virus disease who were treated in the United States and developed for severe critical illness and multiple organ failure secondary to Ebola virus infection. The patients received mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, invasive monitoring, vasopressor support, and investigational therapies for Ebola virus disease. Data Sources Patient medical records from three tertiary care centers (Emory University Hospital, University of Nebraska Medical Center, and Texas Health Presbyterian Dallas Hospital). Study Selection Not applicable. Data Extraction Not applicable. Data Synthesis Not applicable. Conclusion In the severe form, patients with Ebola virus disease may require life-sustaining therapy, including mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. In conjunction with other reported cases, this series suggests that respiratory and renal failure may occur in severe Ebola virus disease, especially in patients burdened with high viral loads. Ebola virus disease complicated by multiple organ failure can be survivable with the application of advanced life support measures. This collective, multicenter experience is presented with the hope that it may inform future treatment of patients with Ebola virus disease requiring critical care treatment. PMID:26196353

  14. Building Bridges between Primary and Secondary Science for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra; Davies, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the Improving Science Together (IST) project (2000-2002), funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. The project was a partnership between 20 primary and 4 secondary schools in Bristol and South Gloucestershire, LEA advisory staff, BAE Systems, and the primary science team at Bath Spa University…

  15. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Building Trades. (Program CIP: 46.0000 - Construction Trades, General)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernigan, Jarvis; Manning, Phillip; Matkins, Billy

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  16. Expanding Opportunities and Building Competencies for Young People: A New Agenda for Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra, Ernesto; Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to set forth policy options for supporting developing countries and transition economies in adapting their secondary education systems to demands arising from the successful expansion of primary education and the socioeconomic challenges presented by globalization and the knowledge-based economy. The report analyzes…

  17. Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-09-25

    The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

  18. Peace Education in Secondary Schools: A Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubogu, Rowell

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses Peace Education as Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria. This was prompted by the inherent incompatibility between the objectives of individuals, ethnic/social groups in Nigeria. The research question addresses Normative and Ethical issues regarding peace, the absence of violence/hostility and its…

  19. The Role of Theory Building in the Teaching of Secondary Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Herbst, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Although mathematical practice has traditionally valued two distinct kinds of mathematical work--referred to by Gowers (2000) as theory building and problem solving--activity in classrooms appears to be organized largely around the latter, rather than the former. This study takes up the question of whether there is a customary role for theory…

  20. Reading for Deep Understanding: Knowledge Building and Conceptual Artifacts in Secondary English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachowitz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this design-based experiment is two-fold: to see if classroom pedagogies can be developed to improve student achievement in English literature as well as prepare them for 21st Century literacies. Applying Bereiter and Scardamalia's theory of Knowledge Building to English curricula, this experiment tracked the progress of a…

  1. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  2. Halogen dependent symmetry change in two series of wheel cluster organic frameworks built from La18 tertiary building units.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2016-01-25

    Two series of wheel cluster organic frameworks (WCOFs) built from La18 tertiary building units are hydrothermally made, which show halogen-dependent structural symmetry, and demonstrate different chiral performances. PMID:26647832

  3. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  4. What is Matter? Teacher's Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  6. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  8. Competitive Foods and Beverages Available for Purchase in Secondary Schools--Selected Sites, United States, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, L.; Grunbaum, J.; McKenna, M. L.; Wechsler, H.; Galuska, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    School Health Profiles is conducted biennially to assess characteristics of school health programs. State and local departments of education and health select either all public secondary schools within their jurisdictions or a systematic, equal-probability sample of public secondary schools to participate in School Health Profiles. At each school,…

  9. Milestones in the Secondary English Curriculum in the United States. ICTE Occasional Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Lou Ann

    Written for students pursuing graduate study, this chronological table lists landmark publications in the secondary English curriculum occurring between 1893 and 1971. For each of the 27 milestones--e.g., "Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies" (1893), "Teaching Creative Writing" by Lawrence Conrad (1937), "The Uses of…

  10. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an

  11. Expanded Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks by SCSC: Organic Building Units Modifying and Enhanced Gas-Adsorption Properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weidong; Lin, Huan; Yuan, Xue; Dai, Fangna; Xiao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Liangliang; Luo, Liwen; Wang, Rongming

    2016-07-01

    Two amino-functional copper metal-organic frameworks of formula [Cu3(ATTCA)2(H2O)3]·2DMF·11H2O·12EtOH (1) (H3ATTCA = 2-amino-[1,1:3,1-terphenyl]-4,4,5-tricarboxylic acid, pyz = pyrazine, DMF = dimethylformamide) and [Cu3(ATTCA)2(pyz)(H2O)]·2DMF·12H2O·8EtOH (2) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, and powder X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both complexes 1 and 2 are built of the Cu2(COO)4 paddlewheel secondary building units with an fmj topology. Importantly, complex 1 can be transformed into complex 2 by the single-crystal to single-crystal transformation of which the coordinated water molecules are replaced with pyz molecules. However, the adsorption abilities of 2 are obviously lower than those of 1, as its pores are partially blocked by pyz molecules. Moreover, gas-adsorption analysis showed that the amino-functional 1 possesses higher gas-adsorption capacity than UMCM-151 for N2, H2, CH4, and C2H2, especially for CO2. PMID:27315443

  12. Evaluation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, D.; Adams, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    Decontamination activities from the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building are generating a variety of waste streams. Solid wastes being disposed of in commercial shallow land burial include trash and rubbish, ion-exchange resins (Epicor-II) and strippable coatings. The radwaste streams arising from cleanup activities currently under way are characterized and classified under the waste classification scheme of 10 CFR Part 61. It appears that much of the Epicor-II ion-exchange resin being disposed of in commerical land burial will be Class B and require stabilization if current radionuclide loading practices continue to be followed. Some of the trash and rubbish from the cleanup of the reactor building so far would be Class B. Strippable coatings being used at TMI-2 were tested for leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents, thermal stability, radiation stability, stability under immersion and biodegradability. Actual coating samples from reactor building decontamination testing were evaluated for radionuclide leaching and biodegradation.

