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1

Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

Otto, Neil C. (Chicago, IL); Warner, Barry T. (South Holland, IL); Smaga, John A. (Lemont, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

1983-01-01

2

Method of forming components for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A method of forming a component for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell having a positive electrode including a sulfide selected from the group consisting of iron sulfides, nickel sulfides, copper sulfides and cobalt sulfides, a negative electrode including an alloy of aluminum and an electrically insulating porous separator between said electrodes. The improvement comprises forming a slurry of solid particles dispersed in a liquid electrolyte such as the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutetic, casting the slurry into a form having the shape of one of the components and smoothing the exposed surface of the slurry, cooling the cast slurry to form the solid component, and removing same. Electrodes and separators can be thus formed.

Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

1983-01-01

3

Electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, C.A.

1991-04-23

4

Electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1994-08-23

5

Separators for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Preferably, the inorganic oxide comprises an hydrated aluminum oxide of the formula Al.sub.2O.sub.3.xH.sub.2O, wherein x is less than 1.0, and wherein the hydrated aluminum oxide comprises organic substituents, preferably comprising a reaction product of a multifunctional monomer and/or organic carbonate with an aluminum oxide, such as pseudo-boehmite and an aluminum oxide. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley

2014-11-11

6

Nonaqueous electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A nonaqueous electrochemical cell is described, comprising in operative relationship; a. a cathode current collector: b. an ionically conductive, liquid cathode-electrolyte solution; and c. a active metal anode, the anode having on its surface which contacts the cathode-electrolyte a polyether film.

Howard, W.G.; Berberick, D.R.

1986-08-26

7

Electrochemical storage cell  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical storage cell of the alkali metal-and-chalcogen type is described. The cell has at least two spaces (anode and cathode space) separated by an alkali-ion-conducting solid electrolyte for receiving the reactants. The cathode space contains as catholyte at least one chalcogen or chalcogenide in dissolved or melted form, preferably sulfur or sulfides, as well as carbon- or graphite felt as the electrode material. The felt is provided with a layer that is porous, i.e., the surface of its fibers expose, in island-fashion, an alkali-ion-conducting substance which permits improved rechargeability at lower temperatures.

Weddigen, G.

1980-12-02

8

Lithium-based polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A primary or secondary electrochemical cell is described comprising: an anode containing lithium when in a charged state; a gelled electrolyte system comprising polyacrylonitrile (PAN), plasticizer including [gamma]-butyrolactone ([gamma]-BL) and a lithium electrolyte salt; and a cathode comprising a cathode active material selected from the group consisting of transition metal oxides and a lithium transition metal oxide intercalation compound.

Chua, D.L.; Hsiuping Lin.

1993-08-31

9

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes  

DOEpatents

Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01

10

Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte  

DOEpatents

A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

1987-04-21

11

Electrochemical cells and cathode materials  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprising anode and cathode means in operative relationship. The cathode means comprising a cathode material comprised of, at least in part: a halogen component selected from the group consisting of iodine, bromine, iodine bromide and mixtures thereof, and poly(ethylene oxide), at least in part.

Skarstad, P.M.; Untereker, D.F.; Meritt, D.R.

1988-08-02

12

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

Cieslak, Wendy R. (1166 Laurel Loop NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Storz, Leonard J. (2215 Ambassador NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1991-01-01

13

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant. 1 tab.

Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

1989-06-12

14

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell is characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

1991-03-26

15

Metal halogen electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

It has now been discovered that reduction in the coulombic efficiency of metal halogen cells can be minimized if the microporous separator employed in such cells is selected from one which is preferably wet by the aqueous electrolyte and is not wet substantially by the cathodic halogen.

Bellows, Richard J. (Hampton, NJ); Kantner, Edward (E. Brunswick, NJ)

1988-08-23

16

Cathode materials for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

Novel cathode materials for use in electrochemical cells are disclosed. The cathode materials consist essentially of a conductive solution comprised of iodine dissolved in a mixture of two organic pyridine-based constituents, both of which function as donors to form complexes with iodine. Preferably, the cathode materials further include, in addition to the dissolved iodine, an iodine solid phase suspended therein. Large amounts of the iodine solid phase, relative to the dissolved iodine, may be used.

Coury, A.J.; Skarstad, P.M.; Untereker, D.F.

1981-07-14

17

Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (i) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (ii) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (iii) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH); Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH)

1997-01-01

18

Compacted carbon for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

This invention provides compacted carbon that is useful in the electrode of an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell of improved capacity selected from the group consisting of: (a) coke having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.00 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 47%; and (b) graphite having the following properties: (1) an x-ray density of at least 2.20 grams per cubic centimeters, (2) a closed porosity of no greater than 5%, and (3) an open porosity of no greater than 25%. This invention also relates to an electrode for an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising compacted carbon as described above and a binder. This invention further provides an alkali metal/carbon electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrolytically conductive salt and an alkali metal, and (c) a counter electrode. 10 figs.

Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

1997-10-14

19

Terminal means for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an assembly of reactive metal electrochemical cells which includes bipolar electrodes connected in series between a pair of spaced conductive end plates, terminal means of higher conductive material than the end plates on each end plate comprising an array of interconnected terminal segment means disposed outwardly of a center point of the respective end plate in a generally uniform pattern with respect to the area configuration of the end plate to thereby enlarge the terminal area and to provide more uniform current distribution and active metal consumption over the areas of the bipolar electrodes.

Seiger, H.N.

1988-03-29

20

Trends in Cell-Based Electrochemical Biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-based electrochemical biosensors have contributed tremendously to the fields of biology, medicine, chem- istry, pharmacology, and environmental science. With electrochemical transducers and whole cells as the recognition ele- ments, these biosensors provide new horizons for biosensing and life science research. This review focuses on the re- search accomplishments on this topic over the last three years, and is divided into

Lin Ding; Dan Du; Xueji Zhang; Huangxian Ju

2008-01-01

21

Bussing Structure In An Electrochemical Cell  

DOEpatents

A bussing structure for bussing current within an electrochemical cell. The bussing structure includes a first plate and a second plate, each having a central aperture therein. Current collection tabs, extending from an electrode stack in the electrochemical cell, extend through the central aperture in the first plate, and are then sandwiched between the first plate and second plate. The second plate is then connected to a terminal on the outside of the case of the electrochemical cell. Each of the first and second plates includes a second aperture which is positioned beneath a safety vent in the case of the electrochemical cell to promote turbulent flow of gasses through the vent upon its opening. The second plate also includes protrusions for spacing the bussing structure from the case, as well as plateaus for connecting the bussing structure to the terminal on the case of the electrochemical cell.

Romero, Antonio L. (Parkton, MD)

2001-06-12

22

Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode  

DOEpatents

A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

1982-06-04

23

Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (i) the electrode, (ii) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (iii) a counterelectrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.

Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH); Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH)

1998-01-01

24

Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

1998-05-26

25

Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal is to develop secondary lithium cells with a 100 Wh/kg specific energy capable of 1000 cycles at 50 percent DOD. The approach towards meeting this goal initially focused on several basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of achievable specific energy and cycle life. Major advancements to date in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. A summary is given of these advances.

Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

1989-01-01

26

Boundary Layer Analysis of Membraneless Electrochemical Cells  

E-print Network

A mathematical theory is presented for the charging and discharging behavior of membraneless electrochemical cells that rely on slow diffusion in laminar flow to separate the half reactions. Ion transport is described by ...

Braff, William A.

27

Refractory lining for electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Cook, Glenn M. (Naperville, IL)

1987-01-01

28

Electrochemical cell for rebalancing REDOX flow system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrically rechargeable REDOX cell or battery system including one of more rebalancing cells is described. Each rebalancing cell is divided into two chambers by an ion permeable membrane. The first chamber is fed with gaseous hydrogen and a cathode fluid which is circulated through the cathode chamber of the REDOX cell is also passed through the second chamber of the rebalancing cell. Electrochemical reactions take place on the surface of insert electrodes in the first and second chambers to rebalance the electrochemical capacity of the anode and cathode fluids of the REDOX system.

Thaller, L. H. (inventor)

1979-01-01

29

Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

Striebel, Kathryn A. (Oakland, CA); Wen, Shi-Jie (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01

30

Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

Striebel, Kathryn A.; Wen, Shi-Jie

1998-12-01

31

Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

2007-01-01

32

Gas recombination assembly for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An assembly for recombining gases generated in electrochemical cells wherein a catalyst strip is enveloped within a hydrophobic, gas-porous film which, in turn, is encased between gas-porous, metallic layers. The sandwich construction of metallic layers and film is formed into a spiral with a tab for connection to the cell.

Levy, Isaac (New Fairfield, CT); Charkey, Allen (Brookfield, CT)

1989-01-01

33

Method for vacuum pressing electrochemical cell components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assembling electrochemical cell components using a bonding agent comprising aligning components of the electrochemical cell, applying a bonding agent between the components to bond the components together, placing the components within a container that is essentially a pliable bag, and drawing a vacuum within the bag, wherein the bag conforms to the shape of the components from the pressure outside the bag, thereby holding the components securely in place. The vacuum is passively maintained until the adhesive has cured and the components are securely bonded. The bonding agent used to bond the components of the electrochemical cell may be distributed to the bonding surface from distribution channels in the components. To prevent contamination with bonding agent, some areas may be treated to produce regions of preferred adhesive distribution and protected regions. Treatments may include polishing, etching, coating and providing protective grooves between the bonding surfaces and the protected regions.

Andrews, Craig C. (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

34

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

1997-06-17

35

Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

1997-01-01

36

Method of constructing an improved electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ)

1984-10-09

37

Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

2014-12-09

38

Bipolar separator plate for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

Shunt currents which flow between the electrodes of adjacent cells through the moving conductive fluid and the fluid pool in the manifold of a bipolar cell assembly are minimized by introducing the conductive fluid at the top of an elongated outlet manifold. This results in cascaded flow which interrupts the current path. Shunt currents between the fluid manifold walls of the conductive bipolar elements in the series connected electrochemical cell assemblies are minimized by insulating the manifold walls with insulating, elastomeric sealing grommets. This prevents current flow between the manifold walls through the electrically conductive fluid in the manifold and provides an edgeseal between bipolar plates. The instant invention relates to a process and apparatus for electrochemical cell assemblies and more particularly, for reducing shunt current in series connected bipolar assemblies.

Balko, E. N.; Moulthrop, L. W.

1985-08-06

39

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01

40

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1997-01-28

41

Cathode for an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

42

High energy density electrochemical cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary cell has an anode of lithium, a cathode containing dihaloisocyanuric acid, and a nonaqueous electrolyte comprised of a solution of lithium perchlorate in methyl formate. It produces an energy density of 213 watt hrs/lb and can achieve a high current density.

Byrne, J. J.; Williams, D. L.

1970-01-01

43

Cycle life test. [of secondary spacecraft cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical information concerning cell performance characteristics and limitations of secondary spacecraft cells is presented. Weaknesses in cell design as well as battery weaknesses encountered in various satellite programs are reported. Emphasis is placed on improving the reliability of space batteries.

Harkness, J. D.

1977-01-01

44

Frequency response of electrochemical cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective was to examine the feasibility of using frequency response techniques (1) as a tool in destructive physical analysis of batteries, particularly for estimating electrode structural parameters such as specific area, porosity, and tortuosity and (2) as a non-destructive testing technique for obtaining information such as state of charge and acceptability for space flight. The phenomena that contribute to the frequency response of an electrode include: (1) double layer capacitance; (2) Faradaic reaction resistance; (3) mass transfer of Warburg impedance; and (4) ohmic solution resistance. Nickel cadmium cells were investigated in solutions of KOH. A significant amount of data was acquired. Quantitative data analysis, using the developed software, is planned for the future.

Thomas, Daniel L.

1990-01-01

45

Electrochemical Cell Design With A Hollow Gate  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell having a spiral winding around a central core, wherein the central core is provided with longitudinal grooves on its outer surface to facilitate electrolyte filing and accommodate overpressure. The core itself improves dissipation of heat generated along the center of the cell, and the hollow core design allows the cell core to have a larger radius, permitting the "jelly roll" winding to begin at a larger radius and thereby facilitate the initial turns of the winding by decreasing the amount of bending required of the electrode laminate at the beginning of the winding operation. The hollow core also provides mechanical support end-to-end. A pair of washers are used at each end of the cell to sandwich current collection tabs in a manner that improves electrical and thermal conductivity while also providing structural integrity.

Romero, Antonio (Parkton, MD); Oweis, Salah (Ellicott City, MD); Chagnon, Guy (Columbia, MD); Staniewicz, Robert (Hunt Valley, MD); Briscoe, Douglas (Westminster, MD)

2000-02-01

46

Solid oxide electrochemical cell fabrication process  

DOEpatents

A method to form an electrochemical cell (12) is characterized by the steps of thermal spraying stabilized zirconia over a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube (14) to provide an electrolyte layer (15), coating conductive particles over the electrolyte, pressurizing the outside of the electrolyte layer, feeding halide vapors of yttrium and zirconium to the outside of the electrolyte layer and feeding a source of oxygen to the inside of the electrolyte layer, heating to cause oxygen reaction with the halide vapors to close electrolyte pores if there are any and to form a metal oxide coating on and between the particles and provide a fuel electrode (16).

Dollard, Walter J. (Churchill Borough, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Pal, Uday B. (Cambridge, MA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1992-01-01

47

Partial-Vacuum-Gasketed Electrochemical Corrosion Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrochemical cell for making corrosion measurements has been designed to prevent or reduce crevice corrosion, which is a common source of error in prior such cells. The present cell (see figure) includes an electrolyte reservoir with O-ring-edged opening at the bottom. In preparation for a test, the reservoir, while empty, is pressed down against a horizontal specimen surface to form an O-ring seal. A purge of air or other suitable gas is begun in the reservoir, and the pressure in the reservoir is regulated to maintain a partial vacuum. While maintaining the purge and partial vacuum, and without opening the interior of the reservoir to the atmosphere, the electrolyte is pumped into the reservoir. The reservoir is then slowly lifted a short distance off the specimen. The level of the partial vacuum is chosen such that the differential pressure is just sufficient to keep the electrolyte from flowing out of the reservoir through the small O-ring/specimen gap. Electrochemical measurements are then made. Because there is no gasket (and, hence, no crevice between the specimen and the gasket), crevice corrosion is unlikely to occur.

Bonifas, Andrew P.; Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.

2006-01-01

48

Sensor apparatus using an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A novel technology for sensing mechanical quantities such as force, stress, strain, pressure and acceleration has been invented. This technology is based on a change in the electrochemically generated voltage (electromotive force) with application of force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration. The change in the voltage is due to a change in the internal resistance of the electrochemical cell with a change in the relative position or orientation of the electrodes (anode and cathode) in the cell. The signal to be detected (e.g. force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration) is applied to one of the electrodes to cause a change in the relative position or orientation between the electrodes. Various materials, solid, semisolid, gel, paste or liquid can be utilized as the electrolyte. The electrolyte must be an ion conductor. The examples of solid electrolytes include specific polymer conductors, polymer composites, ion conducting glasses and ceramics. The electrodes are made of conductors such as metals with dissimilar electronegativities. Significantly enhanced sensitivities, up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of comparable commercial sensors, are obtained. The materials are substantially less expensive than commercially used materials for mechanical sensors.

Thakur, Mrinal (1309 Gatewood Dr., Apt. 1703, Auburn, AL 36830)

2002-01-01

49

Theory of Membraneless Electrochemical Cells William A. Braffa  

E-print Network

Theory of Membraneless Electrochemical Cells William A. Braffa , Cullen R. Buiea , and Martin Z;Abstract A mathematical theory is presented for the charging and discharging behavior of membraneless electrochemical cells, such as flow batteries and electrolyzers, that rely on slow diffusion in laminar flow

Bazant, Martin Z.

50

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of the Electrochemical Cell.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes basic characteristics of the electrochemical cell. Also describes basic principles of electrochemical procedures and use of these concepts to explain use of the term "primarily" in discussions of methods primarily responsive to equilibrium cell potential, bulk ohmic resistance, and the Faradaic impedance. (JN)

Smith, Donald E.

1983-01-01

51

A Model Approach to the Electrochemical Cell: An Inquiry Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to address some student misconceptions in electrochemistry, this guided-inquiry laboratory was devised to give students an opportunity to use a manipulative that simulates the particulate-level activity within an electrochemical cell, in addition to using an actual electrochemical cell. Students are led through a review of expected…

Cullen, Deanna M.; Pentecost, Thomas C.

2011-01-01

52

Electrochemical cell and negative electrode therefor. [Li-Al anode  

SciTech Connect

A secondary electrochemical cell is described with the positive and negative electrodes separated by a molten salt electrolyte with the negative electrode comprising a particulate mixture of lithium-aluminum alloy and electrolyte and an additive selected from graphitized carbon, Raney iron or mixtures thereof. The lithium-aluminum alloy is present in the range of from about 45 to about 80% by volume of the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is present in an amount not less than about 10% by volume of the negative electrode. The additive of graphitized carbon is present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by volume of the negative electrode, and the Raney iron additive is present in the range of from about 3 to about 10% by volume of the negative electrode.

Kaun, T.D.

1981-07-29

53

Electrochemical cell construction and fill method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the method of introducing a fluid component into an electrochemical cell having a filler opening in the cell container plugged with a penetrable self-sealing septum, the fluid component is of the type which is solid at ambient temperature and which must be heated to a melting point to achieve the fluid condition. It consists of: penetrating the septum with a hypodermic-like needle, introducing the heated fluid component into the container by flow through the needle, heating the needle to prevent uncontrolled solidification of the fluid component therein and flow stoppage, and cooling the needle to stop fluid flow therethrough by solidification of the fluid component as desired.

Rao, T.V.; Samec, R.C.

1987-09-22

54

Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell  

DOEpatents

A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

1981-01-01

55

Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell  

DOEpatents

A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

1980-05-09

56

A high temperature molten salt thermal electrochemical cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates in general to a high temperature molten salt thermal electrochemical cell and in particular to such a cell including cobalt oxide (Co3O4) as the cathode material. High temperature molten salt thermal electrochemical cells are widely used as power sources for projectiles, rockets, bombs, mines, missiles, decoys, jammers, and torpedoes. These are also used as fuses. Thermal electrochemical cells are reserve-type cells that can be activated by heating with a pyrotechnic heat source such as zirconium and barium chromate powders or mixtures of iron powder and potassium perchlorate.

Plichta, Edward J.; Behl, Wishvender K.

1990-02-01

57

Electrochemical behaviour of Heusler alloy Co 2MnSi for secondary lithium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical lithiation of Co2MnSi with a Heusler structure is investigated as a candidate negative electrode (anode) material for secondary lithium batteries. The electrode maintains a reversible discharge capacity of 112mAhg?1 for 50 cycles when cycled between 0.01 and 3V. It is proposed that the lithiation mechanism consists of two steps. Co2MnSi transforms to Heusler-type Li2MnSi during the first charge cycle

Jun H. Park; Dae H. Jeong; Sang M. Cha; Yang-Kook Sun; Chong S. Yoon

2009-01-01

58

Sampling dynamics for pressurized electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

A model describing the gas distribution within a constant pressure electrolysis system and how the distribution impacts electrochemical efficiencies is presented. The primary system of interest is the generation of syngas (CO and H2) associated with the co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2. The model developed for this system takes into account the primary process variables of operation including total system pressure, applied current, the in-flow of reactant gases. From these, and the chemical equilibria within the system, the impact on electrochemically generated gases is presented. Comparing the predicted and measured faradaic efficiency of electrode processes with the expected efficiency from experimental data indicates an offset between the two exists. Methods to minimize and account for the discrepancy are presented with the goal of being able to discern, in a real time manner, degradation of electrode performance. Comparison of the model to experimental data shows a strong correlation between the two with slight variation in experimental data which is attributed to reversible system dynamics such as wetting of the gas diffusion electrode used as the cell cathode.

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Simon G. Stone

2014-07-01

59

Bacteriorhodopsin-based photo-electrochemical cell.  

PubMed

A simple solution-based electrochemical cell has been constructed and successfully employed in the detection of the photoelectric response upon photoexcitation of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) without external bias. Commercially-available indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses served as the optical windows and electrodes. Small amounts of bR suspensions (?100 ?L) were utilized as the photovoltaic medium to generate the proton gradient between two half-cells separated by a molecular porous membrane. Continuous broadband visible light (?>380 nm) and a short-pulse 532-nm laser were employed for the photoexcitation of bR. Upon the modulated cw broadband irradiation, an instantaneous rise and decay of the current was observed. Our observations of the pH-dependent photocurrent are consistent with previous reports in a bR thin film configuration, which also showed a polarity inversion at pH 5-6. This is due to the change of the priority of the proton release and proton uptake in the photocycle of bR. Studies on the ionic strength effect were also carried out at different KCl concentrations, which resulted in the acceleration of the rise and decay of the photoelectric response. This was accompanied by a decrease in the stationary photocurrent at higher KCl concentrations in the broadband excitation experiments. The solution-based electrochemical cell uses aqueous medium, which is required for the completion of the bR proton pumping function. Due to the generation of the stationary current, it is advantageous to convert solar energy into electricity without the need of film-based photovoltaic devices with external bias. PMID:20719494

Chu, Li-Kang; Yen, Chun-Wan; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

2010-10-15

60

Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Huff, J.R.; Leddy, J.

1987-10-16

61

Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Leddy, Johna (Flushing, NY)

1989-01-01

62

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of life cycle tests of secondary spacecraft cells are summarized. Cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging from 3.0 to 20 ampere-hours, 1326 nlc nickel cadmium, 183 silver cadmium, and 125 silver zinc sealed cells. Variables examined include load, charge control, and temperature conditions.

Harkness, J. D.

1978-01-01

63

Apparatus measures swelling of membranes in electrochemical cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus consisting of a pressure plate unit, four springs of known spring constant and a micrometer measures the swelling and force exerted by the polymer membranes of alkaline electrochemical cells.

Hennigan, T. J.

1965-01-01

64

Improvement of amorphous silicon solar cells by electrochemical treatments  

SciTech Connect

In the manufacturing process of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells, leakage currents through the pinholes in the a-Si:H film often spoils its performance. We have demonstrated that two electrochemical treatments are effective for stopping the leakage through pinholes. One method is an electrochemical dissolution of the transparent conductive oxide exposed to the pinholes, and another is an electrochemical deposition of insulating materials in the pinholes. These effects have been confirmed by use of intentionally fissured a-Si:H electrodes as well as solar cells showing large leakage currents.

Matsumura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Yae, S.; Nakato, Y.; Tsubomura, H.

1987-02-15

65

Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

2000-01-01

66

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Cook, Glenn M. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01

67

Method of doping interconnections for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded on a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) forming a layer of oxide particles of at least one of the metals Ca, Sr, Co, Ba or Mg on a part 24 of a first surface of the air electrode 16, (B) heating the electrode structure, (C) applying a halide vapor containing at least lanthanum halide and chromium halide to the first surface and applying a source of oxygen to a second opposite surface of the air electrode so that they contact at said first surface, to cause a reaction of the oxygen and halide and cause a dense lanthanum-chromium oxide structure to grow, from the first electrode surface, between and around the oxide particles, where the metal oxide particles get incoporated into the lanthanum-chromium oxide structure as it grows thicker with time, and the metal ions in the oxide particles diffuse into the bulk of the lanthamum-chromium oxide structure, to provide a dense, top, interconnection layer 26 on top of the air electrode 16. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

Pal, Uday B. (Monroeville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA); Moon, David M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1990-01-01

68

Cell structure for electrochemical devices and method of making same  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical device comprises a plurality of cells, each cell including a laminate cell membrane, made up of a separator/electrolyte means interposed between alternating positive and negative electrodes, each type of electrode being respectively in common contact to a single current collector.

Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

1993-01-01

69

Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection  

PubMed Central

This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animals associated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides with anticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed to bromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD 207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days long exposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of common voles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However, electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues from earthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determined comparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary (2.34±0.10 ?g/g) and secondary (2.20±0.53 ?g/g) intoxication. Therefore, the risk of secondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.

Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Horna, Ales; Kizek, René

2007-01-01

70

Secondary lithium cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is concluded that secondary lithium batteries are suitable for planetary missions requiring high specific energy, long active shelf life, and limited cycle life. Titanium disulfide cathode material meet all the requirements for rechargeable lithium cell, including high intrinsic reversibility and realizable specific energy. Secondary lithium technology is still evolving, although low capacity cells have been demonstrated and greater than 700 cycle life was achieved. Work is in progress to improve the cycle life and safety of the electrolytes, alternate lithium anode, and the separators.

Surampudi, S.; Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S. R.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

71

Reconstitution of a secondary cell wall in a secondary cell wall-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.  

PubMed

The secondary cell wall constitutes a rigid frame of cells in plant tissues where rigidity is required. Deposition of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells contributes to the production of wood in woody plants. The secondary cell wall is assembled through co-operative activities of many enzymes, and their gene expression is precisely regulated by a pyramidal cascade of transcription factors. Deposition of a transmuted secondary cell wall in empty fiber cells by expressing selected gene(s) in this cascade has not been attempted previously. In this proof-of-concept study, we expressed chimeric activators of 24 transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in the stem, in empty fiber cells of the Arabidopsis nst1-1 nst3-1 double mutant, which lacks a secondary cell wall in fiber cells, under the control of the NST3 promoter. The chimeric activators of MYB46, SND2 and ANAC075, as well as NST3, reconstituted a secondary cell wall with different characteristics from those of the wild type in terms of its composition. The transgenic lines expressing the SND2 or ANAC075 chimeric activator showed increased glucose and xylose, and lower lignin content, whereas the transgenic line expressing the MYB46 chimeric activator showed increased mannose content. The expression profile of downstream genes in each transgenic line was also different from that of the wild type. This study proposed a new screening strategy to identify factors of secondary wall formation and also suggested the potential of the artificially reconstituted secondary cell walls as a novel raw material for production of bioethanol and other chemicals. PMID:25535195

Sakamoto, Shingo; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

2015-02-01

72

Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant  

DOEpatents

An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

Virkar, Anil V. (Sandy, UT); Miller, Gerald R. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1983-11-04

73

The Variation of Electrochemical Cell Potentials with Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Electrochemical cell potentials have no simple relationship with temperature but depend on the interplay between the sign and magnitude of the isothermal temperature coefficient, dE[degrees]/dT, and on the magnitude of the reaction quotient, Q. The variations in possible responses of standard and non-standard cell potentials to changes in the…

Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.

2011-01-01

74

UHV, Electrochemical NMR, and Electrochemical Studies of Platinum/Ruthenium Fuel Cell C. Lu, C. Rice, and R. I. Masel*  

E-print Network

UHV, Electrochemical NMR, and Electrochemical Studies of Platinum/Ruthenium Fuel Cell Catalysts C It is well-known that platinum/ruthenium fuel cell catalysts show enhanced CO tolerance compared to pure to probe the origin of the ruthenium enhancement in Pt electrodes modified through Ru deposition

Lu, Chang

75

Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices  

DOEpatents

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

Gering, Kevin L

2013-08-27

76

Method of enhancing the wettability of boron nitride for use as an electrochemical cell separator  

DOEpatents

A felt or other fabric of boron nitride suitable for use as an interelectrode separator within an electrochemical cell is wetted with a solution containing a thermally decomposable organic salt of an alkaline earth metal. An aqueous solution of magnesium acetate is the preferred solution for this purpose. After wetting the boron nitride, the solution is dried by heating at a sufficiently low temperature to prevent rapid boiling and the creation of voids within the separator. The dried material is then calcined at an elevated temperature in excess of 400/sup 0/C to provide a coating of an oxide of magnesium on the surface of the boron nitride fibers. A fabric or felt of boron nitride treated in this manner is easily wetted by molten electrolytic salts, such as the alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides, that are used in high temperature, secondary electrochemical cells.

McCoy, L.R.

1981-01-23

77

Method of enhancing the wettability of boron nitride for use as an electrochemical cell separator  

DOEpatents

A felt or other fabric of boron nitride suitable for use as an interelecte separator within an electrochemical cell is wetted with a solution containing a thermally decomposable organic salt of an alkaline earth metal. An aqueous solution of magnesium acetate is the preferred solution for this purpose. After wetting the boron nitride, the solution is dried by heating at a sufficiently low temperature to prevent rapid boiling and the creation of voids within the separator. The dried material is then calcined at an elevated temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. to provide a coating of an oxide of magnesium on the surface of the boron nitride fibers. A fabric or felt of boron nitride treated in this manner is easily wetted by molten electrolytic salts, such as the alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides, that are used in high temperature, secondary electrochemical cells.

McCoy, Lowell R. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1982-01-01

78

Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1995-07-18

79

Continuous-feed electrochemical cell with nonpacking particulate electrode  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell providing full consumption of electrochemically active particles in a nonpacking, electrolyte-permeable bed has a tapered cell cavity bounded by two nonparallel surfaces separated by a distance that promotes bridging of particles across the cavity. The gap/particle size ratio is maintained as the particles are consumed, decrease in size, and travel from the point of entry to the narrower end of the cell. A cell of this configuration supports a bed of low packing density maintained in a dynamic steady state by alternate formation and collapse of particle bridges across the gap and associated voids over the entire active area of the cell. The cell design can be applied to refuelable zinc/air cells and zinc/ferrocyanide storage batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01

80

On the electrochemical reactivity and design of NiP2 negative electrodes for secondary Li-ion batteries  

E-print Network

commercialisation, rechargeable Li-ion batteries are widely accepted, and are becoming the main power source1 On the electrochemical reactivity and design of NiP2 negative electrodes for secondary Li-ion study of cubic and monoclinic NiP2 polymorphs towards Li, as candidate for anodic applications for Li-ion

Boyer, Edmond

81

Development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL is developing ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future spacecraft applications. Prior studies on experimental laboratory type Li-TiS2 cells yielded promising results in terms of cycle life and rate capability. To further assess the performance of this cell, 5 Ah engineering model cells were developed. Initially baseline cells were designed and fabricated. Each cell had 15 cathodes and 16 anodes and the ratio of anode to cathode capacity is 6:1. A solution of 1.5 molar LiAsF6 in 2Me-THF was used as the electrolyte. Cells were evaluated for their cycle life at C/1 and C/5 discharge rates and 100 percent depth of discharge. The cells were cycled between voltage limits 1.7 and 2.8 volts. The rate of charge in all cases is C/10. The results obtained indicate that cells can operate at C/10 to C/2 discharge rates and have an initial energy density of 70 Wh/kg. Cells delivered more than 100 cycles at C/2 discharge rate. The details of cell design, the test program, and the results obtained are described.

Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Taraszkiewicz, J.; Halpert, Gerald

1987-01-01

82

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A life cycle test of secondary electric batteries for spacecraft applications was conducted. A sample number of nickel cadmium batteries were subjected to general performance tests to determine the limit of their actual capabilities. Weaknesses discovered in cell design are reported and aid in research and development efforts toward improving the reliability of spacecraft batteries. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is provided.

Christy, D. E.; Harkness, J. D.

1973-01-01

83

Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, Allegheny County, PA)

1992-01-01

84

Mass spectrometric methods for monitoring redox processes in electrochemical cells  

PubMed Central

Electrochemistry (EC) is a mature scientific discipline aimed to study the movement of electrons in an oxidation–reduction reaction. EC covers techniques that use a measurement of potential, charge, or current to determine the concentration or the chemical reactivity of analytes. The electrical signal is directly converted into chemical information. For in-depth characterization of complex electrochemical reactions involving the formation of diverse intermediates, products and byproducts, EC is usually combined with other analytical techniques, and particularly the hyphenation of EC with mass spectrometry (MS) has found broad applicability. The analysis of gases and volatile intermediates and products formed at electrode surfaces is enabled by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). In DEMS an electrochemical cell is sampled with a membrane interface for electron ionization (EI)-MS. The chemical space amenable to EC/MS (i.e., bioorganic molecules including proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and drugs) was significantly increased by employing electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. In the simplest setup, the EC of the ESI process is used to analytical advantage. A limitation of this approach is, however, its inability to precisely control the electrochemical potential at the emitter electrode. Thus, particularly for studying mechanistic aspects of electrochemical processes, the hyphenation of discrete electrochemical cells with ESI-MS was found to be more appropriate. The analytical power of EC/ESI-MS can further be increased by integrating liquid chromatography (LC) as an additional dimension of separation. Chromatographic separation was found to be particularly useful to reduce the complexity of the sample submitted either to the EC cell or to ESI-MS. Thus, both EC/LC/ESI-MS and LC/EC/ESI-MS are common. PMID:24338642

Oberacher, Herbert; Pitterl, Florian; Erb, Robert; Plattner, Sabine

2015-01-01

85

Mass spectrometric methods for monitoring redox processes in electrochemical cells.  

PubMed

Electrochemistry (EC) is a mature scientific discipline aimed to study the movement of electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. EC covers techniques that use a measurement of potential, charge, or current to determine the concentration or the chemical reactivity of analytes. The electrical signal is directly converted into chemical information. For in-depth characterization of complex electrochemical reactions involving the formation of diverse intermediates, products and byproducts, EC is usually combined with other analytical techniques, and particularly the hyphenation of EC with mass spectrometry (MS) has found broad applicability. The analysis of gases and volatile intermediates and products formed at electrode surfaces is enabled by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). In DEMS an electrochemical cell is sampled with a membrane interface for electron ionization (EI)-MS. The chemical space amenable to EC/MS (i.e., bioorganic molecules including proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and drugs) was significantly increased by employing electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. In the simplest setup, the EC of the ESI process is used to analytical advantage. A limitation of this approach is, however, its inability to precisely control the electrochemical potential at the emitter electrode. Thus, particularly for studying mechanistic aspects of electrochemical processes, the hyphenation of discrete electrochemical cells with ESI-MS was found to be more appropriate. The analytical power of EC/ESI-MS can further be increased by integrating liquid chromatography (LC) as an additional dimension of separation. Chromatographic separation was found to be particularly useful to reduce the complexity of the sample submitted either to the EC cell or to ESI-MS. Thus, both EC/LC/ESI-MS and LC/EC/ESI-MS are common. © 2013 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 34:64-92, 2015. PMID:24338642

Oberacher, Herbert; Pitterl, Florian; Erb, Robert; Plattner, Sabine

2015-01-01

86

Engineering secondary cell wall deposition in plants  

PubMed Central

Lignocellulosic biomass was used for thousands of years as animal feed and is now considered a great sugar source for biofuels production. It is composed mostly of secondary cell walls built with polysaccharide polymers that are embedded in lignin to reinforce the cell wall structure and maintain its integrity. Lignin is the primary material responsible for biomass recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. During plant development, deep reductions of lignin cause growth defects and often correlate with the loss of vessel integrity that adversely affects water and nutrient transport in plants. The work presented here describes a new approach to decrease lignin content while preventing vessel collapse and introduces a new strategy to boost transcription factor expression in native tissues. We used synthetic biology tools in Arabidopsis to rewire the secondary cell network by changing promoter-coding sequence associations. The result was a reduction in lignin and an increase in polysaccharide depositions in fibre cells. The promoter of a key lignin gene, C4H, was replaced by the vessel-specific promoter of transcription factor VND6. This rewired lignin biosynthesis specifically for vessel formation while disconnecting C4H expression from the fibre regulatory network. Secondly, the promoter of the IRX8 gene, secondary cell wall glycosyltransferase, was used to express a new copy of the fibre transcription factor NST1, and as the IRX8 promoter is induced by NST1, this also created an artificial positive feedback loop (APFL). The combination of strategies—lignin rewiring with APFL insertion—enhances polysaccharide deposition in stems without over-lignifying them, resulting in higher sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:23140549

Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Zhang, Ling; Prak, Lina; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Kim, Jin-Sun; Sun, Lan; Zheng, Kejian; Tang, Kexuan; Auer, Manfred; Scheller, Henrik V; Loqué, Dominique

2013-01-01

87

Electrochemical Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell MEA's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from different sources have been evaluated before and after sonication to identify structural differences and evaluate electrochemical performance. Raman spectral analysis and cyclic voltammetry in situ with QCM were the principle means of evaluating the tubes. The raman data indicates that sonication in toluene modifies the structural properties of the nanotubes. Sonication also affects the electrochemical performance of single-walled nanotubes and the multi-walled tubes differently. The characterization of different types of carbon nanotubes leads up to identifying a potential candidate for incorporating carbon nanotubes for fuel cell MEA structures.

Panagaris, Jael; Loyselle, Patricia

2004-01-01

88

Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array  

DOEpatents

In the method of operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber (20) containing an array of cells (12) having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas (F) contacts the outside of the cells (12) and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850.degree. C., where N.sub.2 gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells (12) in any case when the generating chamber (20) temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550.degree. C. to 800.degree. C., to eliminate cracking within the cells (12).

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1994-01-01

89

Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array  

DOEpatents

A method is described for operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber containing an array of cells having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas contacts the outside of the cells and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850 C, where N[sub 2] gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells in any case when the generating chamber temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550 C to 800 C, to eliminate cracking within the cells. 2 figures.

Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Bratton, R.J.

1994-04-26

90

Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01

91

Vanadium-doped lithium thiochromite - Properties, crystal structure and electrochemical performance in rechargeable Li cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicochemical properties and crystal structure of vanadium-doped lithium thiochromite, produced by thermal synthesis in a sulfur melt and a subsequent delithiation in oxygen-containing aqueous suspension, are described. The compound is characterized by a rigid crystal structure, which can sustain the mechanical tensions developed during lithium intercalation and deintercalation upon cycling. The electrochemical performance of this compound as cathode material in lithium secondary cells, specific capacity of 0.15-0.16 mA h/g, mid-discharge voltage of 2.5 V, and cycling efficiency above 99 percent, make it attractive for practical applications.

Moshtev, R.; Geronov, Y.; Balkanov, I.; Puresheva, B.