  13. Prevalence of nutritional wasting in populations: building explanatory models using secondary data.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Isabel D.; Himes, John H.; de Onis, Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand how social context affects the nutritional status of populations, as reflected by the prevalence of wasting in children under 5 years of age from Africa, Latin America, and Asia; to present a systematic way of building models for wasting prevalence, using a conceptual framework for the determinants of malnutrition; and to examine the feasibility of using readily available data collected over time to build models of wasting prevalence in populations. METHODS: Associations between prevalence of wasting and environmental variables were examined in the three regions. General linear mixed models were fitted using anthropometric survey data for countries within each region. FINDINGS: Low birth weight (LBW), measles incidence, and access to a safe water supply explained 64% of wasting variability in Asia. In Latin America, LBW and survey year explained 38%; in Africa, LBW, survey year, and adult literacy explained 7%. CONCLUSION: LBW emerged as a predictor of wasting prevalence in all three regions. Actions regarding women's rights may have an effect on the nutritional status of children since LBW seems to reflect several aspects of the conditions of women in society. Databases have to be made compatible with each other to facilitate integrated analysis for nutritional research and policy decision-making. In addition, the validity of the variables representing the conceptual framework should be improved. PMID:12075364

  14. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  15. Secondary use of electronic health records for building cohort studies through top-down information extraction.

    PubMed

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan; Berghold, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Controlled clinical trials are usually supported with an in-front data aggregation system, which supports the storage of relevant information according to the trial context within a highly structured environment. In contrast to the documentation of clinical trials, daily routine documentation has many characteristics that influence data quality. One such characteristic is the use of non-standardized text, which is an indispensable part of information representation in clinical information systems. Based on a cohort study we highlight challenges for mining electronic health records targeting free text entry fields within semi-structured data sources. Our prototypical information extraction system achieved an F-measure of 0.91 (precision=0.90, recall=0.93) for the training set and an F-measure of 0.90 (precision=0.89, recall=0.92) for the test set. We analyze the obtained results in detail and highlight challenges and future directions for the secondary use of routine data in general. PMID:25451102

  16. Building an organized knowledge base: Concept mapping and achievement in secondary school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratius, William J.

    Direct teaching of problem-solving methods to high school physics students met with little success. Expert problem solving depended upon an organized knowledge base. Concept mapping was found to be a key to organizing an effective knowledge base. The investigation of the effect of the degree of concept mapping on achievement was the purpose of this study. Six intact high school physics classes, taught by this investigator, took part in the study. Two classes were control groups and received standard instruction. Four classes received six weeks of concept-mapping instruction prior to the unit under study. Two of these four classes were the low-level treatment group and were required to submit concept maps at the conclusion of the instruction. The other two classes were the high-level treatment group and were required to submit concept maps at the beginning and at the conclusion of the unit under study. One class from each treatment group took a pretest prior to instruction. An analysis of the posttest results revealed no pretest sensitization. A one-way analysis of covariance indicated a significant main effect for the treatment level at the p < 0.05 level. A pair of single-df comparisons of the adjusted treatment means resulted in significant differences (p < 0.05) between the control group and the average of the treatment means as well as between the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that for this sample (upper-middle-class high school physics students) mapping concepts prior to, during, and subsequent to instruction led to greater achievement as measured by posttest scores.

  17. Development of 20 IEER Rooftop Units System Modeling and Building Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith; Vineyard, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Based on detailed steady-state system and component modeling, we developed a rooftop unit system design, which is able to achieve IEER (Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio) higher than 20. We modeled fin-&-tube and micro-channel heat exchangers using segment-to-segment approach, and use AHRI 10-coefficient compressor map to simulate compressor performance. The system modeling is based on a component-based modeling approach, which facilitates flexible simulation of complicated system configurations. Starting with a baseline system having IEER of 16.6, we extensively investigated numerous technical options, i.e. varying compressor sizes, heat exchanger fin densities, fin-&-tube or micro-channel heat exchanger, suction line heat exchanger, desiccant wheel, tandem compressor, variable-speed compressor, and condenser evaporative pre-cooling; and developed an innovative system configuration combining a tandem compression system with a variable-speed compression system. The combined system can achieve high IEER as well as process the outdoor ventilation air over an extensive range. We successfully evaluated the design concept for a 20-ton (70.4 kW) unit as well as a 10-ton (35.2 kW) unit. All the selected components are readily accessible on the market, and we validated the performance predictions against existing Rooftop Unit (RTU) products at the rating condition. This paper illustrates a potentially cost-effective high IEER RTU design. In addtion, we conducted extensive building energy simulations using EnergyPlus to predict seasonal energy saving potentials and peak power reductions using the High IEER RTU in sixteen US cities, in comparison to a RTU with a minimum efficiency.