1991-03-01

92

Method for lithium anode and electrochemical cell fabrication  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed of preparing lithium anodes contacted with organic materials prior to association of the anode with a cathode material, wherein the contacted anode is first subjected to a heat treatment. Upon incorporation of the improved anode into an electrochemical battery or cell and association of the heat treated anode with a suitable cathode material, the cell may be discharged under controlled conditions for a short time prior to its usual ''burn-in'' discharge.

Underhill, L.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

1983-08-16

93

Testing and analyses of electrochemical cells using frequency response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as a method for analyzing battery state of health and state of charge was investigated. Porous silver, zinc, nickel, and cadmium electrodes as well as silver/zinc cells were studied. State of charge could be correlated with impedance data for all but the nickel electrodes. State of health was correlated with impedance data for two silver/zinc cells, one apparently good and the other dead. The experimental data were fit to equivalent circuit models.

Norton, O. A., Jr.; Thomas, D. L.

1992-01-01

94

Method for making an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same, having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1996-10-22

95

Method for making an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

96

Selectable-Tip Corrosion-Testing Electrochemical Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts aspects of an electrochemical cell for pitting- corrosion tests of material specimens. The cell is designed to generate a region of corrosion having a pit diameter determined by the diameter of a selectable tip. The average depth of corrosion is controlled by controlling the total electric charge passing through the cell in a test. The cell is also designed to produce minimal artifacts associated with crevice corrosion. There are three selectable tips, having diameters of 0.1 in. (0.254 cm), 0.3 in. (0.762 cm), and 0.6 in. (1.524 cm), respectively.

Lomness, Janice; Hintze, Paul

2008-01-01

97

Systems, methods and computer readable media for estimating capacity loss in rechargeable electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system periodically determines cell information from the charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also periodically adds a first degradation characteristic from the cell information to a first sigmoid expression, periodically adds a second degradation characteristic from the cell information to a second sigmoid expression and combines the first sigmoid expression and the second sigmoid expression to develop or augment a multiple sigmoid model (MSM) of the electrochemical cell. The MSM may be used to estimate a capacity loss of the electrochemical cell at a desired point in time and analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The first and second degradation characteristics may be loss of active host sites and loss of free lithium for Li-ion cells.

Gering, Kevin L.

2013-06-18

98

Elastomers bonded to metal surfaces seal electrochemical cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A leakproof seal secondary cell containing alkaline electrolytes was developed by bonding an alkali-resistant elastomer, such as neoprene, to metal contact surfaces. Test results of several different elastomers strongly indicate the feasibility of this sealing method.

Sherfey, J. M.

1964-01-01

99

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1985-01-01

100

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1987-01-01

101

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1986-01-01

102

Method of making gas diffusion layers for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for making a gas diffusion layer for an electrochemical cell comprising the steps of: a) combining carbon particles and one or more surfactants in a typically aqueous vehicle to make a preliminary composition, typically by high shear mixing; b) adding one or more highly fluorinated polymers to said preliminary composition by low shear mixing to make a coating composition; and c) applying the coating composition to an electrically conductive porous substrate, typically by a low shear coating method.

Frisk, Joseph William (Oakdale, MN); Boand, Wayne Meredith (Lino Lakes, MN); Larson, James Michael (Saint Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

103

Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method  

DOEpatents

A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-12-09

104

Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

2010-06-01

105

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

1996-05-14

106

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Manor, PA); Richards, Von L. (Angola, IN)

1996-01-01

107

Electrochemical cell apparatus having an exterior fuel mixer nozzle  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, a portion of which is in contact with the outside of a mixer chamber, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet at the entrance to the mixer chamber, and a mixer nozzle is located at the entrance to the mixer chamber, where the mixer chamber connects with the reforming chamber, and where the mixer-diffuser chamber and mixer nozzle are exterior to and spaced apart from the combustion chamber, and the generator chamber, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 2 figs.

Reichner, P.; Doshi, V.B.

1992-12-08

108

Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Busick, Deanna N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

109

Electrochemical behavior of niobium triselenide cathode in lithium secondary cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Niobium triselenide cathodes in Li ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries for space applications undergo a topotactic reaction, with three equivalents of Li at high positive potential furnishing high energy density. It also yields good electronic conductivity, a long life cycle, and high diffusivity for Li. An attempt is presently made to characterize the intercalation mechanism between Li and NbSe3 by means of an ac impedance study conducted at various charge stages in the process of SbSe3 reduction. An effort is also made to predict the charge state of NbSe3 nondestructively, on the basis of the impedance parameters.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

1988-01-01

110

Effective Panchromatic Sensitization of Electrochemical Solar Cells: Strategy and Organizational Rules for Spatial Separation of  

E-print Network

Effective Panchromatic Sensitization of Electrochemical Solar Cells: Strategy and Organizational, as we show here, because of modulation of charge-recombination behavior. Spatial isolation of differing

111

ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) ozonesonde observations at Mirny, Antarctica, during 1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric ozone vertical distributions, air temperatures, and wind speed and direction data are presented for 40 balloon electrochemical concentration cell ozone soundings made at Mirny, Antarctica, in 1988.

Komhyr, W. D.; Lathrop, J. A.; Arbuzova, V. N.; Khattatov, V. U.; Nureyev, P. G.; Rudakov, V. V.; Zamyshlayev, I. V.

1989-01-01

112

Electrochemical Cell for Obtaining Oxygen from Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support human life on the Martian surface, an electrochemical device will be required to obtain oxygen from the carbon dioxide rich atmosphere. The electrolyte employed in such a device must be constructed from extremely thin, dense membranes to efficiently acquire the oxygen necessary to support life. A forming process used industrially in the production of multilayer capacitors and electronic substrates was adapted to form the thin membranes required. The process, known as the tape casting, involves the suspension consisting of solvents and binders. The suspension is passed under a blade, resulting in the production of ceramic membranes between 0.1 and 0.5 mm thick. Once fired, the stabilized zirconia membranes were assembled into the cell design by employing a zirconium phosphate solution as the sealing agent. The resulting ceramic-to-ceramic seals were found to be structurally sound and gas-tight. Furthermore, by using a zirconia-based solution to assemble the cell, the problem of a thermal expansion mismatch was alleviated. By adopting an industrial forming process to produce thin membranes, an electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide was produced. The proposed cell design is unique in that it does not require a complicated manifold system for separating the various gases present in this process, nor does it require a series of complex electrical connections. Thus, the device can reliably obtain the vital oxygen supply from the toxic carbon dioxide atmosphere.

Hooker, Matthew; Rast, H. Edward; Rogers, Darren K.; Borja, Luis; Clark, Kevin; Fleming, Kimberly; Mcgurren, Michael; Oldaker, Tom; Sweet, Nanette

1989-01-01

113

Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells: Doping, luminescence, and mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilize the planar “surface cell” device configuration with Au contacts and a mixture of a soluble phenyl-substituted poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer (“superyellow”), a dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 crown ether, and a LiCF3SO3 salt as the active material. Because the lowest thermal transition occurs well above room temperature (RT), we can study the charging process at an elevated temperature and probe the exact location of the electroluminescence (EL) and doping-induced quenching of photoluminescence in charged devices at RT. We also employ the same active material in thin-film field-effect transistor structures to study the influence of electrochemical doping on transistor performance. Our results demonstrate that reversible bipolar electrochemical doping indeed takes place at applied voltages above the band gap of the semiconducting polymer (V?Eg/e) , but also that limited unipolar electrochemical doping can take place at V

Edman, Ludvig; Summers, Melissa A.; Buratto, Steven K.; Heeger, Alan J.

2004-09-01

114

A graphene functionalized electrochemical aptasensor for selective label-free detection of cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report an electrochemical sensor that can realize label-free cancer cell detection using the first clinical trial II used aptamer AS1411 and functionalized graphene. By taking advantages of AS1411 high binding affinity and specificity to the overexpressed nucleolin on the cancer cell surface, our developed electrochemical aptasensor can distinguish cancer cells and normal ones and detect as low as

Lingyan Feng; Yong Chen; Jinsong Ren; Xiaogang Qu

2011-01-01

115

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

Jensen, R.R.

1990-11-20

116

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01

117

Pore size engineering applied to starved electrochemical cells and batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To maximize performance in starved, multiplate cells, the cell design should rely on techniques which widen the volume tolerance characteristics. These involve engineering capillary pressure differences between the components of an electrochemical cell and using these forces to promote redistribution of electrolyte to the desired optimum values. This can be implemented in practice by prescribing pore size distributions for porous back-up plates, reservoirs, and electrodes. In addition, electrolyte volume management can be controlled by incorporating different pore size distributions into the separator. In a nickel/hydrogen cell, the separator must contain pores similar in size to the small pores of both the nickel and hydrogen electrodes in order to maintain an optimum conductive path for the electrolyte. The pore size distributions of all components should overlap in such a way as to prevent drying of the separator and/or flooding of the hydrogen electrode.

Abbey, K. M.; Thaller, L. H.

1982-01-01

118

Method of fabricating battery plates for electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for pressure bonding a consumable, reactive metal anode plate to a bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: applying pressure by means of a constant force press to the anode plate in a first area to mechanically bond that area of the anode plate to the bipolar plate; and applying pressure seriatim by the press to other areas of the anode plate leading away from the first area to progressively mechanically bond those areas of the anode plate to the bipolar plate, thereby forcing out any trapped air from between the plates.

Triner, J.E.

1986-09-09

119

Detection of radiation from electrochemical cell intensifying beta decay.  

PubMed

The predictions of relic neutrino existence and neutrino anomalous magnetic moment existence, as well as the solution of the Dirac equation for a neutral particle with an anomalous magnetic moment in the Coulomb field imply the existence of neutrino matter component. In this work the radiation intensifying (60)Co and (137)Cs beta decays by (0.42 ± 0.05)% and (0.160 ± 0.012)% has been detected from the end electrochemical cell. The radiation interaction cross-section with radioactive nuclei is more than 10(-30)cm(2). PMID:22728839

Muromtsev, V I; Veprev, D P

2012-08-01

120

In vitro electrochemical corrosion and cell viability studies on nickel-free stainless steel orthopedic implants.  

PubMed

The corrosion and cell viability behaviors of nanostructured, nickel-free stainless steel implants were studied and compared with AISI 316L. The electrochemical studies were conducted by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements in a simulated body fluid. Cytocompatibility was also evaluated by the adhesion behavior of adult human stem cells on the surface of the samples. According to the results, the electrochemical behavior is affected by a compromise among the specimen's structural characteristics, comprising composition, density, and grain size. The cell viability is interpreted by considering the results of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments. PMID:23630603

Salahinejad, Erfan; Hadianfard, Mohammad Jafar; Macdonald, Digby Donald; Sharifi-Asl, Samin; Mozafari, Masoud; Walker, Kenneth J; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Madihally, Sundararajan V; Tayebi, Lobat

2013-01-01

121

In Vitro Electrochemical Corrosion and Cell Viability Studies on Nickel-Free Stainless Steel Orthopedic Implants  

PubMed Central

The corrosion and cell viability behaviors of nanostructured, nickel-free stainless steel implants were studied and compared with AISI 316L. The electrochemical studies were conducted by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements in a simulated body fluid. Cytocompatibility was also evaluated by the adhesion behavior of adult human stem cells on the surface of the samples. According to the results, the electrochemical behavior is affected by a compromise among the specimen's structural characteristics, comprising composition, density, and grain size. The cell viability is interpreted by considering the results of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments. PMID:23630603

Salahinejad, Erfan; Hadianfard, Mohammad Jafar; Macdonald, Digby Donald; Sharifi-Asl, Samin; Mozafari, Masoud; Walker, Kenneth J.; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Tayebi, Lobat

2013-01-01

122

Electrochemical cells with end-of-life indicator  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electrochemical cell including an oxidizable active anode material; a non-consumable, electrically conducting, inert cathode current collector material, and electrolytic solution bridging the anode and cathode current collector. The solution includes a liquid, inorganic oxyhalide or thiohalide solvent and a solute for rendering the electrolytic solution conductive of anode metal ions. The improvement described here comprisses the addition to the cell of a quantity of an EOL component, as an initial dischargeable constituent thereof, having an electropotential lower than that of the solvent. The EOL component is selected from the group consisting of arsenic trichloride, arsenic trifluoride, arsenic tribromide, the vanadium halides, the transition metal sulfides and oxides, except for the actinide series, and technetium, and mixtures thereof whereby EOL indication in the form of a step discharge is provided during discharge of the cell.

Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.

1986-10-28

123

Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith  

DOEpatents

An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

Olson, John B. (Boulder, CO)

1999-02-16

124

Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith  

DOEpatents

An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

Olson, John B. (Boulder, CO)

1999-12-07

125

Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith  

DOEpatents

An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition are disclosed. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinyl sulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness. 2 figs.

Olson, J.B.

1999-02-16

126

Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

2014-01-01

127

Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50-200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca(2+) influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

Kashiwagi, Taichi; Yan, Hanxu; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shirahata, Sanetaka

2014-01-01

128

Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA), the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology. PMID:25585708

Wang, Jun; Wu, Chengxiong; Hu, Ning; Zhou, Jie; Du, Liping; Wang, Ping

2012-01-01

129

ENCH 473 Electrochemical Energy Engineering ENCH 648K Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells  

E-print Network

titration 4. Principle of battery 5. Li-ion batteries 6. Li-S and Li-air batteries 7. Flow batteries 8ENCH 473 Electrochemical Energy Engineering ENCH 648K Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells Spring 2014 Syllabus Course: ENCH 473 Electrochemical Energy Engineering ENCH: 648K Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells

Rubloff, Gary W.

130

Electrochemical Desorption of Self-Assembled Monolayers Noninvasively Releases Patterned Cells from Geometrical Confinements  

E-print Network

Electrochemical Desorption of Self-Assembled Monolayers Noninvasively Releases Patterned Cells from on the electrochemical desorption of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to release pat- terned mammalian cells from and proceeded to cytokinesis on these substrates. We quantified the amount of proteins adsorbed on the gold

Mrksich, Milan

131

An alternative method to improve the electrochemical performance of a lithium secondary battery with LiMn 2O 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical properties of the Li-ion battery with a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) cathode are improved by efficiently reducing the reaction between LiMn2O4 and hydrofluoric acid (HF) produced in the electrolyte. By introducing fine ZrO2 particles in the slurry during fabrication, Mn dissolution of the cathode during the charge–discharge cycles is minimized by scavenging the HF produced in the cell.

Sung Bin Park; Sang Myung Lee; Ho Chul Shin; Won Il Cho; Ho Jang

2007-01-01

132

Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.

2015-01-01

133

Effect of Electrochemical Cell Overcharge on Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Polymer Composite Electrodes (II): Mechanism of Electrode Deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and electrochemical studies show that the carbon-polyolefin comp- osite is a suitable electrodematrix material for the vanadium redox battery. The effect of overcharge on the performance of the vanadium redox cell that employs conductive carbon-polymer composite\\/graphite felt electrodes is examined. The electrical resistivity of the electrode and the cell resistance show a dramatic increase afterovercharge . The effect ofoverchargeon

Vahid Haddadi-As; Mohammad Sadegh Rabbani

134

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOEpatents

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01

135

Stabilizing metal components in electrodes of electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of reducing the removal or transfer into a gas phase of a current carrying metal in an apparatus, such as an electrochemical cell 2 having a porous fuel electrode 6 containing metal particles 11, where the metal is subject to removal or transfer into a gaseous phase, the method characterized in that (1) a metal organic compound that decomposes to form an electronically conducting oxide coating when heated is applied to the metal and porous electrode, and (2) the compound on the metal is then heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose the compound into an oxide coating 13 by increasing the temperature at a rate that is longer than 1 hour between room temperature and 600.degree. C., resulting in at least one continuous layer 13, 14 of the oxide coating on the metal.

Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1989-01-01

136

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOEpatents

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26

137

Method of winding an electrochemical cell and cell produced by the method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for winding into an electrochemical cell, flexible strip members comprising a first conducting flexible plate, each flexible strip member having a leading end portion. The steps comprise positioning a first arbor half having a first generally flat surface and a first curvilinear driving surface in spaced relationship with a second arbor half having a second

J. J. Strickland; W. C. Thibault; J. D. Handley

1990-01-01

138

Electrochemical cell system for voltammetry of high purity solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-compartment cell system was designed to carry out high purity electrochemical experiments. Features of this cell include a monolithic quartz body, quartz isolation frit, pretreated platinum electrode, hydrogen reference electrode, snap-on cell tops, purified "type I" water, high purity supply gases, fluoropolymer tubing, and gas-tight cell integrity. An advantage of this design is the allowance for internal pre-electrolysis of the test solution. The system was quality tested by obtaining cyclic voltammograms of 0.5 molar sulfuric acid solution. To demonstrate its utility for high purity work, novel cyclic voltammograms of type I water were obtained with a platinum microelectrode in the absence of electrolyte. The water voltammograms exhibited three electroactive features: reduction potential limit near E=-0.2 V versus r.h.e. (H2), oxidation potential limit near E=+1.6 V (O2), and one surface reduction peak at E=+0.4 V. Thus, the voltammetric "potential window" for water was determined to be 1.8 V.

May, Michael A.; Gupta, Vijay K.; Hounsokou, Karen

2000-02-01

139

Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2003-05-27

140

Electroendocytosis Is Driven by the Binding of Electrochemically Produced Protons to the Cell’s Surface  

PubMed Central

Electroendocytosis involves the exposure of cells to pulsed low electric field and is emerging as a complementary method to electroporation for the incorporation of macromolecules into cells. The present study explores the underlying mechanism of electroendocytosis and its dependence on electrochemical byproducts formed at the electrode interface. Cell suspensions were exposed to pulsed low electric field in a partitioned device where cells are spatially restricted relative to the electrodes. The cellular uptake of dextran-FITC was analyzed by flow cytometery and visualized by confocal microscopy. We first show that uptake occurs only in cells adjacent to the anode. The enhanced uptake near the anode is found to depend on electric current density rather than on electric field strength, in the range of 5 to 65 V/cm. Electrochemically produced oxidative species that impose intracellular oxidative stress, do not play any role in the stimulated uptake. An inverse dependence is found between electrically induced uptake and the solution’s buffer capacity. Electroendocytosis can be mimicked by chemically acidifying the extracellular solution which promotes the enhanced uptake of dextran polymers and the uptake of plasmid DNA. Electrochemical production of protons at the anode interface is responsible for inducing uptake of macromolecules into cells exposed to a pulsed low electric field. Expanding the understanding of the mechanism involved in electric fields induced drug-delivery into cells, is expected to contribute to clinical therapy applications in the future. PMID:23209699

Ben-Dov, Nadav; Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Korenstein, Rafi

2012-01-01

141

An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis.  

PubMed

The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. Here we present a protein-DNA network between Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated by a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. These interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component. PMID:25533953

Taylor-Teeples, M; Lin, L; de Lucas, M; Turco, G; Toal, T W; Gaudinier, A; Young, N F; Trabucco, G M; Veling, M T; Lamothe, R; Handakumbura, P P; Xiong, G; Wang, C; Corwin, J; Tsoukalas, A; Zhang, L; Ware, D; Pauly, M; Kliebenstein, D J; Dehesh, K; Tagkopoulos, I; Breton, G; Pruneda-Paz, J L; Ahnert, S E; Kay, S A; Hazen, S P; Brady, S M

2015-01-29

142

Eliminating degradation in solid oxide electrochemical cells by reversible operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One promising energy storage technology is the solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), which can both store electricity as chemical fuels (electrolysis mode) and convert fuels to electricity (fuel-cell mode). The widespread use of SOCs has been hindered by insufficient long-term stability, in particular at high current densities. Here we demonstrate that severe electrolysis-induced degradation, which was previously believed to be irreversible, can be completely eliminated by reversibly cycling between electrolysis and fuel-cell modes, similar to a rechargeable battery. Performing steam electrolysis continuously at high current density (1 A cm?2), initially at 1.33 V (97% energy efficiency), led to severe microstructure deterioration near the oxygen-electrode/electrolyte interface and a corresponding large increase in ohmic resistance. After 4,000 h of reversible cycling, however, no microstructural damage was observed and the ohmic resistance even slightly improved. The results demonstrate the viability of applying SOCs for renewable electricity storage at previously unattainable reaction rates, and have implications for our fundamental understanding of degradation mechanisms that are usually assumed to be irreversible.

Graves, Christopher; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

2015-02-01

143

Eliminating degradation in solid oxide electrochemical cells by reversible operation.  

PubMed

One promising energy storage technology is the solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), which can both store electricity as chemical fuels (electrolysis mode) and convert fuels to electricity (fuel-cell mode). The widespread use of SOCs has been hindered by insufficient long-term stability, in particular at high current densities. Here we demonstrate that severe electrolysis-induced degradation, which was previously believed to be irreversible, can be completely eliminated by reversibly cycling between electrolysis and fuel-cell modes, similar to a rechargeable battery. Performing steam electrolysis continuously at high current density (1 A cm(-2)), initially at 1.33 V (97% energy efficiency), led to severe microstructure deterioration near the oxygen-electrode/electrolyte interface and a corresponding large increase in ohmic resistance. After 4,000 h of reversible cycling, however, no microstructural damage was observed and the ohmic resistance even slightly improved. The results demonstrate the viability of applying SOCs for renewable electricity storage at previously unattainable reaction rates, and have implications for our fundamental understanding of degradation mechanisms that are usually assumed to be irreversible. PMID:25532070

Graves, Christopher; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

2015-02-01

144

Cycle life test of secondary spacecraft cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the life cycling program on rechargeable calls are reported. Information on required data, the use of which the data will be put, application details, including orbital description, charge control methods, load rquirements, etc., are given. Cycle tests were performed on 660 sealed, nickel cadmium cells. The cells consisted of seven sample classifications ranging form 3.0 to 20 amp. hours. Nickel cadmium, silver cadmium, and silver zinc sealed cells, excluding synchronous orbit and accelerated test packs were added. The capacities of the nickel cadmium cells, the silver cadmium and the silver zinc cells differed in range of amp hrs. The cells were cylced under different load, charge control, and temperature conditions. All cell packs are recharged by use of a pack voltage limit. All charging is constant current until the voltage limit is reached.

Harkness, J. D.

1980-01-01

145

The Sodium Exposure Test Cell to determine operating parameters for AMTEC electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Exposure Test Cell (SETC) is a non-power producing cell which has been developed to evaluate and test components of the electrochemical cell in an Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter. Performance and time dependence of performance of the electrode and the electrolyte in AMTEC cells can be tested in an SETC, and performance parameters which correlate with those taken from AMTEC operation can be calculated from data taken in an SETC. The components of the AMTEC electrochemical cell which are evaluated in an SETC are the electrode, {beta}{double{underscore}prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), the current collection network, and the containment. The components are held in low pressure sodium vapor at a temperature which reflects their operating conditions in an AMTEC device, and operating parameters determined. Electrodes and BASE are evaluated by measuring current-voltage (IV) characteristics and using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Using these techniques, electrode performance parameters such as the exchange current (B), the morphology factor (G), and contact resistance between electrode and current collection network can be determined. The ionic conductivity (s) of BASE can also be determined. IV curves and EIS measurements are made at intervals over periods of several hundreds of hours in order to evaluate degradation of AMTEC electrochemical cell components. Electrode and BASE are analyzed after an SETC experiment using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction. These techniques allow evaluation of interaction of materials and changes in the composition and structure of materials. The purpose of these experiments is determination of the changes of operating parameters as a function of time in order to predict the operating lifetime of AMTEC cells.

Ryan, M.A.; Williams, R.M.; Lara, L.; Cortez, R.H.; Homer, M.L.; Shields, V.B.; Miller, J.; Manatt, K.S.

1998-07-01

146

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cycle life tests to determine the performance capabilities of packs of cells under different loads and temperature conditions are reported. Results are summarized, and the failure of 14 failed cells is analyzed. It was found that the main cause of failure was separator deterioration and migration of the negative plate material.

Harkness, J. D.

1975-01-01

147

Support tube for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a compound having a fluorite-like structure comprising a solid solution having the general formula [(ZrO.sub.2).sub.1-x (MO.sub.s).sub.x ].sub.1-y [(La.sub.m A.sub.1-m).sub.2-z (Mn.sub.n B.sub.1-n).sub.z O.sub.r ].sub.y where MO.sub.5 is an oxide selected from the group consisting of calcia, yttria, rare earth oxides, and mixtures thereof, x is about 0.1 to 0.3, y is about 0.005 to about 0.06, z is about 0.1 to about 1.9, A is yttrium, rare earth element, alkaline earth element, or mixture thereof, B is iron, nickel, cobalt, or mixture thereof, m is 0.3 to 1, n is 0.5 to 1, and r is 2 to 4. A porous tube made from such a composition can be coated with an electrically conducting mixed oxide electrode such as lanthanum manganite, and can be used in making high temperature electrochemical cells such as solid electrolyte fuel cells.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Rossing, Barry R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01

148

Air electrode material for high temperature electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a solid solution with a perovskite-like crystal structure having the general formula La.sub.1-x-w (M.sub.L).sub.x (Ce).sub.w (M.sub.S1).sub.1-y (M.sub.S2).sub.y O.sub.3 where M.sub.L is Ca, Sr, Ba, or mixtures thereof, M.sub.S1 is Mn, Cr, or mixtures thereof and M.sub.S2 is Ni, Fe, Co, Ti, Al, In, Sn, Mg, Y, Nb, Ta, or mixtures thereof, w is about 0.05 to about 0.25, x+w is about 0.1 to about 0.7, and y is 0 to about 0.5. In the formula, M.sub.L is preferably Ca, w is preferably 0.1 to 0.2, x+w is preferably 0.4 to 0.7, and y is preferably 0. The solid solution can be used in an electrochemical cell where it more closely matches the thermal expansion characteristics of the support tube and electrolyte of the cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1985-01-01

149

Selective analysis of secondary amino acids in gelatin using pulsed electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

A method was developed for selective analysis of the secondary amino acids proline and 4-hydroxyproline from gelatin hydrolysates using anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography followed by integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPLC-IPAD). An extraction scheme was implemented prior to HPLC-IPAD analysis to isolate the secondary amino acids by the removal of primary amino acids through derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde followed by solid-phase extraction with C18 packed columns. The use of the IPAD technique eliminated the need for a second derivatization step to detect secondary amino acids. The removal of interfering primary amino acids prior to chromatographic analysis allowed the use of isocratic mobile-phase conditions to achieve effective and efficient separation of the amino acids. This led to a more precise and accurate quantitation of their content in gelatin hydrolysates. Detection limits approach 10 parts per billion ( approximately 2 pmol/injection) with a chromatographic analysis time under 8 min. The ratios of secondary amino acids, in addition to their abundances, were used to distinguish gelatin manufactured from bovine, porcine, and fish raw material sources. PMID:17683165

Russell, Jason D; Dolphin, John M; Koppang, Miles D

2007-09-01

150

Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided. 17 figures.

Tuller, H.L.; Kramer, S.A.; Spears, M.A.

1995-04-04

151

Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells  

E-print Network

We present theoretical models for the time-dependent voltage of an electrochemical cell in response to a current step, including effects of diffuse charge (or “space charge”) near the electrodes on Faradaic reaction kinetics. ...

van Soestbergen, M.

152

Electrochemical in situ reaction cell for X-ray scattering, diffraction and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A versatile electrochemical in situ reaction cell for long-term hard X-ray experiments on battery electrodes is described. Applications include the small-angle scattering, diffraction and absorption spectroscopy of lithium manganese oxide electrodes. PMID:12824932

Braun, A; Shrout, S; Fowlks, A C; Osaisai, B A; Seifert, S; Granlund, E; Cairns, E J

2003-07-01

153

Direct In Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells  

E-print Network

The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood ...

Toh, Rou Jun

154

Polymer based biosensor for rapid electrochemical detection of virus infection of human cells.  

PubMed

The demand in the field of medical diagnostics for simple, cost efficient and disposable devices is growing. Here, we present a label free, all-polymer electrochemical biosensor for detection of acute viral disease. The dynamics of a viral infection in human cell culture was investigated in a micro fluidic system on conductive polymer PEDOT:TsO microelectrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and video time lapse microscopy. Employing this sensitive, real time electrochemical technique, we could measure the immediate cell response to cytomegalovirus, and detect an infection within 3h, which is several hours before the cytopathic effect is apparent with conventional imaging techniques. Atomic force microscopy and scanning ion conductance microscopy imaging consolidate the electrochemical measurements by demonstrating early virus induced changes in cell morphology of apparent programmed cell death. PMID:21840702

Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Poulsen, Claus R; Jain, Titoo; Rozlosnik, Noemi

2011-10-15

155

Photocured Gelled Electrolytes For Secondary Li Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Class of photocured polymers exhibiting lithium-ion conductivities greater than those of well-studied polymers based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) show promise as polymeric electrolytes in rechargeable lithium cells. Increase in conductivity occasioned by use of electrolytes, coupled with amenability of electrolytes to formation into uniform thin (less than 25 micrometers thick), wide films, expected to result in cells with power densities greater than 100 W h/kg and charge/discharge rates exceeding currents equal, in amperes, to ampere-hour ratings. All-solid-state lithium batteries containing these electrolytes used as high-power, high-rate rechargeable power sources in commercial and aerospace applications.

Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

1994-01-01

156

Electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde performance evaluation during STOIC 1989  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes flown by NOAA and NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) personnel during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility, Wrightwood, California, July 21 to August 1, 1989, exhibited highly similar ozone measurement precisions and accuracies even though considerably different methods were used by the two research groups in preparing the instruments for use and in calibrating the instruments. The Table Mountain data as well as data obtained in the past showed the precisions to range from about ±3 to ±12% in the troposphere, remain relatively constant at ±3% in the stratosphere to 10 mbar, then decrease to about ±10% at 4-mbar pressure altitude. Corresponding ozone measurement accuracies for individual ozonesonde soundings were estimated to be about ±6% near the ground, decrease to -7 to 17% in the high troposphere where ozone concentrations are low, increase to about ±5% in the low stratosphere and remain so to an altitude of about 10 mbar (˜32 km), then decrease to -14 to 6% at 4 mbar (˜38 km) where ozone concentrations are again low. Stratospheric ozone measurements were also made during STOIC with ground-based lidars and a microwave radiometer that will be used for ozone measurements in the future at sites of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The ECC ozonesonde observations provided useful comparison data for evaluating the performance of the lidar and microwave instruments.

Komhyr, W. D.; Barnes, R. A.; Brothers, G. B.; Lathrop, J. A.; Opperman, D. P.

1995-05-01

157

Life testing of secondary Ag-Zn cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing on a variety of secondary silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells has continued at MSFC for the past six years. The latest test involves a 350 amp/hr cell design that was cycled for 12 months and has undergone approximately 5400 low-earth-orbit cycles as well as 12 deep discharges. This test is not only a life test of these cells, but it also addresses different methods of storing the cells between deep discharges. Also, impedance measurements are made on one of the packs during periodic deep discharges. It is hoped that this will give a good correlation between the health of a cell and its impedance.

Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Doreswamy, Rajiv

1991-01-01

158

Secondary antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplants.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) constitute a leading cause of morbidity and infection-related mortality among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. With the use of secondary prophylaxis, a history of IFI is not an absolute contraindication to allo-HSCT. However, still, IFI recurrence remains a risk factor for transplant-related mortality. In this study, of the 105 children undergoing HSCT between April 2010 and February 2013, 10 patients who had IFI history before transplantation and had undergone allo-HSCT were evaluated retrospectively to investigate results of secondary prophylaxis. In conclusion, our study shows that amphotericin B and caspofungin was successful as secondary antifungal prophylaxis agents with no relapse of IFI. In addition, after engraftment, secondary prophylaxis was continued with voriconazole orally in 4 patients that yielded good results. PMID:25522351

Azik, Fatih M; Tezer, Hasan; Parlakay, Aslinur O; Aksu, Tekin; Bayram, Cengiz; Fettah, Ali; Tavil, Betül; Tunç, Bahattin

2015-01-01

159

J. Electrochem. Soc., in press (1998) MicroMacroscopic Coupled Modeling of Batteries and Fuel Cells  

E-print Network

Cells Part 1. Model Development C.Y. Wang 1 and W.B. Gu Department of Mechanical Engineering materials and interface morphology and chemistry, has been developed for advanced batteries and fuel cells. Electrochemical cells considered consist of three phases: a solid matrix (electrode material or separator

Wang, Chao-Yang

160

Algorithm Development for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Diagnostics in PEM Fuel Cells  

E-print Network

Algorithm Development for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Diagnostics in PEM Fuel Cells Abstract The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to identify fuel cell faults using-board fuel cell diagnostic hardware. Impedance can identify faults that cannot be identified solely by a drop

Victoria, University of

161

J. Electrochem. Soc., in press (1998) Micro-Macroscopic Coupled Modeling of Batteries and Fuel Cells  

E-print Network

Cells Part 1. Model Development C.Y. Wang1 and W.B. Gu Department of Mechanical Engineering and interface morphology and chemistry, has been developed for advanced batteries and fuel cells. Electrochemical cells considered consist of three phases: a solid matrix (electrode material or separator

Wang, Chao-Yang

162

Science Highlight December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell Model Catalyst  

E-print Network

Science Highlight ­ December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising power sources since they can generate distribution network. Large-scale deployment of fuel cells, however, has been hampered by cost and performance

Wechsler, Risa H.

163

Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

2011-09-14

164

In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01.  

E-print Network

In Proc of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Symposium, 199th Electrochem.l Soc. Mtg, Washington DC, 3/01. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-FEED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS Z. H. Wang and C. Y. Wang Electrochemical methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Diffusion and convection of both gas and liquid phases are considered

Wang, Chao-Yang

165

In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.  

PubMed

Electrochemical cells, in the form of batteries (or supercapacitors) and fuel cells, are efficient devices for energy storage and conversion. These devices show considerable promise for use in portable and static devices to power electronics and various modes of transport and to produce and store electricity both locally and on the grid. For example, high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries are being developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles where they improve the efficiency of fuel use and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To gain insight into the chemical reactions involving the multiple components (electrodes, electrolytes, interfaces) in the electrochemical cells and to determine how cells operate and how they fail, researchers ideally should employ techniques that allow real-time characterization of the behavior of the cells under operating conditions. This Account reviews the recent use of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that probes local structure and dynamics, to study these devices. In situ NMR studies of lithium-ion batteries are performed on the entire battery, by using a coin cell design, a flat sealed plastic bag, or a cylindrical cell. The battery is placed inside the NMR coil, leads are connected to a potentiostat, and the NMR spectra are recorded as a function of state of charge. (7)Li is used for many of these experiments because of its high sensitivity, straightforward spectral interpretation, and relevance to these devices. For example, (7)Li spectroscopy was used to detect intermediates formed during electrochemical cycling such as LixC and LiySiz species in batteries with carbon and silicon anodes, respectively. It was also used to observe and quantify the formation and growth of metallic lithium microstructures, which can cause short circuits and battery failure. This approach can be utilized to identify conditions that promote dendrite formation and whether different electrolytes and additives can help prevent dendrite formation. The in situ method was also applied to monitor (by (11)B NMR) electrochemical double-layer formation in supercapacitors in real time. Though this method is useful, it comes with challenges. The separation of the contributions from the different cell components in the NMR spectra is not trivial because of overlapping resonances. In addition, orientation-dependent NMR interactions, including the spatial- and orientation-dependent bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) effects, can lead to resonance broadening. Efforts to understand and mitigate these BMS effects are discussed in this Account. The in situ NMR investigation of fuel cells initially focused on the surface electrochemistry at the electrodes and the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and CO to CO2 on the Pt cathode. On the basis of the (13)C and (195)Pt NMR spectra of the adsorbates and electrodes, CO adsorbed on Pt and other reaction intermediates and complete oxidation products were detected and their mode of binding to the electrodes investigated. Appropriate design and engineering of the NMR hardware has allowed researchers to integrate intact direct methanol fuel cells into NMR probes. Chemical transformations of the circulating methanol could be followed and reaction intermediates could be detected in real time by either (2)H or (13)C NMR spectroscopy. By use of the in situ NMR approach, factors that control fuel cell performance, such as methanol cross over and catalyst performance, were identified. PMID:24041242

Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

2013-09-17

166

Non-Kinetic Losses Caused by Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented non-kinetic losses in PEM fuel cells under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support. The cathode with carbon-supported Pt catalyst was prepared and characterized with potential hold at 1.2 V vs. SHE in PEM fuel cells. Irreversible losses caused by carbon corrosion were evaluated using a variety of electrochemical characterizations including cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization technique. Ohmic losses at the cathode with potential hold were determined using its capacitive responses. Concentration losses in PEM fuel cells were analyzed in terms of Tafel behavior and thin film/flooded-agglomerate dynamics.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-05-01

167

Electrochemical immunoassay on expression of integrin ?1 on tumor cells and drug-resistant tumor cells.  

PubMed

An electrochemical indirect competitive immunoassay protocol as a promising cytosensing strategy was developed to detect integrin ?1 expression on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 (MCF-7/ADR) cells and quantify the cell number. Integrin ?5?1 was adsorbed on the gold-nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode to bind integrin ?1 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD29 mAb). A sandwich structure was then formed using nanocomposites which consisted of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-antibody and gold nanoparticles. HRP bound on the electrode surface could cause an amperometric response of the hydroquinone-H(2)O(2) system. The assembly of the sandwich structure was inhibited by tumor cells to give decreased enzyme-catalytic signals due to the capture of anti-CD29 mAb by integrin ?1 on cell membranes. Under optimal conditions the relative current change (S) was proportional to the cell concentration from 1.6 × 10(3) to 2.0 × 10(6) cells mL(-1) with a detection limit of 700 cells mL(-1). Integrin ?1 expression in MCF-7/ADR cells was found to be significantly higher than that in MCF-7 cells, indicating the increased adhesion ability of MCF-7/ADR cells. PMID:22776180

Zhou, Bei; Xiao, Xiuli; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Lian; Tan, Liang; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Youyu; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

2012-01-01

168

Performance characteristics of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State of art ambient temperature secondary lithium cells were evaluated to determine their performance capability and limitations and to assess the present status of the technology of these cells. Li-MoS2, Li-NbSe3 and Li-TiS2 cells were evaluated for their charge/discharge characteristics, rate capability, and cycle life performance. The cells evaluated have a cycle life of 100-250 cycles at moderate discharge rates (C/5). The specific energy of these cells is between 50 and 100 Wh/Kg, depending upon the system. This paper describes the details of the cell designs, the test procedures, and the results of the evaluation studies.

Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D.; Subbarao, S.; Whitcanack, L.; Halpert, G.

1988-01-01

169

Method and device for the detection of phenol and related compounds. [in an electrochemical cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described which permits the selective oxidation and potentiometric detection of phenol and related compounds in an electrochemical cell. An anode coated with a gel immobilized oxidative enzyme and a cathode are each placed in an electrolyte solution. The potential of the cell is measured by a potentiometer connected to the electrodes.

Schiller, J. G.; Liu, C. C. (inventors)

1979-01-01

170

Electrochemical models for the discharge characteristics of the nickel cadmium cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential time characteristics of a preconditioned fully charged cell discharge at constant current was studied. Electrochemical principles applied to the sealed nickel cadmium cell and its behavior and to predict operating characteristics were described. A thermodynamic approach to arrive at several related but different equations and its discharge are reported.

Spritzer, M. S.

1981-01-01

171

Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this demonstration, the students use their knowledge of electrochemistry to determine that tarnish can be removed from silverware by electrochemically converting it back to silver using items commonly available in the kitchen: aluminum foil and baking soda. In addition to using this system as an example of a galvanic cell, an electrolytic cell

Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T.

2008-01-01

172

Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors

Uthamalingam Balachandran; Roger B. Poeppel; Mark S. Kleefisch; Thaddeus P. Kobylinski; Carl A. Udovich

1994-01-01

173

Electrochemical characteristics of acid electrolytes for fuel cells. Annual report, January 1, 1989-December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Five topics investigated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) contractors at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) during the past year included: (1) electrochemical evaluation of perfluorinated electrolyte, (2) the Nafion solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell, (3) electrochemistry of single crystal Pt electrodes in acid solution, (4) catalytic effects of adatoms entrapped on electrode surfaces by bipolar or monopolar ion exchange membrane layers, (5) investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons phenomenon. The principal objective of the project is to evaluate new acid electrolytes. Electrochemical evaluation was made for two bis-phosphonic acids as a replacement for phosphoric acid as a fuel cell electrolyte, and also a bis-sulfonyl carbon acid as an additive to concentrated phosphoric acid electrolyte for acid H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel cells. Electrochemical characteristics were found for these new perfluorinated acids.

Adzic, R.; Gervasio, D.; Kanamura, K.; Razaq, A.; Razaq, M.

1990-01-31

174

Effects of nanopatterned RGD peptide layer on electrochemical detection of neural cell chip.  

PubMed

The cell-based chip is becoming a popular tool for monitoring living cell viability under various conditions. In this study, several biomaterials, such as synthetic Cys-(Arg-Gly-Asp)(4) (C(RGD)(4)), Arg-Gly-Asp-Multi Armed-Cys (RGD-MAP-C) peptide, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) nano-dots were fabricated on the gold surface of a neural cell chip. The material-dependent effects both on electrochemical signal detection in neural cells and on cellular adhesion were analyzed. The nano-dot structures were fabricated through a nanoporous alumina mask, and the structural formations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PC12 cells were allowed to attach on several peptide nanopatterned surfaces, and electrochemical tools were applied to neural cells attached on the chip surface. The RGD-MAP-C peptide nanopatterned surface provided the strongest voltammetric signals when the cell was exposed to cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) after 48 h of incubation, which may largely be due to an enhanced affinity between cells and the Au surface. Chemical toxicity assessments were conducted in the fabricated cell chip, and they showed negative correlations between neural cell viability and the concentration of chemicals. In conclusion, a nanopatterned RGD-MAP-C layer improved cell-binding affinity to Au substrates and showed sufficient sensitivity for electrochemical detection of cell viability. PMID:20709522

Kafi, Md Abdul; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Yea, Cheol-Heon; Kim, Hyuncheol; Choi, Jeong-Woo

2010-12-15

175

A zoom into the nanoscale texture of secondary cell walls  

PubMed Central

Background Besides classical utilization of wood and paper, lignocellulosic biomass has become increasingly important with regard to biorefinery, biofuel production and novel biomaterials. For these new applications the macromolecular assembly of cell walls is of utmost importance and therefore further insights into the arrangement of the molecules on the nanolevel have to be gained. Cell wall recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation is one of the key issues, since an efficient degradation of lignocellulosic plant material is probably the most crucial step in plant conversion to energy. A limiting factor for in-depth analysis is that high resolution characterization techniques provide structural but hardly chemical information (e.g. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)), while chemical characterization leads to a disassembly of the cell wall components or does not reach the required nanoscale resolution (Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy). Results Here we use for the first time Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM in reflection mode) on secondary plant cell walls and reveal a segmented circumferential nanostructure. This pattern in the 100 nm range was found in the secondary cell walls of a softwood (spruce), a hardwood (beech) and a grass (bamboo) and is thus concluded to be consistent among various plant species. As the nanostructural pattern is not visible in classical AFM height and phase images it is proven that the contrast is not due to changes in surfaces topography, but due to differences in the molecular structure. Conclusions Comparative analysis of model substances of casted cellulose nanocrystals and spin coated lignin indicate, that the SNOM signal is clearly influenced by changes in lignin distribution or composition. Therefore and based on the known interaction of lignin and visible light (e.g. fluorescence and resonance effects), we assume the elucidated nanoscale structure to reflect variations in lignification within the secondary cell wall. PMID:24410854

2014-01-01

176

The effect of secondary impurities on solar cell performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Czochralski and float zone sigle crystals of silicon were doped with the primary impurities B or P so that a resistivity of 0.5 ohm cm resulted, and in addition doped with certain secondary impurities including Al, C, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, O, Ti, V, and Zr. The actual presence of these impurities was confirmed by analysis of the crystals. Solar cell performance was evaluated and found to be degraded most significantly by Ti, V, and Zr and to some extent by most of the secondary impurities considered. These results are of significance to the low cost silicon program, since any such process would have to yield at least tolerable levels of these impurities.

Hill, D. E.; Gutsche, H. W.; Wang, M. S.; Gupta, K. P.; Tucker, W. F.; Dowdy, J. D.; Crepin, R. J.

1976-01-01

177

Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

2010-11-23

178

Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

2010-03-02

179

High strength porous support tubes for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having an electrode and a solid electrolyte disposed on a porous, sintered support material containing thermally stabilized zirconia powder particles and from about 3 wt. % to about 45 wt. % of thermally stable oxide fibers.

Rossing, Barry R. (Churchill, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills, PA)

1986-01-01

180

[Cu(bpy)(P^P)]? containing light-emitting electrochemical cells: improving performance through simple substitution.  

PubMed

Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) containing [Cu(POP)(N^N)][PF6] (POP = bis(2-diphenylphosphinophenyl)ether, N^N = 6-methyl- or 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) exhibit luminance and efficiency surpassing previous copper(I)-containing LECs. PMID:25294297

Keller, Sarah; Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Neuburger, Markus; Prescimone, Alessandro; Longo, Giulia; Pertegás, Antonio; Sessolo, Michele; Bolink, Henk J

2014-11-28

181

Concentration of carbon dioxide by a high-temperature electrochemical membrane cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator has emerged over the last few years as the best technique for carbon dioxide control in a manned spacecraft. Preliminary investigations have shown that the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) can be successfully converted into a molten carbonate CO2 concentrator (MCCDC) for CO2 removal from a space-cabin [1]. The present investigation involved studying the MCCDC

M. P. Kang; J. Winnick

1985-01-01

182

Characterization of microbial fuel cells at microbially and electrochemically meaningful time scales.  

PubMed

The variable biocatalyst density in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode biofilm is a unique feature of MFCs relative to other electrochemical systems, yet performance characterizations of MFCs typically involve analyses at electrochemically relevant time scales that are insufficient to account for these variable biocatalyst effects. This study investigated the electrochemical performance and the development of anode biofilm architecture under different external loadings, with duplicate acetate-fed single-chamber MFCs stabilized at each resistance for microbially relevant time scales. Power density curves from these steady-state reactors generally showed comparable profiles despite the fact that anode biofilm architectures and communities varied considerably, showing that steady-state biofilm differences had little influence on electrochemical performance until the steady-state external loading was much larger than the reactor internal resistance. Filamentous bacteria were dominant on the anodes under high external resistances (1000 and 5000 ?), while more diverse rod-shaped cells formed dense biofilms under lower resistances (10, 50, and 265 ?). Anode charge transfer resistance decreased with decreasing fixed external resistances, but was consistently 2 orders of magnitude higher than the resistance at the cathode. Cell counting showed an inverse exponential correlation between cell numbers and external resistances. This direct link of MFC anode biofilm evolution with external resistance and electricity production offers several operational strategies for system optimization. PMID:21329346

Ren, Zhiyong; Yan, Hengjing; Wang, Wei; Mench, Matthew M; Regan, John M

2011-03-15

183

The Effect of Supplementing Instruction with Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Conceptions of Electrochemical Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of instruction supplemented by conceptual change texts (CCTs) over traditional instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The participants of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school located in…

Yuruk, Nejla

2007-01-01

184

Free Energies of Formation Measurements on Solid-State Electrochemical Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment is proposed that can provide the student with some insight into the chemical properties of solids. It also demonstrates the relationship between the Gibbs free energy of formation of an ionic solid and the emf of an electrochemical cell. (DF)

Rollino, J. A.; Aronson, S.

1972-01-01

185

Conceptual Change Text: A Supplementary Material To Facilitate Conceptual Change in Electrochemical Cell Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change text (CCT) oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on students' understanding of electrochemical (galvanic and electrolytic) cell concepts. The subjects of the study consisted of 64 students from the two classes of a high school in Turkey.…

Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

186

An electrochemical-based fuel-cell model suitable for electrical engineering automation approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a dynamic electrochemical model for representation, simulation, and evaluation of performance of small size generation systems emphasizing particularly proton exchange membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stacks. The results of the model are used to predict the output voltage, efficiency, and power of FCs as a function of the actual load current and of the constructive and operational parameters of

Jeferson M. Corrêa; Felix A. Farret; Luciane N. Canha; Marcelo G. Simões

2004-01-01

187

Electrochemically Deposited Cadmium Electrode for Sealed Ni-cd Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation into the work on electrochemical cadmium deposition processes is describred. A beaker impregnation system is constructed to investigate the practical limits of loading and the effect of various process parameters. Reasonably high loadings of cadmium are obtained and the process appears amenable to tight control and the production of uniform consistent electrodes. A pilot impregnation facility is built to further investigate electrodeposition processes. Both the inert anode and consummable anode processes are investigated. Results of this evaluation and an analysis of associated problems are presented.

Houston, W. H.; Edgar, T. A.

1984-01-01

188

Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode (16), contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer (26), and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer (26) attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO.sub.3 particles (30), doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure (32) between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles (30).

Pal, Uday B. (Cambridge, MA); Isenberg, Arnold O. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1992-01-01

189

Membrane with internal passages to permit fluid flow and an electrochemical cell containing the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention provides an improved proton exchange membrane for use in electrochemical cells having internal passages parallel to the membrane surface, an apparatus and process for making the membrane, membrane and electrode assemblies fabricated using the membrane, and the application of the membrane and electrode assemblies to a variety of devices, both electrochemical and otherwise. The passages in the membrane extend from one edge of the membrane to another and allow fluid flow through the membrane and give access directly to the membrane for purposes of hydration.

Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

190

Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

1992-01-14

191

Cellulose synthesis in two secondary cell wall processes in a single cell type  

PubMed Central

Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that constrains internal turgor pressure yet extends in a regulated and organized manner to allow the cell to acquire shape. The primary load-bearing macromolecule of a plant cell wall is cellulose, which forms crystalline microfibrils that are organized with respect to a cell's function and shape requirements. A primary cell wall is deposited during expansion whereas secondary cell wall is synthesized post expansion during differentiation. A complex form of asymmetrical cellular differentiation occurs in Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells, where we have recently shown that two secondary cell wall processes occur that utilize different cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins. One process is to produce pectinaceous mucilage that expands upon hydration and the other is a radial wall thickening that reinforced the epidermal cell structure. Our data illustrate polarized specialization of CESA5 in facilitating mucilage attachment to the parent seed and CESA2, CESA5 and CESA9 in radial cell wall thickening and formation of the columella. Herein, we present a model for the complexity of cellulose biosynthesis in this highly differentiated cell type with further evidence supporting each cellulosic secondary cell wall process. PMID:22057330

Mendu, Venugopal; Stork, Jozsef; Harris, Darby; DeBolt, Seth

2011-01-01

192

Characterizing Ion Profiles in Dynamic Junction Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells  

SciTech Connect

Organic semiconductors have the unique ability to conduct both ionic and electronic charge carriers in thin films, an emerging advantage in applications such as light-emitting devices, transistors, and electrochromic devices, among others. Evidence suggests that the profiles of ions and electrochemical doping in the polymer film during operation significantly impact the performance and stability of the device. However, few studies have directly characterized ion profiles within LECs. Here, we present profiles of ion distributions in LECs following application of voltage, via time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Ion distributions were characterized with regard to film thickness, salt concentration, applied voltage, and relaxation over time. Results provide insight into the correlation between ion profiles and device performance, as well as potential approaches to tuning electrochemical doping processes in LECs.

Shoji, Tyko D.; Zhu, Zihua; Leger, Janelle M.

2013-11-27

193

Electrochemical studies on niobium triselenide cathode material for lithium rechargeable cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrochemical behavior of NbSe3 in the battery electrolyte 1.5M LiAsF6/2Me-THF is reported. A detailed study has been carried out using various ac and dc electrochemical techniques to establish the mechanism of intercalation of three equivalents of Li with NbSe3 as well as the rate governing processes in the reduction of NbSe3. An equivalent circuit has been formulated to represent the NbSe3-solution interface. The kinetic parameters for the reduction of NbSe3 were evaluated from the ac and dc measurements. The structural change in NbSe3 on lithiation during initial discharge which results in higher cell voltages and different electrochemical response as compared to virgin NbSe3 was identified to be a loss of crystallographic order.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Ni, C. L.; Di Stefano, S.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

194

Electrochemical Reconstitution of Biomolecules for Applications as Electrocatalysts for the Bionanofuel Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Platinum-cored ferritins were synthesized as electrocatalysts by electrochemical biomineralization of immobilized apoferritin with platinum. The platinum cored ferritin was fabricated by exposing the immobilized apoferritin to platinum ions at a reduction potential. On the platinum-cored ferritin, oxygen is reduced to water with four protons and four electrons generated from the anode. The ferritin acts as a nano-scale template, a biocompatible cage, and a separator between the nanoparticles. This results in a smaller catalyst loading of the electrodes for fuel cells or other electrochemical devices. In addition, the catalytic activity of the ferritin-stabilized platinum nanoparticles is enhanced by the large surface area and particle size phenomena. The work presented herein details the immobilization of ferritin with various surface modifications, the electrochemical biomineralization of ferritin with different inorganic cores, and the fabrication of self-assembled 2-D arrays with thiolated ferritin.

Kim, Jae-Woo; Choi, Sang H.; Lillehei, Peter T.; King, Glen C.; Watt, Gerald D.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; Thibeault, Sheila

2004-01-01

195

Coupling of a scanning flow cell with online electrochemical mass spectrometry for screening of reaction selectivity.  

PubMed

In this work the online coupling of a miniaturized electrochemical scanning flow cell (SFC) to a mass spectrometer is introduced. The system is designed for the determination of reaction products in dependence of the applied potential and/or current regime as well as fast and automated change of the sample. The reaction products evaporate through a hydrophobic PTFE membrane into a small vacuum probe, which is positioned only 50-100 ?m away from the electrode surface. The probe is implemented into the SFC and directly connected to the mass spectrometer. This unique configuration enables fast parameter screening for complex electrochemical reactions, including investigation of operation conditions, composition of electrolyte, and material composition. The technical developments of the system are validated by initial measurements of hydrogen evolution during water electrolysis and electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various products, showcasing the high potential for systematic combinatorial screening by this approach. PMID:25362419

Grote, Jan-Philipp; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Cherevko, Serhiy; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

2014-10-01

196

Coupling of a scanning flow cell with online electrochemical mass spectrometry for screening of reaction selectivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the online coupling of a miniaturized electrochemical scanning flow cell (SFC) to a mass spectrometer is introduced. The system is designed for the determination of reaction products in dependence of the applied potential and/or current regime as well as fast and automated change of the sample. The reaction products evaporate through a hydrophobic PTFE membrane into a small vacuum probe, which is positioned only 50-100 ?m away from the electrode surface. The probe is implemented into the SFC and directly connected to the mass spectrometer. This unique configuration enables fast parameter screening for complex electrochemical reactions, including investigation of operation conditions, composition of electrolyte, and material composition. The technical developments of the system are validated by initial measurements of hydrogen evolution during water electrolysis and electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various products, showcasing the high potential for systematic combinatorial screening by this approach.

Grote, Jan-Philipp; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R.; Cherevko, Serhiy; Mayrhofer, Karl J. J.

2014-10-01

197

Elementary reaction modeling of solid oxide electrolysis cells: Main zones for heterogeneous chemical/electrochemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model of solid oxide electrolysis cells considering the heterogeneous elementary reactions, electrochemical reactions and the transport process of mass and charge is applied to study the relative performance of H2O electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis and CO2/H2O co-electrolysis and the competitive behavior of heterogeneous chemical and electrochemical reactions. In cathode, heterogeneous chemical reactions exist near the outside surface and the electrochemical reactions occur near the electrolyte. According to the mathematical analysis, the mass transfer flux D ?c determines the main zone size of heterogeneous chemical reactions, while the charge transfer flux ? ?V determines the other one. When the zone size of heterogeneous chemistry is enlarged, more CO2 could react through heterogeneous chemical pathway, and polarization curves of CO2/H2O co-electrolysis could be prone to H2O electrolysis. Meanwhile, when the zone size of electrochemistry is enlarged, more CO2 could react through electrochemical pathway, and polarization curves of CO2/H2O co-electrolysis could be prone to CO2 electrolysis. The relative polarization curves, the ratio of CO2 participating in electrolysis and heterogeneous chemical reactions, the mass and charge transfer flux and heterogeneous chemical/electrochemical reaction main zones are simulated to study the effects of cathode material characteristics (porosity, particle diameter and ionic conductivity) and operating conditions (gas composition and temperature).

Li, Wenying; Shi, Yixiang; Luo, Yu; Cai, Ningsheng

2015-01-01

198

Single cells and intracellular processes studied by a plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a crucial tool for the detection and study of various biological substances, from DNA and proteins to viruses and bacteria. It does not require any labelling species, and methods based on it have been developed to study cellular processes (such as cell spreading, adhesion, invasion, toxicology and mobility). However, data have so far lacked spatial information, which is essential for investigating heterogeneous processes and imaging high-throughput microarrays. Here, we report an electrochemical impedance microscope based on surface plasmon resonance that resolves local impedance with submicrometre spatial resolution. We have used an electrochemical impedance microscope to monitor the dynamics of cellular processes (apoptosis and electroporation of individual cells) with millisecond time resolution. The high spatial and temporal resolution makes it possible to study individual cells, but also resolve subcellular structures and processes without labels, and with excellent detection sensitivity (~2 pS). We also describe a model that simulates cellular and electrochemical impedance microscope images based on local dielectric constant and conductivity.

Wang, Wei; Foley, Kyle; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Eaton, Seron; Nagaraj, Vinay J.; Wiktor, Peter; Patel, Urmez; Tao, Nongjian

2011-03-01

199

A membrane free electrochemical cell using porous flow-through graphite felt electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the development and characterisation of an electrochemical cell which can be used to give high reactant\\u000a conversion without the need for a membrane. The undivided cell uses two high porosity flow-through graphite felt electrodes,\\u000a with the products flowing through the back of each electrode. A series of tests have been conducted using an equimolar mixture\\u000a of potassium

Chul Bae; Harun Chakrabarti; Edward Roberts

2008-01-01

200

Breeding phenomenon of nickel in anode of solid oxide fuel cell via electrochemical reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was constructed with NiO\\/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) as anode supported substrate, with YSZ electrolyte, and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) cathode. Here, we show a novel phenomenon of that original Ni grains of micron-scale size in anode of SOFC can be segregated to form nano grains by electrochemical reaction at 800°C. This breeding function can enhance cell

Chun-Hsiu Wang; Maw-Chwain Lee; Ta-Jen Huang; Yang-Chuang Chang; Wei-Xin Kao; Tai-Nan Lin

2009-01-01

201

Electrochemical polymerization of tetra-(4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin for organic solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical oxidation of tetrakis-5,10,15,20-(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (THPP) on ITO electrodes was carried out. It leads to a uniform polymeric film (poly-THPP) with a nanostructured morphology. Poly-THPP electrodes as a bilayer organic solar cell and bulk heterojunction solar cells are investigated. The device with Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) integrated bilayer shows a modest photoactivity.

Veerender, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Jha, P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

2012-06-01

202

Electrochemical Gating of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Electricity-Producing Bacterial Cells of Shewanella  

PubMed Central

Energy-conversion systems mediated by bacterial metabolism have recently attracted much attention, and therefore, demands for tuning of bacterial metabolism are increasing. It is widely recognized that intracellular redox atmosphere which is generally tuned by dissolved oxygen concentration or by appropriate selection of an electron acceptor for respiration is one of the important factors determining the bacterial metabolism. In general, electrochemical approaches are valuable for regulation of redox-active objects. However, the intracellular redox conditions are extremely difficult to control electrochemically because of the presence of insulative phospholipid bilayer membranes. In the present work, the limitation can be overcome by use of the bacterial genus Shewanella, which consists of species that are able to respire via cytochromes abundantly expressed in their outer-membrane with solid-state electron acceptors, including anodes. The electrochemical characterization and the gene expression analysis revealed that the activity of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Shewanella cells can be reversibly gated simply by changing the anode potential. Importantly, our present results for Shewanella cells cultured in an electrochemical system under poised potential conditions showed the opposite relationship between the current and electron acceptor energy level, and indicate that this unique behavior originates from deactivation of the TCA cycle in the (over-)oxidative region. Our result obtained in this study is the first demonstration of the electrochemical gating of TCA cycle of living cells. And we believe that our findings will contribute to a deeper understanding of redox-dependent regulation systems in living cells, in which the intracellular redox atmosphere is a critical factor determining the regulation of various metabolic and genetic processes. PMID:23977370

Matsuda, Shoichi; Liu, Huan; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakanishi, Shuji

2013-01-01

203

Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1996-04-30

204

Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

205

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of a thin polymer film-based micro-direct methanol fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cell micro-direct methanol fuel cell (micro-DMFC) was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrodes consisted of thin, flexible polymer (SU8) film microchannel structures fabricated in-house using microfabrication techniques. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to separate contributions to the overall cell polarization from the anode, cathode and membrane. A clear distinction between the different electrochemical phenomena occurring in the

Tobias Schulz; Christian Weinmüller; Majid Nabavi; Dimos Poulikakos

2010-01-01

206

Electrochemical Encyclopedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a compendium of 44 articles in electrochemistry. The articles cover a number of different topics including electrochemical capacitors, the electrochemistry of plant life, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolytic capacitors.

2011-06-09

207

Electroporation followed by electrochemical measurement of quantal transmitter release from single cells using a patterned microelectrode  

PubMed Central

An electrochemical microelectrode located immediately adjacent to a single neuroendocrine cell can record spikes of amperometric current that result from exocytosis of oxidizable transmitter from individual vesicles, i.e., quantal exocytosis. Here, we report the development of an efficient method where the same electrochemical microelectrode is used to electropermeabilize an adjacent chromaffin cell and then measure the consequent quantal catecholamine release using amperometry. Trains of voltage pulses, 5–7 V in amplitude and 0.1–0.2 ms in duration, were used to reliably trigger release from cells using gold electrodes. Amperometric spikes induced by electropermeabilization had similar areas, peak heights and durations as amperometric spikes elicited by depolarizing high K+ solutions, therefore release occurs from individual secretory granules. Uptake of trypan blue stain into cells demonstrated that the plasma membrane is permeabilized by the voltage stimulus. Voltage pulses did not degrade the electrochemical sensitivity of the electrodes assayed using a test analyte. Surprisingly, robust quantal release was elicited upon electroporation in the absence of Ca2+ in the bath solution (0 Ca2+/5 mM EGTA). In contrast, electropermeabilization-induced transmitter release required Cl? in the bath solution in that bracketed experiments demonstrated a steep dependence of the rate of electropermeabilization-induced transmitter release on [Cl?] between 2 and 32 mM. Using the same electrochemical electrode to electroporate and record quantal release of catecholamines from an individual chromaffin cell allows precise timing of the stimulus, stimulation of a single cell at a time, and can be used to load membrane-impermeant substances into a cell. PMID:23598689

Ghosh, Jaya; Liu, Xin; Gillis, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

208

Current Collection Through The Ends Of A Spirally Wound Electrochemical Cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell, including a jelly-roll type electrode stack, and a method for making such cell. The electrochemical cell includes folded electrode portions which form a plane recessed from the end of the electrode stack. The folded electrode portions are preferably formed by making pairs of slits in the electrode end and bending over the electrode portions between each pair of slits. The recessed plane forms a large area to which a current collection tab is subsequently connected. A coating may be applied to the folded portions of the electrode to further increase the contact area with the current collection tab by eliminating the slight variations in the recessed plane which are due to the overlap of the folded electrode portions.

Oweis, Salah (Ellicott City, MD); Chagnon, Guy (Columbia, MD); Alunans, Peter (Baltimore, MD); Romero, Antonio (Parkton, MD)

1999-10-26

209

Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

2000-01-01

210

Electrochemical characterization of sub-micro-gram amounts of organic semiconductors using scanning droplet cell microscopy  

PubMed Central

Scanning droplet cell microscopy (SDCM) uses a very small electrolyte droplet at the tip of a capillary which comes in contact with the working electrode. This method is particularly interesting for studies on organic semiconductors since it provides localized electrochemical investigations with high reproducibility. One clear advantage of applying SDCM is represented by the very small amounts of material necessary (less than 1 mg). Organic materials can be investigated quickly and inexpensively in electrochemical studies with a high throughput. In the present study, thin layers of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), which is one of the most often used material for organic solar cells, were deposited on ITO/glass as working electrodes in SDCM studies. The redox reactions in 0.1 M tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) dissolved in propylene carbonate were studied by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two reversible, distinct oxidation steps of the P3HT were detected and their kinetics were studied in detail. The doping of P3HT increased due to the electrochemical oxidation and had resulted in a decrease of the film resistance by a few orders of magnitude. Due to localization on the sample various parameter combinations can be studied quantitatively and reproducibly. PMID:24926226

Gasiorowski, Jacek; Mardare, Andrei I.; Sariciftci, Niyazi S.; Hassel, Achim Walter

2013-01-01

211

Electrochemical characterization of sub-micro-gram amounts of organic semiconductors using scanning droplet cell microscopy.  

PubMed

Scanning droplet cell microscopy (SDCM) uses a very small electrolyte droplet at the tip of a capillary which comes in contact with the working electrode. This method is particularly interesting for studies on organic semiconductors since it provides localized electrochemical investigations with high reproducibility. One clear advantage of applying SDCM is represented by the very small amounts of material necessary (less than 1 mg). Organic materials can be investigated quickly and inexpensively in electrochemical studies with a high throughput. In the present study, thin layers of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), which is one of the most often used material for organic solar cells, were deposited on ITO/glass as working electrodes in SDCM studies. The redox reactions in 0.1 M tetra(n-butyl)ammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) dissolved in propylene carbonate were studied by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Two reversible, distinct oxidation steps of the P3HT were detected and their kinetics were studied in detail. The doping of P3HT increased due to the electrochemical oxidation and had resulted in a decrease of the film resistance by a few orders of magnitude. Due to localization on the sample various parameter combinations can be studied quantitatively and reproducibly. PMID:24926226

Gasiorowski, Jacek; Mardare, Andrei I; Sariciftci, Niyazi S; Hassel, Achim Walter

2013-02-15

212

Life testing of secondary silver-zinc cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing on a variety of secondary silver-zinc (Ag-Zn) cells has been in progress at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for over six years. The latest test involves a 350-Ah cell design that has been cycled at 10 C for 16 months. This design has achieved over 7200 low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycles as well as 17 deep discharges at an 85 percent depth of discharge. This test not only is a life test on these cells but also addresses different methods of storing these cells between the deep discharges. As the test is approaching completion, some interesting results are being seen. In particular, two of the four packs currently on test have failed to meet the 35-h (295-Ah) deep discharge requirement that was arbitrarily set at the beginning of the test. This capacity loss failure is likely a result of the storage method used on these two packs between deep discharges. The two packs are LEO cycled in such a way as to minimize overcharge in an attempt to prolong life.

Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Doreswamy, Rajiv

1991-01-01

213

Electrochemical cell apparatus having axially distributed entry of a fuel-spent fuel mixture transverse to the cell lengths  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing axially elongated electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one gaseous spent fuel exit channel, where the spent fuel exit channel passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet at a mixing apparatus, reformable fuel mixture channel passes through the length of the generator chamber and connects with the mixing apparatus, that channel containing entry ports within the generator chamber, where the axis of the ports is transverse to the fuel electrode surfaces, where a catalytic reforming material is distributed near the reformable fuel mixture entry ports. 2 figures.

Reichner, P.; Dollard, W.J.

1991-01-08

214

Spin released reservoir for electrochemical cells and like articles  

SciTech Connect

A reserve cell is described activated by spinning comprised of a cylindrical battery stack having a central well; a recess within the side of the well; piercing means arranged within the recess; an envelope of flexible liquid impervious membrane arranged within the well; and a liquid cell component contained within the well; and a liquid cell component contained within the envelope; whereupon spinning the cell about its axis causes part of the envelope to be forced into the recess where the envelope is ruptured by the piercing means, thereby releasing the liquid cell component from the envelope.

Boyle, G.H.; Corda, S.S.

1986-06-24

215

The Electrochemical Thermodynamics for Chemical Reactions in Dispersed Cells.  

PubMed

There is a large specific surface area in a dispersed cell, so much so that there are some notable differences in thermodynamic quantities for a chemical reaction in the cell because of the strong surface effect. The thermodynamic relations between the electromotive force (emf) and the dispersity of a cell and between each of thermodynamic properties and the dispersivity of the cell are derived, and the effects of degree of dispersion of substances in the cell on the emf and the thermodynamic properties are discussed. The results show that the emf, the equilibrium constant, the entropy for reaction, the heat of reaction, and the enthalpy of reaction vary with the dispersivities of the reactants or/and the products in the cell. And two new concepts, surface emf and dispersion cell, are put forward in this paper. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10441416

Yong-Qiang; Chun-Hui; Jin-Chuan

1999-09-01

216

Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

2012-04-01

217

System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series  

DOEpatents

A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

DeLuca, William H. (Naperville, IL); Hornstra, Jr, Fred (St. Charles, IL); Gelb, George H. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Berman, Baruch (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Moede, Larry W. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

1980-01-01

218

Nanocapillary electrophoretic electrochemical chip: towards analysis of biochemicals released by single cells.  

PubMed

A novel nanocapillary electrophoretic electrochemical (Nano-CEEC) chip has been developed to demonstrate the possibility of zeptomole-level detection of neurotransmitters released from single living cells. The chip integrates three subunits to collect and concentrate scarce neurotransmitters released from single PC-12 cells, including a pair of targeting electrodes for single cells captured by controlling the surface charge density; a dual-asymmetry electrokinetic flow device for sample collection, pre-concentration and separation in a nanochannel; and an online electrochemical detector for zeptomole-level sample detection. This Nano-CEEC chip integrates a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel for cell sampling and biomolecule separation and a silicon dioxide nanochannel for sample pre-concentration and amperometric detection. The cell-capture voltage ranges from 0.1 to 1.5 V with a frequency of 1-10 kHz for PC-12 cells, and the single cell-capture efficiency is optimized by varying the duration of the applied field. All of the processes, from cell sampling to neurotransmitter detection, can be completed within 15 min. Catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) released from coupled single cells, have been successfully detected using the Nano-CEEC chip. A detection limit of 30-75 zeptomoles was achieved, which is close to the levels released by a single neuron in vitro. PMID:23050079

Wu, Ren-Guei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Cheing, Ching-Chang; Tseng, Fan-Gang

2011-10-01

219

Transfected single-cell imaging by scanning electrochemical optical microscopy with shear force feedback regulation.  

PubMed

Gene-transfected single HeLa cells were characterized using a scanning electrochemical/optical microscope (SECM/OM) system with shear-force-based probe-sample distance regulation to simultaneously capture electrochemical, fluorescent, and topographic images. The outer and inner states of single living cells were obtained as electrochemical and fluorescent signals, respectively, by using an optical fiber-nanoelectrode probe. A focused ion beam (FIB) was used to mill the optical aperture and the ring electrode at the probe apex (the inner and outer radii of the ring electrode were 37 and 112 nm, respectively). To apply an appropriate shear force between the probe tip and the living cell surface, we optimized the amplitude of oscillation of the tuning fork to which the probe was attached. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) were adopted to drastically increase the feedback speed of the tip-sample distance regulation, shorten the scanning time for imaging, and enhance the accuracy and quality of the living cell images. In employing these improvements, we simultaneously measured the cellular expression activity of both secreted alkaline phosphatase outside and GFP inside by using the SECM/OM with shear force distance regulation. PMID:19883061

Takahashi, Yasufumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Murata, Tatsuya; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Matsue, Tomokazu

2009-12-01

220

Tracheary Element Differentiation Uses a Novel Mechanism Coordinating Programmed Cell Death and Secondary  

E-print Network

, interlacing secondary cell wall between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane. Secondary cell wall keratinocytes undergo a process of cornification that involves the synthesis of specialized keratin proteins and extensive protein cross-linking (Rice and Green, 1977). This process is coordinated with PCD (Polakowska et

Jones, Alan M.

221

Further observations on the phenomenon of secondary vacuolation in living cells.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of secondary vacuole movement is studied in living hair cells of Tradescantia virginiana. The pattern of movement of these vacuoles is found to be similar to that described by the author previously for organelles in cultured cells. Evidence is presented in support of the thesis that the occurrence and dynamics of secondary vacuoles is a common phenomenon for plant cells.

Mahlberg, P.

1972-01-01

222

Development of a bipolar cell for electrochemical production of lithium  

SciTech Connect

Lithium metal can be electrolytically refined from aqueous solutions of its compounds by partial reduction to form a lithium amalgam, followed by reduction of the amalgam to liquid lithium in a molten salt cell at 225 C. A bipolar cell (with a continuous, amalgam electrode circulating between the aqueous and salt cells) was designed, constructed and successfully tested on the bench scale, as a proof of principle of an efficient, safe and low-temperature alternative to existing processes.

Cooper, J.F.; Mack, G.; Peterman, K.; Weinland, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McKenzie, P. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1995-02-22

223

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Organic Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on Silole-Fluorene Derivatives  

E-print Network

Electrochemical Cells (LEC's) made from silole- fluorene copolymers 11a, 11b and molten salts show an improvement such as mobile phone, digital camera and other devices working with batteries, thanks to a lower energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Selective and quantitative nitrate electroreduction to ammonium using a porous copper electrode in an electrochemical flow cell  

E-print Network

1 Selective and quantitative nitrate electroreduction to ammonium using a porous copper electrode nitrate solutions to ammonium and which can be subsequently implemented on a large scale application: porous copper cathode; nitrates electroreduction; ammonium; electrochemical flow cell insu-01022586

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Electrochemical cell for facilitating hermeticity leakage testing of an electrical feedthrough  

SciTech Connect

An electrical feedthrough, including a metal ferrule, an electrical lead, a glass seal for centrally locating the electrical lead axially within ferrule, for electrically isolating the electrical lead from the ferrule and for hermetically sealing the feedthrough assembly, which further includes an injection molded insulating material extending between the ferrule and lead and a fluorocarbon washer positioned adjacent the inner surface of the glass seal. The fluorocarbon washer is capable of retaining helium and allows for the hermeticity leakage testing of the glass seal. Such a feedthrough is particularly useful in hermetically sealed electrochemical cells wherein the insulated portion of the feedthrough is placed in the cell and the uninsulated portion of the ferrule is welded to or forms the cell cover, and the electrical lead is electrically connected to cell components, such as the anode, within the cell. The hermeticity testing of the aforementioned cell is accomplished by constructing the electrical feedthrough with the teflon washer in position; attaching the feedthrough to the hermetically sealed cells; placing the completed electrochemical cell in a pressurized atmosphere of a test gas, such as helium, for a period of time to force the test gas through the glass seal into the chamber containing the fluorocarbon washer, whereby the fluorocarbon washer absorbs helium gas; and examining the electrochemical cell for leakage of any of the helium back out through the glass seal. Gross and fine leakage testing may be accomplished by respectively observing the escape of the test gas at atmospheric pressure and drawing a vacuum on the electrical feedthrough and testing for the escape of the test gas with a mass spectrometer.

Jurva, E.O.; Goodin, R.L.

1984-07-17

226

Analysis of Electrochemical and Thermal Behavior of Li-Ion Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to gain a better understanding of the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells using a previously developed two- dimensional, first principles-based thermal-electrochemical modeling approach. The model incorporates the reversible, irrevers- ible, and ohmic heats in the matrix and solution phases, and the temperature dependence of the various transport, kinetic, and mass-transfer parameters based on Arrhenius expressions. Experimental data

Venkat Srinivasan; C. Y. Wang

2003-01-01

227

Porous rigid titanium disulfide electrodes for electrochemical cells and method for preparing same  

SciTech Connect

Rigid unitary porous titanium disulfide (TiS/sub 2/) electrodes, particularly useful in electrochemical cells. The electrodes are devoid of binders and other additives, except for incidental impurities. The electrodes are prepared by reacting elemental sulfur with a preformed porous titanium body of predetermined shape and size, the sulfur being provided in sufficient amount to stoichiometrically react completely with the titanium body thereby forming in situ a titanium disulfide body.

Phillips, G.M.; Untereker, D.F.

1984-06-26

228

Fabrication and Luminescence of Molybdate Films Prepared by Cell Electrochemical Method at Room Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycrystalline alkaline earth molybdate films, such as BaMoO4, SrMoO4 and CaMoO4, have been prepared by cell electrochemical method on molybdenum substrates in alkaline solutions at room temperature respectively. XRD patterns reveal that the films are well crystallized with single tetragonal scheelite structure. SEM observation shows that the grains of the films have regular pyramidal shape and the size of the

Lian-ping Chen; Ding-quan Xiao; Ping Yu; Xiao-ling Jin; Zu-nian Yang

2007-01-01

229

Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages  

DOEpatents

An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

2000-01-01

230

Novel duplex vapor-electrochemical method for silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process was developed for the economic production of high purity Si from inexpensive reactants, based on the Na reduction of SiF4 gas. The products of reaction (NaF, Si) are separated by either aqueous leaching or by direct melting of the NaF-Si product mixture. Impurities known to degrade solar cell performance are all present at sufficiently low concentrations so that melt solidification (e.g., Czochralski) will provide a silicon material suitable for solar cells.

Nanis, L.; Sanjurjo, A.; Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Bartlett, R. W.; Westphal, S.

1980-01-01

231

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lithium-titanium disulfide rechargeable cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-terminal alternating current impedance of Li/TiS2 rechargeable cells was studied as a function of frequency, state-of-charge, and extended cycling. Analysis based on a plausible equivalent circuit model for the Li/TiS2 cell leads to evaluation of kinetic parameters for the various physicochemical processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. To investigate the causes of cell degradation during extended cycling, the parameters evaluated for cells cycled 5 times were compared with the parameters of cells cycled over 600 times. The findings are that the combined ohmic resistance of the electrolyte and electrodes suffers a tenfold increase after extended cycling, while the charge-transfer resistance and diffusional impedance at the TiS2/electrolyte interface are not significantIy affected. The results reflect the morphological change and increase in area of the anode due to cycling. The study also shows that overdischarge of a cathode-limited cell causes a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of the lithium ion in the cathode.

Narayanan, S. R.; Shen, D. H.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1993-01-01

232

Assessment of multidrug resistance on cell coculture patterns using scanning electrochemical microscopy  

PubMed Central

The emergence of resistance to multiple unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs impedes the treatment of several cancers. Although the involvement of ATP-binding cassette transporters has long been known, there is no in situ method capable of tracking this transporter-related resistance at the single-cell level without interfering with the cell’s environment or metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can quantitatively and noninvasively track multidrug resistance-related protein 1–dependent multidrug resistance in patterned adenocarcinoma cervical cancer cells. Nonresistant human cancer cells and their multidrug resistant variants are arranged in a side-by-side format using a stencil-based patterning scheme, allowing for precise positioning of target cells underneath the SECM sensor. SECM measurements of the patterned cells, performed with ferrocenemethanol and [Ru(NH3)6]3+ serving as electrochemical indicators, are used to establish a kinetic “map” of constant-height SECM scans, free of topography contributions. The concept underlying the work described herein may help evaluate the effectiveness of treatment administration strategies targeting reduced drug efflux. PMID:23686580

Kuss, Sabine; Polcari, David; Geissler, Matthias; Brassard, Daniel; Mauzeroll, Janine

2013-01-01

233

Parenchyma cell respiration and survival in secondary xylem: does metabolic activity decline with cell age?  

E-print Network

Parenchyma cell respiration and survival in secondary xylem: does metabolic activity decline Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA ABSTRACT Sapwood respiration often declines towards the sapwood sapwood respiration in five temperate species (sapwood age range of 5­64 years) and expressed respiration

Holbrook, N. Michele

234

Space Electrochemical Research and Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the proceedings of NASA's fourth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 14-15, 1993. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: advanced secondary batteries, fuel cells, and advanced concepts for space power. This document contains the papers presented.

1993-01-01

235

Mixed solvent electrolytes for ambient temperature secondary lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention comprises an improved electrolyte for secondary lithium-based cells as well as batteries fabricated using this electrolyte. The electrolyte is a lithium containing salt dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent, which is made from a mixture of ethylene carbonate, ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, 2-methylfuran, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. This improved, mixed solvent electrolyte is more conductive than prior electrolytes and much less corrosive to lithium anodes. Batteries constructed with this improved electrolyte utilize lithium or lithium alloy anodes and cathodes made of metal chalcogenides or oxides, such as TiS.sub.2, NbSe.sub.3, V.sub.6 O.sub.13, V.sub.2 O.sub.5, MoS.sub.2, MoS.sub.3, CoO.sub.2, or CrO.sub.2, dissolved in a supporting polymer matrix, like EPDM. The preferred non-aqueous solvent mixture comprises approximately 5 to 30 volume percent ethylene carbonate, approximately 0.01 to 0.1 weight percent ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, and approximately 0.2 to 2 percent 2-methylfuran, with the balance being 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The most preferred solvent comprises approximately 10 to 20 volume percent ethylene carbonate, about 0.05 weight percent ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, and about 1.0 percent 2-methylfuran, with the balance being 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The concentration of lithium arsenic hexafluoride can range from about 1.0 to 1.8 M; a concentration 1.5 M is most preferred. Secondary batteries made with the improved electrolyte of this invention have lower internal impedance, longer cycle life, higher energy density, low self-discharge, and longer shelf life.

Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Deligiannis, Fotios (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

1991-01-01

236

Low-hazard metallography of moisture-sensitive electrochemical cells.  

PubMed

A low-hazard approach is presented to prepare metallographic cross-sections of moisture-sensitive battery components. The approach is tailored for evaluation of thermal (molten salt) batteries composed of thin pressed-powder pellets, but has general applicability to other battery electrochemistries. Solution-cast polystyrene is used to encapsulate cells before embedding in epoxy. Nonaqueous grinding and polishing are performed in an industrial dry room to increase throughput. Lapping oil is used as a lubricant throughout grinding. Hexane is used as the solvent throughout processing; occupational exposure levels are well below the limits. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy on cross-sections are used to analyse a thermal battery cell. Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction on oblique angle cut cells complement the metallographic analysis. PMID:21477264

Wesolowski, D E; Rodriguez, M A; McKenzie, B B; Papenguth, H W

2011-08-01

237

Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

Bennett, William R. (North Olmstead, OH)

1992-10-13

238

Effects of composition on the electrochemical property and cell performance of single layer fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the enhanced electrochemical performance of single layer fuel cells (SLFCs) based upon mixed ion and electron conductors is analyzed as a function of composition. We synthesize a series of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-?-Li0.3Ni0.6Cu0.07Sr0.03O2-? (SDC-LNCS) with different weight ratios. The microstructure and morphology of the composite materials are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Stability of the synthesized samples is evaluated by thermal gravity analysis (TGA). The SLFC with 6SDC-4LNCS exhibits a uniform distribution of the two compositions as well as demonstrates the highest power density of 312 mW cm-2 at 550 °C. The performance is correlated to the balance of the conduction properties (ionic and electronic) of the functional SLFC layer. The results are a critical contribution to further development of this new energy transfer device.

Hu, Huiqing; Lin, Qizhao; Zhu, Zhigang; Liu, Xiangrong; Afzal, Muhammad; He, Yunjuan; Zhu, Bin

2015-02-01

239

Microfluidic electrochemical reactors  

DOEpatents

A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

Nuzzo, Ralph G. (Champaign, IL); Mitrovski, Svetlana M. (Urbana, IL)

2011-03-22

240

Direct In Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells  

PubMed Central

The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood cells on glassy carbon electrode (GC) was demonstrated. Red blood cells or raw blood cells was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface with Nafion films employed to sandwich the layer of biological sample firmly on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed a well-defined reduction peak for haemoglobin at about ?0.30?V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the red blood cell (GC-Nf-RBC-3Nf) and blood (GC-Nf-B-3Nf) film modified GCE in a pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution. We further demonstrated that the complex biological conditions of a human red blood cell displayed no interference with the detection of haemoglobin. Such findings shall have an implication on the possibilities of studying the electrochemical behaviour of haemoglobin directly from human blood, for various scientific and clinical purposes. PMID:25163492

Toh, Rou Jun; Peng, Weng Kung; Han, Jongyoon; Pumera, Martin

2014-01-01

241

Direct In Vivo Electrochemical Detection of Haemoglobin in Red Blood Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood cells on glassy carbon electrode (GC) was demonstrated. Red blood cells or raw blood cells was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface with Nafion films employed to sandwich the layer of biological sample firmly on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed a well-defined reduction peak for haemoglobin at about -0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the red blood cell (GC-Nf-RBC-3Nf) and blood (GC-Nf-B-3Nf) film modified GCE in a pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution. We further demonstrated that the complex biological conditions of a human red blood cell displayed no interference with the detection of haemoglobin. Such findings shall have an implication on the possibilities of studying the electrochemical behaviour of haemoglobin directly from human blood, for various scientific and clinical purposes.

Toh, Rou Jun; Peng, Weng Kung; Han, Jongyoon; Pumera, Martin

2014-08-01

242

Direct in vivo electrochemical detection of haemoglobin in red blood cells.  

PubMed

The electrochemical behavior of iron ion in haemoglobin provides insight to the chemical activity in the red blood cell which is important in the field of hematology. Herein, the detection of haemoglobin in human red blood cells on glassy carbon electrode (GC) was demonstrated. Red blood cells or raw blood cells was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface with Nafion films employed to sandwich the layer of biological sample firmly on the electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) analyses revealed a well-defined reduction peak for haemoglobin at about -0.30?V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the red blood cell (GC-Nf-RBC-3Nf) and blood (GC-Nf-B-3Nf) film modified GCE in a pH 3.5 phosphate buffer solution. We further demonstrated that the complex biological conditions of a human red blood cell displayed no interference with the detection of haemoglobin. Such findings shall have an implication on the possibilities of studying the electrochemical behaviour of haemoglobin directly from human blood, for various scientific and clinical purposes. PMID:25163492

Toh, Rou Jun; Peng, Weng Kung; Han, Jongyoon; Pumera, Martin

2014-01-01

243

Direct electrochemical detection of PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus in infected cells.  

PubMed

Influenza virus represents a major concern of human health and animal production. PB1-F2 is a small proapoptotic protein supposed to contribute to the virulence of influenza A virus (IAV). However, the molecular mechanism of action of PB1-F2 is still unclear.PB1-F2 expression and behavior during the viral cycle is difficult to follow with classical biochemical methods. In this work we have developed an electrochemical biosensor based on immuno-detection system for quantification of PB1-F2 protein in infected cell. The electrochemical immunosensor was based on conducting copolypyrrole integrating ferrocenyl group as redox marker for enhancing signal detection. A specific anti-PB1-F2 monoclonal antibody was immobilized on the copolypyrrole layer via biotin-streptavidin system. We demonstrate that this electrochemical system sensitively detect purified recombinant PB1-F2 over a wide range of concentrations from 5 nM to 1.5 µM. The high sensor sensitivity allowed the detection of PB1-F2 in lysates of infected cells confirming that PB1-F2 is expressed in early stages of viral cycle. The immunosensor developed shows enhanced performances for the evaluation of PB1-F2 protein concentration in biological samples and could be applied for studying of PB1-F2 during influenza virus infection. PMID:24686222

Miodek, Anna; Sauriat-Dorizon, Helene; Chevalier, Christophe; Delmas, Bernard; Vidic, Jasmina; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

2014-09-15

244

Structure and function of an inorganic-organic separator for electrochemical cells: Preliminary study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of a new separator material for electrochemical cells has been investigated. Investigation into details of the separator structure showed it to be multilayered and to consist mainly of a quasi-impervious organic skin, a porous region of mixed organic and inorganic material, and an area of nonuniformly treated substrate. The essential feature of the coating (slurry) is believed to be interconnected pores which allow ionic conductivity. The interconnected pores are believed to be formed by the interaction of the plasticizer and inorganic fibers. The major failure mode of silver zinc cells using such a separator (zinc nodules shorting adjacent plates) was investigated.

Bozek, J. M.

1974-01-01

245

Membrane assembly, electrochemical cell and electrolysis process using perfluorinated sandwich type membrane  

SciTech Connect

A membrane assembly which comprises a layer of perfluorinated polymer which has carboxylate functional groups, a layer of perfluorinated polymer which has ion exchange functional groups, and a water-containing or water-soluble stratum which lies between these two layers and joins them together, is described. Such a multilayered composite membrane is more simply made than conventional multilayered membranes having adherent layers, and provides for easy recovery of the component parts thereof. The membrane assembly is useful for separating the compartments of an electrochemical cell, especially a chloralkali cell.

Bissot, Th. C.; Grigsby, W. E.

1984-12-25

246

Method of making electrodes for electrochemical cell. [Li-Al alloy  

DOEpatents

A method is described for making an electrode for an electrochemical cell in which particulate electrode-active material is mixed with a liquid organic carrier chemically inert with respect to the electrode-active material, mixing the liquid carrier to form an extrudable slurry. The liquid carrier is present in an amount of from about 10 to about 50% by volume of the slurry, and then the carrier is removed from the slurry leaving the electrode-active material. The method is particularly suited for making a lithium-aluminum alloy negative electrode for a high-temperature cell.

Kaun, T.D.; Kilsdonk, D.J.

1981-07-29

247

Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

Shockling, L.A.

1991-09-10

248

A computational approach for the simulation of natural convection in electrochemical cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel computational approach for the numerical simulation of electrochemical systems influenced by natural convection phenomena is presented. A stabilized finite element framework for multi-ion transport mechanisms including convection, diffusion and migration coupled to an incompressible flow solver is developed. The role of a galvanostatic Butler-Volmer condition including the interaction of ionic concentration at the surface of the electrode and the surface overpotential is emphasized, to obtain a non-uniform surface overpotential distribution. Additionally, a three-dimensional rotationally-symmetric boundary condition is used for modeling rotating cylinder electrodes. The computational framework is tested for various numerical examples exhibiting two- and three-dimensional electrochemical cell configurations including dilute CuSO4 electrolyte solutions with and without excess of supporting H2SO4 electrolyte.

Ehrl, Andreas; Bauer, Georg; Gravemeier, Volker; Wall, Wolfgang A.

2013-02-01

249

Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber (54) contains an outer portion containing reforming material (56), an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle (50) and a mixer-diffuser (52), and a middle portion (64) for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle (50) and mixer-diffuser (52) are preferably both within the reforming chamber (54) and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material (56), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1991-01-01

250

Teaching Cell Division to Secondary School Students: An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Turkish Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the difficulties biology teachers face when teaching cell division in the secondary schools of the central part of the Erzurum province in Turkey. During this research, a questionnaire was distributed to a total of 36 secondary school biology teachers. Findings of the study indicate biology teachers perceive cell division as…

Oztap, Haydar; Ozay, Esra; Oztap, Fulya

2003-01-01

251

An efficient nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensor for sensitive recognition of drug-resistant leukemia cells.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical cytosensor was developed for the fast and high-sensitivity recognition of drug-resistant leukemia K562/ADM cells based on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression level on a cell membrane. The nanocomposite interface of the gold nanoparticles/polyaniline nanofibers (AuNPs/PANI-NF) was chosen to design the biosensor for electrochemical detection. Au/PANI-NF-based cytosensors coated with anti-P-glycoprotein (anti-P-gp) molecules could provide a biomimetic interface for the immunosensing of cell surface P-glycoprotein, and thus could capture the over-expression P-gp cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the gold nanoparticles were uniformly anchored along the structure of the PANI-NF surface, displaying fibrillar morphology with a diameter of ?70 nm, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) further presented the morphology of the nanocomposite film. Owing to the high affinity of anti-P-gp for leukemia K562/ADM cells of the propounded sensing platform, the proposed biosensor exhibited excellent analytical performance for leukemia K562/ADM cells, ranging from 1.6 × 10(2) to 1.6 × 10(6) cells per mL with a detection limit of 80 cells per mL. Recovery experiments indicated that the sensitivity reported here is suitable for practical application. The cell surface P-gp expression level was analysed by flow cytometric experiments, which confirmed the above recognized result. This strategy is also a cost-effective and convenient operation, implying great promise for the sensitive recognition of cancer cells and cell surface receptors; thus, it is helpful in cancer diagnosis. PMID:24889704

Zhang, Shaolian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Peihui; Cai, Jiye

2014-07-21

252

Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow conditions  

E-print Network

Electrochemical study of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells under fed-batch and continuous flow November 2013 Available online 18 December 2013 Keywords: Multi-electrode Microbial fuel cells Hydraulic connected microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was compared with the reactors operated using individual electrical

253

Electrical and Electrochemical Performance Characteristics of Small Commercial Li-Ion Cells  

SciTech Connect

Advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are presently being developed and commercialized worldwide for use in consumer electronics, military and space applications. At Sandia National Laboratories we have used different electrochemical techniques such as impedance and charge/discharge at ambient and subambient temperatures to probe the various electrochemical processes that are occurring in Li-ion cell. The purpose of this study is to identify the component that reduces the cell performance at subambient temperatures. Our impedance data suggest that while the variation in the electrolyte resistance between room temperature and {minus}20 C is negligible the anode electrolyte interfacial resistance increases by an order of magnitude in the same temperature regime. We believe that the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the carbon anode may be responsible for the increase in cell impedance. We have also evaluated the cells in hybrid mode with capacitors. High-current operation in the hybrid mode allowed fill usage of the Li-ion cell capacity at 25 C and showed a factor of 5 improvement in delivered capacity at {minus}20 C.

Ingersoll, D.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Roth, E.P.

1998-12-22

254

Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V.  

PubMed

Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5?V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO? are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al?O? nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO?, Al?O?, and CeO? nanoparticles and various Li(+) conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

2014-01-01

255

Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications.

Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

2014-08-01

256

Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6?V  

PubMed Central

Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5?V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1–1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

2014-01-01

257

3D CFD ELECTROCHEMICAL AND HEAT TRANSFER MODEL OF AN INTERNALLY MANIFOLDED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in an internally manifolded planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) stack. This design is being evaluated at the Idaho National Laboratory for hydrogen production from nuclear power and process heat. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, operating potential, steam-electrode gas composition, oxygen-electrode gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Single-cell and five-cell results will be presented. Flow distribution through both models is discussed. Flow enters from the bottom, distributes through the inlet plenum, flows across the cells, gathers in the outlet plenum and flows downward making an upside-down ''U'' shaped flow pattern. Flow and concentration variations exist downstream of the inlet holes. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, oxygen-electrode and steam-electrode current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Greg Tao

2011-11-01

258

Label-free electrochemical immunoassay of Bcl-2 protein expression on tumor cells.  

PubMed

Bcl-2 protein is one of the anti-apoptotic members in Bcl-2 family proteins. It can regulate apoptosis in response to a wide variety of toxic agents, which has a close relationship with drug-resistance of tumor cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were employed to quantify the cell concentration and analyze the expression of Bcl-2 protein on tumor cells and drug-resistant tumor cells based on the competitive immunoassay. Bcl-2 antibody and bovine serum albumin were adsorbed on Au nanoparticles to construct nanocomposites that could be captured on the Bcl-2 protein modified electrode. The binding of the nanocomposites resulted in a great increase of the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) due to the strong steric hindrance effect and this effect was inhibited in the presence of MCF-7 cells and MCF-7/ADR cells owing to the competitive immunoreaction between the nanocomposites and Bcl-2 proteins on cells. Under the optimal conditions, the charge-transfer resistance change (?Rct) is proportional to the logarithm of the cells concentration from 5×10(2) to 1.6×10(6)cellmL(-1) with a detection limit of 170cellmL(-1). The expression of Bcl-2 protein on MCF-7/ADR cells was found to be significantly higher than that in MCF-7 cells, indicating that the up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein is one of characteristics of drug-resistant tumor cells. PMID:25476334

Chen, Lina; Luo, Yiqun; Liu, Tong; Yuan, Yanhong; Gu, Huoliang; Yang, Yong; Li, Ling; Tan, Liang

2015-01-15

259

Air-cathode microbial fuel cell array: a device for identifying and characterizing electrochemically active microbes.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have generated excitement in environmental and bioenergy communities due to their potential for coupling wastewater treatment with energy generation and powering diverse devices. The pursuit of strategies such as improving microbial cultivation practices and optimizing MFC devices has increased power generating capacities of MFCs. However, surprisingly few microbial species with electrochemical activity in MFCs have been identified because current devices do not support parallel analyses or high throughput screening. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using advanced microfabrication methods to fabricate an MFC microarray. Here, we extend these studies by demonstrating a microfabricated air-cathode MFC array system. The system contains 24 individual air-cathode MFCs integrated onto a single chip. The device enables the direct and parallel comparison of different microbes loaded onto the array. Environmental samples were used to validate the utility of the air-cathode MFC array system and two previously identified isolates, 7Ca (Shewanella sp.) and 3C (Arthrobacter sp.), were shown to display enhanced electrochemical activities of 2.69 mW/m(2) and 1.86 mW/m(2), respectively. Experiments using a large scale conventional air-cathode MFC validated these findings. The parallel air-cathode MFC array system demonstrated here is expected to promote and accelerate the discovery and characterization of electrochemically active microbes. PMID:20655725

Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; de Figueiredo, Paul; Han, Arum

2011-01-15

260

An ultra-high vacuum electrochemical flow cell for in situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy study  

SciTech Connect

An in situ flow electrochemical cell has been designed and fabricated to allow better seal under UHV chamber thus to achieve a good signal to noise ratio in fluorescence yield detection of X-ray absorption spectra for spectroelectrochemical study. The cell also stabilizes the thin silicon nitride membrane window in an effective manner so that the liquid cell remains intact during X-ray absorption experiments. With the improved design of the liquid cell, electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry have been performed for 10 cycles with a good stability of sample window. Also an operando electrochemical experiment during photoelectrochemistry has been performed on n-type hematite electrode deposited on silicon nitride window. The experiment allows us to observe the formation of two extra electronic transitions before pre edge of O K-edge spectra.

Bora, Debajeet K., E-mail: debajeet.bora@empa.ch, E-mail: jguo@lbl.gov; Glans, Per-Anders; Pepper, John; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, J.-H., E-mail: debajeet.bora@empa.ch, E-mail: jguo@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Du, Chun; Wang, Dunwei [Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

2014-04-15

261

An ultra-high vacuum electrochemical flow cell for in situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ flow electrochemical cell has been designed and fabricated to allow better seal under UHV chamber thus to achieve a good signal to noise ratio in fluorescence yield detection of X-ray absorption spectra for spectroelectrochemical study. The cell also stabilizes the thin silicon nitride membrane window in an effective manner so that the liquid cell remains intact during X-ray absorption experiments. With the improved design of the liquid cell, electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry have been performed for 10 cycles with a good stability of sample window. Also an operando electrochemical experiment during photoelectrochemistry has been performed on n-type hematite electrode deposited on silicon nitride window. The experiment allows us to observe the formation of two extra electronic transitions before pre edge of O K-edge spectra.

Bora, Debajeet K.; Glans, Per-Anders; Pepper, John; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Du, Chun; Wang, Dunwei; Guo, J.-H.

2014-04-01

262

An ultra-high vacuum electrochemical flow cell for in situ/operando soft X-ray spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

An in situ flow electrochemical cell has been designed and fabricated to allow better seal under UHV chamber thus to achieve a good signal to noise ratio in fluorescence yield detection of X-ray absorption spectra for spectroelectrochemical study. The cell also stabilizes the thin silicon nitride membrane window in an effective manner so that the liquid cell remains intact during X-ray absorption experiments. With the improved design of the liquid cell, electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry have been performed for 10 cycles with a good stability of sample window. Also an operando electrochemical experiment during photoelectrochemistry has been performed on n-type hematite electrode deposited on silicon nitride window. The experiment allows us to observe the formation of two extra electronic transitions before pre edge of O K-edge spectra. PMID:24784592

Bora, Debajeet K; Glans, Per-Anders; Pepper, John; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Du, Chun; Wang, Dunwei; Guo, J-H

2014-04-01

263

Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for squamous cell carcinoma antigen using dumbbell-like Pt-Fe?O? nanoparticles as signal amplification.  

PubMed

Dumbbell-like Pt-Fe?O? nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and used as a novel kind of label for the preparation of electrochemical immunosensor, which is applied to the detection of cancer biomarker squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag). The signal amplification strategy, using the synergetic effect present in Pt-Fe?O? to increase the reduction ability of the NPs toward H?O?, improved the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (N-GS) were synthesized from graphite oxides through thermal annealing of graphite oxides in ammonia, which was used to immobilize primary anti-SCC antibody (Ab?). Secondary anti-SCC antibody (Ab?) was adsorbed onto the Pt-Fe?O? NPs. The immunosensor was prepared through a sandwich structure and displayed a wide linear range (0.05-18 ng/mL), low detection limit (15.3 pg/mL), good reproducibility and stability. The method has been applied to the analysis of clinical serum samples with satisfactory results. These labels for immunosensors can provide many potential applications for the detection of different biomolecules. PMID:23517823

Wu, Dan; Fan, Haixia; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Yong; Liang, Huixin; Wei, Qin

2013-08-15

264

Electrochemical cell apparatus having axially distributed entry of a fuel-spent fuel mixture transverse to the cell lengths  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing axially elongated electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one gaseous spent fuel exit channel (46), where the spent fuel exit channel (46) passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) at a mixing apparatus (50), reformable fuel mixture channel (52) passes through the length of the generator chamber (22) and connects with the mixing apparatus (50), that channel containing entry ports (54) within the generator chamber (22), where the axis of the ports is transverse to the fuel electrode surfaces (18), where a catalytic reforming material is distributed near the reformable fuel mixture entry ports (54).

Reichner, Philip (Plum Borough, PA); Dollard, Walter J. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1991-01-01

265

The Lead-Lead Oxide Secondary Cell as a Teaching Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assembly and use of a laboratory version of a secondary cell based on the lead-lead oxide system is described. The cell is easy to construct, sufficiently robust for student use, and has a conveniently low practical capacity of about 5 mA h. This modest cell capacity allows cell assembly, electrode formation and discharge characterization…

Smith, Michael J.; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Silva, M. Manuela

2009-01-01

266

Supporting electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells and other electrochemical devices  

DOEpatents

An electrode supported electrolyte membrane includes an electrode layer 630 facing an electrolyte layer 620. The opposing side of the electrode layer 630 includes a backing layer 640 of a material with a thermal expansion coefficient approximately equal to the thermal expansion coefficient of the electrolyte layer 620. The backing layer 640 is in a two dimensional pattern that covers only a portion of the electrolyte layer 630. An electrochemical cell such as a SOFC is formed by providing a cathode layer 610 on an opposing side of the electrolyte layer 620.

Sprenkle, Vincent L. (Richland, WA); Canfield, Nathan L. (Kennewick, WA); Meinhardt, Kerry (Kennewick, WA); Stevenson, Jeffry W. (Richland, WA)

2008-04-01

267

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells based on n-GaAs in propylene carbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells (EPC's) have been characterized based on n-GaAs and propylene carbonate electrolytes. Photovoltages are limited to about 0.7V due to electrode corrosion and lack of specific adsorption by the redox systems studied. Polarization of photo and counterelectrodes, resulting from low redox solubilities and electrolyte conductivities, are responsible for lower fill factors and short-circuit photocurrents for nonaqueous, compared to aqueous, EPC's. Potentially, these losses can be offset by higher voltages and long-term stabilities, particularly if specifically adsorbing redox couples can be found.

Langmuir, M. E.; Hoenig, P.; Rauh, R. D.

1981-11-01

268

Engineering charge injection interfaces in hybrid light-emitting electrochemical cells.  

PubMed

Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) consists of a thin film of an ionic organic semiconductor sandwiched between two electrodes. Because of the large density of ions, LECs are often reported to perform independently on the electrodes work function. Here we use metal oxides as charge injection layers and demonstrate that, although electroluminescence is observed independently of the electrodes used, the device performances are strongly dependent on the choice of the interface materials. Relying on metal oxide charge injection layers, such hybrid devices are of interest for real lighting applications and could pave the way for new efficient, stable, low-cost lighting sources. PMID:25372865

Roldán-Carmona, Cristina; Akatsuka, Takeo; Sessolo, Michele; Watkins, Scott E; Bolink, Henk J

2014-11-26

269

Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

Britton, Doris L.

1990-01-01

270

Electrochemical impedance measurement of prostate cancer cells using carbon nanotube array electrodes in a microfluidic channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesized in the shape of towers and embedded into fluidic channels as electrodes for impedance measurement of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Tower electrodes up to 8 mm high were grown and easily peeled off a silicon substrate. The nanotube electrodes were then successfully soldered onto patterned printed circuit boards and cast into epoxy under pressure. After polishing the top of the tower electrodes, RF plasma was used to enhance the electrocatalytic effect by removing excess epoxy and activating the open end of the nanotubes. Electrodeposition of Au particles on the plasma-treated tower electrodes was done at a controlled density. Finally, the nanotube electrodes were embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out with different conditions. Preliminary electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results using deionized water, buffer solution, and LNCaP prostate cancer cells showed that nanotube electrodes can distinguish the different solutions and could be used in future cell-based biosensor development.

Heung Yun, Yeo; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Schulz, Mark J.

2007-11-01

271

Diffusion layer titration of dipyrone in pharmaceuticals at a dual-band electrochemical cell.  

PubMed

This paper describes the use of a thin-layered dual-band electrochemical cell operating at flow conditions to determine dipyrone (sodium salt of 1-phenil-2,3-dimethyl-4-methylaminomethanesulfonate-5-pyrazolone) by reaction with electrogenerated iodine. The electrolytic cell consisted of two closely spaced gold electrodes, the upper stream electrode serving as the generator electrode and the downstream electrode working as the collector electrode. A linear dynamic range from 2 to 15 mumol l(-1) dipyrone was obtained by using a sample volume of 100 mul, with a detection limit of 1.1 mumol l(-1). Standard deviation (S.D.) of 3.4% for 20 repetitive injections of a 40 mumol l(-1) dipyrone solution and sampling frequency of 90 h(-1) were achieved. The results obtained with the thin-layered dual-band electrochemical cell for dipyrone determination in three different pharmaceutical samples compared well with those found by iodimetry with coulometrically generated iodine. PMID:18969237

Paixão, Thiago R L C; Camargo Matos, Renato; Bertotti, Mauro

2003-12-01

272

Self-powered electrochemical memristor based on a biofuel cell--towards memristors integrated with biocomputing systems.  

PubMed

The electrochemical memristor based on a pH-switchable polymer-modified electrode integrated with a biofuel cell was designed and proposed for interfacing between biomolecular information processing and electronic systems. The present approach demonstrates a new application of biofuel cells in information processing systems, rather than for electrical power generation. PMID:24687004

MacVittie, Kevin; Katz, Evgeny

2014-05-14

273

Mechanisms and applications of cell electrochemical technique to prepare luminescent SrMoO 4 thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell electrochemical technique is a novel film deposition method. With the improved cell device, the rate determining step, utilization ratio of molybdenum, and applications to deposit SrMoO4 thin films have been investigated. Researches on the relation between the overpotentials of electrodes and the currents in the circuit reveal that the rate determining step is the reduction of water during the

Lianping Chen; Yuanhong Gao

2007-01-01

274

The electrochemical performance of thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Several benefits are realized by lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from 1000C to temperatures in the 600 to 800C range. Among the advantages are decreased reaction between fuel cell components, shorter startup times, and the possibility of using metals in stack construction; however, the achievable power density in conventional SOFCs is too low. A strategy for overcoming this limitation is to decrease the thickness of this layer by approximately an order of magnitude. Thin (5 {mu}m) electrolyte SOFCs have recently been fabricated by Allied-Signal Aerospace Systems and Equipment Company (ASASE). The electrochemical performance of these cells has been studied and is discussed in this paper.

Zurawski, D.; Kueper, T.

1993-09-01

275

Single cells and intracellular processes studied by a plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscopy  

PubMed Central

We report an electrochemical impedance microscope (EIM) based on surface plasmon resonance. The new EIM can resolve local impedance with sub-micron spatial resolution, and monitor dynamics of various processes, such as apoptosis and electroporation of individual cells with millisecond time resolution. The high spatial and temporal resolution images make it possible to not only study individual cells, but also resolve the sub-cellular structures and processes without labels. The detection sensitivity achieved with the current setup is ~2 pS, which is excellent considering the conductance of a single ion channel is in the range of 5–400 pS. We describe also a model that simulates the EIM images of cells based on local dielectric constant and conductivity. PMID:21336333

Wang, Wei; Foley, Kyle; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Eaton, Seron; Nagaraj, Vinay J; Wiktor, Peter; Patel, Urmez; Tao, Nongjian

2012-01-01

276

Music Generated by a Zn/Cu Electrochemical Cell, a Lemon Cell, and a Solar Cell: A Demonstration for General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The circuit board found in a commercial musical greeting card is used to supply music for electrochemical cell demonstrations. Similar to a voltmeter, the "modified" musical device is connected to a chemical reaction that produces electricity. The commercial 1 V battery inside the greeting card circuit board can be replaced with an…

Cady, Susan G.

2014-01-01

277

A novel conjugate of a cell-penetrating peptide and a ferrocenyl amino acid: a potential electrochemical sensor for living cells?  

PubMed

The conjugation of a ferrocenyl amino acid to the cell-penetrating peptide hCT(9-32) does not impair its ability to efficiently translocate into cells. Furthermore, the bioconjugate does not induce any cytotoxicity, thus presenting a potential electrochemical sensor suitable for the detection of living cells. PMID:22415445

Hoyer, Jan; Hunold, Andrea; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Neundorf, Ines

2012-06-01

278

Laccases direct lignification in the discrete secondary cell wall domains of protoxylem.  

PubMed

Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A Lacey

2014-10-01

279

Laccases Direct Lignification in the Discrete Secondary Cell Wall Domains of Protoxylem1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Plants precisely control lignin deposition in spiral or annular secondary cell wall domains during protoxylem tracheary element (TE) development. Because protoxylem TEs function to transport water within rapidly elongating tissues, it is important that lignin deposition is restricted to the secondary cell walls in order to preserve the plasticity of adjacent primary wall domains. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inducible VASCULAR NAC DOMAIN7 (VND7) protoxylem TE differentiation system permits the use of mutant backgrounds, fluorescent protein tagging, and high-resolution live-cell imaging of xylem cells during secondary cell wall development. Enzymes synthesizing monolignols, as well as putative monolignol transporters, showed a uniform distribution during protoxylem TE differentiation. By contrast, the oxidative enzymes LACCASE4 (LAC4) and LAC17 were spatially localized to secondary cell walls throughout protoxylem TE differentiation. These data support the hypothesis that precise delivery of oxidative enzymes determines the pattern of cell wall lignification. This view was supported by lac4lac17 mutant analysis demonstrating that laccases are necessary for protoxylem TE lignification. Overexpression studies showed that laccases are sufficient to catalyze ectopic lignin polymerization in primary cell walls when exogenous monolignols are supplied. Our data support a model of protoxylem TE lignification in which monolignols are highly mobile once exported to the cell wall, and in which precise targeting of laccases to secondary cell wall domains directs lignin deposition. PMID:25157028

Schuetz, Mathias; Benske, Anika; Smith, Rebecca A.; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ralph, John; Demura, Taku; Ellis, Brian; Samuels, A. Lacey

2014-01-01

280

Nanosilver-doped DNA polyion complex membrane for electrochemical immunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen using nanogold-labeled secondary antibodies.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive electrochemical immunoassay protocol was developed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) using nanosilver-doped DNA polyion complex membrane (PIC) as sensing interface. To construct such an immunosensor, double-stranded DNA was initially assembled onto the surface of thionine/Nafion-modified screen-printed carbon electrode to adsorb silver ions with positive charges, then silver ions were reduced to nanosilver particles with the aid of NaBH(4), and then anti-CEA antibodies were immobilized on the nanosilver surface. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-CEA were employed as signal antibodies for the detection of CEA with a sandwich-type assay format. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited a dynamic range of 0.03-32 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 10 pg mL(-1) CEA. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision (CVs) were <9.5% and 6.5%, respectively. The response could remain 90.1% of the original current at 30th day. 50 real samples were evaluated using the immunosensor and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and received in accordance with those two methods. PMID:20599025

Wu, Wei; Yi, Ping; He, Ping; Jing, Tao; Liao, Kelong; Yang, Kang; Wang, Haidong

2010-07-19

281

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Richards, Von L. (Anyola, IN)

1995-01-01

282

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO{sub 3} layer to about 1100 C to 1300 C to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

Spengler, C.J.; Folser, G.R.; Vora, S.D.; Kuo, L.; Richards, V.L.

1995-06-20

283

Fabrication of electrolytic cell for online post-column electrochemical derivatization in ion chromatography.  