  18. Public Education in the United States. A Modularized Course. Elementary Education 3010. Secondary Education 3040.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Joyce V.; Mamola, Claire Z.

    This modularized, self-paced study program in Elementary and Secondary Education for K-12 majors is an evolving course of study designed for responsible students. The course is organized into six modules: Trends and Issues in Contemporary Education, Philosophical and Historical Foundations of Education, Administrative Structure and Financing of…

  19. Functions in Contemporary Secondary Mathematics Textbook Series in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks play a central role in US mathematics classrooms (Stein, Remillard, & Smith, 2007) and functions are a key topic in secondary mathematics (Carlson, Jacobs, Coe, Larsen, & Hsu, 2002). This study presents results from an analysis of this essential topic in the latest editions of three textbook series: the Glencoe Mathematics…

  20. A Comparison of Adolescent Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Grenada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Richard M.

    The effects of the recently expanded educational services in Grenada have not yet been determined. In 1984 a questionnaire was administered to 729 Grenadian secondary school students to compare their educational and vocational aspirations; attitudes toward family, school, work, and military experience; family backgrounds; subject preferences;…

  1. There's Madness in These Methods: Teaching Secondary Methods Students to Develop Interdisciplinary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Dorie; White, Rodney

    2000-01-01

    Discusses interdisciplinary instruction at the high school level, examines the imperatives of statewide reform in Kentucky, and outlines how and when interdisciplinary instruction improves learning. Describes an interdisciplinary learning project taught in secondary methods classes at Eastern Kentucky University in which students experience…

  2. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL IN THE UNITED STATES USING MODELS AND MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, three diagnostic evaluation methods of model performance for carbonaceous aerosol are reviewed. The EC-tracer method is used to distinguish primary and secondary carbon, radiocarbon data are used to distinguish fossil-fuel and contemporary carbon, and organ...

  3. A Job Satisfaction Profile of the Female Secondary School Principal in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fansher, Ted A.; Buxton, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Researchers studied 266 women in secondary school principalships to learn more about female principals. Some findings include overall level of job satisfaction is high, most are 40-60 years of age, many were vice-principals first, their school faculties have more women, and myths and discrimination about women still abound. (MD)

  4. Saturn V Instrument Unit for the Apollo 4 Mission in the Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly operation of the Saturn V launch vehicle for the Apollo 4 (SA 501) mission. The instrument unit (IU) was mated atop the S-IC/S-II assembly in the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay at the Kennedy Space Center. The Apollo 4 mission was the first launch of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Objectives of the unmanned Apollo 4 test flight were to obtain flight information on launch vehicle and spacecraft structural integrity and compatibility, flight loads, stage separation, and subsystems operation including testing of restart of the S-IVB stage, and to evaluate the Apollo command module heat shield. The Apollo 4 was launched on November 9, 1967 from KSC.

  5. Saturn V Instrument Unit for the Apollo 4 Mission in the Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly operation of the Saturn V launch vehicle for the Apollo 4 (SA 501) mission. The instrument unit (IU) was hoisted to be mated to the S-IC/S-II assembly in the Vehicle Assembly Building high bay at the Kennedy Space Center. The Apollo 4 mission was the first launch of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Objectives of the unmanned Apollo 4 test flight were to obtain flight information on launch vehicle and spacecraft structural integrity and compatibility, flight loads, stage separation, and subsystems operation including testing of restart of the S-IVB stage, and to evaluate the Apollo command module heat shield. The Apollo 4 was launched on November 9, 1967 from KSC.

  6. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast...-key selection procedures to enter into fixed-price design-build contracts in accordance with 14...

  7. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast...-key selection procedures to enter into fixed-price design-build contracts in accordance with 14...

  8. Japan Meets the West: A Case Study of Perceptions. A Secondary Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for grades 9-12, includes a teacher's guide and 30 accompanying slides. Teachers don't need special knowledge of Japanese history; sufficient background information is provided. The activities can be adapted for other grade levels. The unit is intended for five class periods of 50-minutes each with supplementary activities to…

  9. Novel building units with bimetallic rings in inorganic/organic hybrid chains and layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mahenthirarajah, Thushitha; Li Yang; Lightfoot, Philip

    2009-11-15

    Hydrothermal synthesis has produced three new compounds constructed from novel building units containing vanadium-oxide (or oxyfluoride) subunits linked together via covalently bound cationic copper complexes. Each new compound exhibits novel structural features: [Cu(dipa)][VOF{sub 4}] (1) incorporates a corner-sharing octahedral vanadium(IV) oxyfluoride chain decorated by copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes which form intra-chain bridges. Within a similar reactant system [Cu(dipa)]{sub 2}[V{sub 6}O{sub 17}] (2) is produced, the structure of which exhibits edge-sharing trigonal bipyramidal vanadium(V) 'ladder-like' double chains which are bridged into layers by tetrahedral pyrovanadate dimers together with the copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes. [Cu(py){sub 4}]{sub 2}[V{sub 4}O{sub 12}] (3), is a 2-D structure featuring exclusively tetrahedral vanadium(V) in four-membered ring building blocks, linked through octahedral copper-pyridine complexes to form two crystallographically different bimetallic layers. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis is used to prepare hybrid mixed metal oxides and oxyfluorides with novel extended connectivities

  10. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-09-30

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or “clean,” building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, “Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201”) was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room

  11. To designate the Federal building and United States courthouse located at 300 Fayetteville Street in Raleigh, North Carolina, as the "Jesse Helms Federal Building and United States Courthouse".