PubMed

An electrolytic cell (EC), composed of two ruthenium-plated titanium electrodes separated by cation-exchange membranes, was fabricated and evaluated for online postcolumn derivatization in ion chromatography (IC). Folic acid (FA) and methotrexate (MTX) were preliminarily used as prototype analytes to test the performance of EC. After separation by an anion exchange column, FA and MTX, which emit very weak fluorescence when excited, were electrochemically oxidized online in the anode chamber of the EC. The compounds with strong fluorescence, which are oxidation products, were detected by the fluorescence detector. The phosphate buffer solution (100 mM KH(2)PO(4)) served as an optimal eluent for anion exchange chromatographic separation and a suitable supporting electrolyte for electro-oxidation, leading to ideal compatibility between IC separation and the postcolumn electrochemical derivatization. For the presently proposed method, the linear ranges were from 0.01 mg L(-1) to 5 mg L(-1) for both FA and MTX. The detection limits of FA and MTX were 1.8 and 2.1 ?g L(-1), and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=7) were 2.9% and 3.6%, respectively. The method was applied for the simultaneous determination of FA and MTX in the plasma of patients being treated for rheumatoid arthritis. The determination of MTX in the urine of the patients of diffuse large B cell lymphoma was also demonstrated. PMID:22713918

Wu, Shuchao; Xu, Wei; Yang, Bingcheng; Ye, Mingli; Zhang, Peimin; Shen-Tu, Chao; Zhu, Yan

2012-07-20

284

Electrochemical monitoring of an important biomarker and target protein: VEGFR2 in cell lysates  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a potential cell-type biomarker in clinical diagnoses. Besides, it's the target protein of many tyrosine kinase inhibitors and its expression significantly associates with clinical performance of these inhibitors. VEGFR2 detection provides an early warning for diseases and a basis for therapy and drug screening. Some methods have been developed for VEGFR2 determination. However, they are usually performed indirectly and complexly. Herein, an electrochemical biosensing platform for VEGFR2 analysis has been first proposed. It can detect the total concentrations of the VEGFR2 protein in cells lysates directly and can be used to monitor the changes of VEGFR2 expression levels induced by treatments of different inhibitors. Moreover, the inhibitor-VEGFR2 interactions are illuminated through theoretical simulation. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data, indicating the veracity of the proposed method. The electrochemical detection methodology for VEGFR2 would be promising in clinical diagnosis and drug screening. PMID:24496270

Wei, Tianxiang; Tu, Wenwen; Zhao, Bo; Lan, Yaqian; Bao, Jianchun; Dai, Zhihui

2014-01-01

285

Human immune responses to hapten-conjugated cells. I. Primary and secondary proliferative responses in vitro  

PubMed Central

An in vitro model was developed to study both primary and secondary proliferative responses of human lymphocytes to hapten-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Coculture of human lymphocytes with autologous trinitrophenyl (TNP)-conjugated stimulator cells resulted in primary proliferative responses. Subjects segregated into high and low primary responders with mean stimulation indices of 11 and 2.1, respectively. Restimulation of primed cells from high responder subjects 3 wk after initial sensitization generated secondary proliferative responses. To investigate the antigenic requirements for secondary stimulation, autologous TNP-conjugate primed responders were restimulated with both autologous and allogeneic TNP-conjugated stimulators. In all experiments restimulation with autologous conjugated cells yielded substantially greater proliferative responses than with allogeneic conjugates. Experiments were then performed to ascertain whether HLA determinant homology between primed responder and stimulator cells influenced the level of secondary responsiveness. Homology for HLA-A and B locus serologic determinants was not associated with enhanced responsiveness. In contrast, D region determinant homology, detected by B-cell antigen typing, showed a highly significant positive correlation with the magnitude of secondary responses. The data thus strongly suggest that for secondary proliferative responses to TNP, human T cells recognize hapten in association with HLA-D region determinants. PMID:681877

1978-01-01

286

Analysis of secondary cells with lithium anodes and immobilized fused-salt electrolytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary cells with liquid lithium anodes, liquid bismuth or tellurium cathodes, and fused lithium halide electrolytes immobilized as rigid pastes operate between 380 and 485 degrees. Applications include power sources in space, military vehicle propulsion and special commercial vehicle propulsion.

Cairns, E. J.; Rogers, G. L.; Shimotake, H.

1969-01-01

287

Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

288

A Synopsis of Interfacial Phenomena in Lithium-Based Polymer Electrolyte Electrochemical Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interfacial regions between electrode materials, electrolytes and other cell components play key roles in the overall performance of lithium-based batteries. For cell chemistries employing lithium metal, lithium alloy or carbonaceous materials (i.e., lithium-ion cells) as anode materials, a "solid electrolyte interphase" (SEI) layer forms at the anode/electrolyte interface, and the properties of this "passivating" layer significantly affect the practical cell/battery quality and performance. A thin, ionically-conducting SEI on the electrode surface can beneficially reduce or eliminate undesirable side reactions between the electrode and the electrolyte, which can result in a degradation in cell performance. The properties and phenomena attributable to the interfacial regions existing at both anode and cathode surfaces can be characterized to a large extent by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques. The intention of the review herewith is to support the future development of lithium-based polymer electrolytes by providing a synopsis of interfacial phenomena that is associated with cell chemistries employing either lithium metal or carbonaceous "composite" electrode structures which are interfaced with polymer electrolytes (i.e., "solvent-free" as well as "plasticized" polymer-binary salt complexes and single ion-conducting polyelectrolytes). Potential approaches to overcoming poor cell performance attributable to interfacial effects are discussed.

Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

2007-01-01

289

Experimental aspects of combined NOx and SO2 removal from flue-gas mixture in an integrated wet scrubber-electrochemical cell system.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the effect of some operating conditions on the simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO2 from simulated NO-SO2-air flue-gas mixtures in a scrubber column. The gaseous components were absorbed into 6M HNO3 electrolyte in the scrubber in a counter-current mode, and were oxidatively removed by the Ag(II) mediator oxidant electrochemically generated in an electrochemical cell set-up. The integration of the electrochemical cell with the scrubber set-up ensured continuous regeneration of the Ag(II) mediator and its repeated reuse for NO(x) and SO2 removal purpose, thereby avoiding: (1) the usage of chemicals continuously for oxidation and (2) the production of secondary waste. The influences of packing material (raschig glass rings, raschig poly(vinylidene) fluoride rings, Jaeger tri-pack perfluoroalkoxy spheres), feed concentrations of NO and SO2 (100-400 ppm NO and 100-400 ppm SO2), superficial gas velocity (0.061-0.61ms(-1)) and liquid velocity (0.012-0.048 ms(-1)) were investigated. The raschig glass rings with high surface area provided highest NO removal efficiency. NO and NO(x) showed decreasing abatement at higher feed concentrations. The removal of nitrogen components was faster and also greater, when SO2 co-existed in the feed. Whereas the gas flow rate decreased the removal efficiency, the liquid flow rate increased it for NO and NOx. The flow rate effects were analyzed in terms of gas/liquid residence time and superficial liquid velocity/superficial gas velocity ratio. SO2 removal was total under all conditions. PMID:19500817

Chandrasekara Pillai, K; Chung, Sang Joon; Raju, T; Moon, Il-Shik

2009-07-01

290

Microfluidic cells with interdigitated array gold electrodes: Fabrication and electrochemical characterization.  

PubMed

Microfluidic flow cells combined with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode and/or individually driven interdigitated electrodes were fabricated and characterized for application as detectors for flow injection analysis. The gold electrodes were produced by a process involving heat transfer of a toner mask onto the gold surface of a CD-R and etching of the toner-free gold region by short exposure to iodine-iodide solution. The arrays of electrodes with individual area of 0.01cm(2) (0.10cm of lengthx0.10cm of width and separated by gaps of 0.05 or 0.03cm) were assembled in microfluidic flow cells with 13 or 19mum channel depth. The electrochemical characterization of the cells was made by voltammetry under stationary conditions and the influence of experimental parameters related to geometry of the channels and electrodes were studied by using K(4)Fe(CN)(6) as model system. The obtained results for peaks currents (I(p)) are in excellent agreement with the expected ones for a reversible redox system under stationary thin-layer conditions. Two different configurations of the working electrodes, E(i), auxiliary electrode, A, and reference electrode, R, on the chip were examined: E(i)/R/A and R/E(i)/A, with the first presenting certain uncompensated resistance. This is because the potentiostat actively compensates the iR drop occurring in the electrolyte thin layer between A and R, but not from R to each E(i). This is confirmed by the smaller difference between the cathodic and anodic peak potentials for the second configuration. Evaluation of the microfluidic flow cells combined with (individually driven) interdigitated array electrodes as biamperometric or amperometric detectors for FIA reveals stable and reproducible operation, with peak heights presenting relative standard deviations of less than 2.2%. For electrochemically reversible species, FIA peaks with enhanced current signal were obtained due to redox cycling under flow operation. The versatility of microfluidic flow cells, produced by simple and low-cost technique, associated with the rich information content of electrochemical techniques with arrays of electrodes, opens many future research and application opportunities. PMID:18970340

Daniel, Daniela; Gutz, Ivano G R

2005-12-15

291

Electrochemical device  

DOEpatents

A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

1988-01-12

292

Electrochemical construction  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

Einstein, Harry (Springfield, NJ); Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-08-23

293

Paper-based analytical devices for electrochemical study of the breathing process of red blood cells.  

PubMed

Herein we utilized the filter paper to physically trap red blood cells (RBC) to observe the breathing process of red blood cells based on the permeability of the filter paper. By integrating double-sided conductive carbon tape as the working electrodes, the device could be applied to monitor electrochemical responses of RBC for up to hundreds of minutes. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak currents increased under oxygen while decreased under nitrogen, indicating that RBC could take in and release oxygen. Further studies demonstrated that the RBC suspension could more effectively take in oxygen than the solution of hemoglobin and the supernatant of RBC, suggesting the natural advantage of RBC on oxygen transportation. This study implied that simple paper-based analytical devices might be effectively applied in the study of gas-participating reactions and biochemical detections. PMID:25640121

Lin, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

2015-04-01

294

Solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical storage cell containing a redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection  

DOEpatents

A class of organic redox shuttle additives is described, preferably comprising nitrogen-containing aromatics compounds, which can be used in a high temperature (85.degree. C. or higher) electrochemical storage cell comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a solid polymer electrolyte to provide overcharge protection to the cell. The organic redox additives or shuttles are characterized by a high diffusion coefficient of at least 2.1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.2 /second and a high onset potential of 2.5 volts or higher. Examples of such organic redox shuttle additives include an alkali metal salt of 1,2,4-triazole, an alkali metal salt of imidazole, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene, and a dialkali metal salt of 3-4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione.

Richardson, Thomas J. (Oakland, CA); Ross, Philip N. (Moraga, CA)

1999-01-01

295

Solid oxide electrolysis cell analysis by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature water electrolysis based on Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) is a very promising solution to produce directly pure hydrogen. However, degradation issues occurring during operation still represent a scientific and technological barrier in view of its development at an industrial scale. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful in-situ fundamental tool adapted to the study of SOEC systems. Hence, after a quick presentation of EIS principle and data analysis methods, this review demonstrates how EIS can be used: (i) to characterize the performance and mechanisms of SOEC electrodes; (ii) as a complementary tool to study SOEC degradation processes for different cell configurations, in addition to post-test tools such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or X-ray diffraction (XRD). The use of EIS to establish a systematic SOEC analysis is introduced as well.

Nechache, A.; Cassir, M.; Ringuedé, A.

2014-07-01

296

Electrodes and electrochemical storage cells utilizing tin-modified active materials  

DOEpatents

An electrode has a substrate and a finely divided active material on the substrate. The active material is ANi.sub.x-y-z Co.sub.y Sn.sub.z, wherein A is a mischmetal or La.sub.1-w M.sub.w, M is Ce, Nd, or Zr, w is from about 0.05 to about 1.0, x is from about 4.5 to about 5.5, y is from 0 to about 3.0, and z is from about 0.05 to about 0.5. An electrochemical storage cell utilizes such an electrode as the anode. The storage cell further has a cathode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an electrolyte.

Anani, Anaba (Lauderhill, FL); Johnson, John (Calverton, NY); Lim, Hong S. (Agoura Hills, CA); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Schwarz, Ricardo (Los Alamos, NM); Srinivasan, Supramaniam (College Station, TX)

1995-01-01

297

Identification of pathogenic microbial cells and spores by electrochemical detection on a biochip.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Bacillus cereus constitutes a significant cause of acute food poisoning in humans. Despite the recent development of different detection methods, new effective control measures and better diagnostic tools are required for quick and reliable detection of pathogenic micro-organisms. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine a simple method for rapid identification of enterotoxic Bacillus strains. Here, a special attention is given to an electrochemical biosensor since it meets the requirements of minimal size, lower costs and decreased power consumption. RESULTS: A bead-based sandwich hybridization system was employed in conjugation with electric chips for detection of vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus strains based on their toxin-encoding genes. The system consists of a silicon chip based potentiometric cell, and utilizes paramagnetic beads as solid carriers of the DNA probes. The specific signals from 20 amol of bacterial cell or spore DNA were achieved in less than 4 h. The method was also successful when applied directly to unpurified spore and cell extract samples. The assay for the haemolytic enterotoxin genes resulted in reproducible signals from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis while haemolysin-negative B. subtilis strain did not yield any signal. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity, convenience and specificity of the system have shown its potential. In this respect an electrochemical detection on a chip enabling a fast characterization and monitoring of pathogens in food is of interest. This system can offer a contribution in the rapid identification of bacteria based on the presence of specific genes without preceding nucleic acid amplification. PMID:15090067

Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena; Andresen, Heiko; Albers, Joerg; Hintsche, Rainer; Enfors, Sven-Olof

2004-04-16

298

Photoelectrochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Sub-Micro-Gram Amounts of Organic Semiconductors Using Scanning Droplet Cell Microscopy.  

PubMed

A model organic semiconductor (MDMO-PPV) was used for testing a modified version of a photoelectrochemical scanning droplet cell microscope (PE-SDCM) adapted for use with nonaqueous electrolytes and containing an optical fiber for localized illumination. The most attractive features of the PE-SDCM are represented by the possibility of addressing small areas on the investigated substrate and the need of small amounts of electrolyte. A very small amount (ng) of the material under study is sufficient for a complete electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization due to the scanning capability of the cell. The electrochemical behavior of the polymer was studied in detail using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic investigations as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated under illumination conditions, and the photocurrents found were at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the dark (background) current, revealing the usefulness of this compact microcell for photovoltaic characterizations. PMID:25101149

Kollender, Jan Philipp; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Sariciftci, Niyazi S; Mardare, Andrei I; Hassel, Achim Walter

2014-07-31

299

Photoelectrochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Sub-Micro-Gram Amounts of Organic Semiconductors Using Scanning Droplet Cell Microscopy  

PubMed Central

A model organic semiconductor (MDMO-PPV) was used for testing a modified version of a photoelectrochemical scanning droplet cell microscope (PE-SDCM) adapted for use with nonaqueous electrolytes and containing an optical fiber for localized illumination. The most attractive features of the PE-SDCM are represented by the possibility of addressing small areas on the investigated substrate and the need of small amounts of electrolyte. A very small amount (ng) of the material under study is sufficient for a complete electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization due to the scanning capability of the cell. The electrochemical behavior of the polymer was studied in detail using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic investigations as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated under illumination conditions, and the photocurrents found were at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the dark (background) current, revealing the usefulness of this compact microcell for photovoltaic characterizations. PMID:25101149

2014-01-01

300

Electrochemical and physical analysis of a Li-ion cell cycled at elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-size LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/graphite lithium-ion pouch cells were cycled over 100 percent DOD at room temperature and 60 degrees C in order to investigate high-temperature degradation mechanisms of this important technology. Capacity fade for the cell was correlated with that for the individual components, using electrochemical analysis of the electrodes and other diagnostic techniques. The high-temperature cell lost 65 percent of its initial capacity after 140 cycles at 60 degrees C compared to only 4 percent loss for the cell cycled at room temperature. Cell ohmic impedance increased significantly with the elevated temperature cycling, resulting in some of loss of capacity at the C/2 rate. However, as determined with slow rate testing of the individual electrodes, the anode retained most of its original capacity, while the cathode lost 65 percent, even when cycled with a fresh source of lithium. Diagnostic evaluation of cell components including XRD, Raman, CSAFM and suggest capacity loss occurs primarily due to a rise in the impedance of the cathode, especially at the end-of-charge. The impedance rise may be caused in part by a loss of the conductive carbon at the surface of the cathode and/or by an organic film on the surface of the cathode that becomes non-ionically conductive at low lithium content.

Shim, Joongpyo; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Song, Xiangyun; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2002-06-21

301

Improving Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection Using a Bubble Cell and Sample Stacking Techniques  

PubMed Central

Two efforts to improve the sensitivity and limits of detection for MCE with electrochemical detection are presented here. One is the implementation of a capillary expansion (bubble cell) at the detection zone to increase the exposed working electrode surface area. Bubble cell widths were varied from 1× to 10× the separation channel width (50 ?m) to investigate the effects of electrode surface area on detection sensitivity, LOD, and separation efficiency. Improved detection sensitivity and decreased detection limits were obtained with increased bubble cell width, and LODs of dopamine and catechol detected in a 5× bubble cell were 25 nM and 50 nM, respectively. Meanwhile, fluorescent imaging results demonstrated ~8% and ~12% loss in separation efficiency in 4× and 5× bubble cell, respectively. Another effort for reducing the LOD involves using field amplified sample injection (FASI) for gated injection and field amplified sample stacking (FASS) for hydrodynamic injection. Stacking effects are shown for both methods using amperometric detection and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The LODs of dopamine in a 4× bubble cell were 8 nM and 20 nM using FASI and FASS, respectively. However, improved LODs were not obtained for anionic analytes using either stacking technique. PMID:19802848

Guan, Qian; Henry, Charles S.

2010-01-01

302

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

1998-03-31

303

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

1998-01-01

304

B-Cell Responses During Primary and Secondary Dengue Virus Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

Low-avidity serotype–cross-reactive antibodies are hypothesized to play a key role in triggering severe disease in patients with secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, there is little systematic information about the frequency, avidity, and cross-reactivity of DENV-specific B cells in individuals experiencing primary instead of secondary infection. We compared DENV-specific B-cell responses in a cohort of Thai children with primary or secondary DENV infection. B cells specific for DENV precursor membrane protein, envelope (E) protein, and nonstructural protein 1 were detectable in immune peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the highest frequencies of DENV E-specific B cells detected in patients experiencing primary DENV-1 infections. DENV E-specific B cells were highly serotype-specific after primary DENV infections, whereas most E-specific B cells in patients with secondary infection were serotype–cross-reactive and secreted antibodies with higher avidity to heterologous DENV serotypes. Our data suggest that the minor populations of serotype–cross-reactive B cells generated by primary DENV infection are preferentially expanded during secondary DENV infection. PMID:21930609

West, Kim; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel; Jaiswal, Smita; Rothman, Alan L.

2011-01-01

305

Degradation Mechanisms of Electrochemically Cycled Graphite Anodes in Lithium-ion Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at developing advanced characterization methods for studying the surface and subsurface damage in Li-ion battery anodes made of polycrystalline graphite and identifying the degradation mechanisms that cause loss of electrochemical capacity. Understanding microstructural aspects of the graphite electrode degradation mechanisms during charging and discharging of Li-ion batteries is of key importance in order to design durable anodes with high capacity. An in-situ system was constructed using an electrochemical cell with an observation window, a large depth-of-field digital microscope and a micro-Raman spectrometer. It was revealed that electrode damage by removal of the surface graphite fragments of 5-10 mum size is the most intense during the first cycle that led to a drastic capacity drop. Once a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer covered the electrode surface, the rate of graphite particle loss decreased. Yet, a gradual loss of capacity continued by the formation of interlayer cracks adjacent to SEI/graphite interfaces. Deposition of co-intercalation compounds, LiC6, Li2CO3 and Li2O, near the crack tips caused partial closure of propagating graphite cracks during cycling and reduced the crack growth rate. Bridging of crack faces by delaminated graphite layers also retarded crack propagation. The microstructure of the SEI layer, formed by electrochemical reduction of the ethylene carbonate based electrolyte, consisted of ˜5-20 nm sized crystalline domains (containing Li2CO3, Li2O 2 and nano-sized graphite fragments) dispersed in an amorphous matrix. During the SEI formation, two regimes of Li-ion diffusion were identified at the electrode/electrolyte interface depending on the applied voltage scan rate (dV/dt). A low Li-ion diffusion coefficient ( DLi+) at dV/dt < 0.05 mVs-1 produced a tubular SEI that uniformly covered the graphite surface and prevented damage at 25°C. At 60°C, a high D Li+ formed a Li2CO3-enriched SEI and ensued a 28% increase in the battery capacity at 25°C. On correlating the microscopic information to the electrochemical performance, novel Li2CO3-coated electrodes were fabricated that were durable. The SEI formed on pre-treated electrodes reduced the strain in the graphite lattice from 0.4% (for uncoated electrodes) to 0.1%, facilitated Li-ion diffusion and hence improved the capacity retention of Li-ion batteries during long-term cycling.

Bhattacharya, Sandeep

306

Electrochemical differential photoacoustic cell to study in situ the growing process of porous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study in situ the growing process of porous materials, a new electrochemical differential photoacoustic cell (DPC) was developed. This system allows to obtain the thermal signals coming from the growing process of the pores without the external noise component. The DPC is a good system to growth porous silicon and study their growing process with reproducibility. The porous silicon samples were obtained by using electrochemical etching of (100) n-type silicon wafers with different nominal resistivity values in the range of 1-25 ? cm. The samples were formed in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and ethanol having a composition ratio of 1:1 in volume with etching voltage of 10V and an etching time of 2 min using back illumination provided by a laser beam with a wavelength of 808 nm. The porous samples were characterized by means of Raman microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallite sizes of the samples were obtained through the analysis of the micro-Raman spectra using a phonon confinement model, and the analysis of the x-ray diffractograms.

Gutiérrez, Adriana; Giraldo, Jairo; Velázquez-Hernández, Rubén; Mendoza-López, Maria Luisa; Espinosa-Arbeláez, Diego G.; del Real, Alicia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E.

2010-01-01

307

Improving the carrier balance of light-emitting electrochemical cells based on ionic transition metal complexes.  

PubMed

Recently, solid-state light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on ionic transition metal complexes (iTMCs) have attracted much research interest since they have the advantages of a simple device structure, a low operation voltage and compatibility with air-stable electrodes. These properties enable LECs to be cost-effective, versatile and power-efficient organic light-emitting sources. However, it is generally not easy to modify the molecular structure to achieve balanced carrier mobilities without altering the photoluminescence quantum yield of the iTMC. Furthermore, the carrier balance and the consequent device efficiency of single-layered LECs would not be easy to optimize since no carrier injection and transport layers can be used. In this perspective, some reported techniques to improve carrier balance of LECs based on iTMCs are described and reviewed. The importance and impact of these studies are highlighted. The effects on device lifetime and turn-on time because of employing these techniques to improve the carrier balance are also discussed. This perspective concludes that even with electrochemically doped layers, improving the carrier balance of LECs would be required for realizing efficient electroluminescent emission from simple-structure organic light-emitting sources. PMID:25407946

Su, Hai-Ching; Hsu, Jia-Hong

2014-11-13

308

Carbon-Ring Microelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Imaging of Single Cell Exocytosis: Fabrication and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Fabrication of carbon microelectrode arrays, with up to 15 electrodes in total tips as small as 10 to 50 ?m, is presented. The support structures of microelectrodes were obtained by pulling multiple quartz capillaries together to form hollow capillary arrays before carbon deposition. Carbon ring microelectrodes were deposited by pyrolysis of acetylene in the lumen of these quartz capillary arrays. Each carbon deposited array tip was filled with epoxy, followed by beveling of the tip of the array to form a deposited carbon-ring microelectrode array (CRMA). Both the number of the microelectrodes in the array and the tip size are independently tunable. These CRMAs have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrogenerated chemiluminescence. Additionally, the electrochemical properties were investigated with steady-state voltammetry. In order to demonstrate the utility of these fabricated microelectrodes in neurochemistry, CRMAs containing eight microring electrodes were used for electrochemical monitoring of exocytotic events from single PC12 cells. Subcellular temporal heterogeneities in exocytosis (ie. cold spots vs. hot spots) were successfully detected with the CRMAs. PMID:22339586

Lin, Yuqing; Trouillon, Raphaël; Svensson, Maria I.; Keighron, Jacqueline D.; Cans, Ann-Sofie; Ewing, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

309

Inkjet printed bilayer light-emitting electrochemical cells for display and lighting applications.  

PubMed

A new bilayer light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) device, which allows well-defined patterned light emission through an easily adjustable, mask-free, and additive fabrication process, is reported. The bilayer stack comprises an inkjet-printed lattice of micrometer-sized electrolyte droplets, in a "filled" or "patterned" lattice configuration. On top of this, a thin layer of light-emitting compound is deposited from solution. The light emission is demonstrated to originate from regions proximate to the interfaces between the inkjetted electrolyte, the light-emitting compound, and one electrode, where bipolar electron/hole injection and electrochemical doping are facilitated by ion motion. By employing KCF3 SO3 in poly(ethylene glycol) as the electrolyte, Super Yellow as the light-emitting compound, and two air-stabile electrodes, it is possible to realize filled lattice devices that feature uniform yellow-green light emission to the naked eye, and patterned lattice devices that deliver well-defined and high-contrast static messages with a pixel density of 170 PPI. PMID:25070524

Lindh, E Mattias; Sandström, Andreas; Edman, Ludvig

2014-10-29

310

An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer.  

PubMed

An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2). PMID:25362421

Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B

2014-10-01

311

An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2).

Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

2014-10-01

312

Membrane-based electrochemical nanobiosensor for Escherichia coli detection and analysis of cells viability.  

PubMed

A sensitive and selective membrane-based electrochemical nanobiosensor is developed for specific quantitative label-free detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells and analysis of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) E. coli cells which remain mostly undetected using current methods. The sensing mechanism relies on the blocking of nanochannels of a nanoporous alumina-membrane modified electrode, upon the formation of immune complexes at the nanoporous membrane. The resulting obstacle to diffusive mass transfer of a redox probe in the analysis solution to the underlying platinum electrode reduces the Faradaic signal response of the biosensor, measured using cyclic voltammetry. Antibody loading under conditions of varying antibody concentrations and pHs are optimized. The biosensor gives a low detection limit of 22 cfu mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.999) over a wide linear working range of 10 to 10(6) cfu mL(-1). It is specific toward E. coli with minimal cross-reactivity to two other pathogenic bacteria (commonly found in waters). Relative standard deviation (RSD) for triplicate measurements of 2.5% indicates reasonably useful level of reproducibility. Differentiation of live, VBNC, and dead cells are carried out after the cell capture and quantitation step, by simple monitoring of the cells' enzyme activity using the same redox probe in the analysis solution, in the presence of glucose. PMID:21688778

Cheng, Ming Soon; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Toh, Chee-Seng

2011-08-01

313

Concentration of carbon dioxide by a high-temperature electrochemical membrane cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a molten carbonate carbon dioxide concentrator (MCCDC) cell, as a device for removal of CO2 from manned spacecraft cabins without fuel expenditure, is investigated. The test system consists of an electrochemical cell (with an Li2CO3-38 mol pct K2CO3 membrane contained in a LiAlO2 matrix), a furnace, and a flow IR analyzer for monitoring CO2. Operation of the MCCDC-driven cell was found to be suitable for the task of CO2 removal: the cell performed at extremely low CO2 partial pressures (at or above 0.1 mm Hg); cathode CO2 efficiencies of 97 percent were achieved with 0.25 CO2 inlet concentration at 19 mA sq cm, at temperatures near 873 K. Anode concentrations of up to 5.8 percent were obtained. Simple cathode and anode performance equations applied to correlate cell performance agreed well with those measured experimentally. A flow diagram for the process is included.

Kang, M. P.; Winnick, J.

1985-01-01

314

THERMAL AND ELECTROCHEMICAL THREE DIMENSIONAL CFD MODEL OF A PLANAR SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELL  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model represents a single cell, as it would exist in an electrolysis stack. Details of the model geometry are specific to a stack that was fabricated by Ceramatec , Inc. and tested at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT2. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean model results are shown to compare favorably with experimental results obtained from an actual ten-cell stack tested at INL.

Grant Hawkes; Jim O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Steve Herring; Mehrdad Shahnam

2005-07-01

315

Electrochemical performance and transport properties of a Nafion membrane in a hydrogen-bromine cell environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall energy conversion efficiency of a hydrogen-bromine energy storage system is highly dependent upon the characteristics and performance of the ion-exchange membrane utilized as a half-cell separator. The electrochemical performance and transport properties of a duPont Nafion membrane in an aqueous HBr-Br2 environment were investigated. Membrane conductivity data are presented as a function of HBr concentration and temperature for the determination of ohmic voltage losses across the membrane in an operational cell. Diffusion-controlled bromine permeation rates and permeabilities are presented as functions of solution composition and temperature. Relationships between the degree of membrane hydration and the membrane transport characteristics are discussed. The solution chemistry of an operational hydrogen-bromine cell undergoing charge from 45% HBr to 5% HBr is discussed, and, based upon the experimentally observed bromine permeation behavior, predicted cell coulombic losses due to bromine diffusion through the membrane are presented as a function of the cell state-of-charge.

Baldwin, Richard S.

1987-01-01

316

Glucose and Lactate Biosensors for Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Imaging of Single Live Cells  

PubMed Central

We have developed glucose and lactate ultramicroelectrode (UME) biosensors based on glucose oxidase and lactate oxidase (with enzymes immobilized onto Pt UMEs by either electropolymerization or casting) for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), and have determined their sensitivity to glucose and lactate, respectively. The results of our evaluations reveal different advantages for sensors constructed by each method: improved sensitivity and shorter manufacturing time for hand-casting, and increased reproducibility for electropolymerization. We have acquired amperometric approach curves (ACs) for each type of manufactured biosensor UME, and these ACs can be used as a means of positioning the UME above a substrate at a known distance. We have used the glucose biosensor UMEs to record profiles of glucose uptake above individual fibroblasts. Likewise, we have employed the lactate biosensor UMEs for recording the lactate production above single cancer cells with the SECM. We also show that oxygen respiration profiles for single cancer cells do not mimic cell topography, but are rather more convoluted, with a higher respiration activity observed at the points where the cell touches the Petri dish. These UME biosensors, along with the application of others already described in the literature, could prove to be powerful tools for mapping metabolic analytes, such as glucose, lactate and oxygen, in single cancer cells. PMID:18345647

Ciobanu, Madalina; Taylor, Dale E.; Wilburn, Jeremy P.; Cliffel, David E.

2010-01-01

317

Boosting the voltage of a salinity-gradient-power electrochemical cell by means of complex-forming solutions  

E-print Network

Boosting the voltage of a salinity-gradient-power electrochemical cell by means of complex://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to IP: 159.149.2.128 On: Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:00:29 #12;Boosting the voltage of a salinity performances with respect to known salinity-difference-power methods. VC 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. [http

Carati, Andrea

318

Creating systems that effectively convert energy, such as efficient solar cells and electrochemical batteries, has been a  

E-print Network

SEMTE abstract Creating systems that effectively convert energy, such as efficient solar cells stimuli, the solar energy from sunlight, and the mechanical motion is commonplace, indeed fundamental and electrochemical batteries, has been a longstanding scientific pursuit, especially given the global energy

Reisslein, Martin

319

Applications of advanced electrochemical techniques in the study of microbial fuel cells and corrosion protection by polymer coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a detailed evaluation of the properties of the anode and the cathode of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) and the factors determining the power output of the MFC using different electrochemical techniques are presented in Chapter 1. In the MFC under investigation, the biocatalyst - Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 - oxidizes the fuel and transfers the electrons

Aswin Karthik Manohar

2010-01-01

320

The compromises of printing organic electronics: a case study of gravure-printed light-emitting electrochemical cells.  

PubMed

Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are fabricated by gravure printing. The compromise between device performance and printing quality is correlated to the ink formulation and the printing process. It is shown that the rheological properties of the ink formulations of LECs can be tailored without changing the chemical composition of the material blend. PMID:24616075

Hernandez-Sosa, Gerardo; Tekoglu, Serpil; Stolz, Sebastian; Eckstein, Ralph; Teusch, Claudia; Trapp, Jannik; Lemmer, Uli; Hamburger, Manuel; Mechau, Norman

2014-05-28

321

Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage in a Mechanical-to-Electrochemical Process for Self-Charging Power Cell  

E-print Network

Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage in a Mechanical-to- Electrochemical Process for Self-charging power cell, mechanical energy, piezoelectricity, lithium ion battery, electrochemistry Energy conversion physical units achieving the conversions from mechanical energy to electricity and then from electric

Wang, Zhong L.

322

Circulating cells as predictors of secondary manifestations of cardiovascular disease: design of the CIRCULATING CELLS study.  

PubMed

Biomarkers for primary or secondary risk prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are urgently needed to improve individual treatment and clinical trial design. The vast majority of biomarker discovery studies has concentrated on plasma/serum as an easily accessible source. Although numerous markers have been identified, their added predictive value on top of traditional risk factors has been limited, as the biological specimen does not specifically reflect expression profiles related with CVD progression and because the signal is often diluted by marker release from other organs. In contrast to serum markers, circulating cells serve as indicators of the actual disease state due to their active role in the pathogenesis of CVD and are responsible for the majority of secreted biomarkers. Therefore, the CIRCULATING CELLS study was initiated, focusing on the cellular effectors of atherosclerosis in the circulation. In total, 714 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) symptoms were included. Blood cell fractions (monocytes, T-lymphocytes, platelets, granulocytes, PBMC) of all individual patients were isolated and stored for analysis. Concomitantly, extensive flow cytometric characterization of these populations was performed. From each patient, a detailed clinical profile together with extensive questionnaires about medical history and life style was obtained. Various high-throughput -omics approaches (protein, mRNA, miRNA) are currently being undertaken. Data will be integrated with advanced bioinformatics for discovery and validation of secondary risk markers for adverse events. Overall, the CIRCULATING CELLS study grants the interesting possibility that it will both identify novel biomarkers and provide useful insights into the pathophysiology of CAD in patients. PMID:23975238

Hoefer, Imo E; Sels, Jan-Willem; Jukema, J Wouter; Bergheanu, Sandrin; Biessen, Erik; McClellan, Elizabeth; Daemen, Mat; Doevendans, Pieter; de Groot, Philip; Hillaert, Marieke; Horsman, Sebastiaan; Ilhan, Mustafa; Kuiper, Johan; Pijls, Nico; Redekop, Ken; van der Spek, Peter; Stubbs, Andrew; van de Veer, Eric; Waltenberger, Johannes; van Zonneveld, Anton-Jan; Pasterkamp, Gerard

2013-11-01

323

Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation  

PubMed Central

Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications. PMID:24098302

Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

2013-01-01

324

Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Multilayer Films as Efficient Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

We report on a new counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which is prepared using layer-by-layer assembly of negatively charged graphene oxide and positively charged poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) followed by an electrochemical reduction procedure. The DSC devises using the heteroleptic Ru complex C106TBA as sensitizer and this new counter electrode reach power conversion efficiencies of 9.5% and 7.6% in conjunction with low volatility and solvent free ionic liquid electrolytes, respectively. The new counter electrode exhibits good durability (60°C for 1000?h in a solar simulator, 100?mW cm?2) during the accelerated tests when used in combination with an ionic liquid electrolyte. This work identifies a new class of electro-catalysts with potential for low cost photovoltaic devices. PMID:23508212

Xu, Xiaobao; Huang, Dekang; Cao, Kun; Wang, Mingkui; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grätzel, Michael

2013-01-01

325

Simultaneous microbial and electrochemical reductions of vanadium (V) with bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Simultaneous microbial and electrochemical reductions of vanadium (V) with bioelectricity generation were realized in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). With initial V(V) concentrations of 75mg/l and 150mg/l in anolyte and catholyte, respectively, stable power output of 419±11mW/m(2) was achieved. After 12h operation, V(V) concentration in the catholyte decreased to the value similar to that of the initial one in the anolyte, meanwhile it was nearly reduced completely in the anolyte. V(IV) was the main reduction product, which subsequently precipitated, acquiring total vanadium removal efficiencies of 76.8±2.9%. Microbial community analysis revealed the emergence of the new species of Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as well as the enhanced Spirochaetes mainly functioned in the anode. This study opens new pathways to successful remediation of vanadium contamination. PMID:25536507

Zhang, Baogang; Tian, Caixing; Liu, Ying; Hao, Liting; Liu, Ye; Feng, Chuanping; Liu, Yuqian; Wang, Zhongli

2015-03-01

326

Electrodes including a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix, methods of forming the electrodes, and related electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

An electrode comprising a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix and particles within pores of the polyphosphazene cyclomatrix. The polyphosphazene cyclomatrix comprises a plurality of phosphazene compounds and a plurality of cross-linkages. Each phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds comprises a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units, and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. Each phosphorus-nitrogen unit is bonded to an adjacent phosphorus-nitrogen unit. Each cross-linkage of the plurality of cross-linkages bonds at least one pendant group of one phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds with the at least one pendant group of another phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds. A method of forming a negative electrode and an electrochemical cell are also described.

Gering, Kevin L; Stewart, Frederick F; Wilson, Aaron D; Stone, Mark L

2014-10-28

327

Method of preparing porous, rigid ceramic separators for an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

Porous, rigid separators for electrochemical cells are prepared by first calcining particles of ceramic material at temperatures above about 1200.degree. C. for a sufficient period of time to reduce the sinterability of the particles. A ceramic powder that has not been calcined is blended with the original powder to control the porosity of the completed separator. The ceramic blend is then pressed into a sheet of the desired shape and sintered at a temperature somewhat lower than the calcination temperature. Separator sheets of about 1 to 2.5 mm thickness and 30 to 70% porosity can be prepared by this technique. Ceramics such as yttria, magnesium oxide and magnesium-aluminum oxide have advantageously been used to form separators by this method.

Bandyopadhyay, Gautam (Naperville, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

328

Oxidation of Carbon Supports at Fuel Cell Cathodes: Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometric Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of O2 and the supported Pt nano-particles on the mechanisms and kinetics of the carbon support corrosion are investigated by monitoring the CO2 production using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry in a dual-thin layer flow cell. Carbon can be oxidized in different distinct potential regimes; O2 accelerates carbon oxidation, the rates of CO2 production from carbon oxidation in O2 saturated solution are two times of that in N2 saturated solution at the same potential; Pt can catalyze the carbon oxidation, with supported Pt nanoparticles, the overpotential for carbon oxidation is much smaller than that without loading in the carbon electrode. The mechanism for the enhanced carbon oxidation by Pt and O2 are discussed.

Li, Ming-fang; Tao, Qian; Liao, Ling-wen; Xu, Jie; Cai, Jun; Chen, Yan-xia

2010-08-01

329

Electrochemical gas-electricity cogeneration through direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), with yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as electrolyte, composite of strontium-doped lanthanum manganate (LSM) and YSZ as cathode, and cermet of silver and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) as anode, are prepared and tested with 5wt% Fe-loaded activated carbon as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. It is found that electricity and CO gas can be cogenerated in the direct carbon SOFCs through the electrochemical oxidation of CO and the Boudouard reaction. The gas-electricity cogeneration performances are investigated by taking the operating time of the DC-SOFCs as a measure of rate decrease of the Boudouard reaction. Three single cells and a two-cell-stack are tested and characterized in terms of electrical power output, CO production rate, electrical conversion efficiency, and overall conversion efficiency. It turns out that a rapid rate of the Boudouard reaction is necessary for getting high electrical power and CO production. Taking the emitted CO as part of the power output, an overall efficiency of 76.5% for the single cell, and of 72.5% for the stack, is obtained.

Xie, Yongmin; Cai, Weizi; Xiao, Jie; Tang, Yubao; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Meilin

2015-03-01

330

Probing the chemistry of nickel/metal hydride battery cells using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a valuable tool for investigating the chemical and physical processes occurring at electrode surfaces. It offers information about electron transfer at interfaces, kinetics of reactions, and diffusion characteristics of the bulk phase between the electrodes. For battery cells, this technique offers another advantage in that it can be done without taking the battery apart. This non-destructive analysis technique can thus be used to gain a better understanding of the processes occurring within a battery cell. This also raises the possibility of improvements in battery design and identification or prediction of battery characteristics useful in industry and aerospace applications. EIS as a technique is powerful and capable of yielding significant information about the cell, but it also requires that the many parameters under investigation can be resolved. This implies an understanding of the processes occurring in a battery cell. Many battery types were surveyed in this work, but the main emphasis was on nickel/metal hydride batteries.

Isaac, Bryan J.

1994-01-01

331

Secondary active transport of water across ventricular cell membrane of choroid plexus epithelium of Necturus maculosus.  

PubMed Central

1. The interaction between Cl-, K+ and H2O fluxes were studied in the ventricular membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium from Necturus maculosus by means of ion-selective microelectrodes. The flux of H2O was measured by means of K+ electrodes as the dilution or concentration of intracellular choline ions, Ch+i. 2. In one series of experiments Cl- was readministered to the ventricular solution of tissues incubated in media with low Cl- concentrations. The resulting influx of Cl- was associated with an instantaneous influx of K+ and H2O. 3. Both the Cl- and the K+ influxes were reduced by the diuretic furosemide but were unaffected by inhibitors of Na+, K(+)-ATPase or changes in membrane potentials induced by Ba2+. Since the influx of K+ proceeds against its electrochemical gradient and is unaffected by changes in membrane potentials, the membrane exhibits secondary active, electroneutral transport of K+. 4. The influx of water, initiated simultaneously with the influx of K+ and Cl-, commenced before these ions had changed the osmolarity of the intracellular solution significantly. The influx of H2O could proceed against an osmotic gradient. The influx stopped when 100 mmol l-1 of mannitol was added to the ventricular solution at the same time as the Cl- ions. The influx of H2O was inhibited by K+ removal, furosemide or high external Ba2+ (10 mmol l-1), but not by strophanthidin, ouabain or low concentrations of Ba2+ (0.5 mmol l-1). The influx could not continue with other permeable anions, NO3-, acetate- or SCN-, replacing Cl-. 5. In another series of experiments Cl- was removed from the ventricular solution of tissues bathed in saline solutions with normal concentrations of Cl-. The resulting efflux of Cl- was associated with an instantaneous efflux of K+ and H2O. This efflux of H2O could proceed against an osmotic gradient of up to 70 mosmol l-1. This effect was inhibited by furosemide, in which case the water fluxes were entirely dependent on the osmotic gradients and the osmotic water permeability Lp of the ventricular membrane. 6. The data suggest that there is a coupling between the flux of KCl and of water in the ventricular membrane, which implies that the reflection coefficient sigma for KCl under the given circumstances is less than one. I suggest that the ability of leaky epithelia to transport against osmotic gradients depends on such a coupling, which derives from the properties of the proteins through which K+, Cl- and H2O leave the cell. PMID:1822549

Zeuthen, T

1991-01-01

332

Processing, microstructural evolution and electrochemical performance relationships in solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the processing parameters, microstructures and electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components were investigated. The operating regimes (i.e., reducing vs. oxidizing) as well as the elevated temperatures (e.g. 800°C) for their operation introduce several material challenges. Therefore, composite materials are employed to withstand operating conditions while providing sufficient electrochemical performance for fuel cell operation. Analyses on lanthanum-strontium manganite (LSM) - yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) compositions (45 vol%-55 vol%) by impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that two competing polarization mechanisms (i.e. charge-exchange and surface adsorption-diffusion of oxygen) limit performance. Optimization of microstructures resulted in total resistances as low as 0.040 Ohm cm2. Studies on Ag composites revealed that incorporation of up to 25 vol% oxide particles (LSM and YSZ) with sizes comparable to the Ag grains (~0.5 microm) can minimize the densification and coarsening of the Ag matrix. While the powder based oxide additions increased the stability limit of porous Ag composites from <550°C to 800°C, the use of nanostructured coatings increased the stability limit to 900°C for cathodes and current collectors. Investigations of Ni-YSZ anode microstructures demonstrated that uniform distribution of percolating isometric pores (>5 microm) allows forming desired continuous percolation of all phases (Ni, YSZ and pores) lowering activation polarization below 0.100 Ohm cm2 and maintaining significant electrical conductivity (>1000 S/cm). Identification of polarization mechanisms by deconvolution of impedance spectra and tailoring the corresponding microstructures was demonstrated as an effective method for optimization of SOFC components.

Sarikaya, Ayhan

333

DNA Secondary structures and their contribution to mutagenesis in B. subtilis stationary phase cells.  

E-print Network

DNA Secondary structures and their contribution to mutagenesis in B. subtilis stationary phase cells. Carmen Vallin, Katherine Ona, Chris Ross, Ronald E. Yasbin and Eduardo A. Robleto School of Life · In stationary phase cell division and replication are halted due to an environmental stress setting the stage

Walker, Lawrence R.

334

Electrochemical behavior of heavily cycled nickel electrodes in Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been made of charge and discharge voltage changes with cycling of Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. A study has also been made of electrochemical behavior of the nickel electrodes from the cycled Ni/H2 cells as a function of overcharge amounts. Discharge voltages depressed gradually with cycling for cells having high KOH concentrations (31 to 36 percent), but the voltages increased for those having low KOH concentrations (21 to 26 percent). To determine if there was a crystallographic change of the active material due to cycling, electrochemical behavior of nickel electrodes was studied in an electrolyte flooded cell containing either 31 or 26 percent KOH electrolyte as a function of the amount of overcharge. The changes in discharge voltage appear to indicate crystal structure changes of active material from gamma-phase to beta-phase in low KOH concentrations, and vice versa in high KOH concentration.

Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

1989-01-01

335

In-situ Photoelectron Microspectroscopy and Imaging of Electrochemical Processes at the Electrodes of a Self-driven Cell  

PubMed Central

The challenges in development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reducing their dimensions and increasing their efficiency and durability, which requires physicochemical characterization at micro-scales of the device components during operation conditions. Recently, the unique potential of scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) has been demonstrated by in-situ studies of externally-driven SOFCs, which mimic real devices. Here we overcome the gap between model and real systems using a single-chamber Ni|YSZ|Mn SOFC, supporting a range of self-driven electrochemical reactions in variable gas environments and temperatures. The reported SPEM results, obtained during spontaneous electrochemical processes occurring in reactive gas ambient, demonstrate the chemical evolution of electrodic material, in particular the lateral distribution of the oxidation state and the induced local potential, clearly marking out the electrochemically most active micro-regions of the Ni anode. PMID:24092014

Bozzini, Benedetto; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Kiskinova, Maya

2013-01-01

336

From microbial fuel cell (MFC) to microbial electrochemical snorkel (MES): maximizing chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from wastewater.  

PubMed

The paper introduces the concept of the microbial electrochemical snorkel (MES), a simplified design of a "short-circuited" microbial fuel cell (MFC). The MES cannot provide current but it is optimized for wastewater treatment. An electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) was grown on graphite felt under constant polarization in an urban wastewater. Controlling the electrode potential and inoculating the bioreactor with a suspension of an established EAB improved the performance and the reproducibility of the anodes. Anodes, colonized by an EAB were tested for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from urban wastewater using a variety of bio-electrochemical processes (microbial electrolysis, MFC, MES). The MES technology, as well as a short-circuited MFC, led to a COD removal 57% higher than a 1000 ?-connected MFC, confirming the potential for wastewater treatment. PMID:21409654

Erable, Benjamin; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

2011-03-01

337

In-situ Photoelectron Microspectroscopy and Imaging of Electrochemical Processes at the Electrodes of a Self-driven Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges in development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reducing their dimensions and increasing their efficiency and durability, which requires physicochemical characterization at micro-scales of the device components during operation conditions. Recently, the unique potential of scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) has been demonstrated by in-situ studies of externally-driven SOFCs, which mimic real devices. Here we overcome the gap between model and real systems using a single-chamber Ni|YSZ|Mn SOFC, supporting a range of self-driven electrochemical reactions in variable gas environments and temperatures. The reported SPEM results, obtained during spontaneous electrochemical processes occurring in reactive gas ambient, demonstrate the chemical evolution of electrodic material, in particular the lateral distribution of the oxidation state and the induced local potential, clearly marking out the electrochemically most active micro-regions of the Ni anode.

Bozzini, Benedetto; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Kiskinova, Maya

2013-10-01

338

T cell–dependent survival of CD20+ and CD20? plasma cells in human secondary lymphoid tissue  

PubMed Central

The signals mediating human plasma cell survival in vivo, particularly within secondary lymphoid tissue, are unclear. Human tonsils grafted into immunodeficient mice were therefore used to delineate the mechanisms promoting the survival of plasma cells. Tonsillar plasma cells were maintained within the grafts and the majority were nonproliferating, indicating a long-lived phenotype. A significant depletion of graft plasma cells was observed after anti-CD20 treatment, consistent with the expression of CD20 by most of the cells. Moreover, anti-CD52 treatment caused the complete loss of all graft lymphocytes, including plasma cells. Unexpectedly, anti-CD3, but not anti-CD154, treatment caused the complete loss of plasma cells, indicating an essential role for T cells, but not CD40-CD154 interactions in plasma cell survival. The in vitro coculture of purified tonsillar plasma cells and T cells revealed a T-cell survival signal requiring cell contact. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies detected a close association between human plasma cells and T cells in vivo. These data reveal that human tonsil contains long-lived plasma cells, the majority of which express CD20 and can be deleted with anti-CD20 therapy. In addition, an important role for contact-dependent interactions with T cells in human plasma cell survival within secondary lymphoid tissue was identified. PMID:17299094

Withers, David R.; Fiorini, Claudia; Fischer, Randy T.; Ettinger, Rachel; Grammer, Amrie C.

2007-01-01

339

Secondary chondrocyte-derived Ihh stimulates proliferation of periosteal cells during chick development.  

PubMed

The development of the skull is characterised by its dependence upon epigenetic influences. One of the most important of these is secondary chondrogenesis, which occurs following ossification within certain membrane bone periostea, as a result of biomechanical articulation. We have studied the genesis, character and function of the secondary chondrocytes of the quadratojugal of the chick between embryonic days 11 and 14. Analysis of gene expression revealed that secondary chondrocytes formed coincident with Sox9 upregulation from a precursor population expressing Cbfa1/Runx2: a reversal of the normal sequence. Such secondary chondrocytes rapidly acquired a phenotype that is a compound of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, exited from the cell cycle and upregulated Ihh. Pulse and pulse/chase experiments with BrdU confirmed the germinal region as the highly proliferative source of the secondary chondrocytes, which formed by division of chondrocyte-committed precursors. By blocking Hh signalling in explant cultures we show that the enhanced proliferation of the germinal region surrounding the secondary chondrocytes derives from this Ihh source. Additionally, in vitro studies on membrane bone periosteal cells (non-germinal region) demonstrated that these cells can also respond to Ihh, and do so both by enhanced proliferation and precocious osteogenesis. Despite the pro-osteogenic effects of Ihh on periosteal cell differentiation, mechanical articulation of the quadratojugal/quadrate joint in explant culture revealed a negative role for articulation in the regulation of osteocalcin by germinal region descendants. Thus, the mechanical stimulus that is the spur to secondary chondrocyte formation appears able to override the osteogenic influence of Ihh on the periosteum, but does not interfere with the cell cycle-promoting component of Hh signalling. PMID:12925598

Buxton, Paul G; Hall, Brian; Archer, Charles W; Francis-West, Philippa

2003-10-01

340

Effects of Operating Conditions on Internal Resistances in Enzyme Fuel Cells Studied via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Enzyme fuel cells (EFCs) offer some advantages over traditional precious-metal-catalyzed fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, EFCs exhibit far less power output than PEMFCs and have relatively short life spans before materials must be replaced. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to analyze the internal resistances throughout the EFC at a variety of operating conditions. EIS analysis is focused primarily on the resistances of the anode, solution/membrane, and cathode. Increased enzyme loading results in improved power output and reductions in internal resistance. Conditions are identified for which enzyme loading does not limit the EFC performance. EIS experiments are also reported for EFCs operated continuously for 2 days; power output declines sharply over time, while all internal resistances increase. Drying of the cathode and enzyme/mediator degradation are believed to have contributed to this behavior. Finally, experiments are performed at varying air-humidification temperatures. Little effect on internal resistances or power output is observed. However, it is anticipated that increased air humidification can improve longevity by delivering more water to the cathode. Improvements to the enzymatic cathode are needed for EFC development. These improvements need to focus on improving transport rather than increasing enzyme loading.

Aaron, D [Georgia Institute of Technology; Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2012-01-01

341

A thin layer electrochemical cell for disinfection of water contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

A thin layer electrochemical cell was tested and developed for disinfection treatment of water artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. Electrolysis was performed with a low-voltage DC power source applying current densities of 75 mA cm-2 (3 A) or 25 mA cm-2 (1 A). A dimensionally stable anode (DSA) of titanium coated with an oxide layer of 70%TiO2 plus 30%RuO2 (w/w) and a 3 mm from a stainless-steel 304 cathode was used in the thin layer cell. The experiments were carried out using a bacteria suspension containing 0.08 M sodium sulphate with chloride-free to determine the bacterial inactivation efficacy of the thin layer cell without the generation of chlorine. The chlorine can promote the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) that are carcinogenic. S. aureus inactivation increased with electrolysis time and lower flow rate. The flow rates used were 200 or 500 L h-1. At 500 L h-1 and 75 mA cm-2 the inactivation after 60 min was about three logs of decreasing for colony forming units by mL. However, 100% inactivation for S. aureus was observed at 5.6 V and 75 mA cm-2 after 30 min. Thus, significant disinfection levels can be achieved without adding oxidant substances or generation of chlorine in the water. PMID:24031410

Gusmão, Isabel C. P.; Moraes, Peterson B.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

2009-01-01

342

Definition of chemical and electrochemical properties of a fuel cell electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research is oriented toward the task of developing an improved electrolyte for the direct hydrocarbon-air fuel cell. The electrochemical behavior of methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, and sulfoacetic acid as fuel cell electrolytes was studied in a half cell at various temperatures. The rate of electro-oxidation of hydrogen at 115 degrees was very high in methanesulfonic acid and sulfoacetic acids. The rate of the electro-oxidation of propane in methanesulfonic acid at 80 C and 115 C was low. Further, there is evidence for adsorption of these acids on the platinum electrode. Sulfoacetic acid with H2 has supported about two times higher current density than trifluoromethanesulfonic acid monohydrate, but, attempts to purify the compound were unsuccessful. It was concluded that anhydrous sulfonic acids are not good electrolytes; water solutions are required. Sulfonic acids containing unprotected C-H bonds are adsorbed on platinum and probably decompose during electrolysis. A completely substituted sulfonic acid would be the preferred electrolyte.

Ahmad, J.; Foley, R. T.

1980-01-01

343

Electrochemical profile for ion transport across the membrane of proximal tubular cells.  

PubMed

A micropuncture study was performed on the bullfrog kidney proximal tubular cells utilizing double-barreled ion-selective microelectrodes. The intracellular of Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3(-) and pH were determined to be 21.6 mEq/L, 67.4 mEq/L, 9.9 mEq/L, 20.2 mEq/L, and 7.49 pH units, respectively. In the extracellular fluid the following activities were found: Na+, 87.4 mEq/L; K+, 2.64 mEq/L; Cl-, 72.5 mEq/L; HCO3(-), 17.9 mEq/L; and pH, 7.66. The membrane potential difference was 68.4 mV and 60.4 mV across the peritubular and brush borders, respectively. The electrochemical potential differences across the individual borders of the proximal tubule cells were separately calculated by setting the intracellular level of both electrical and chemical potentials at zero for convenience. From these analyses, the following interpretations are made. (1) In the net reabsorption of Na+, luminal Na+ enters the cell along a 95-mV gradient across the luminal border and is pumped out to the interstitium against a 104 mV gradient. In the reabsorption of bicarbonate, an uphill pump of about 69 mV (about 70% of the Na+ entry gradient) must exist on the luminal border, of which about 55 mV (80% of the bicarbonate gradient) is accounted for by the H+ secretory pump. (2) In the net reabsorption of K+, a significant K+ uptake pump must exist on the luminal border in addition to the powerful peritubular Na+-K+ exchange pump. The reabsorption of Cl- by the epithelium may take place in two ways: (a) transmembrane transport involving an uphill step of several millivolts, and (b) paracellular leakage through the tight junction. It is thought that the Na+ pump located on the basolateral border of the proximal tubule cell plays a primary role in the regulation of the movement of other ions and water. The regulatory mechanisms of these substances may involve some electrochemical feedback mechanism that works across the proximal tubular epithelium. PMID:6968864

Fujimoto, M; Naito, K; Kubota, T

1980-01-01

344

Inhibition of CPP32Like Proteases Rescues Axotomized Retinal Ganglion Cells from Secondary Cell Death In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) degenerate and die after transection of the optic nerve (ON) in the adult rat. This secondary cell death can primarily be ascribed to apoptosis. Recent work strongly suggests a decisive role for a family of cysteine proteases, termed caspases, as mediators of neuronal apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether activation of caspases

Pawel Kermer; Nikolaj Klocker; Monika Labes; Mathias Bah

1998-01-01

345

Peroxiredoxin II Regulates Effector and Secondary Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) generated in response to receptor stimulation play an important role in cellular responses. However, the effect of increased H2O2 on an antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response was unknown. Following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, the expression and oxidation of peroxiredoxin II (PrdxII), a critical antioxidant enzyme, increased in CD8+ T cells. Deletion of PrdxII increased ROI, S phase entry, division, and death during in vitro division. During primary acute viral and bacterial infection, the number of effector CD8+ T cells in PrdxII-deficient mice was increased, while the number of memory cells were similar to those of the wild-type cells. Adoptive transfer of P14 TCR transgenic cells demonstrated that the increased expansion of effector cells was T cell autonomous. After rechallenge, effector CD8+ T cells in mutant animals were more skewed to memory phenotype than cells from wild-type mice, resulting in a larger secondary memory CD8+ T cell pool. During chronic viral infection, increased antigen-specific CD8+ T cells accumulated in the spleens of PrdxII mutant mice, causing mortality. These results demonstrate that PrdxII controls effector CD8+ T cell expansion, secondary memory generation, and immunopathology. PMID:23055551

Michalek, Ryan D.; Crump, Katie E.; Weant, Ashley E.; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M.; Juneau, Daniel G.; Moon, Eun-Yi; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Poole, Leslie B.

2012-01-01

346

Lignin biosynthesis perturbations affect secondary cell wall composition and saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-print Network

the need for alterna- tive and sustainable sources of energy [1]. One of the potential alternatives, besides solar radiation and wind, is lignocellulosic biomass of which the sugar fraction in the secondary cell wall (cellulose and hemicelluloses) can... ). By modeling the saccharification yield (Additional file 1) and not the cel- lulose conversion (Table 4), the cell wall parameter “crystalline cellulose content” could be included into the model. The other cell wall parameters that were consid- ered...

Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Storme, Véronique; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Dupree, Paul; Boerjan, Wout

2013-04-26

347

Eimeria tenella: B-cell epitope mapping following primary and secondary infections.  

PubMed

Immunisation against coccidiosis has become more reliable and effective with improved administration techniques for new vaccines. On the other hand, an ideal coccidial vaccine should contain both B- and T-cell immunogenic epitopes. Fine specificity of B-cell epitopes recognised by antibodies prepared following primary and secondary infections with Eimeria tenella were studied using "PepScan" techniques. Mapping of B-cell epitopes within an antigenic sequence from E. tenella showed that four distinct types of epitopes were recognised by the host immune system during the primary and secondary infections with the parasite. These observations demonstrated that new epitopes are also involved in induction of antibody responses following the secondary infection. PMID:16510143

Talebi, Alireza; Mulcahy, Grace

2006-08-01

348

Microbial Communities and Electrochemical Performance of Titanium-Based Anodic Electrodes in a Microbial Fuel Cell?  

PubMed Central

Four types of titanium (Ti)-based electrodes were tested in the same microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodic compartment. Their electrochemical performances and the dominant microbial communities of the electrode biofilms were compared. The electrodes were identical in shape, macroscopic surface area, and core material but differed in either surface coating (Pt- or Ta-coated metal composites) or surface texture (smooth or rough). The MFC was inoculated with electrochemically active, neutrophilic microorganisms that had been enriched in the anodic compartments of acetate-fed MFCs over a period of 4 years. The original inoculum consisted of bioreactor sludge samples amended with Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA. Overall, the Pt- and Ta-coated Ti bioanodes (electrode-biofilm association) showed higher current production than the uncoated Ti bioanodes. Analyses of extracted DNA of the anodic liquid and the Pt- and Ta-coated Ti electrode biofilms indicated differences in the dominant bacterial communities. Biofilm formation on the uncoated electrodes was poor and insufficient for further analyses. Bioanode samples from the Pt- and Ta-coated Ti electrodes incubated with Fe(III) and acetate showed several Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, of which selected species were dominant, on the surface of the electrodes. In contrast, nitrate-enriched samples showed less diversity, and the enriched strains were not dominant on the electrode surface. Isolated Fe(III)-reducing strains were phylogenetically related, but not all identical, to Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA. Other bacterial species were also detected in the system, such as a Propionicimonas-related species that was dominant in the anodic liquid and Pseudomonas-, Clostridium-, Desulfovibrio-, Azospira-, and Aeromonas-related species. PMID:21131513

Michaelidou, Urania; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Euverink, Gerrit Jan W.; Hamelers, Hubertus V. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.

2011-01-01

349

Microbial communities and electrochemical performance of titanium-based anodic electrodes in a microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Four types of titanium (Ti)-based electrodes were tested in the same microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodic compartment. Their electrochemical performances and the dominant microbial communities of the electrode biofilms were compared. The electrodes were identical in shape, macroscopic surface area, and core material but differed in either surface coating (Pt- or Ta-coated metal composites) or surface texture (smooth or rough). The MFC was inoculated with electrochemically active, neutrophilic microorganisms that had been enriched in the anodic compartments of acetate-fed MFCs over a period of 4 years. The original inoculum consisted of bioreactor sludge samples amended with Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA. Overall, the Pt- and Ta-coated Ti bioanodes (electrode-biofilm association) showed higher current production than the uncoated Ti bioanodes. Analyses of extracted DNA of the anodic liquid and the Pt- and Ta-coated Ti electrode biofilms indicated differences in the dominant bacterial communities. Biofilm formation on the uncoated electrodes was poor and insufficient for further analyses. Bioanode samples from the Pt- and Ta-coated Ti electrodes incubated with Fe(III) and acetate showed several Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, of which selected species were dominant, on the surface of the electrodes. In contrast, nitrate-enriched samples showed less diversity, and the enriched strains were not dominant on the electrode surface. Isolated Fe(III)-reducing strains were phylogenetically related, but not all identical, to Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA. Other bacterial species were also detected in the system, such as a Propionicimonas-related species that was dominant in the anodic liquid and Pseudomonas-, Clostridium-, Desulfovibrio-, Azospira-, and Aeromonas-related species. PMID:21131513

Michaelidou, Urania; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Euverink, Gerrit Jan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Stams, Alfons J M; Geelhoed, Jeanine S

2011-02-01

350

Triphenylamine-based organic dyes with julolidine as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel donor-donor-?-conjugated-acceptor (D-D-?-A) metal-free organic dyes (JTPA1 and JTPA2) with a julolidine moiety as the secondary electron donor for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are synthesized. Their absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties are extensively investigated and compared with TPA2 dye. Transient absorption measurements show that both sensitizers are quickly regenerated and the dye cations are efficiently intercepted by the redox mediator. Both dyes show good performance as DSSC photosensitizers. In particular, a DSSC using JTPA2 with rhodanine-3-acetic acid shows better photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 9.30 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 509 mV and a fill factor (FF) of 0.68, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency (?) of 3.2% under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm-2). Under similar test conditions, ruthenium-based N719 dye gives an efficiency of 6.7%. Compared to TPA2, the dye regeneration rate, the short-circuit photocurrent density and the conversion efficiency of JTPA2 are doubled by introducing a julolidine unit. Our findings show that the julolidine unit may be an excellent electron donor system for organic dyes harvesting solar irradiation.

Wu, Guohua; Kong, Fantai; Li, Jingzhe; Fang, Xiaqin; Li, Yi; Dai, Songyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Zhang, Xianxi

2013-12-01

351

Monoclonal endothelial cell proliferation is present in primary but not secondary pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed Central

The etiology and pathogenesis of the vascular lesions characterizing primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), an often fatal pulmonary vascular disease, are largely unknown. Plexiform lesions composed of proliferating endothelial cells occur in between 20 and 80% of the cases of this irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. Recently, technology to assess monoclonality has allowed the distinction between cellular proliferation present in neoplasms from that in reactive nonneoplastic tissue. To determine whether the endothelial cell proliferation in plexiform lesions in PPH is monoclonal or polyclonal, we assessed the methylation pattern of the human androgen receptor gene by PCR (HUMARA) in proliferated endothelial cells in plexiform lesions from female PPH patients (n = 4) compared with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients (n = 4). In PPH, 17 of 22 lesions (77%) were monoclonal. However, in secondary PH, all 19 lesions examined were polyclonal. Smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in pulmonary vessels (n = 11) in PPH and secondary PH was polyclonal in all but one of the examined vessels. The monoclonal expansion of endothelial cells provides the first marker that allows the distinction between primary and secondary PH. Our data of a frequent monoclonal endothelial cell proliferation in PPH suggests that a somatic genetic alteration similar to that present in neoplastic processes may be responsible for the pathogenesis of PPH. PMID:9486960

Lee, S D; Shroyer, K R; Markham, N E; Cool, C D; Voelkel, N F; Tuder, R M

1998-01-01

352

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Cycle life test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The service life and storage stability for several storage batteries were determined. The batteries included silver-zinc batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and silver-cadmium batteries. The cell performance characteristics and limitations are to be used by spacecraft power systems planners and designers. A statistical analysis of the life cycle prediction and cause of failure versus test conditions is presented.

Harkness, J. D.

1979-01-01

353

Comparative structure and biomechanics of plant primary and secondary cell walls  

PubMed Central

Recent insights into the physical biology of plant cell walls are reviewed, summarizing the essential differences between primary and secondary cell walls and identifying crucial gaps in our knowledge of their structure and biomechanics. Unexpected parallels are identified between the mechanism of expansion of primary cell walls during growth and the mechanisms by which hydrated wood deforms under external tension. There is a particular need to revise current “cartoons” of plant cell walls to be more consistent with data from diverse approaches and to go beyond summarizing limited aspects of cell walls, serving instead as guides for future experiments and for the application of new techniques. PMID:22936943

Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Jarvis, Michael C.

2012-01-01

354

Surface-fluorinated proton-exchange membrane with high electrochemical durability for direct methanol fuel cells.  

PubMed

Random disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)-silica nanocomposite (FSPAES-SiO2) membranes were physicochemically tuned via surface fluorination. Surface fluorination for 30 min converted about 20% of the C-H bonds on the membrane surface into C-F bonds showing hydrophobicity and electronegativity at the same time. The membranes with hydrophobic surface properties showed high dimensional stability and low methanol permeability when hydrated for direct methanol fuel cell applications. In particular, the surface enrichment of fluorine atoms led to anisotropic swelling behavior, associated with a stable electrode interface formation. Interestingly, in spite of the use of a random copolymer as a polymer matrix, the low surface free energy of the C-F bonds induced a well-defined continuous ionic channel structure, similar to those of multiblock copolymers. In addition to the morphological transition, fluorine atoms with high electron-withdrawing capability promoted the dissociation of sulfonic acid (-SO3H) groups. Consequently, FSPAES-SiO2 membranes exhibited improved proton conductivity. Thus, FSPAES-SiO2 membranes exhibited significantly improved single-cell performances (about 200%) at a constant voltage of 0.4 V in comparison with those of Nafion 117 and nonfluorinated membranes. Surprisingly, their good electrochemical performances were maintained with very low nonrecovery loss over the time period of 1400 h and interfacial resistances 380% times lower than those of conventional membrane-electrode assemblies comprising the control hydrocarbon membrane and a Nafion binder for the electrodes. PMID:20355899

Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, So Young; Lee, Young Moo; Lee, Sang Yun; Rhim, Ji Won; Lane, Ozma; McGrath, James E

2009-05-01

355

Electrochemical characteristics of acid electrolytes for fuel cells. Final report, January 1, 1989-June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical evaluation of new perfluorinated fuel cell electrolytes provided by GRI contractors at Clemson and Iowa shows the kinetics for O2 reduction on Pt improves with these acids compared to with phosphoric acid. The improvement is mainly due to the lesser tendency of these acids to adsorb on Pt. Kinetics do not have a strong dependence on pH or O2 solubility when mass transport is not involved. Concentrated sulfonyl acids were usually found to wet Teflon resulting in the flooding of Teflon-bonded gas fed electrodes and poor performance at high current densities. These perfluorinated electrolytes were, however, found to be useful as performance enhancing additives to concentrated phosphoric acid in some cases. The alpha,omega-bis-phosphonic acid with a perfluoroethylene bridge gave superior performance compared to phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures (up to 200 degrees C) for 500 hours. Bis-phosphonic acids with higher CF2 to PO3H2 ratios dehydrated more readily at elevated temperatures, resulting in resistive voltage losses. New perfluorinated phosphonic acid containing olefins were found to be polymerizable. This suggests that with a reasonable synthetic effort, new kinds of ionomer membranes are attainable, and these may be superior to Nafion for fuel cell applications.

Gervasio, D.; Razaq, M.; Razaq, A.; Adzic, R.; Kanamura, K.

1992-01-31

356

Electrochemical characteristics of acid electrolytes for fuel cells. Annual report, July 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical characterization of a number of perfluorinated acids was carried out with the emphasis on identification of alternate acids that could replace the presently used H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ fuel cells. The activity for O/sub 2/ reduction in the perfluorinated acids on smooth Pt and on high-surface-area Pt catalyzed electrodes (10% Pt on Vulcan XC-72) was examined. The cathode potential for O/sub 2/ reduction in CF/sub 3/PO(OH)/sub 2/ and (CF/sub 3/SO/sub 2/NHSO/sub 2/CF/sub 2/CF/sub 2/)/sub 2/ is significantly higher than H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. The perfluorinated acids with two terminal functional groups do not wet Teflon and could be very useful in the fuel cells. The solubilities and the diffusion coefficient of O/sub 2/ in the perfluorinated acids are higher than H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/; over an order of magnitude and a factor of 5 to 6, respectively. The specific conductivities of the dilute perfluorinated acids are higher than phosphoric acid, whereas the specific conductivities of the concentrated perfluorinated acids, particularly the imides, are lower than 85% phosphoric acid. A number of the perfluorinated acids with longer fluorocarbon tail(s) tested as additives in 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/.

Razaq, M.; Razaq, A.; Yeager, E.

1987-07-01

357

Application of electrochemical deposition techniques to thin film solar cell processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last eight years the manufacturing volume of thin film modules has grown at a compounded annualized rate of over 90%. Today the share of thin film products in the global photovoltaics (PV) market is in the range of 10-15%. Considering the fact that wafer Si technologies have achieved impressive cost reductions during the last few years, any increase in thin film market share during the next decade will require these technologies to aggressively drive for cost reductions through device efficiency improvements and utilization of lower cost manufacturing techniques. Electrochemical deposition or electrodeposition is an attractive low cost approach for the formation of thin film coatings. Such coatings have already found large scale applications in circuit board fabrication and integrated circuit manufacturing. In these applications, the electroplated layers are mainly used as passive components that carry electrical current. Application of electrodeposition techniques to thin film solar cell fabrication involves formation of semiconductor absorber layers that actively participate in power generation. This requirement brings along certain challenges that need to be overcome. In this paper we will present a review of work carried out for the application of electrodeposition techniques to the fabrication of CdTe and CIGS based solar cells and modules.

Ba?ol, Bülent M.

2011-09-01

358

Electrochemical methane sensor  

DOEpatents

A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

1984-08-27

359

Physical, mechanical and electrochemical characterization of all-perovskite intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) has been considered as a promising electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems in recent years due to its high ionic conductivity and chemical stability over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures and temperatures. This research describes synthesis, physical and mechanical behavior, electrochemical properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of components of an all-perovskite anode-supported intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ITSOFC), based on porous La 0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) anode, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O 2.8 (LSGM) electrolyte, and porous La0.6Sr0.4Fe 0.8Co0.2O3 (LSCF) cathode. The phase evolution of synthesized LSGM and LSCM powders has been investigated, and it has been confirmed that there is no reaction between LSGM and LSCM at sintering temperature. Using different amounts of poreformers and binders as well as controlling firing temperature, porosity of the anode was optimized while still retaining good mechanical integrity. The effect of cell operation conditions under dry hydrogen fuel on the SOFC open circuit voltage (OCV) and cell performance were also investigated. Characterization study of the synthesized LSGM indicates that sintering at 1500°C obtains higher electrical conductivity compared to the currently published results, while conductivity of pellets sintered at 1400°C and 1450°C would be slightly lower. The effect of sintering temperature on bulk and grain boundary resistivities was also discussed. The mechanical properties, such as hardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness and modulus of rupture of the electrolyte were determined and correlated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological characterization. Linear thermal expansion and thermal expansion coefficient of LSGM were also measured.

Mohammadi, Alidad

360

Electrochemical detection of catecholamine exocytosis using planar iridium oxide electrodes in nanoliter microfluidic cell culture volumes  

PubMed Central

Release of neurotransmitters and hormones by Ca2+ regulated exocytosis is a fundamental cellular/molecular process that is disrupted in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, and endocrine disorders. Therefore, this area represents a relevant target for drug and therapeutic development, efforts that will be aided by novel analytical tools and devices that provide mechanistically rich data with increased throughput. Toward this goal, we have electrochemically deposited iridium oxide (IrOx) films onto planar thin film platinum electrodes (20×300µm2) and utilized these for quantitative detection of catecholamine exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells trapped in a microfluidic network. The IrOx electrodes show a linear response to norepinephrine in the range of 0–400µM, with a sensitivity of 23.1±0.5mA/(M·mm2). The sensitivity of the IrOx electrodes does not change in the presence of ascorbic acid, a substance commonly found in biological samples. A replica molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device with nanoliter sensing volumes was aligned and sealed to a glass substrate with the sensing electrodes. Small populations of chromaffin cells were trapped in the microfluidic sensing chamber and stimulated by rapid perfusion with high potassium (50mM) containing Tyrode’s solution at a flow rate of 1nL/s. Stimulation of the cells produced a rapid increase in current due to oxidation of the released catecholamines, with an estimated maximum concentration in the microfluidic device ~52µM. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of an integrated microfluidic network with IrOx electrodes for real-time quantitative detection of catecholamines released from small populations of cells. PMID:22398270

Ges, Igor A.; Currie, Kevin P.M.; Baudenbacher, Franz

2013-01-01

361

Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells  

DOEpatents

A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

1996-01-01

362

Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells  

DOEpatents

A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

Knoedler, Reinhard (Nussloch, DE); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

1985-01-01

363

Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells  

DOEpatents

A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

Knoedler, R.; Nelson, P.A.; Shimotake, H.; Battles, J.E.