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ellmers, Renee L. [R-NC-2

    2012-11-27

    11/28/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Combination of an electrolytic pretreatment unit with secondary water reclamation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Bonura, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a flight concept prototype electrolytic pretreatment unit (EPU) and of a contractor-furnished air evaporation unit (AEU) are described. The integrated EPU and AEU potable water recovery system is referred to as the Electrovap and is capable of processing the urine and flush water of a six-man crew. Results of a five-day performance verification test of the Electrovap system are presented and plans are included for the extended testing of the Electrovap to produce data applicable to the combination of electrolytic pretreatment with most final potable water recovery systems. Plans are also presented for a program to define the design requirements for combining the electrolytic pretreatment unit with a reverse osmosis final processing unit.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-03-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  14. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.

    PubMed

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. PMID:23102641

  15. Delivery of the Second Generation VLT Secondary Mirror (M2) Unit to ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, R.; Vernet, E.; Madec, P.-Y.; Lizon, J.-L.; Duhoux, P.; Conzelmann, R.; Hubin, N.; Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Pescoller, D.; Mair, C.; Picin, F.; Gallieni, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Fumi, L.; Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Poutriquet, F.; Ruch, E.; Rinchet, A.; Carré, J.-F.; Fappani, D.

    2013-03-01

    The deformable secondary mirror (DSM), one of the key systems of the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF), has been delivered to ESO. It has been fully qualified in standalone mode and has successfully passed the technical acceptance Europe. Recently it was installed on ASSIST, the test bench for the AOF, and will undergo optical tests, which will complete its preliminary acceptance in Europe. With its 1170 actuators and 1.1-metre thin-shell mirror, it constitutes the largest adaptive optics mirror ever produced. The DSM constitutes a fine accomplishment by European industry and is set to become the "flagship" of the AOF on Paranal.

  16. Inconsistencies among secondary sources of Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar) introductions to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cropper, Wendell P.; Broz, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    The propagule pressure hypothesis asserts that the number of individuals released is the key determinant of whether an introduction will succeed or not. It remains to be shown whether propagule pressure is more important than either species-level or site-level factors in determining the fate of an introduction. Studies claiming to show that propagule pressure is the primary determinant of introduction success must assume that the historical record as reported by secondary sources is complete and accurate. Here, examine a widely introduced game bird, the Chukar (Alectoris chukar), to the USA. We compare the records reported by two secondary sources (Long, 1981; Lever, 1987) to those in a primary source (Christensen, 1970) and to a recent study by Sol et al. (2012). Numerous inconsistencies exist in the records reported by Sol et al. (2012), Long (1981) and Lever (1987) when compared to the primary record of Christensen (1970). As reported by Christensen (1970), very large numbers of Chukars were released unsuccessfully in some states. Our results strongly imply that factors other than sheer numbers are more important. Site-to-site differences are the most likely explanation for the variation in success. PMID:26644981

  17. The Impact of Accountability on Student Performance in a Secondary Physical Education Badminton Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Jacalyn; Shanklin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of accountability on the quality of student motor responses during a 10-day badminton unit with female high school students enrolled in a required physical education class. Students in the control class participated in the same learning activities taught by the same teacher as the treatment…

  18. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner Unit. Annual report, October 1992--May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.; Junkin, J.; Pritchett, R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the effectiveness of a multi-diciplinary approach to targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management. The first phase involves geophysical, geological, and engineering data acquisition and analysis to identify optimum well sites and to develop a reservoir operations plan. This report summarizes activities concerned with phase I of the Sooner Unit Project.

  19. Factor Label Method of Units Analysis: A Learning Package for Secondary Mathematics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoile, Margaret Ann

    In an attempt to prepare students for units analysis in the solution of problems in high school chemistry and physics, the author developed learning packets on the factor label method. Thirty-three students used these packets individually during a regular tenth-grade geometry class. There were two packets, each to be used for two days. Prior to…

  20. United States History in the Secondary School. Comparative Ways of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. No longer can we remain in isolation. It has become necessary to cope with revolutionary forces at work at home as well as abroad in man's struggle for independence, to understand the common elements of states whether they be free or under the reigns of a dictatorship, and to determine the…

  1. Teaching and Learning about the United States Constitution in American Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontz, Thomas S.

    This master's thesis synthesizes literature on the teaching of the United States Constitution, analyzes the Supreme Court case of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens, 1990, and provides lesson plans for teaching the constitutional significance of this case. The thesis argues that because of the poor quality of textbooks and the inadequate…

  2. Advanced secondary recovery project for the Sooner D Sand Unit, Weld County, Colorado: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this project was to increase production at the Sooner D Sand Unit through geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management of waterflood operations. The Sooner D Sand Unit demonstration project should be an example for other operators to follow for reservoir characterization and exploitation methodologies to increase production by waterflood from the Cretaceous D Sandstone in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. This project involved multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization using high-density 3D seismic, detailed stratigraphy and reservoir simulation studies. Infill drilling, water-injection conversion and re-completing some wells to add short-radius laterals were based on the results of the reservoir characterization studies. Production response were evaluated using reservoir simulation and production tests. Technology transfer utilized workshops, presentations and technical papers which emphasized the economic advantages of implementing the demonstrated technologies.

  3. Alcohol-soluble bis(tpy)thiophenes: new building units for constitutional dynamic conjugated polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Štenclová-Bláhová, Pavla; Svoboda, Jan; Šloufová, Ivana; Vohlídal, Jiří

    2015-05-28

    New building units (unimers) for metallo-supramolecular polymers 2,5-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-4'-yl)thiophene, M, and 5,5'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-4'-yl)(2,2'-bithiophene), B, with ionic groups attached to thiophene rings are prepared by the modification of corresponding bromo-precursors and assembled with Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) ions into alcohol-soluble conjugated constitutional-dynamic polyelectrolytes (polyelectrolyte dynamers). Ionization of side groups only slightly affects the absorption spectra of unimers as well as dynamers but dramatically changes their solubility. Cyclic conformations of unimer molecules resulting from intramolecular interactions between tpy end-groups and cationic or polar (-CH2Br) side groups are proposed to explain the spectral conformity of the M- and B-type unimers and their dynamers and also inhibition of the ionization reaction with tpy end-groups. The absorption spectra and excitation profiles of Raman spectra show that mainly the red arm of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band of Fe-dynamers is significantly contributed with transitions involving thiophene rings. The constitutional dynamics of Zn-dynamers is fast while that of Fe-dynamers is so slow that it allows effective separation of the dynamer to fractions in SEC columns. Electronic spectra and viscosity measurements proved that excess of Fe(2+) ions results in shortening of the dynamer chains and their end-capping by these ions. PMID:25941777

  4. 3D Sensing Algorithms Towards Building an Intelligent Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Lea, Colin; Facker, James; Hager, Gregory; Taylor, Russell; Saria, Suchi

    2013-01-01

    Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are chaotic places where hundreds of tasks are carried out by many different people. Timely and coordinated execution of these tasks are directly related to quality of patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the current care process can aid in improving quality. Our goal is to build towards a system that automatically catalogs various tasks being performed by the bedside. We propose a set of techniques using computer vision and machine learning to develop a system that passively senses the environment and identifies seven common actions such as documenting, checking up on a patient, and performing a procedure. Preliminary evaluation of our system on 5.5 hours of data from the Pediatric ICU obtains overall task recognition accuracy of 70%. Furthermore, we show how it can be used to summarize and visualize tasks. Our system provides a significant departure from current approaches used for quality improvement. With further improvement, we think that such a system could realistically be deployed in the ICU. PMID:24303253

  5. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Dickens, Ricky; Houts, Michael; Pearson, Boise; Webster, Kenny; Gibson, Marc; Qualls, Lou; Poston, Dave; Werner, Jim; Radel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Systems Team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and Mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program, which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter for tests at MSFC. When tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumentation (temperature, pressure, flow) for data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  6. Design and Build of Reactor Simulator for Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstrator Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, T.; Dickens, R.; Houts, M.; Pearson, B.; Webster, K.; Gibson, M.; Qualls, L.; Poston, D.; Werner, J.; Radel, R.

    The Nuclear Systems Team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focuses on technology development for state of the art capability in non-nuclear testing of nuclear system and Space Nuclear Power for fission reactor systems for lunar and mars surface power generation as well as radioisotope power systems for both spacecraft and surface applications. Currently being designed and developed is a reactor simulator (RxSim) for incorporation into the Technology Demonstrator Unit (TDU) for the Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) Program which is supported by multiple national laboratories and NASA centers. The ultimate purpose of the RxSim is to provide heated NaK to a pair of Stirling engines in the TDU. The RxSim includes many different systems, components, and instrumentation that have been developed at MSFC while working with pumped NaK systems and in partnership with the national laboratories and NASA centers. The main components of the RxSim are a core, a pump, a heat exchanger (to mimic the thermal load of the Stirling engines), and a flow meter when being tested at MSFC. When tested at GRC the heat exchanger will be replaced with a Stirling power conversion engine. Additional components include storage reservoirs, expansion volumes, overflow catch tanks, safety and support hardware, instrumenta- tion (temperature, pressure, flow) data collection, and power supplies. This paper will discuss the design and current build status of the RxSim for delivery to GRC in early 2012.

  7. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

  8. Local source impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exhibits heterogeneity in composition across urban areas, leading to poor representation of outdoor air pollutants in human exposure assessments. To examine heterogeneity in PM composition and sources across an urban area, fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5) were chemically profiled in Iowa City, IA from 25 August to 10 November 2011 at two monitoring stations. The urban site is the federal reference monitoring (FRM) station in the city center and the peri-urban site is located 8.0 km to the west on the city edge. Measurements of PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol, inorganic ions, molecular markers for primary sources, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers were used to assess statistical differences in composition and sources across the two sites. PM2.5 mass ranged from 3 to 26 μg m-3 during this period, averaging 11.2 ± 4.9 μg m-3 (n = 71). Major components of PM2.5 at the urban site included organic carbon (OC; 22%), ammonium (14%), sulfate (13%), nitrate (7%), calcium (2.9%), and elemental carbon (EC; 2.2%). Periods of elevated PM were driven by increases in ammonium, sulfate, and SOA tracers that coincided with hot and dry conditions and southerly winds. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling was used to apportion OC to primary sources; biomass burning, vegetative detritus, diesel engines, and gasoline engines accounted for 28% of OC at the urban site and 24% of OC at the peri-urban site. Secondary organic carbon from isoprene and monoterpene SOA accounted for an additional 13% and 6% of OC at the urban and peri-urban sites, respectively. Differences in biogenic SOA across the two sites were associated with enhanced combustion activities in the urban area and higher aerosol acidity at the urban site. Major PM constituents (e.g., OC, ammonium, sulfate) were generally well-represented by a single monitoring station, indicating a regional source influence. Meanwhile, nitrate, biomass burning, food cooking, suspended dust, and

  9. Assessing awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry among secondary mathematics teachers in the United States and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suanrong

    Fractal geometry has gained great attention from mathematicians and scientists in the past three decades (Fraboni & Moller, 2008). As a new geometry language and subject, fractal geometry has significant value in teaching and learning secondary mathematics. The present study focused on investigating the current state of mathematics teachers' awareness, interest, and knowledge of fractal geometry in the United States (U.S.) and China, as well as the factors that influence them. The instrument of the study included a survey and a test designed by the researcher and validated by five experts. The results of the study indicated that secondary math teachers in the U.S. and China had very low levels of awareness of fractals and lack the knowledge and skills of solving fractal problems, but they had a higher level of interest in fractals related to classroom teaching and professional development as compared with their levels of awareness. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the factor 'experience of learning fractals' had the most positive effect on the average score of awareness. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most positive effect on the average score of interest. The factor nationality (U.S.) had the most negative effect on the average score of knowledge.

  10. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  11. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036.104-90... 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  12. The role of polar, lamdba (Λ)-shaped building units in noncentrosymmetric inorganic structures.

    PubMed

    Donakowski, Martin D; Gautier, Romain; Yeon, Jeongho; Moore, Donald T; Nino, Juan C; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2012-05-01

    A methodology for the design of polar, inorganic structures is demonstrated here with the packing of lambda (Λ)-shaped basic building units (BBUs). Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) solids with interesting physical properties can be created with BBUs that lack an inversion center and are likely to pack into a polar configuration; previous methods to construct these solids have used NCS octahedra as BBUs. Using this methodology to synthesize NCS solids, one must increase the coordination of the NCS octahedra with maintenance of the noncentrosymmetry of the bulk. The first step in this progression from an NCS octahedron to an inorganic NCS solid is the formation of a bimetallic BBU. This step is exemplified with the compound CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7): this compound, presented here, crystallizes in an NCS structure with ordered, isolated [Cu(H(2)O)(5)](2+) cations and [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) anions into Λ-shaped, bimetallic BBUs to form CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(6)·H(2)O, owing to the Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu(2+). Conversely, the centrosymmetric heterotypes with the same formula MVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) (M(II) = Co, Ni, and Zn) exhibit ordered, isolated [VOF(4)(H(2)O)](2-) and [M(H(2)O)(6)](2+) ionic species in a hydrogen bond network. CuVOF(4)(H(2)O)(7) exhibits a net polar moment while the heterotypes do not; this demonstrates that Λ-shaped BBUs give a greater probability for and, in this case, lead to NCS structures. PMID:22335338

  13. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jathar, Shantanu H.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Pouliot, George; Adams, Peter J.; Donahue, Neil M.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and biomass burning. About 10–20% of NMOG emissions from these major combustion sources are not routinely speciated and therefore are currently misclassified in emission inventories and chemical transport models. The smog chamber data demonstrate that this misclassification biases model predictions of SOA production low because the unspeciated NMOG produce more SOA per unit mass than the speciated NMOG. We present new source-specific SOA yield parameterizations for these unspeciated emissions. These parameterizations and associated source profiles are designed for implementation in chemical transport models. Box model calculations using these new parameterizations predict that NMOG emissions from the top six combustion sources form 0.7 Tg y−1 of first-generation SOA in the United States, almost 90% of which is from biomass burning and gasoline vehicles. About 85% of this SOA comes from unspeciated NMOG, demonstrating that chemical transport models need improved treatment of combustion emissions to accurately predict ambient SOA concentrations. PMID:25002466

  14. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Gordon, Timothy D; Hennigan, Christopher J; Pye, Havala O T; Pouliot, George; Adams, Peter J; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

    2014-07-22

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, and biomass burning. About 10-20% of NMOG emissions from these major combustion sources are not routinely speciated and therefore are currently misclassified in emission inventories and chemical transport models. The smog chamber data demonstrate that this misclassification biases model predictions of SOA production low because the unspeciated NMOG produce more SOA per unit mass than the speciated NMOG. We present new source-specific SOA yield parameterizations for these unspeciated emissions. These parameterizations and associated source profiles are designed for implementation in chemical transport models. Box model calculations using these new parameterizations predict that NMOG emissions from the top six combustion sources form 0.7 Tg y(-1) of first-generation SOA in the United States, almost 90% of which is from biomass burning and gasoline vehicles. About 85% of this SOA comes from unspeciated NMOG, demonstrating that chemical transport models need improved treatment of combustion emissions to accurately predict ambient SOA concentrations. PMID:25002466

  15. Constructions of two polycatenanes and one polypseudo-rotaxane by discrete tetrahedral cages and stool-like building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Ju, Ping; Meng, Xian-Rui; Kuang, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2012-09-01

    Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols.

  16. CHSalign: A Web Server That Builds upon Junction-Explorer and RNAJAG for Pairwise Alignment of RNA Secondary Structures with Coaxial Helical Stacking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Laing, Christian; Wang, Jason T. L.; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    RNA junctions are important structural elements of RNA molecules. They are formed when three or more helices come together in three-dimensional space. Recent studies have focused on the annotation and prediction of coaxial helical stacking (CHS) motifs within junctions. Here we exploit such predictions to develop an efficient alignment tool to handle RNA secondary structures with CHS motifs. Specifically, we build upon our Junction-Explorer software for predicting coaxial stacking and RNAJAG for modelling junction topologies as tree graphs to incorporate constrained tree matching and dynamic programming algorithms into a new method, called CHSalign, for aligning the secondary structures of RNA molecules containing CHS motifs. Thus, CHSalign is intended to be an efficient alignment tool for RNAs containing similar junctions. Experimental results based on thousands of alignments demonstrate that CHSalign can align two RNA secondary structures containing CHS motifs more accurately than other RNA secondary structure alignment tools. CHSalign yields a high score when aligning two RNA secondary structures with similar CHS motifs or helical arrangement patterns, and a low score otherwise. This new method has been implemented in a web server, and the program is also made freely available, at http://bioinformatics.njit.edu/CHSalign/. PMID:26789998

  17. A structure-directing method to prepare semiconductive zeolitic cluster-organic frameworks with Cu3I4 building units.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yao; Fang, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-28

    Two semiconductive cluster-organic frameworks based on Cu4I4 and Cu3I4 building units were obtained by the use of different organic structure-directing agents; the latter Cu3I4 nodes are tetrahedrally connected through 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) linkers and Cu-I bridges, giving rise to a zeolitic framework with SOD topology. PMID:25940240

  18. Anderson-like alkoxo-polyoxovanadate clusters serving as unprecedented second building units to construct metal-organic polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Teng; Wang, Xin-Long; Li, Shuang-Bao; Gong, Ya-Ru; Song, Bai-Qiao; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Su, Zhong-Min

    2016-08-11

    Unprecedented Anderson-like alkoxo-polyoxovanadate [V6O6(OCH3)9(μ6-SO4)(COO)3](2-) polyanions can serve as 3-connected second building units (SBUs) that assemble with dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate ligands to form a new family of metal organic tetrahedrons of V4E6 and V4F4 type (V = vertex, E = edge, and F = face). To our knowledge, this alkoxo-polyoxovanadate-based SBU is the first ever reported. PMID:27363544

  19. Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C. ); Abel, F.H. ); Nicholls, A.K. ); Millhone, J.P. . Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

  20. Impact of 2003 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2002-07-08

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs for improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, this report uses the ImBuild II model to assess the future economic impacts of Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) FY 2003 portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The energy savings expected to be created by market penetration of the BTS programs have the potential of creating nearly 270,000 jobs and about $3.41 billion in wage income(1999$) by the year 2030.

  1. Aerosol Precursor Emissions, Secondary Aerosol Production, and Climate-Forcing Gas Exchange in the Midwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doskey, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol precursors in the Midwest are generated from a myriad of sources including biogenic emissions of terpenes from the Ozarks region, anthropogenic emissions of volatile and semivolatile aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from the St. Louis airshed, and agricultural emissions of ammonia (NH3), amines, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from animal husbandry and cropping systems of the Midwest Corn Belt. The deciduous and coniferous forests of the Ozarks region are significant sources of isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes that are sensitive to rising CO2 levels and temperature and generate light-scattering, secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Application of nitrogen fertilizers stimulates emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural soils and crops. Nitric acid, generated through photooxidation of NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion in urban air and from soil emissions in agroecosystems, reacts rapidly with NH3 to generate light-scattering, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA). The atmospheric lifetime of N2O is about 120 years, making the substance a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 290 for a time horizon of 20 years relative to CO2. Emissions of CO2, N2O, and SIA precursors from the Midwest Corn Belt and surrounding areas are likely to increase in the near future as pastureland and prairie is converted to grow corn and other biofuel crops to meet the demand for renewable fuels. Several large river systems transport nutrients from fertilized fields of the Midwest agroecosystem to the Gulf of Mexico where plankton growth is accelerated. Microbial decomposition of plankton detritus consumes oxygen and creates a hypoxic zone, which might be a significant source of N2O.The presentation will discuss gaps in our knowledge of the production of climate-forcing species in the Midwestern United States.

  2. Analysis of theoretical and real values of heat consumption in units of the apartment building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavloková, Petra; Richter, Aleš; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is focused on heat consumption in the apartment building and the factors affecting it. The apartment building has three entrances and four over ground floors and one underground floor. In the entire apartment building there are 24 flats, which they are identical (kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom). In flats on radiators were installed the ratio heat meters according to Act 318/2012 Coll. by the Metrology Act. The ratio heat meters are used for fair billing of the heat costs for all owners. Continuous monitoring of the actual heat consumption in the flats were collected data of the real heat consumption. The theoretical values of heat consumption were counted in software ENERGIE. The apartment building is divided into24 flats and the calculation was made for each of them. The theoretical and real heat consumption was compared.

  3. Impact of building technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Elliott, D.B.; Schultz, R.W.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. This assessment is being done for the first time in FY99 as a supplement to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA--formerly, Quality Metrics) estimates of primary energy savings and environmental and direct financial benefits of the BTS programs. The programmatic needs of BTS suggest that a simple, flexible, user-friendly method is needed to derive national employment and income impacts of individual BTS programs. Therefore, BTS funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a special-purpose version of the Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) national input-output model (Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. 1997) specifically to estimate the employment and income effects of building energy technologies. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. Extensive documentation and a user`s guide are provided in Scott et al. (1998). Compared with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as the published multipliers from the Department of Commerce Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS 2), ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. In this report, the authors use the ImBuild model to calculate the impact of all 32 BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997.

  4. Putting "Energy" in Your Course: 1978. A Collection of Energy Teaching Units Designed by the Participants of the Energy Institute for Secondary Science and Social Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Harold E., Ed.

    This collection of energy teaching units is the contribution of participants in a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored institute for secondary science and social studies teachers. The objectives of the Institute were to: (1) provide an overview of past, present, and future energy problems, and (2) stimulate teachers to use this information in their…

  5. Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1934-1936. Bulletin, 1937, No. 2. Volume I. Chapter II: Trends in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessen, Carl A.

    1937-01-01

    Education in the United States faces important problems in the large and increasing enrollments in secondary schools, in the wide variety of interests and the extensive range of capacities represented in the pupils coming to these schools, and in the peculiar needs by pupils of early adolescent age for advice and guidance on social, moral,…

  6. Post-Secondary Education Attainment in Canada and the United States in the 1990s. Technical Paper Series. T-02-2E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlby, Jeffrey W.

    2002-01-01

    With the North American Free Trade Agreement and today's knowledge-based economy, there is a premium placed on post-secondary education and the need to retain graduates in Canada. The share of graduates in the Canadian and the United States labour pools are key to competitiveness. This paper examines Canada's performance relative to the U.S. in…

  7. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2008-09. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-301

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Plotts, Chris; Mitchell, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  8. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  9. Building a Unit Assessment System: Creating Quality Evaluation of Candidate Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Pamela A.; Wigle, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the expectations of NCATE's Standard 2, a unit must create quality evaluations of candidate performance. In order to accomplish this goal, a unit must incorporate the principles of performance-based teacher education (PBTE) and the use of authentic assessments into its assessment system. The purpose of this paper will be to…

  10. The United Nations at Work: The Challenge of Building Global Peace [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tim; Edwards, Amy N.; Larbalestier, Tiffany Farrell

    This booklet for juvenile readers describes the creation, structure, and activities of the United Nations. The book also examines how the role of the United Nations has changed since the end of the Cold War, citing specific UN actions and the issues surrounding difficult and expensive operations. The booklet provides an overview of ideas about how…

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  12. "Boss of the United States" Kindergarteners' Concept of Voting: Five Scaffolded Lessons that Build Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulrey, Betty C.; Ackerman, Ann T.; Howson, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In any U.S. presidential election year, classroom teachers integrate lessons into their curriculum that help students understand their privileges, responsibilities, and rights as good citizens. Teaching about the electoral process and voting in primary classrooms is one way to build a foundation that promotes civic engagement. In this article, the…

  13. The Design of Industrial Arts Workshops for Secondary General Schools in the Asian Region. School Building Digest 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, D. J.

    The curricula of industrial arts courses in the Asian Region are changing to a more general approach to arouse interest in, and simple understanding of, industry and industrial processes. Spaces for industrial arts should be less tightly tailored to the needs of specific subject fields than was the case in the past. In secondary general schools,…

  14. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

    2009-08-31

    Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and

  15. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Wage Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1999$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  16. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  17. Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

  18. Building a Better Halide Receptor: Optimum Choice of Spacer, Binding Unit, and Halosubstitution.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Binod; Scheiner, Steve

    2016-03-16

    Quantum calculations are used to measure the binding of halides to a number of bipodal dicationic receptors, constructed as a pair of binding units separated by a spacer group. A number of variations are studied. A H atom on each binding unit (imidazolium or triazolium) is replaced by Br or I. Benzene, thiophene, carbazole, and dimethylnaphthalene are considered as spacer groups. Each receptor is paired with halides F(-) , Cl(-) , Br(-) , and I(-) . Substitution with I on the binding unit yields a large enhancement of binding, as much as 13 orders of magnitude; a much smaller increase occurs for substitution with Br. Imidazolium is a more effective binding agent than is triazolium. Benzene and dimethylnaphthalene represent the best spacers, followed by thiophene and carbazole. F(-) binds much more strongly than do the other halides, which obey the order Cl(-) >Br(-) >I(-) . PMID:26676206

  19. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  20. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  1. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  2. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  4. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  6. Forces. 'O' Level Study Guide. Unit 1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udwin, Martin

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a five-part unit…

  7. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  8. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  9. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  10. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  12. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  13. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  14. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  15. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  16. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  19. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  20. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  1. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  5. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  6. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity.

  7. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciTech Connect

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis Caullet, Philippe; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Ersen, Ovidiu; Bats, Nicolas

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.

  8. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  9. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  10. United We Learn: Team Effort Builds a Path to Equity and Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kind, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a plan to create a united approach to improve high quality instruction in Robbinsdale Cooper High School in New Hope, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Professional learning communities were in their infancy, conversations around data were about autopsies of annual standardized tests, and there was no description of what…