1983-07-26

364

The toughness of secondary cell wall and woody tissue  

PubMed Central

The 'across grain' toughness of 51 woods has been determined on thin wet sections using scissors. The moisture content of sections and the varying sharpness of the scissor blades had little effect on the results. In thin sections (less than 0.6mm), toughness rose linearly with section thickness. The intercept toughness at zero thickness, estimated from regression analysis, was proportional to relative density, consistent with values reported for non-woody plant tissues. Extrapolation of the intercept toughness of these woods and other plant tissues/materials to a relative density of 1.0 predicted a toughness of 3.45kJ m-2 , which we identify with the intrinsic toughness of the cell wall. This quantity appears to predict published results from KIC tests on woods and is related to the propensity for crack deflection. The slope of the relationship between section thickness and toughness, describing the work of plastic buckling of cells, was not proportional to relative density, the lightest (balsa) and heaviest (lignum vitae) woods fracturing with less plastic work than predicted. The size of the plastic zone around the crack tip was estimated to be 0.5mm in size. From this, the hypothetical overall toughness of a thick (greater than 1 mm) block of solid cell wall material was calculated as 39.35 kJ m-2, due to both cell wall resistance (10 per cent) and the plastic buckling of cells (90 per cent). This value successfully predicts the toughness of most commercial woods (of relative densities between 0.2 and 0.8) from 'work area' tests in tension and bending. Though density was the most important factor, both fibre width/fibre length (in hardwoods) and lignin/cellulose ratios were negatively correlated with the work of plastic buckling, after correcting for density. At low densities the work of plastic buckling in the longitudinal radial (LR) direction exceeded that in longitudinal tangential (LT), but the reverse was true for relative densities above 0.25. This could be attributed to the direction of rays. Density for density, the toughness of temperate hardwoods tested was about 20 per cent lower than that of tropical hardwoods. This is probably due to the much greater number of vessels in temperate hardwoods. Vessels appear either not to display buckling behaviour during fracture at all or to collapse cheaply. These general results have applications to other plant tissues.

Lucas, P. W.; Tan, H. T. W.; Cheng, P. Y.

1997-01-01

365

Method and design for externally applied laser welding of internal connections in a high power electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical cell includes components that are welded from an external source after the components are assembled in a cell canister. The cell canister houses electrode tabs and a core insert. An end cap insert is disposed opposite the core insert. An external weld source, such as a laser beam, is applied to the end cap insert, such that the end cap insert, the electrode tabs, and the core insert are electrically coupled by a weld which extends from the end cap insert to the core insert.

Martin, Charles E; Fontaine, Lucien; Gardner, William H

2014-01-21

366

Heterologous expression of vacuolar H + -PPase enhances the electrochemical gradient across the vacuolar membrane and improves tobacco cell salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) uses pyrophosphate as substrate to generate the proton electrochemical gradient across the vacuolar membrane to acidify\\u000a vacuoles in plant cells. The heterologous expression of H+-PPase genes (TsVP from Thellungiella halophila and AVP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana) improved the salt tolerance of tobacco plants. Under salt stress, the transgenic seedlings showed much better growth and\\u000a greater

Xiao-Guang Duan; Ai-Fang Yang; Feng Gao; Shang-Li Zhang; Ju-Ren Zhang

2007-01-01

367

Secondary Structure of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Controls Membrane Interaction and Insertion  

E-print Network

Secondary Structure of Cell-Penetrating Peptides Controls Membrane Interaction and Insertion Emelía and Therapeutics, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France. c Laboratory of Molecular Technology, Institute.bbamem.2010.03.005 #12;Abstract The clinical use of efficient therapeutic agents is often limited by the poor

Boyer, Edmond

368

Role for rearranged variable gene segments in directing secondary T cell receptor ? recombination  

PubMed Central

During the recombination of variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments at the T cell receptor ? locus, a V?J? joint resulting from primary rearrangement can be replaced by subsequent rounds of secondary rearrangement that use progressively more 5? V? segments and progressively more 3? J? segments. To understand the mechanisms that target secondary T cell receptor ? recombination, we studied the behavior of a T cell receptor ? allele (HY?) engineered to mimic a natural primary rearrangement of TRAV17 to J?57. The introduced V?J? segment was shown to provide chromatin accessibility to J? segments situated within several kilobases downstream and to suppress germ-line J? promoter activity and accessibility at greater distances. As a consequence, the V?J? segment directed secondary recombination events to a subset of J? segments immediately downstream from the primary rearrangement. The data provide the mechanistic basis for a model of primary and secondary T cell receptor ? recombination in which recombination events progress in multiple small steps down the J? array. PMID:17210914

Hawwari, Abbas; Krangel, Michael S.

2007-01-01

369

Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

370

A scanning electron microscopic study of secondary lamellae and chloride cells of rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron micrographs of gill tissue from rainbow trout fixed with 50% glutaraldehyde revealed the presence of microridges on surfaces of epithelial cells of the secondary lamellae. These microridges vary in length from 1 to 7 µ, with a mean height of 0.75 µ. Calculations show that they increase the total lamellar epithelial surface area approximately 2.5 fold. Mucus secreting

Kenneth R. Olson; Paul O. Fromm

1973-01-01

371

CELL PHONES IN NEW ZEALAND SECONDARY SCHOOLS: BOON, BANNED OR BIASED  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this qualitative research study conducted in twelve New Zealand secondary schools data was gathered on policy formation on a range of issues including: cell phone usage at school; mobile technology incorporated into learning; staff development; curriculum development; assessment, school and class management; and registration and enrolment. Participants included: school principals; deans; heads of department; guidance officers; teachers; and prior

K. FIELDEN; P. MALCOLM

2007-01-01

372

Electrochemical characteristics of acid electrolytes for fuel cells. Final report, August 1, 1985-December 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical characterization of a number of perfluorinated acids has been carried out with the emphasis on the identification of alternate acids which may replace the presently used H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the H/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ fuel cells. The kinetics of O/sub 2/ reduction in the clean perfluorinated acids on smooth Pt and on high surface area Pt catalyzed electrodes (10% Pt on Vulcan XC-72) has been found to be much faster than in phosphoric acid. The potential of the O/sub 2/ cathode in the micro-fuel cell utilizating some of the new acids particularly, CF/sub 3/PO(OH)/sub 2/, (CF/sub 3/SO/sub 2/)/sub 2/NH, (CF/sub 3/SO/sub 2/)/sub 2/CH/sub 2/ and (CF/sub 3/SO/sub 2/NHSO/sub 2/CF/sub 2/CF/sub 2/)/sub 2/ is 40-60 mV higher than H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/; over an order of magnitude and a factor of 5 to 6 respectively. The specific conductivities of the dilute perfluorinated acids are higher than phosphoric acid whereas the specific conductivities of the concentrated perfluorinated acids, particularly the imides, are lower than 85% phosphoric acid. A number of the perfluorinated acids used as minor additives to 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ have been found to improve significantly the performance of the oxygen cathode. The approach of achieving higher performance for the phosphoric acid fuel cell is very promising but is contingent on identifying surfactant-like additives with very low intrinsic vapor pressure and stability at elevated temperatures.

Razaq, M.; Razaq, A.; Yeager, E.

1989-01-01

373

Secondary Philadelphia chromosome and erythrophagocytosis in a relapsed acute myeloid leukemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

The acquisition of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) as a secondary change during the course of hematopoietic malignancies is rare and is associated with poor prognosis. Few cases of secondary Ph have been reported after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A secondary Ph at relapse is of clinical importance because it provides a therapeutic target for tyrosine kinase inhibitors along with or in replacement of chemotherapy. We describe a case of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after HCT that developed a BCR-ABL1 translocation along with erythrophagocytosis by blasts as a secondary change at the time of relapse. The progression of this patient's myeloid neoplasm from myelodysplastic syndrome to AML to relapsed AML after HCT was accompanied by a stepwise cytogenetic evolution: A deletion 20q abnormality subsequently acquired a deletion 7q and, finally, at relapse after HCT, a secondary Ph was gained. The relationship between the secondary Ph and the erythrophagocytosis by blasts is not clear. We review the possible pathogenesis and cytogenetic associations of erythrophagocytosis by blasts, a rare feature in acute leukemias. PMID:25074248

Kelemen, Katalin; Galani, Komal; Conley, Christopher R; Greipp, Patricia T

2014-06-01

374

Electrochemical performance of microbial fuel cells based on disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Usually, MFCs use Nafion as a PEM to separate the electrodes while permitting protons transfer between the anode and cathode. However, Nafion is expensive and accounts for a large percentage of the costs in MFC configuration. Here, we show MFCs using hydrocarbon-based PEM, disulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH), which is considered as one of alternative PEM, and relatively inexpensive as compared with Nafion. BPSH membranes exhibit a comparable performance to Nafion 212. Especially, BPSH 40 and 60 (mole %) have higher proton conductivity than Nafion 212. In a two-chamber system, MFC with BPSH 40 shows higher voltage than that with Nafion 212. MFCs with BPSH 20 and 30 show lower voltage decline than other PEMs. In a single-chamber system, a voltage of MFC with BPSH 40 shows about 30% higher (17 mV) than that with Nafion 212 (13 mV) with internal resistance of 10 ?. In addition, The MFC with BPSH 40 produced about 10% higher maximum power density (126 mW m-2) than that with Nafion 212 (111 mW m-2).

Choi, Tae Hwan; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Jin-Won; Shin, Dong Won; Lee, Young Moo; Kim, Minkyong; Park, Ho Bum

2012-12-01

375

Electrochemical Characteristics of Tin Oxide-Graphite as Anode Material for Lithium-ion Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tin oxide anode materials used in lithium-ion cells experience large volume changes during charging and discharging which cause substantial losses in capacity. In this work, the tin oxide-graphite composite is proposed as an alternative anode material to overcome this problem. The composite was synthesised from a solution of tin chloride dihydrate and graphite powders with citric acid as the chelating agent. In this sol-gel method, a solid phase is formed through a chemical reaction in a liquid phase at moderate temperature. The technique offers several advantages compared to the solid state synthesis technique such as the ability to maintain the homogeneous mixture of precursors during synthesis and to produce small particles. The electrochemical behaviour of the anode material was investigated by means of galvanostatic charge discharge technique. An initial reversible capacity of 748 mAh/g is obtained and nearly 600 mAh/g was retained upon the reaching the fifth cycle. This study shows that the presence of graphite is able to minimise the agglomeration of tin particles that causes large volume changes during cycling, thereby improving cyclability of the anode material.

Hasanaly, Siti Munirah

2010-03-01

376

Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface 24, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO.sub.3 doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300.degree. C. to 1,550.degree. C., without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material 26 bonded to the air electrode 16, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO.sub.3. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

Bowker, Jeffrey C. (Richland Township, Allegheny County, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Pittsburgh, PA)

1989-01-01

377

Electrochemical Characterization of Hydrothermally Synthesized Pt-Ru-Ni-P Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pt-Ru-Ni-P/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) catalyst is synthesized by a hydrothermal process using sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2) as a reducing agent. The particle size is evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of a Pt-Ru-Ni-P/MWCNT catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, chromoamperometry, and impedance spectroscopy. TEM images reveal that the Pt-Ru-Ni-P nanoparticles have a wide size distribution with an average size of 3.2 nm. Pt-Ru-Ni-P/MWCNT catalyst shows an electrochemically active surface area of 63.2 m2 g-1 and a mass activity of 187.56 mA mg Pt-1. It has been found that the presence of phosphorus as an interstitial species can enhance the dispersion as well as reduce the size of Pt-Ru-Ni-P nanoparticles. Moreover, incorporation of phosphorus into the Pt-Ru-Ni/MWCNT catalyst shows a 1.5 times higher electrocatalytic activity. The power density (57 mW cm-1) of the Pt-Ru-Ni-P/MWCNT catalyst in fuel cell tests is higher than that (40 mW cm-1) of the Pt-Ru-Ni/MWCNT catalyst.

Lee, Seok-Hee; Kim, Dong-Joo; Yoon, Young-Soo

2013-03-01

378

Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure, optionally supported by a ceramic support, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO[sub 3] doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300 C to 1,550 C, without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material bonded to the air electrode, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO[sub 3]. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 4 figs.

Bowker, J.C.; Singh, P.

1989-08-29

379

A microwell device for targeting single cells to electrochemical microelectrodes for high-throughput amperometric detection of quantal exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Electrochemical microelectrodes are commonly used to detect spikes of amperometric current that correspond to exocytosis of oxidizable transmitter from individual vesicles, i.e., quantal exocytosis. We are developing transparent multi- electrochemical electrode arrays on microchips in order to automate measurement of quantal exocytosis. Here we report development of an improved device to target individual cells to each microelectrode in an array. Efficient targeting (~75%) is achieved using cell-sized micro-well traps fabricated in SU-8 photoresist together with patterning of poly (L-lysine) in register with electrodes to promote cell adhesion. The surface between electrodes is made resistant to cell adhesion using poly (ethylene glycol) in order to facilitate movement of cells to electrode “docking sites”. We demonstrate the activity of the electrodes using the test analyte ferricyanide and perform recordings of quantal exocytosis from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the device. Multiple cell recordings on a single device demonstrate the consistency of spike measurements and multiple recordings from the same electrodes demonstrate that the device can be cleaned and reused without degradation of performance. The new device will enable high-throughput studies of quantal exocytosis and may also find application in rapidly screening drugs or toxins for effects on exocytosis. PMID:21355543

Liu, Xin; Barizuddin, Syed; Shin, Wonchul; Mathai, Cherian J.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Gillis, Kevin D.

2011-01-01

380

Apoptotic cells subjected to cold/warming exposure disorganize apoptotic microtubule network and undergo secondary necrosis.  

PubMed

Apoptotic microtubule network (AMN) is organized during apoptosis, forming a cortical structure beneath the plasma membrane which plays a critical role in preserving cell morphology and plasma membrane integrity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cold/warming exposure on apoptotic microtubules and plasma membrane integrity during the execution phase of apoptosis. We demonstrated in camptothecin-induced apoptotic H460 cells that cold/warming exposure disorganized apoptotic microtubules and allowed the access of active caspases to the cellular cortex and the cleavage of essential proteins in the preservation of plasma membrane permeability. Cleavage of cellular cortex and plasma membrane proteins, such as ?-spectrin, paxilin, focal adhesion kinase and calcium ATPase pump (PMCA-4) involved in cell calcium extrusion resulted in increased plasma permeability and calcium overload leading apoptotic cells to secondary necrosis. The essential role of caspase-mediated cleavage in this process was demonstrated because the addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD during cold/warming exposure that induces AMN depolymerization avoided the cleavage of cortical and plasma membrane proteins and prevented apoptotic cells to undergo secondary necrosis. Likewise, apoptotic microtubules stabilization by taxol during cold/warming exposure also prevented cellular cortex and plasma membrane protein cleavage and secondary necrosis. Furthermore, microtubules stabilization or caspase inhibition during cold/warming exposure was also critical for proper phosphatidylserine externalization and apoptotic cell clearance by macrophages. These results indicate that cold/warming exposure of apoptotic cells induces secondary necrosis which can be prevented by both, microtubule stabilization or caspase inhibition. PMID:25027509

Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Fernández-Vega, Alejandro; de la Mata, Mario; Garrido-Maraver, Juan; Cotán, David; Paz, Marina Villanueva; Pavón, Ana Delgado; Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elizabet; de Lavera, Isabel; Lema, Rafael; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

2014-09-01

381

Tapia's syndrome secondary to laterocervical localization of diffuse large cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

The eponym "Tapia's syndrome" indicates an associated unilateral vocal cord and tongue paralysis secondary to a peripheral involvement of the recurrent laryngeal branch and the hypoglossal nerve. Although mainly observed as a complication of surgery or anaesthesia, it can rarely occur secondary to infectious or neoplastic causes. We are presenting a case of a teen-ager with Tapia's syndrome who had been seeking medical assistance for episodes of loss of consciousness and was diagnosed with a high-grade peripheral B-cell lymphoma, an association not previously described. This syndrome should be remembered even outside the surgical contest for its highly localising value. PMID:23958591

Cantalupo, Gaetano; Spagnoli, Carlotta; Cerasti, Davide; Piccolo, Benedetta; Crisi, Girolamo; Pisani, Francesco

2014-06-01

382

DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL  

E-print Network

, it is important that red-light J-V of CIS solar cells be distortion-free. It was shown that one approach to reduceDISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL OPERATION Submitted by Alexei Impact of Secondary Barriers on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar-Cell Operation Thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2

Sites, James R.

383

Fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with cancer cells: metastasis as a secondary disease in cancer  

PubMed Central

This perspective article highlights the leukocyte-cancer cell hybrid theory as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. Beginning from the first proposal of the theory more than a century ago and continuing today with the first proof for this theory in a human cancer, the hybrid theory offers a unifying explanation for metastasis. In this scenario, leukocyte fusion with a cancer cell is a secondary disease superimposed upon the early tumor, giving birth to a new, malignant cell with a leukocyte-cancer cell hybrid epigenome. PMID:24589183

Pawelek, John M.

2014-01-01

384

Giant cell tumor along with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of scapula: A rare presentation  

PubMed Central

Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a distinctive lesion characterized by the proliferation of multinucleate giant cells in a stroma of mononuclear cells; it is generally seen in skeletally mature individuals. GCT of bone is usually found in the long bones around the knee or in the distal radius of young adults and is unusual in the flat bones. We report a case of GCT of the acromion of the scapula, with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst, in a 30-year-old female. Based on our review of the English language medical literature, it appears that the occurrence of a GCT along with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst in flat bones (e.g.. the scapula) is very rare. PMID:20300316

Sherwani, Rana K.; Zaheer, Sufian; Sabir, Amir B.; Goel, Siddharth

2008-01-01

385

Li/sub x/Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/: A new promising cathode material for secondary lithium cells  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade the demand for high energy storage batteries has generated considerable interest in the study of rechargeable secondary lithium batteries and several new electrode materials with open structures, i.e. consisting of chains or layer of atoms, such as NbSe/sub 3/ or transition metal dichalcogenides, respectively, have been uncovered. In this paper the authors describe a novel synthetic route (ion exchange of Na/sup +/ for Li/sup +/ in Na/sub x/Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/) to prepare for the first time crystallographically pure powdered Li/sub 1.33/Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/ material in large amounts, and they report both the chemical and electrochemical behavior of this layered type compound with respect to lithium. The study of Li/Li/sub 1.33/Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/ electrochemical test cells show that Li/sub x/Mo/sub 2/O/sub 4/ turns out to be quite a promising electrode material.

Tarascon, J.M.

1987-06-01

386

Effect of sulfur isotopic composition of zinc and lead sulfides on the E. M. F. of electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect

A new effect is reported in which unexpectedly large voltages are produced by electrochemical cells containing sulfides at natural isotopic abundance levels. Room temperature experiments were undertaken to determine whether electrochemical cells employing silver bromide and silver beta alumina as solid electrolytes would be sufficiently sensitive to detect small variations in sulfur isotopic composition for zinc and lead sulfides. Voltages obtained for silver bromide cells tended to increase progressively over at least 20 days, and increased in a regular fashion with increasing differences in isotopic composition between charges. Voltages exceeding 150 mV were obtained for /sup delta/S/sup 3,4/ differences up to 85 per mil for zinc sulfide, but reached only about 20 mV for lead sulfide. Silver beta alumina cells with opposing zinc and lead sulfide charges yielded larger voltages and E.M.F. minimum corresponding to a +8(/plus minus/2) per mil difference. This value shows reasonable agreement with interpolated 20/degrees/C equilibrium values of between +7.5 to +9.8 obtained from the literature. Matured silver bromide cells with opposed zinc and lead sulfide charges behaved similarly but yielded lower voltages. Silver concentration cells of the opposed type are thus able to detect isotopic equilibrium and this will permit calibration of sulfur isotope thermometers down to unexpectedly low temperatures.

Lusk, J.; Krouse, H.R.; Batts, B.D.

1988-03-01

387

Time-course correlation of biofilm properties and electrochemical performance in single-chamber microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

The relationship between anode microbial characteristics and electrochemical parameters in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was analyzed by time-course sampling of parallel single-bottle MFCs operated under identical conditions. While voltage stabilized within 4days, anode biofilms continued growing during the six-week operation. Viable cell density increased asymptotically, but membrane-compromised cells accumulated steadily from only 9% of total cells on day 3 to 52% at 6weeks. Electrochemical performance followed the viable cell trend, with a positive correlation for power density and an inverse correlation for anode charge transfer resistance. The biofilm architecture shifted from rod-shaped, dispersed cells to more filamentous structures, with the continuous detection of Geobacter sulfurreducens-like 16S rRNA fragments throughout operation and the emergence of a community member related to a known phenazine-producing Pseudomonas species. A drop in cathode open circuit potential between weeks two and three suggested that uncontrolled biofilm growth on the cathode deleteriously affects system performance. PMID:20591659

Ren, Zhiyong; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P; Cloud-Owen, Susan Red; Yan, Hengjing; Mench, Matthew M; Regan, John M

2011-01-01

388

Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

In the course of multiple myeloma, patients may develop a M-protein band different from the original: secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. In this retrospective single center analysis, we describe the occurrence and clinical relevance of secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (post-transplant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance). A total of 138 patients who had undergone 139 allogeneic stem cell transplantations (39.6% in the upfront setting and 60.4% for relapsed multiple myeloma) were included in the study. Sixty-seven (48.2%) patients developed secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, after a median latency of 6.9 months. Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance occurred more often in patients who achieved at least very good partial response after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, compared to partial response or less (54.8% vs. 26.5%; P=0.005). The incidence was also higher in the upfront setting as compared to relapsed disease, or with a sibling donor compared to matched unrelated donor, but less often after T-cell depletion. Importantly, development of post-transplant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance as a time-dependent variable independently predicted for superior progression-free and overall survival (median progression-free survival 37.5 vs. 6.3 months, P<0.001; median overall survival 115.3 vs. 31.0 months, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the benign nature of this phenomenon, and secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance should not be confused with relapse or progression of disease. (Trial registered with trialregister.nl; HOVON 108: NTR 2958.). PMID:25193963

Schmitz, Marian F; Otten, Henny G; Franssen, Laurens E; van Dorp, Suzanne; Strooisma, Theo; Lokhorst, Henk M; van de Donk, Niels W C J

2014-12-01

389

Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

In the course of multiple myeloma, patients may develop a M-protein band different from the original: secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. In this retrospective single center analysis, we describe the occurrence and clinical relevance of secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (post-transplant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance). A total of 138 patients who had undergone 139 allogeneic stem cell transplantations (39.6% in the upfront setting and 60.4% for relapsed multiple myeloma) were included in the study. Sixty-seven (48.2%) patients developed secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, after a median latency of 6.9 months. Secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance occurred more often in patients who achieved at least very good partial response after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, compared to partial response or less (54.8% vs. 26.5%; P=0.005). The incidence was also higher in the upfront setting as compared to relapsed disease, or with a sibling donor compared to matched unrelated donor, but less often after T-cell depletion. Importantly, development of post-transplant monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance as a time-dependent variable independently predicted for superior progression-free and overall survival (median progression-free survival 37.5 vs. 6.3 months, P<0.001; median overall survival 115.3 vs. 31.0 months, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the benign nature of this phenomenon, and secondary monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance should not be confused with relapse or progression of disease. (Trial registered with trialregister.nl; HOVON 108: NTR 2958.) PMID:25193963

Schmitz, Marian F.; Otten, Henny G.; Franssen, Laurens E.; van Dorp, Suzanne; Strooisma, Theo; Lokhorst, Henk M.; van de Donk, Niels W.C.J.

2014-01-01

390

Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells  

DOEpatents

A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Corrigan, Dennis (Troy, MI); Venkatesan, Srini (Southfield, MI); Young, Rosa (Troy, MI); Fierro, Christian (Troy, MI); Fetcenko, Michael A. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1994-01-01

391

PtrKOR1 is required for secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in Populus.  

PubMed

KORRIGAN (KOR), encoding an endo-1,4-?-glucanase, plays a critical role in the cellulose synthesis of plant cell wall formation. KOR sequence orthologs are duplicated in the Populus genome relative to Arabidopsis. This study reports an expression analysis of the KOR genes in Populus. The five PtrKOR genes displayed different expression patterns, suggesting that they play roles in different developmental processes. Through RNAi suppression, results demonstrated that PtrKOR1 is required for secondary cell wall cellulose formation in Populus. Together, the results suggest that the PtrKOR genes may play distinct roles in association with cell wall formation in different tissues. PMID:24728296

Yu, Liangliang; Chen, Hongpeng; Sun, Jiayan; Li, Laigeng

2014-11-01

392

Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction  

DOEpatents

Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

393

Characterization of high-power lithium-ion cells during constant current cycling. Part I. Cycle performance and electrochemical diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Twelve-cm{sup 2} pouch type lithium-ion cells were assembled with graphite anodes, LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathodes and 1M LiPF{sub 6}/EC/DEC electrolyte. These pouch cells were cycled at different depths of discharge (100 percent and 70 percent DOD) at room temperature to investigate cycle performance and pulse power capability. The capacity loss and power fade of the cells cycled over 100 percent DOD was significantly faster than the cell cycled over 70 percent DOD. The overall cell impedance increased with cycling, although the ohmic resistance from the electrolyte was almost constant. From electrochemical analysis of each electrode after cycling, structural and/or impedance changes in the cathode are responsible for most of the capacity and power fade, not the consumption of cycleable Li from side-reactions.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-01-24

394

An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})

Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik E.; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B., E-mail: bo@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and iNANO, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

2014-10-15

395

Liquid metal electrodes in secondary batteries. [Review of developments in batteries of various types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the liquid metals that might be considered for use as electrode materials in high-performance secondary (electrically rechargeable) batteries, lithium and sodium show the greatest promise because of their low equivalent weight, electronegativity, resistivity, and polarization. Much of the early work on molten alkali metals in electrochemical cells was directed toward the development of thermally regenerative cells for the direct

Steunenberg

1976-01-01

396

Study of the electromotive force of electrochemical cell with polymeric membrane oriented in horizontal plane.  

PubMed

In order to characterize processes proceeded in concentration boundary layers (CBLs), divided by neutral and horizontally mounted membrane, the electromotive force (EMF) during and after turning off mechanical stirring of aqueous KCl solutions was measured. The EMF was measured by means of Ag / AgCl electrodes and electrometer connected with a microcomputer. Aqueous solutions of KCl with fixed and lower concentration Cl = 10(-5) mol x l(-1) was over the membrane, while KCl concentration under the membrane Ch > Cl was changed. Such configuration of membrane system caused stable reconstruction of CBLs after turning off mechanical stirring of solutions in electrochemical cell. On the basis of time dependencies of EMF the concentration dependencies were performed and it was stated that dependencies of EMF = f(Ch/Cl) are nonlinear. It was found that maximal value of EMF, equal to 175 mV, was observed during mechanical stirring of solutions for Ch/Cl = 400. In order to interpret experimental results, the model of EMF changes in time after turning off mechanical stirring was elaborated on the basis of Kedem-Katchalsky model equations for transport of electrolytes through the membrane. The transport number of K+ ions (t+), appointed for the membrane, depended nonlinearly on Ch/Cl and for Ch/Cl = 50 was maximal and amounted to t(+max) = 0.7. Besides, concentration dependence of relaxation time of CBLs reconstruction after turning off mechanical stirring was appointed. For Ch/Cl < 500, increase of Ch/Cl caused considerable decrease of relaxation time, while for Ch/Cl > 500 the relaxation time was small and did not change considerably with increase of Ch/Cl, in this range. PMID:17022156

Grzegorczyn, S?awomir; Slezak, Andrzej

2006-01-01

397

Electrochemical concentration cell ozone soundings at two sites during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) was designed to compare proposed instruments for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) with established measurement techniques. Ground-based measurements were conducted at Table Mountain, California (34.4°N, 117.7°W), and rocket profiles were made at San Nicolas Island, California (33.3°N, 119.5°W). In an effort to estimate site-to-site differences during the intercomparison, daily soundings were made with balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes at the two sites. Comparisons have been made of the mean values for the soundings at each site. The soundings showed small temperature differences between the two sites with the nighttime Table Mountain measurements up to 2°K cooler than the daytime San Nicolas Island temperatures. Day/night temperature corrections based on the emissivity and absorptivity of the thermistors in the balloon instruments can account for these apparent temperature differences. Ozone partial pressure profiles from the ECCs have been used to estimate atmospheric ozone variability during STOIC. Above 20 km, the lowest altitude for the STOIC comparisons, the average data sets from both sites showed standard deviations that were at or below the estimated 5-6% profile-to-profile repeatability for the ozonesondes. This indicates that atmospheric ozone variability was only of the order of a few percent above 20 km during the 2 weeks of the STOIC campaign. Above 20 km the ozone partial pressures over the Table Mountain site averaged 2.0% lower than over San Nicolas Island.

Barnes, Robert A.; Torres, Arnold L.

1995-05-01

398

Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell.  

PubMed

Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to simultaneously convert wastewater organics to hydrogen and precipitate struvite, but scale formation at the cathode surface can block catalytic active sites and limit extended operation. To promote bulk phase struvite precipitation and minimize cathode scaling, a two-chamber MEC was designed with a fluidized bed to produce suspended particles and inhibit scale formation on the cathode surface. MEC operation elevated the cathode pH to between 8.3 and 8.7 under continuous flow conditions. Soluble phosphorus removal using digester effluent ranged from 70 to 85% with current generation, compared to 10-20% for the control (open circuit conditions). At low current densities (?2 mA/m(2)), scouring of the cathode by fluidized particles prevented scale accumulation over a period of 8 days. There was nearly identical removal of soluble phosphorus and magnesium from solution, and an equimolar composition in the collected solids, supporting phosphorus removal by struvite formation. At an applied voltage of 1.0 V, energy consumption from the power supply and pumping (0.2 Wh/L, 7.5 Wh/g-P) was significantly less than that needed by other struvite formation methods based on pH adjustment such as aeration and NaOH addition. In the anode chamber, current generation led to COD oxidation (1.1-2.1 g-COD/L-d) and ammonium removal (7-12 mM) from digestate amended with 1 g/L of sodium acetate. These results indicate that a fluidized bed cathode MEC is a promising method of sustainable electrochemical nutrient and energy recovery method for nutrient rich wastewaters. PMID:24583521

Cusick, Roland D; Ullery, Mark L; Dempsey, Brian A; Logan, Bruce E

2014-05-01

399

Host response. Inflammation-induced disruption of SCS macrophages impairs B cell responses to secondary infection.  

PubMed

The layer of macrophages at the subcapsular sinus (SCS) captures pathogens entering the lymph node, preventing their global dissemination and triggering an immune response. However, how infection affects SCS macrophages remains largely unexplored. Here we show that infection and inflammation disrupt the organization of SCS macrophages in a manner that involves the migration of mature dendritic cells to the lymph node. This disrupted organization reduces the capacity of SCS macrophages to retain and present antigen in a subsequent secondary infection, resulting in diminished B cell responses. Thus, the SCS macrophage layer may act as a sensor or valve during infection to temporarily shut down the lymph node to further antigenic challenge. This shutdown may increase an organism's susceptibility to secondary infections. PMID:25657250

Gaya, Mauro; Castello, Angelo; Montaner, Beatriz; Rogers, Neil; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batista, Facundo D

2015-02-01

400

Process for manufacture of positive electrode for lithium/metal sulfide secondary cell  

SciTech Connect

An electrode for a high temperature secondary electrical storage cell including an alkali metal negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a transition metal sulfide as the positive electrode, formed by mechanically loading a precut form or graphite felt or foam with fesx powder, coating or impregnating the precut form with a high carbon yield resin, curing the resin at an intermediate temperature, and carbonizing the resin at a temperature below 1000/sup 0/C.

Joo, L.A.; Miller, F.C.

1980-11-11

401

Use of High Temperature Electrochemical Cells for Co-Generation of Chemicals and Electricity  

SciTech Connect

In this project, two key issues were addressed to show the feasibility of electrochemical partial oxidation (EPOx) in a SOFC. First, it was demonstrated that SOFCs can reliably operate directly with natural gas. These results are relevant to both direct-natural-gas SOFCs, where the aim is solely electrical power generation, and to EPOx. Second, it must be shown that SOFCs can work effectively as partial oxidation reactors, i.e, that they can provide high conversion efficiency of natural gas to syngas. The results of this study in both these areas look extremely promising. The main results are summarized briefly: (1) Stability and coke-free direct-methane SOFC operation is promoted by the addition of a thin porous inert barrier layer to the anode and the addition of small amounts of CO{sub 2} or air to the fuel stream; (2) Modeling results readily explained these improvements by a change in the gas composition at the Ni-YSZ anode to a non-coking condition; (3) The operation range for coke-free operation is greatly increased by using a cell geometry with a thin Ni-YSZ anode active layer on an inert porous ceramic support, i.e., (Sr,La)TiO{sub 3} or partially-stabilized zirconia (in segmented-in-series arrays); (4) Ethane and propane components in natural gas greatly increase coking both on the SOFC anode and on gas-feed tubes, but this can be mitigated by preferentially oxidizing these components prior to introduction into the fuel cell, the addition of a small amount of air to the fuel, and/or the use of ceramic-supported SOFC; (5) While a minimum SOFC current density was generally required to prevent coking, current interruptions of up to 8 minutes yielded only slight anode coking that caused no permanent damage and was completely reversible when the cell current was resumed; (6) Stable direct-methane SOFC operation was demonstrated under EPOx conditions in a 350 h test; (7) EPOx operation was demonstrated at 750 C that yielded 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} and a syngas production rate of 30 sccm/cm{sup 2}, and the reaction product composition was close to the equilibrium prediction during the early stages of cell testing; (8) The methane conversion to syngas continuously decreased during the first 100 h of cell testing, even though the cell electrical characteristics did not change, due to a steady decrease in the reforming activity of Ni-YSZ anodes; (9) The stability of methane conversion was substantially improved via the addition of a more stable reforming catalyst to the SOFC anode; (10) Modeling results indicated that a SOFC with anode barrier provides similar non-coking performance as an internal reforming SOFC, and provides a simpler approach with no need for a high-temperature exhaust-gas recycle pump; (11) Since there is little or no heat produced in the EPOx reaction, overall efficiency of the SOFC operated in this mode can, in theory, approach 100%; and (12) The combined value of the electricity and syngas produced allows the EPOx generator to be economically viable at a >2x higher cost/kW than a conventional SOFC.

Scott Barnett

2007-09-30

402

A novel approach for analyzing electrochemical properties of mixed conducting solid oxide fuel cell anode materials by impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

For application of acceptor-doped mixed conducting oxides as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes, high electrochemical surface activity as well as acceptable electronic and ionic conductivity are crucial. In a reducing atmosphere, particularly the electronic conductivity of acceptor-doped oxides can become rather low and the resulting complex interplay of electrochemical reactions and charge transport processes makes a mechanistic interpretation of impedance measurements very complicated. In order to determine all relevant resistive and capacitive contributions of mixed conducting electrodes in a reducing atmosphere, a novel electrode design and impedance-based analysis technique is therefore introduced. Two interdigitating metallic current collectors are placed in a microelectrode, which allows in-plane measurements within the electrode as well as electrochemical measurements versus a counter electrode. Equivalent circuit models for quantifying the spectra of both measurement modes are developed and applied to simultaneously fit both spectra, using the same parameter set. In this manner, the electronic and ionic conductivity of the material as well as the area-specific resistance of the surface reaction and the chemical capacitance can be determined on a single microelectrode in a H2-H2O atmosphere. The applicability of this new tool was demonstrated in SrTi0.7Fe0.3O(3-?) (STFO) thin film microelectrodes, deposited on single-crystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. All materials parameters that contribute to the polarization resistance of STFO electrodes in a reducing atmosphere could thus be quantified. PMID:25219525

Nenning, A; Opitz, A K; Huber, T M; Fleig, J

2014-10-28

403

3D CFD Electrochemical and Heat Transfer Model of an Integrated-Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created to model high-temperature electrolysis cell performance and steam electrolysis in a new novel integrated planar porous-tube supported solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model is of several integrated planar cells attached to a ceramic support tube. This design is being evaluated with modeling at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean per-cell area-specific-resistance (ASR) values decrease with increasing current density. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Effects of variations in operating temperature, gas flow rate, cathode and anode exchange current density, and contact resistance from the base case are presented. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicated the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition. Results are discussed for using this design in the electrolysis mode. Discussion of thermal neutral voltage, enthalpy of reaction, hydrogen production, cell thermal efficiency, cell electrical efficiency, and Gibbs free energy are discussed and reported herein.

Grant Hawkes; James E. O'Brien

2008-10-01

404

The cycle life chemistry of ambient-temperature secondary lithium cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a NASA-sponsored research program to demonstrate the feasibility of ambient-temperature secondary lithium batteries for geosynchronous space applications. Encouraging cycle life has been demonstrated in sealed, cathode-limited laboratory cells. However, the cell capacity declines with cycle life. The results of recent studies of the lithium electrode passivation chemistry, and of conductive diluents for TiS2 cathodes and their possible contribution to capacity decline, are here presented. Technical issues associated with the unique operational requirements of a geosynchronous mission are also described.

Somoano, R.; Carter, B. J.; Subba Rao, S.; Shen, D.; Yen, S. P. S.

1985-01-01

405

Alternating-polarity operation for complete regeneration of electrochemical deionization system  

DOEpatents

An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. By polarizing the cells, ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes. As the electrodes of each cell of the battery are saturated with the removed ions, the battery is regenerated electrically at a reversed polarity from that during the deionization step of the cycle, thus significantly minimizing secondary wastes.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Lenz, David J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

406

The electrochemical generation of useful chemical species from lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrochemical cells have been fabricated for the simultaneous generation of oxygen and lithium from a Li2O-containing molten salt (Li2O-LiCl-LiF). The cell utilizes an oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), to effect separation between oxygen evolving and lithium reduction half-cell reactions. The cell, which operates at 700-850 C, possesses rapid electrode kinetics at the lithium-alloy electrode with exchange current density values being greater than 60 mA/sq cm. When used in the electrolytic mode, lithium produced at the negative electrode would be continuously removed from the cell for later use (under lunar conditions) as an easily storable reducing agent for the chemical refining of lunar ores. Because of the high reversibility of this electrochemical system, it has also formed the basis for the lithium-oxygen secondary battery system which possesses the highest theoretical energy density yet investigated.

Tsai, Kan J.; Kuchynka, Daniel J.; Sammells, Anthony F.

1990-01-01

407

An electrochemical treatment to improve corrosion and contact resistance of stainless steel bipolar plates used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electrochemical surface treatment is presented that improves the properties of stainless steel (316SS) used as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The process is an anodic treatment, whereby the material is polarised beyond the transpassive region. Potentiodynamic corrosion testing, chemical and morphological surface characterisation and interfacial contact resistance measurements indicate that the improved properties of 316SS are primarily a consequence of an enrichment of Cr at the near-surface of the material. The surface treatment increases the corrosion resistance and significantly reduces interfacial contact resistance.

Gabreab, Ebrahim M.; Hinds, Gareth; Fearn, Sarah; Hodgson, David; Millichamp, Jason; Shearing, Paul R.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

2014-01-01

408

Abundance of mixed linkage glucan in mature tissues and secondary cell walls of grasses.  

PubMed

(1,3; 1,4)-?-D-glucan, also known as mixed linkage glucan (MLG), is a polysaccharide that in flowering plants is unique to the cell walls of grasses and other related members of Poales. MLG is highly abundant in endosperm cell walls, where it is considered a storage carbohydrate. In vegetative tissues, MLG transiently accumulates in the primary cell walls of young, elongating organs. In evolutionary distant species such as Equisetum, MLG accumulates predominantly in old tissues in the stems. Similarly, we have recently shown that rice accumulates a large amount of MLG in mature stems, which prompted us to re-evaluate the hypothesis that MLG is solely related to growth in grass vegetative tissues. Here, we summarize data that confirms the presence of MLG in secondary cell walls and mature tissues in rice and other grasses. Along with these results, we discuss additional evidence indicating a broader role for MLG than previously considered. PMID:23299432

Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V; Ronald, Pamela C

2013-02-01

409

Dominant Cross-Reactive B Cell Response during Secondary Acute Dengue Virus Infection in Humans  

PubMed Central

The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) cause dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Severe disease has been associated with heterotypic secondary DENV infection, mediated by cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) and/or cross-reactive T cells. The role of cross-reactive immunity in mediating enhanced disease versus cross-protection against secondary heterotypic DENV infection is not well defined. A better understanding of the cross-reactive immune response in natural infections is critical for development of safe and effective tetravalent vaccines. We studied the B cell phenotype of circulating B cells in the blood of pediatric patients suspected of dengue during the 2010–2011 dengue season in Managua, Nicaragua (n?=?216), which was dominated by the DENV-3 serotype. We found a markedly larger percentage of plasmablast/plasma cells (PB/PCs) circulating in DENV-positive patients as compared to patients with Other Febrile Illnesses (OFIs). The percentage of DENV-specific PB/PCs against DENV-3 represented 10% of the circulating antibody-producing cells (ASCs) in secondary DENV-3 infections. Importantly, the cross-reactive DENV-specific B cell response was higher against a heterotypic serotype, with 46% of circulating PB/PCs specific to DENV-2 and 10% specific to DENV-3 during acute infection. We also observed a higher cross-reactive DENV-specific IgG serum avidity directed against DENV-2 as compared to DENV-3 during acute infection. The neutralization capacity of the serum was broadly cross-reactive against the four DENV serotypes both during the acute phase and at 3 months post-onset of symptoms. Overall, the cross-reactive B cell immune response dominates during secondary DENV infections in humans. These results reflect our recent findings in a mouse model of DENV cross-protection. In addition, this study enabled the development of increased technical and research capacity of Nicaraguan scientists and the implementation of several new immunological assays in the field. PMID:22448292

Zompi, Simona; Montoya, Magelda; Pohl, Marie O.; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

2012-01-01

410

Dominant cross-reactive B cell response during secondary acute dengue virus infection in humans.  

PubMed

The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) cause dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Severe disease has been associated with heterotypic secondary DENV infection, mediated by cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) and/or cross-reactive T cells. The role of cross-reactive immunity in mediating enhanced disease versus cross-protection against secondary heterotypic DENV infection is not well defined. A better understanding of the cross-reactive immune response in natural infections is critical for development of safe and effective tetravalent vaccines. We studied the B cell phenotype of circulating B cells in the blood of pediatric patients suspected of dengue during the 2010-2011 dengue season in Managua, Nicaragua (n? =? 216), which was dominated by the DENV-3 serotype. We found a markedly larger percentage of plasmablast/plasma cells (PB/PCs) circulating in DENV-positive patients as compared to patients with Other Febrile Illnesses (OFIs). The percentage of DENV-specific PB/PCs against DENV-3 represented 10% of the circulating antibody-producing cells (ASCs) in secondary DENV-3 infections. Importantly, the cross-reactive DENV-specific B cell response was higher against a heterotypic serotype, with 46% of circulating PB/PCs specific to DENV-2 and 10% specific to DENV-3 during acute infection. We also observed a higher cross-reactive DENV-specific IgG serum avidity directed against DENV-2 as compared to DENV-3 during acute infection. The neutralization capacity of the serum was broadly cross-reactive against the four DENV serotypes both during the acute phase and at 3 months post-onset of symptoms. Overall, the cross-reactive B cell immune response dominates during secondary DENV infections in humans. These results reflect our recent findings in a mouse model of DENV cross-protection. In addition, this study enabled the development of increased technical and research capacity of Nicaraguan scientists and the implementation of several new immunological assays in the field. PMID:22448292

Zompi, Simona; Montoya, Magelda; Pohl, Marie O; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

2012-01-01

411

Nonlinear coupled equations for electrochemical cells as developed by the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how the Butler-Volmer and Nernst equations, as well as Peltier effects, are contained in the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible and irreversible coupling, GENERIC, with a unique definition of the overpotential. Linear flux-force relations are used to describe the transport in the homogeneous parts of the electrochemical system. For the electrode interface, we choose nonlinear flux-force relationships. We give the general thermodynamic basis for an example cell with oxygen electrodes and electrolyte from the solid oxide fuel cell. In the example cell, there are two activated chemical steps coupled also to thermal driving forces at the surface. The equilibrium exchange current density obtains contributions from both rate-limiting steps. The measured overpotential is identified at constant temperature and stationary states, in terms of the difference in electrochemical potential of products and reactants. Away from these conditions, new terms appear. The accompanying energy flux out of the surface, as well as the heat generation at the surface are formulated, adding to the general thermodynamic basis.

Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Öttinger, Hans Christian

2014-09-01

412

Nonlinear coupled equations for electrochemical cells as developed by the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling.  

PubMed

We show how the Butler-Volmer and Nernst equations, as well as Peltier effects, are contained in the general equation for nonequilibrium reversible and irreversible coupling, GENERIC, with a unique definition of the overpotential. Linear flux-force relations are used to describe the transport in the homogeneous parts of the electrochemical system. For the electrode interface, we choose nonlinear flux-force relationships. We give the general thermodynamic basis for an example cell with oxygen electrodes and electrolyte from the solid oxide fuel cell. In the example cell, there are two activated chemical steps coupled also to thermal driving forces at the surface. The equilibrium exchange current density obtains contributions from both rate-limiting steps. The measured overpotential is identified at constant temperature and stationary states, in terms of the difference in electrochemical potential of products and reactants. Away from these conditions, new terms appear. The accompanying energy flux out of the surface, as well as the heat generation at the surface are formulated, adding to the general thermodynamic basis. PMID:25273407

Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Öttinger, Hans Christian

2014-09-28

413

[The causes of the biological action of electrochemically activated solutions by changes in the growth of Escherichia coli cells].  

PubMed

To study the causes of the biological effect of electrochemically activated solutions, nutrient growth media M 9 were prepared using catholyte and anolyte solutions containing separate components of the nutrient medium, such as distilled water, phosphate buffer, phosphate buffer with chlorides (NaCl, NH4Cl), and chlorides. The biological activity of different nutrient media was assessed by a comparison with the stimulation or inhibition of the growth of Escherichia coli cells in the catholyte and anolyte of the complete nutrient medium M 9. It was shown that medium M 9 prepared on the catholytes of different initial solutions acquired the stimulating properties only if the initial solution contained salts containing chlorine. The stimulating effect of the initial solution was 18-24%. Electrochemical treatment of solutions containing no chlorides (distilled water, phosphate buffer) and subsequent addition of the components of nutrient medium to exposed solutions had neither a stimulating nor the inhibiting effect on cell growth. The cultivation of cells in a nutrient medium based on the catholyte of preliminarily treated hydrochloric acid showed that it is the presence of chlorine ions in solution during electrolysis that causes the stimulating effect of the nutrient medium based on the catholyte. The formation of oxidizers and the inhibitory effect of the anolyte described previously was also observed if the solution contained chlorine ions during electrolysis. Possible mechanisms of the biological effect of catholytes containing chlorides during electrolysis were discussed. PMID:15526472

Miroshnikov, A I

2004-01-01

414

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 51, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004 1103 An Electrochemical-Based Fuel-Cell Model Suitable  

E-print Network

-W stack. Index Terms--Automation, control, fuel cells (FCs), modeling and simulation. I-Based Fuel-Cell Model Suitable for Electrical Engineering Automation Approach Jeferson M. Corrêa, Student, reducing construction, transportation, and safety concerns. An FC produces electrochemical power due

Simões, Marcelo Godoy

415

Novel Protein Crystal Growth Electrochemical Cell For Applications in X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

A new crystal growth cell based on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) glass-electrodes for electrochemically assisted protein crystallization allows for reduced nucleation and crystal quality enhancement. The crystallization behavior of lysozyme and ferritin was monitored as a function of the electric current applied to the growth cell. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that for specific currents, the crystal quality is substantially improved. No conformational changes were observed in the 3D crystallographic structures determined for crystals grown under different electric current regimes. Finally, the strong crystal adhesion on the surface of ITO electrode because of the electroadhesion allows a sufficiently strong fixing of the protein crystals, to undergo atomic force microscopy investigations in a fluid cell.

G Gil-Alvaradejo; R Ruiz-Arellano; C Owen; A Rodriguez-Romero; E Rudino-Pinera; M Antwi; V Stojanoff; A Moreno

2011-12-31

416

Cell for simultaneous synchrotron radiation X-ray and electrochemical corrosion measurements on cultural heritage metals and other materials.  

PubMed

We describe the construction of an electrochemical cell of the Bragg type suitable for in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements on rough, heterogeneous metals such as cultural heritage alloys and simulants with corroding or passivated surfaces. The cell features a working electrode, which may be moved under remote control from a position close to an X-ray window to full immersion in the electrolyte. A pocket of electrolyte in contact with the bulk can be maintained on the working electrode surface at all times. Its thickness (typically 100-200 microm) can be controlled by adjusting the working electrode position and, independently, altering the conformation of the X-ray window with hydrostatic pressure. Alternatively, the electrode may be lowered into the bulk of the electrolyte. Early results from the cell showing a time-resolved study of the reduction of nantokite to cuprite in sodium sesquicarbonate, accompanied by corrosion potential measurements obtained in parallel, are presented here. PMID:16689538

Dowsett, Mark G; Adriaens, Annemie

2006-05-15

417

Role of secondary lymphoid tissues in primary and memory T-cell responses to a transplanted organ  

PubMed Central

Secondary lymphoid tissues are the hub of adaptive immune responses wherein rare cognate lymphocytes encounter dendritic cells bearing antigen from peripheral tissues and differentiate into effector and memory cells that eliminate antigen. It is accepted that immune responses against microbial and tumor antigens are initiated within secondary lymphoid tissues. There is less agreement on whether the same principle applies to immune responses to a transplanted organ because an allograft expresses foreign major histocompatibility complex and contains donor antigen presenting cells that could activate T cells directly in situ leading to rejection. Recent studies confirm that although naïve T cells can be primed within the allograft, their differentiation to effect rejection is dependent on secondary lymphoid tissues. Antigen-experienced memory T cells, unlike Naïve T cells, function largely independent of secondary lymphoid tissues to cause allograft rejection. In an alloimmune response, secondary lymphoid tissues support not only immune activation but also immune regulation essential for allograft survival. Here, we will review recent findings and discuss the role of secondary lymphoid tissues in primary and memory alloimmune responses. PMID:19846289

Ng, Yue-Harn; Chalasani, Geetha

2009-01-01

418

Prevention of secondary stroke and resolution of transfusional iron overload in children with sickle cell anemia using hydroxyurea and phlebotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTransfusions prevent secondary stroke in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) but also cause iron overload. Alternatives for stroke prophylaxis with effective therapy to reduce iron burden are needed.

Russell E. Ware; Sherri A. Zimmerman; Pamela B. Sylvestre; Nicole A. Mortier; Jacqueline S. Davis; William R. Treem; William H. Schultz

2004-01-01

419

Hemophagocyte lymphohistiocytosis secondary to bilateral epididymal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to bilateral epididymal lymphoma. The patient is a man of 46 years old. He suffered fever 5 months before the admission. Physical examination shows splenohepatomegalia without lymphadenopathy. Laboratory studies revealed pancytopenia and coagulopathy, hyper ferritin level, large foamy macrophages containing other hematopoietic elements in bone marrow. After treatment with HLH-04 protocol, the patient recovered, but relapsed 1 month later and suffered pudendal pain. A color Doppler of the scrotum shows bilateral epididymis swollen. Pathological diagnosis of biopsy is diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). After two cycles cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab together with intrathecal injections, the tumors on the epididymides disappeared, but relapsed intracalvarium. The patient stopped treatment due to financial reasons. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary lymphoma in a sanctuary site has not been reported before and should not be ignored. Transplantation is necessary for long-time survival. PMID:25332548

Wang, Li; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Ya-Li; Yin, Xiao-Lin

2014-09-01

420

Toxicological characterization of the landfill leachate prior/after chemical and electrochemical treatment: a study on human and plant cells.  

PubMed

In this research, toxicological safety of two newly developed methods for the treatment of landfill leachate from the Piškornica (Croatia) sanitary landfill was investigated. Chemical treatment procedure combined chemical precipitation with CaO followed by coagulation with ferric chloride and final adsorption by clinoptilolite. Electrochemical treatment approach included pretreatment with ozone followed by electrooxidation/electrocoagulation and final polishing by microwave irradiation. Cell viability of untreated/treated landfill leachate was examined using fluorescence microscopy. Cytotoxic effect of the original leachate was obtained for both exposure periods (4 and 24 h) while treated samples showed no cytotoxic effect even after prolonged exposure time. The potential DNA damage of the untreated/treated landfill leachate was evaluated by the comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay using either human or plant cells. The original leachate exhibited significantly higher comet assay parameters compared to negative control after 24 h exposure. On the contrary, there was no significant difference between negative control and chemically/electrochemically treated leachate for any of the parameters tested. There was also no significant increase in either CBMN assay parameter compared to the negative control following the exposure of the lymphocytes to the chemically or electrochemically treated landfill leachate for both exposure periods while the original sample showed significantly higher number of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds for both exposure times. Results suggest that both methods are suitable for the treatment of such complex waste effluent due to high removal efficiency of all measured parameters and toxicological safety of the treated effluent. PMID:23790829

Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreš?anin, Višnja; Gajski, Goran; Geri?, Marko; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Radi? Brkanac, Sandra; Cvjetko, Petra

2013-10-01

421

Bipolar switching polarity reversal by electrolyte layer sequence in electrochemical metallization cells with dual-layer solid electrolytes.  

PubMed

Bipolar switching behaviours of electrochemical metallization (ECM) cells with dual-layer solid electrolytes (SiOx-Ge0.3Se0.7) were analyzed. Type 1 ECM cell, Pt (bottom electrode)/SiOx/Ge0.3Se0.7/Cu (top electrode), exhibited typical eightwise current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis of ECM cells whereas Type 2 ECM cell, Pt (bottom electrode)/Ge0.3Se0.7/SiOx/Cu(top electrode), showed counter-eightwise hysteresis. In addition, absolute off-switching voltage in Type 2 cell is lower than that in Type 1 cell while on-switching voltage in both cells is almost the same. An attempt to understand this electrolyte-stack-sequence-depending switching polarity reversal was made in terms of the ECM cell potential change upon the electrolyte stack sequence and the consequent change in Cu filament growth direction. Relevant experimental evidence for the hypothesis was obtained regarding the switching behaviours. Furthermore, given the switching polarity reversal, feasibility of serial complementary resistive switches was also demonstrated. PMID:24177268

Soni, Rohit; Meuffels, Paul; Petraru, Adrian; Hansen, Mirko; Ziegler, Martin; Vavra, Ondrej; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Jeong, Doo Seok

2013-12-21

422

The overall structure of the human lens is one of succes-sive generations of secondary fiber cells stratified chrono-  

E-print Network

The overall structure of the human lens is one of succes- sive generations of secondary fiber cells stratified chrono- logically around the embryonic nucleus, with the primary fiber cells being formed by week six after fertilization [1,2]. Because all cells are retained, the lens grows continuously throughout

Hammock, Bruce D.

423

Identification of Novel Genes in Arabidopsis Involved in Secondary Cell Wall Formation Using Expression Profiling and Reverse Genetics  

PubMed Central

Forward genetic screens have led to the isolation of several genes involved in secondary cell wall formation. A variety of evidence, however, suggests that the list of genes identified is not exhaustive. To address this problem, microarray data have been generated from tissue undergoing secondary cell wall formation and used to identify genes that exhibit a similar expression pattern to the secondary cell wall–specific cellulose synthase genes IRREGULAR XYLEM1 (IRX1) and IRX3. Cross-referencing this analysis with publicly available microarray data resulted in the selection of 16 genes for reverse genetic analysis. Lines containing an insertion in seven of these genes exhibited a clear irx phenotype characteristic of a secondary cell wall defect. Only one line, containing an insertion in a member of the COBRA gene family, exhibited a large decrease in cellulose content. Five of the genes identified as being essential for secondary cell wall biosynthesis have not been previously characterized. These genes are likely to define entirely novel processes in secondary cell wall formation and illustrate the success of combining expression data with reverse genetics to address gene function. PMID:15980264

Brown, David M.; Zeef, Leo A.H.; Ellis, Joanne; Goodacre, Royston; Turner, Simon R.

2005-01-01

424

Effects of proton-exchange membrane fuel-cell operating conditions on charge transfer resistances measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are highly dependent on operating conditions, such as humidity and temperature. This study employs electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to measure the effects of operating parameters on internal proton and electron transport resistance mechanisms in the PEMFC. Current-density experiments have been performed to measure the power production in a 25 cm{sup 2} Nafion 117 PEMFC at varying operating conditions. These experiments have shown that low humidity and low temperature contribute to decreased power production. EIS is currently employed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in power production by calculating the specific resistances at various regions in the PEMFC. Experiments are performed at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C, feed humidities from 20 to 98%, and air stoichiometric ratios from 1.33 to 2.67. In all experiments, the hydrogen feed stoichiometric ratio was approximately 4.0. EIS is used to identify which transport steps limit the power production of the PEMFC over these ranges of conditions. The experimental data are analyzed via comparison to equivalent circuit models (ECMs), a technique that uses an electrical circuit to represent the electrochemical and transport properties of the PEMFC. These studies will aid in designing fuel cells that are more tolerant to wide-ranging operating conditions. In addition, optimal operating conditions for PEMFC operation can be identified.

Aaron, Doug S [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2008-01-01

425

Activation of cytokine genes in T cells during primary and secondary murine influenza pneumonia.  

PubMed

The patterns of cytokine mRNA expression in mice with primary or secondary influenza pneumonia have been assessed by in situ hybridization analysis of cells from both the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) and the virus-infected lung. Evidence of substantial transcriptional activity was found in all lymphocyte subsets recovered from both anatomical sites. The kinetics of cytokine mRNA expression after primary infection with an H3N2 virus were in accord with the idea that the initial response occurs in regional lymphoid tissue, with the effector T cells later moving to the lung. This temporal separation was much less apparent for the more rapid secondary response resulting from challenge of H3N2-primed mice with an H1N1 virus. Among the T cell receptor alpha/beta+ subsets, transcripts for interferon (IFN) gamma and tumor necrosis factor beta were most commonly found in the CD8+ population whereas mRNA for interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-10 was much more prevalent in CD4+ T cells. The gamma/delta T cells expressed mRNA for all cytokines tested, with IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma predominating among those recovered from the inflammatory exudate. At particular time points, especially early in the MLN and late in the infected lung, the frequency of mRNA+ lymphocytes was much higher than would be expected from current understanding of the prevalence of virus-specific precursors and effectors. If this response is typical, induction of cytokine gene expression for T cells that are not responding directly to the invading pathogen may be a prominent feature of acute virus infections. PMID:8426116

Carding, S R; Allan, W; McMickle, A; Doherty, P C

1993-02-01

426

Automated Targeting of Cells to Electrochemical Electrodes Using a Surface Chemistry Approach for the Measurement of Quantal Exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe a method to fabricate a multichannel high-throughput microchip device for the measurement of quantal transmitter release from individual cells. Instead of bringing carbon-fiber electrodes to cells, the device uses a surface chemistry approach to bring cells to an array of electrochemical microelectrodes. The microelectrodes are small and cytophilic in order to promote adhesion of a single cell, whereas all other areas of the chip are covered with a thin cytophobic film to block cell attachement and facilitate the movement of cells to electrodes. This cytophobic film also insulates unused areas of the conductive film; thus, the alignment of cell docking sites to working electrodes is automatic. Amperometric spikes resulting from single-granule fusion events were recorded on the device and had amplitudes and kinetics similar to those measured using carbon-fiber microelectrodes. Use of this device will increase the pace of basic neuroscience research and may also find applications in drug discovery or validation. PMID:21113333

2010-01-01

427

Contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments impact xylem gene expression and secondary cell wall lignification in Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

BackgroundNitrogen (N) is a main nutrient required for tree growth and biomass accumulation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of contrasting nitrogen fertilization treatments on the phenotypes of fast growing Eucalyptus hybrids (E. urophylla x E. grandis) with a special focus on xylem secondary cell walls and global gene expression patterns.ResultsHistological observations of the xylem secondary cell walls further confirmed by chemical analyses showed that lignin was reduced by luxuriant fertilization, whereas a consistent lignin deposition was observed in trees grown in N-limiting conditions. Also, the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was significantly lower in luxuriant nitrogen samples. Deep sequencing RNAseq analyses allowed us to identify a high number of differentially expressed genes (1,469) between contrasting N treatments. This number is dramatically higher than those obtained in similar studies performed in poplar but using microarrays. Remarkably, all the genes involved the general phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin pathway were found to be down-regulated in response to high N availability. These findings further confirmed by RT-qPCR are in agreement with the reduced amount of lignin in xylem secondary cell walls of these plants.ConclusionsThis work enabled us to identify, at the whole genome level, xylem genes differentially regulated by N availability, some of which are involved in the environmental control of xylogenesis. It further illustrates that N fertilization can be used to alter the quantity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass in Eucalyptus, offering exciting prospects for the pulp and paper industry and for the use of short coppices plantations to produce second generation biofuels. PMID:25260963

Camargo, Eduardo; Nascimento, Leandro; Soler, Marçal; Salazar, Marcela; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Marques, Wesley; Alves, Ana; Teixeira, Paulo; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carazzolle, Marcelo; Martinez, Yves; Deckmann, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pereira, Gonçalo

2014-09-28

428

Treatment of electrochemical cell components with lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl.sub.4) to promote electrolyte wetting  

DOEpatents

Electrochemical cell components such as interelectrode separators, retaining screens and current collectors are contacted with lithium tetrachloroaluminate prior to contact with molten electrolytic salt to improve electrolyte wetting. The LiAlCl.sub.4 can be applied in powdered, molten or solution form but, since this material has a lower melting point than the electrolytic salt used in high-temperature cells, the powdered LiAlCl.sub.4 forms a molten flux prior to contact by the molten electrolyte when both materials are initially provided in solid form. Components of materials such as boron nitride and other materials which are difficult to wet with molten salts are advantageously treated by this process.

Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

1980-01-01

429

Solid-state voltammetry in a three electrode electrochemical cell-on-a-chip with a microlithographically defined microelectrode  

SciTech Connect

Microlithographic procedures are employed to fabricate electrochemical microcells with three coplanar gold-film electrodes (working, auxiliary, and reference) resting on a silicon water. The working electrode can be a 11 /times/ 516 or 11 /times/ 256 ..mu..m microband or a 11 /times/ 11 ..mu..microsquare, and the cell solution of a film of an ionically conducting polymer such as lithium triflate dissolved in poly(ethylene oxide). The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of electroactive species dissolved in these cell media are reported, and the chronoamperometric data are compared to theoretical current-time curves calculated for band microelectrodes. Cyclic voltammetry in an aqueous droplet on the microsquare gives pseudo-steady-state-waves, the limiting currents of which quantitatively agree with those for microdisk electrodes of equivalent area. The microlithographically defined microcells can be produced in quantity and can be considered disposable electroanalytical devices, which can be advantageous for routine electroanalytical applications involving electrode-poisoning reaction systems.

Morita, M.; Longmire, M.L.; Murray, R.W.

1988-12-15

430

Design parameters for an electrochemical cell with porous electrode to treat metal-ion solution.  

PubMed

An electrochemical reactor was designed and operated to treat the solution containing copper ions. Design parameters for the electrochemical reactor using the porous cathode and RuO2/IrO2/Ti anode were investigated. The porous cathode was prepared by the electroless nickel deposition on polyurethane. The apparent current, the gap between cathode and anode, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were selected as design parameters. The copper removal rate increased with an increase in apparent current. It was not affected by the gap between the cathode and the anode. A reduction in hydraulic retention time stimulated the mass transfer toward the electrode and increased the cathodic current efficiency. Dimensional analysis was conducted to obtain the design equation for scale-up of the electrochemical reactor. The dependence of Sh on Re, Sc, and characteristic lengths, DC/A/L and DW/C/L, was described in the form of a power series. The coefficients were obtained from experimental data. PMID:11257894

Pak, D; Chung, D; Ju, J B

2001-01-01

431

[Mechanism exploration on synthesis of secondary metabolites in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with yeast extract].  

PubMed

Suspension cultures cell of Sorbus aucuparia (SASC) was used as materials, the changes of physiological and biochemical indexes of SASC after treatment with yeast extract (YE) were detected, and the synthetic mechanism of secondary metabolites in SASC treated with YE was preliminarily explored. The results were as follows: under the assay conditions, SASC was induced to synthesize five biphenyl compounds, and these compounds content changed differently with induction time prolonging; YE treatment inhibited cell growth, the culture medium pH was gradually reduced after treatment; water-soluble protein content showed a trend of slow decline, which was significantly increased in YE treatment group (YE group) compared with the control group (CK group), the maximum relative content was 147.76% in contrast with CK group; both YE group and CK group were extracellular Ca2+ flow influx, but the YE group flow was significantly slow than CK group. The results indicate that YE induced the cells in a stress state, which was not conducive to the growth of cells and forced the cells to synthesize biphenyl compounds against external stress; water-soluble protein may serve as intracellular enzymes involved in the synthesis of compounds regulation; Ca2+ may as signal molecule mediate cell signal transduction respond to YE stress. PMID:25272834

Huang, Lei; Xiao, Wen-Juan; Yang, Guang; Mo, Ge; Lin, Shu-Fang; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Guo, Lan-Ping

2014-06-01

432

Tanshinone-1 induces tumor cell killing, enhanced by inhibition of secondary activation of signaling networks  

PubMed Central

Tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) can result from overexpression of drug transporters and deregulation of cellular signaling transduction. New agents and strategies are required for overcoming MDR. Here, we report that tanshinone-1, a bioactive ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, directly killed MDR tumor cells and their corresponding parental cells, which was potentiated by inhibition of secondary activation of signaling networks. Tanshinone-1 was slightly more potent at inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MDR cells than in corresponding parental cells. Tanshinone-1-induced MDR cell killing was independent of the function and expression of drug transporters but was partially correlated with the phosphatase-dependent reduction of phospho-705-Stat3, which secondarily activated p38-, AKT-, and ERK-involved signaling networks. Cotreatments with p38, AKT, and ERK inhibitors potentiated the anti-MDR effects of tanshinone-1. Our study presents a model for MDR cell killing using a compound of natural origin. This model could lead to new therapeutic strategies for targeting signaling network(s) in MDR cancers as well as new strategies for multitarget design. PMID:24201804

Xu, L; Feng, J-M; Li, J-X; Zhu, J-M; Song, S-S; Tong, L-J; Chen, Y; Yang, X-Y; Shen, Y-Y; Lian, F-L; Li, Y-P; Lin, D-H; Ding, J; Miao, Z-H

2013-01-01

433

Tanshinone-1 induces tumor cell killing, enhanced by inhibition of secondary activation of signaling networks.  

PubMed

Tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) can result from overexpression of drug transporters and deregulation of cellular signaling transduction. New agents and strategies are required for overcoming MDR. Here, we report that tanshinone-1, a bioactive ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine, directly killed MDR tumor cells and their corresponding parental cells, which was potentiated by inhibition of secondary activation of signaling networks. Tanshinone-1 was slightly more potent at inducing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MDR cells than in corresponding parental cells. Tanshinone-1-induced MDR cell killing was independent of the function and expression of drug transporters but was partially correlated with the phosphatase-dependent reduction of phospho-705-Stat3, which secondarily activated p38-, AKT-, and ERK-involved signaling networks. Cotreatments with p38, AKT, and ERK inhibitors potentiated the anti-MDR effects of tanshinone-1. Our study presents a model for MDR cell killing using a compound of natural origin. This model could lead to new therapeutic strategies for targeting signaling network(s) in MDR cancers as well as new strategies for multitarget design. PMID:24201804

Xu, L; Feng, J-M; Li, J-X; Zhu, J-M; Song, S-S; Tong, L-J; Chen, Y; Yang, X-Y; Shen, Y-Y; Lian, F-L; Li, Y-P; Lin, D-H; Ding, J; Miao, Z-H

2013-01-01

434

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Treatment for Microvascular and Secondary Complications of Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increase in the prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (DM) has highlighted the need for increased research efforts into treatment options for both the disease itself and its associated complications. In recent years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been highlighted as a new emerging regenerative therapy due to their multipotency but also due to their paracrine secretion of angiogenic factors, cytokines, and immunomodulatory substances. This review focuses on the potential use of MSCs as a regenerative medicine in microvascular and secondary complications of DM and will discuss the challenges and future prospects of MSCs as a regenerative therapy in this field. MSCs are believed to have an important role in tissue repair. Evidence in recent years has demonstrated that MSCs have potent immunomodulatory functions resulting in active suppression of various components of the host immune response. MSCs may also have glucose lowering properties providing another attractive and unique feature of this therapeutic approach. Through a combination of the above characteristics, MSCs have been shown to exert beneficial effects in pre-clinical models of diabetic complications prompting initial clinical studies in diabetic wound healing and nephropathy. Challenges that remain in the clinical translation of MSC therapy include issues of MSC heterogeneity, optimal mode of cell delivery, homing of these cells to tissues of interest with high efficiency, clinically meaningful engraftment, and challenges with cell manufacture. An issue of added importance is whether an autologous or allogeneic approach will be used. In summary, MSC administration has significant potential in the treatment of diabetic microvascular and secondary complications but challenges remain in terms of engraftment, persistence, tissue targeting, and cell manufacture PMID:24936198

Davey, Grace C.; Patil, Swapnil B.; O’Loughlin, Aonghus; O’Brien, Timothy

2014-01-01

435

Half-Cell Potential Analysis of an Ammonia Sensor with the Electrochemical Cell Au | YSZ | Au, V2O5-WO3-TiO2  

PubMed Central

Half-cell potentials of the electrochemical cell Au, VWT | YSZ | Au are analyzed in dependence on oxygen and ammonia concentration at 550 °C. One of the gold electrodes is covered with a porous SCR catalyst, vanadia-tungstenia-titania (VWT). The cell is utilized as a potentiometric ammonia gas sensor and provides a semi-logarithmic characteristic curve with a high NH3 sensitivity and selectivity. The analyses of the Au | YSZ and Au, VWT | YSZ half-cells are conducted to describe the non-equilibrium behavior of the sensor device in light of mixed potential theory. Both electrode potentials provide a dependency on the NH3 concentration, whereby VWT, Au | YSZ shows a stronger effect which increases with increasing VWT coverage. The potential shifts in the anodic direction confirm the formation of mixed potentials at both electrodes resulting from electrochemical reactions of O2 and NH3 at the three-phase boundary. Polarization curves indicate Butler-Volmer-type kinetics. Modified polarization curves of the VWT covered electrode show an enhanced anodic reaction and an almost unaltered cathodic reaction. The NH3 dependency is dominated by the VWT coverage and it turns out that the catalytic properties of the VWT thick film are responsible for the electrode potential shift. PMID:23575035

Schönauer-Kamin, Daniela; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

2013-01-01

436

Half-cell potential analysis of an ammonia sensor with the electrochemical cell Au | YSZ | Au, V2O5-WO3-TiO2.  

PubMed

Half-cell potentials of the electrochemical cell Au, VWT | YSZ | Au are analyzed in dependence on oxygen and ammonia concentration at 550 °C. One of the gold electrodes is covered with a porous SCR catalyst, vanadia-tungstenia-titania (VWT). The cell is utilized as a potentiometric ammonia gas sensor and provides a semi-logarithmic characteristic curve with a high NH3 sensitivity and selectivity. The analyses of the Au | YSZ and Au, VWT | YSZ half-cells are conducted to describe the non-equilibrium behavior of the sensor device in light of mixed potential theory. Both electrode potentials provide a dependency on the NH3 concentration, whereby VWT, Au | YSZ shows a stronger effect which increases with increasing VWT coverage. The potential shifts in the anodic direction confirm the formation of mixed potentials at both electrodes resulting from electrochemical reactions of O2 and NH3 at the three-phase boundary. Polarization curves indicate Butler-Volmer-type kinetics. Modified polarization curves of the VWT covered electrode show an enhanced anodic reaction and an almost unaltered cathodic reaction. The NH3 dependency is dominated by the VWT coverage and it turns out that the catalytic properties of the VWT thick film are responsible for the electrode potential shift. PMID:23575035

Schönauer-Kamin, Daniela; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

2013-01-01

437

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by dysregulation of the immune system. Impaired function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells is often seen, and T-cell malignancies represent most cases of lymphoma-associated HLH. HLH associated with B-cell lymphoma is rare. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with fever, splenomegaly, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, a rare, aggressive B-cell malignancy. This case highlights the interplay between a pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment and tumor-mediated immune suppression, and addresses the importance of accurately diagnosing these entities for appropriate clinical management. PMID:24955327

Devitt, Katherine; Cerny, Jan; Switzer, Bradley; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Nath, Rajneesh; Yu, Hongbo; Woda, Bruce A.; Chen, Benjamin J.

2014-01-01

438

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening clinical syndrome characterized by dysregulation of the immune system. Impaired function of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells is often seen, and T-cell malignancies represent most cases of lymphoma-associated HLH. HLH associated with B-cell lymphoma is rare. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with fever, splenomegaly, and hyperferritinemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, a rare, aggressive B-cell malignancy. This case highlights the interplay between a pro-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment and tumor-mediated immune suppression, and addresses the importance of accurately diagnosing these entities for appropriate clinical management. PMID:24955327

Devitt, Katherine; Cerny, Jan; Switzer, Bradley; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Nath, Rajneesh; Yu, Hongbo; Woda, Bruce A; Chen, Benjamin J

2014-01-01

439

Cyto-sensing in electrochemical lab-on-paper cyto-device for in-situ evaluation of multi-glycan expressions on cancer cells.  

PubMed

A novel electrochemical lab-on-paper cyto-device (ELPCD) was fabricated to demonstrate sensitive and specific cancer cell detection as well as in-situ monitoring of multi-glycans on living cancer cells. In this ELPCD, aptamers modified three-dimensional macroporous Au-paper electrode (Au-PE) was employed as the working electrode for specific and efficient cancer cell capture. Using a sandwich format, sensitive and reproducible cell detection was achieved in this ELPCD on the basis of the electrochemical signal amplification of the Au-PE and the horseradish peroxidase-lectin electrochemical probe. The ELPCD displayed excellent analytical performance for the detection of four K562 cells with a wide linear calibration range from 550 to 2.0×10(7) cells mL(-1). Then, this ELPCD was successfully applied to determine cell-surface multi-glycans in parallel and in-situ monitor multi-glycans expression on living cells in response to drug treatment through in-electrode 3D cell culture. The proposed method provides promising application in decipherment of the glycomic codes as well as clinical diagnosis and treatment in early process of cancer. PMID:25104432

Su, Min; Ge, Lei; Kong, Qingkun; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Ge, Shenguang; Li, Nianqiang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

2015-01-15

440

Secondary lithium batteries for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

1981-01-01

441

Electrochemical fabrication of capacitors  

DOEpatents

A film of nickel oxide is anodically deposited on a graphite sheet held in osition on an electrochemical cell during application of a positive electrode voltage to the graphite sheet while exposed to an electrolytic nickel oxide solution within a volumetrically variable chamber of the cell. An angularly orientated x-ray beam is admitted into the cell for transmission through the deposited nickel oxide film in order to obtain structural information while the film is subject to electrochemical and in-situ x-ray spectroscopy from which optimum film thickness, may be determined by comparative analysis for capacitor fabrication purposes.

Mansour, Azzam N. (Fairfax Sta., VA); Melendres, Carlos A. (Lemont, IL)

1999-01-01

442

Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelera