Science.gov

Sample records for secondary end-use products

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg

  2. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  3. A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use.

    PubMed

    Tubeileh, Ashraf; Rennie, Timothy J; Goss, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    With a dry biomass production exceeding 40Mgha(-1) in many environments, Miscanthus spp. is the most productive perennial C4 grass species thanks to five advantages over North American prairie tallgrasses. However, miscanthus has a slower nutrient remobilization system, resulting in higher nutrient concentrations at harvest. Perennial C4 grasses benefit from soil microbial associations, reducing their nutrient needs. For combustion purposes, grasses with low moisture content, high lignin and low nutrients are desired. For ethanol, preferred feedstock will have lower lignin, higher sugars, starch, or cellulose/hemicellulose depending on the conversion method. Species with high stem-to-leaf ratio provide better biofuel conversion efficiency and quality. Recently-developed transgenic switchgrass lines have much higher ethanol yields and lower transformation costs. Further selection and breeding are needed to optimize biomass quality and nutrient cycling. PMID:27258573

  4. Energy balances in the production and end-use of methanol derived from coal

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-10

    Analysis is performed for three combinations of fuels, specifically: net petroleum gain (petroleum only); net premium fuel gain (natural gas and petroleum); and net energy gain (includes all fuels; does not include free energy from sun). The base case selected for evaluation was that of an energy-efficient coal-to-methanol plant located in Montana/Wyoming and using the Lurgi conversion process. The following variations of the base coal-methanol case are also analyzed: gasoline from coal with methanol as an intermediate step (Mobil-M); and methanol from coal (Texaco gasification process). For each process, computations are made for the product methanol as a replacement for unleaded gasoline in a conventional spark ignition engine and as a chemical feedstock. For the purpose of the energy analysis, computations are made for three situations regarding mileage of methanol/ gasoline compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline: mileage of the two fuels equal, mileage 4 percent better with gasohol, and mileage 4 percent worse with gasohol. The standard methodology described for the base case applies to all of the variations.

  5. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, J.S.S.; Lim, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    In the absence of a lead producers' association in Malaysia and the continued presence of illegal operators whose activities are confined to remelting of cable scraps and/or smelting of battery scraps using a shaft furnace, this paper relies heavily on the information obtained from Metal Reclamation Industries, Sdn. Bhd. -the only modern integrated lead smelter in the country. Consequently, the authors can only present a semiquantitative and general paper on secondary lead production in Malaysia covering the following areas: history; secondary lead smelting; raw material; products; quality control; pollution controls; and future of secondary lead production in Malaysia. They conclude that if Malaysia is to become a major secondary lead producer in the Asian region, the industry must: (1) import raw materials in the form of scrapped batteries; (2) develop or acquire new technology; (3) cope with changing pollution regulations, and (4) develop technical skills and efficient quality controls to meet new challenges. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. J.; Lim, S. S.

    The increase in the number of vehicles and, subsequently, the volume of batteries made by manufacturers in Malaysia have seen a dramatic rise in lead demand over the last five years. Without any lead mines, the only source of lead in Malaysia has been from the recycling of lead/acid batteries. Metal Reclamation (Industries) has commenced the design of a new and advanced secondary lead plant at West Port, Malaysia to meet the increasing demand for lead and the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The plant is designed to produce up to 75 000 t of lead and lead alloys per year. The plant will also produce, as by-products: polypropylene chips, wallboard-grade gypsum, non-leachable slag for use in construction. A discussion of the process and the products from the new secondary smelter is outlined.

  7. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  8. Incorporation of Decision and Game Theories in Early-Stage Complex Product Design to Model End-Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesmer, Bryan L.

    The need for design models that accurately capture the complexities of products increase as products grow ever more complicated. The accuracies of these models depend upon the inputs and the methods used on those inputs to determine an output. Product designers must determine the dominant inputs and make assumptions concerning inputs that have less of an effect. Properly capturing the important inputs in the early design stages, where designs are being simulated, allows for modifications of the design at a relatively low cost. In this dissertation, an input that has a high impact on product performance but is usually neglected until later design stages is examined. The end-users of a product interact with the product and with each other in ways that affect the performance of that product. End-users are typically brought in at the later design stages, or as representations on the design team. They are rarely used as input variables in the product models. By incorporating the end-users in the early models and simulations, the end-users' impact on performance are captured when modifications to the designs are cheaper. The methodology of capturing end-user decision making in product models, developed in this dissertation, is created using the methods of decision and game theory. These theories give a mathematical basis for decision making based on the end-users' beliefs and preferences. Due to the variations that are present in end-users' preferences, their interactions with the product cause variations in the performance. This dissertation shows that capturing the end-user interactions in simulations enables the designer to create products that are more robust to the variations of the end-users. The manipulation of a game that an individual plays to drive an outcome desired by a designer is referred to as mechanism design. This dissertation also shows how a designer can influence the end-users' decisions to optimize the designer's goals. How product controlled

  9. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) net petroleum gain; (2) net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end user.

  10. Secondary aerosol production from agricultural gas precursors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Increasing evidence from both laboratory and field work suggests that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but some volatile org...

  11. A Radial Profile of Tycho Secondary Crater Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Kassandra; Campbell, D. B.; Campbell, B. A.; Carter, L. M.; Anderson, R. F.

    2009-09-01

    Determining the typical secondary crater production of individual primary events is an important step in gauging the extent of secondary crater contamination of crater-counting derived ages. Previous lunar observations of secondary crater production from individual primary events have focused on secondary craters near the parent primary and extrapolated to larger radial distances where morphological identification of secondaries is more difficult [Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, E03005, doi:10.1029/2005JE002484, 2006]. As some workers suggest that more distant secondaries may constitute much of the total secondary crater population [McEwen et al., Icarus, 176, 2005; Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, E03005, doi:10.1029/2005JE002484, 2006], lunar observational evidence in this regime is critical to building a robust picture of secondary crater production on the Moon. We present preliminary results of a survey of Tycho secondaries ranging in distance from 1-25 crater radii from the parent crater. Secondary craters in this study lie along a ray extending south from Tycho across Clavius crater and are identified by characteristic, asymmetric ejecta blankets visible in 2.38 GHz (12.6 cm) radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) images acquired during bi-static observations with the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes. In addition to presenting the size-frequency distributions of these secondary craters and implications thereof, we compare the population of Tycho secondaries identified in the radar CPR near Pictet crater to that identified via morphology in optical images by Hirata and Nakamura, JGR, 2006.

  12. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  13. Marketing Secondary Information Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the components of marketing (i.e., consumer markets, product development, sales, advertising and promotion, packaging, distribution, pricing, and market research), how information products and services relate to those components, and the pricing of products from a bibliographic database. Two figures and a 17-item reference list are…

  14. Secondary antiproton production in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Ramaty, R.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility is investigated that the reported excess low energy antiproton component of the cosmic radiation results from proton-proton (p-p) interactions in relativistic plasmas. Because of both target and projectile motion in such plasmas, the antiproton production threshold in the frame of the plasma is much lower than the threshold of antiproton production in cosmic ray interactions with ambient matter. The spectrum of the resultant antiprotons therefore extends to much lower energy than in the cosmic ray case. The antiproton spectrum is calculated for relativistic thermal plasmas and the spectrum is estimated for relativistic nonthermal plasmas. As possible production sites, matter accreting onto compact objects located in the galaxy is considered. Possible overproduction of gamma rays from associated neutral pion production can be avoided if the site is optically thick to the photons but not to the antiprotons. A possible scenario involves a sufficiently large photon density that the neutral pion gamma rays are absorbed by photon-photon pair production. Escape of the antiprotons to the interstellar medium can be mediated by antineutron production.

  15. Teacher Qualifications and Productivity in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuls, James V.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between observable teacher characteristics and productivity as measured by an increase in student achievement on a standardized test using a value-added approach. This analysis focused on teachers of algebra, geometry, and 11th grade English Language Arts in Arkansas. The authors generated a value-added score…

  16. Using Hairy Roots for Production of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a wide variety of natural products, which are traditionally termed secondary metabolites and, more recently, coined specialized metabolites. While these chemical compounds are employed by plants for interactions with their environment, humans have long since explored and exploited plant secondary metabolites for medicinal and practical uses. Due to the tissue-specific and low-abundance accumulation of these metabolites, alternative means of production in systems other than intact plants are sought after. To this end, hairy root culture presents an excellent platform for producing valuable secondary metabolites. This chapter will focus on several major groups of secondary metabolites that are manufactured by hairy roots established from different plant species. Additionally, the methods for preservations of hairy roots will also be reviewed. PMID:25583225

  17. Alcohol Fuel Production for Vocational Students: Secondary, Postsecondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Paul; Burkhalter, Wayne

    In order to help bring about the potential for alcohol production by the farming community, Navarro College (Texas) has developed this curriculum for secondary and postsecondary levels in alcohol fuel production. The alcohol fuel curriculum consists of five modules for use in practical hands-on vocational programs. The curriculum is designed to…

  18. Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Md. Sarfaraj; Fareed, Sheeba; Ansari, Saba; Rahman, Md. Akhlaquer; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen; Saeed, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the tremendous source for the discovery of new products with medicinal importance in drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs, which are currently used in one or more countries in the world. Secondary metabolites are economically important as drugs, flavor and fragrances, dye and pigments, pesticides, and food additives. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of tissue culture technology. Plant cell and tissue culture technologies can be established routinely under sterile conditions from explants, such as plant leaves, stems, roots, and meristems for both the ways for multiplication and extraction of secondary metabolites. In vitro production of secondary metabolite in plant cell suspension cultures has been reported from various medicinal plants, and bioreactors are the key step for their commercial production. Based on this lime light, the present review is aimed to cover phytotherapeutic application and recent advancement for the production of some important plant pharmaceuticals. PMID:22368394

  19. Biodiesel production from municipal secondary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Ghosh, Pooja; Khosla, Khushboo; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of biodiesel production from freeze dried sewage sludge was studied and its yield was enhanced by optimization of the in situ transesterification conditions (temperature, catalyst and concentration of sludge solids). Optimized conditions (45°C, 5% catalyst and 0.16g/mL sludge solids) resulted in a 20.76±0.04% biodiesel yield. The purity of biodiesel was ascertained by GC-MS, FT-IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectroscopy. The biodiesel profile obtained revealed the predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, myristic, stearic, lauric, palmitoleic and linoleic acids indicating potential use of sludge as a biodiesel feedstock. PMID:27240231

  20. Secondary production of massive quarks in thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, André H.; Mateu, Vicent; Pietrulewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We present a factorization framework that takes into account the production of heavy quarks through gluon splitting in the thrust distribution for e+e- → hadrons. The explicit factorization theorems and some numerical results are displayed in the dijet region where the kinematic scales are widely separated, which can be extended systematically to the whole spectrum. We account for the necessary two-loop matrix elements, threshold corrections, and include resummation up to N3LL order. We include nonperturbative power corrections through a field theoretical shape function, and remove the O(ΛQCD) renormalon in the partonic soft function by appropriate mass-dependent subtractions. Our results hold for any value of the quark mass, from an infinitesimally small (merging to the known massless result) to an infinitely large one (achieving the decoupling limit). This is the first example of an application of a variable flavor number scheme to final state jets.

  1. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  2. Identifying Productive Resources in Secondary School Students' Discourse about Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrer, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school…

  3. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a diverse bacterial species known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its production of secondary metabolites. The high degree of ecological and metabolic diversity represented in P. fluorescens is reflected in the genomic diversity displayed among strains. Certain st...

  4. Farm Laboratory Aids Post-Secondary Instruction in Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statler, Larry L.; Juhl, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    Reports a farm laboratory of 1500 swine, 40 beef cattle, 52 sheep, a 300-crop acres, and a full line of leased new farm machinery for post-secondary agricultural production students. A student board of directors manages the demonstration farm. (DM)

  5. Genomics of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of secondary metabolites, and the availability of genomic sequences now opens the door for discovery of novel natural products with potential roles in the ecology and plant growth promoting properties of these bacteria. The rhizosphere bacterium Pseudomonas f...

  6. End-use taxes: Current EIA practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-17

    There are inconsistencies in the EIA published end-use price data with respect to Federal, state, and local government sales and excise taxes; some publications include end-use taxes and others do not. The reason for including these taxes in end-use energy prices is to provide consistent and accurate information on the total cost of energy purchased by the final consumer. Preliminary estimates are made of the effect on prices (bias) reported in SEPER (State Energy Price and Expenditure Report) resulting from the inconsistent treatment of taxes. EIA has undertaken several actions to enhance the reporting of end-use energy prices.

  7. Primary and Bacterial Secondary Production in a Southwestern Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Hubbard, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Rates of primary and bacterial secondary production in Lake Arlington, Texas, were determined. The lake is a warm (annual temperature range, 7 to 32°C), shallow, monomictic reservoir with limited macrophyte development in the littoral zone. Samples were collected from six depths within the photic zone from a site located over the deepest portion of the lake. Primary production and bacterial production were calculated from NaH14CO3 and [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Peak instantaneous production ranged between 14.8 and 220.5 μg of C liter−1 h−1. There were two distinct periods of high rates of production. From May through July, production near the metalimnion exceeded 100 μg of C liter−1 h−1. During holomixis, production throughout the water column was in excess of 100 μg of C liter−1 h−1 and above 150 μg of C liter−1 h−1 near the surface. Annual areal primary production was 588 g of C m−2. Bacterial production was markedly seasonal. Growth rates during late fall through spring were typically around 0.002 h−1, and production rates were typically 5 μg of C liter−1 h−1. Growth rates were higher during warmer parts of the year and reached 0.03 h−1 by August. The maximum instantaneous rate of bacterial production was approximately 45 μg of C liter−1 h−1. Annual areal bacterial production was 125 g of C m−2. Temporal and spatial distributions of bacterial numbers and activities coincided with temporal and spatial distributions of primary production. Areal primary and bacterial secondary production were highly correlated (r = 0.77, n = 15, P < 0.002). PMID:16347577

  8. Michigan Basin. Secondary recovery in reef trends yields more production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Secondary recovery practices in reef trends in Michigan are described. Waterflooding in the Chester 18 Unit began in 1978; it currently has 6 injection wells and 11 production wells. The production wells use a submersible pumping unit, and current production levels are estimated at 3800 bopd. The present level of injection is ca. 17,000 bpd of water. The company operating the field has concluded that more barrels can be produced from a reef if a waterflood is started early. There are 55 to 60 such reefs with potential for supplemental recovery.

  9. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed. PMID:25792513

  10. Media and growth conditions for induction of secondary metabolite production.

    PubMed

    Frisvad, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    Growth media and incubation conditions have a very strong influence of secondary metabolite production. There is no consensus on which media are the optimal for metabolite production, but a series of useful and effective media and incubation conditions have been listed here. Chemically well-defined media are suited for biochemical studies, but in order to get chemical diversity expressed in filamentous fungi, sources rich in amino acids, vitamins, and trace metals have to be added, such as yeast extract and oatmeal. A battery of solid agar media is recommended for exploration of chemical diversity as agar plug samples are easily analyzed to get an optimal representation of the qualitative secondary metabolome. Standard incubation for a week at 25°C in darkness is recommended, but optimal conditions have to be modified depending on the ecology and physiology of different filamentous fungi. PMID:23065607

  11. Seasonality of primary and secondary production in an Arctic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, M.; Huryn, A.; Deegan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers and streams that freeze solid for 8-9 months each year provide excellent examples of the extreme seasonality of arctic habitats. The communities of organisms inhabiting these rivers must complete growth and development during summer, resulting in a rapid ramp-up and down of production over the short ice-free period. The effects of recent shifts in the timing of the spring thaw and autumn freeze-up on the duration and pattern of the period of active production are poorly understood. We are currently investigating: 1) the response of the biotic community of the Kuparuk River (Arctic Alaska) to shifts in the seasonality of the ice-free period, and 2) the community response to increases in phosphorous (P) supply anticipated as the volume of the permafrost active-layer increases in response to climate warming. Here algal production supports a 2-tier web of consumers. We tracked primary and secondary production from the spring thaw through mid-August in a reference reach and one receiving low-level P fertilization. Gross primary production/community respiration (GPP/R) ratios for both reaches were increasing through mid-July, with higher GPP/R in response to the P addition. Understanding the degree of synchrony between primary and secondary production in this Arctic river system will enhance further understanding of how shifts in seasonality affect trophic dynamics.

  12. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  13. Production rate calculations for a secondary beam facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C.L.; Back, B.B.; Rehm, K.E.

    1995-08-01

    In order to select the most cost-effective method for the production of secondary ion beams, yield calculations for a variety of primary beams were performed ranging in mass from protons to {sup 18}O with energies of 100-200 MeV/u. For comparison, production yields for 600-1000 MeV protons were also calculated. For light ion-(A < {sup 4}He) induced reactions at energies above 50 MeV/u the LAHET code was used while the low energy calculations were performed with LPACE. Heavy-ion-induced production rates were calculated with the ISAPACE program. The results of these codes were checked against each other and wherever possible a comparison with experimental data was performed. These comparisons extended to very exotic reaction channels, such as the production of {sup 100}Sn from {sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Xe induced fragmentation reactions. These comparisons indicate that the codes are able to predict production rates to within one order of magnitude.

  14. Evaluation of culture media for the production of secondary metabolites in a natural products screening program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Variation in the growing environment can have significant impacts on the quantity and diversity of fungal secondary metabolites. In the industrial setting, optimization of growing conditions can lead to significantly increased production of a compound of interest. Such optimization becomes challenging in a drug-discovery screening situation, as the ideal conditions for one organism may induce poor metabolic diversity for a different organism. Here, the impact of different media types, including six liquid media and five solid media, on the secondary metabolite production of three fungal strains was examined in the context of the drug-discovery screening process. The relative production of marker compounds was used to evaluate the usefulness and reliability of each medium for the purpose of producing secondary metabolites. PMID:24342059

  15. Identifying productive resources in secondary school students' discourse about energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school students' ideas about energy for progenitors of disciplinary knowledge and practice. Previously, researchers argued that students' ideas about energy were constrained by stable and coherent conceptual structures that conflicted with an assumed unified scientific conception and therefore needed to be replaced. These researchers did not attend to the productive elements in students' ideas about energy. To analyze the disciplinary substance in students' ideas, a theoretical perspective was developed that extends Hammer and colleagues' resources framework. This elaboration allows for the identification of disciplinary productive resources---i.e., appropriately activated declarative and procedural pieces of knowledge---in individual students' utterances as well as in the interactions of multiple learners engaged in group learning activities. Using this framework, original interview transcripts from one of the most influential studies of students' ideas about energy (Watts, 1983. Some alternative views of energy. Physics Education, 18/5, 213-217) were analyzed. Disciplinary productive resources regarding the ontology of energy, indicators for energy, and mechanistic reasoning about energy were found to be activated by interviewed students. These valuable aspects were not recognized by the original author. An interpretive analysis of video recorded student-centered discourse in rural Maine middle schools was carried out to find cases of resource activation in classroom discussions. Several cases of disciplinary productive resources regarding the nature of energy and its forms as well as the construction of a mechanistic energy story

  16. Kinetics, products, and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Paul J; Atkinson, Roger

    2012-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is formed in the atmosphere when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources are oxidized by reactions with OH radicals, O(3), NO(3) radicals, or Cl atoms to form less volatile products that subsequently partition into aerosol particles. Once in particles, these organic compounds can undergo heterogenous/multiphase reactions to form more highly oxidized or oligomeric products. SOA comprises a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol mass and can have significant effects on atmospheric chemistry, visibility, human health, and climate. Previous articles have reviewed the kinetics, products, and mechanisms of atmospheric VOC reactions and the general chemistry and physics involved in SOA formation. In this article we present a detailed review of VOC and heterogeneous/multiphase chemistry as they apply to SOA formation, with a focus on the effects of VOC molecular structure on the kinetics of initial reactions with the major atmospheric oxidants, the subsequent reactions of alkyl, alkyl peroxy, and alkoxy radical intermediates, and the composition of the resulting products. Structural features of reactants and products discussed include compound carbon number; linear, branched, and cyclic configurations; the presence of C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds and aromatic rings; and functional groups such as carbonyl, hydroxyl, ester, hydroxperoxy, carboxyl, peroxycarboxyl, nitrate, and peroxynitrate. The intention of this review is to provide atmospheric chemists with sufficient information to understand the dominant pathways by which the major classes of atmospheric VOCs react to form SOA products, and the further reactions of these products in particles. This will allow reasonable predictions to be made, based on molecular structure, about the kinetics, products, and mechanisms of VOC and heterogeneous/multiphase reactions, including the effects of important variables such as VOC, oxidant, and NO

  17. Oxygenated products of sesquiterpenes in secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, A.; Kampf, C.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has a huge impact on air quality and climate change. It influences the Earth radiative budget through absorbing, scattering and reflecting radiation as well as the formation of clouds because the particulates can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Furthermore, it plays an important role for human health. SOA is formed from gaseous precursors which get oxidized by ozone, OH- and NO3-radicals in the atmosphere. Due to their low vapor pressure these degradation products can nucleate to form new particles or they can condense on existing aerosol particles. Despite the major progress in research during the last few years the actual chemical composition as well as the contribution of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the formation of secondary organic aerosol is still partially unknown. Recent studies indicate that sesquiterpenes play an important role in the formation of SOA because of the low volatility of their oxygenated products (Lee et al., 2006). Their emission is estimated to be about 14,8 Tg per year (Henze et al., 2008), however, these emission rates remain highly uncertain due to the lack of quantitative emission rate measurements. In addition, the knowledge about the actual atmospheric degradation mechanism and the main oxidation products of sesquiterpenes is quite limited. β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-farnesene and β-farnesene are the most abundant sequiterpenes in many sesquiterpene emission profiles. But also aromadendren, α-bergamotene and δ-cadinene and germacrene-D can contribute significantly to some emission profiles (Duhl et al., 2008). To determine the major oxygenated products of sesquiterpenes in SOA, reaction chamber experiments with different sesquiterpenes and ozone were performed in a 100 L reaction chamber. To measure the time dependent formation of initial oxidation products, an APCI-IT-MS was directly connected to the reaction chamber. After 2 hours the APCI-IT-MS was replaced by a

  18. Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, M.; Pless, S.; Kung, F.

    2014-08-01

    NREL partnered with two hospitals (MGH and SUNY UMU) to collect data on the energy used for multiple thermal and electrical end-use categories, including preheat, heating, and reheat; humidification; service water heating; cooling; fans; pumps; lighting; and select plug and process loads. Additional data from medical office buildings were provided for an analysis focused on plug loads. Facility managers, energy managers, and engineers in the healthcare sector will be able to use these results to more effectively prioritize and refine the scope of investments in new metering and energy audits.

  19. Impact of School Staff Health on Work Productivity in Secondary Schools in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alker, Heather J.; Wang, Monica L.; Pbert, Lori; Thorsen, Nancy; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy, productive employees are an integral part of school health programs. There have been few assessments of work productivity among secondary school staff. This study describes the frequency of 3 common health risk factors--obesity, depressive symptoms, and smoking--and their impact on work productivity in secondary school…

  20. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup; Weber, Tilmann

    2016-08-27

    Covering: 2012 to 2016Metabolic engineering using systems biology tools is increasingly applied to overproduce secondary metabolites for their potential industrial production. In this Highlight, recent relevant metabolic engineering studies are analyzed with emphasis on host selection and engineering approaches for the optimal production of various prokaryotic secondary metabolites: native versus heterologous hosts (e.g., Escherichia coli) and rational versus random approaches. This comparative analysis is followed by discussions on systems biology tools deployed in optimizing the production of secondary metabolites. The potential contributions of additional systems biology tools are also discussed in the context of current challenges encountered during optimization of secondary metabolite production. PMID:27072921

  1. The POPOP4 library and codes for preparing secondary gamma-ray production cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, W. E., III

    1972-01-01

    The POPOP4 code for converting secondary gamma ray yield data to multigroup secondary gamma ray production cross sections and the POPOP4 library of secondary gamma ray yield data are described. Recent results of the testing of uranium and iron data sets from the POPOP4 library are given. The data sets were tested by comparing calculated secondary gamma ray pulse height spectra measured at the ORNL TSR-II reactor.

  2. Overview of secondary neutron production relevant to shielding inspace

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, L.; Nakamura, T.; Iwata, Y.; Kurosawa, T.; Iwase, H.; Townsend, L.W.

    2004-12-03

    An overview of experimental secondary neutron measurements relevant to space-related activities is presented. Stopping target yields and cross section measurements conducted at particle accelerators using heavy ions with energies >100 MeV per nucleon are discussed.

  3. Proceedings of Symposium on Utilization of Waste Glass in Secondary Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Papers are reported which were presented at the conference on waste glass recovery and re-use in secondary products. The uses considered include: road surfacing, asphaltic concretes, road construction, terrazzo, cement concrete, pozzolan, glass wool, glass-polymer composites, and tiles. Problems of recycling glass in remote areas, and the economics and markets for secondary glass products are discussed.

  4. The Articulation of Secondary and Post-Secondary Vocational Education Programs. Workshop Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keene State Coll., NH.

    As a result of the cooperative efforts in articulation by secondary/postsecondary instructor teams, six packages representing the occupational areas of child care, culinary arts, electronics, health occupations, power mechanics, and industrial welding were developed. Each package contains the following three components: a series of job titles…

  5. Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations.

    PubMed

    Parat, Florence; Schwertfirm, Grit; Rudolph, Ulrike; Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the relationships among these populations, their sizes and the timing of domestication events using population genetics and model-based inference with approximate Bayesian computation. Our main results demonstrate (i) a high within-population variation and genetic diversity, (ii) an unexpected absence of reduction in diversity with an increasing improvement level and (iii) patterns suggestive of multiple domestication events. We suggest that the main drivers of diversification of winter rye are the end use of rye in two early regions of cultivation: rye forage in the Mediterranean area and grain in northeast Europe. The lower diversity and stronger differentiation of eastern European populations were most likely due to more intensive cultivation and breeding of rye in this region, in contrast to the Mediterranean region where it was considered a secondary crop or even a weed. We discuss the relevance of our results for the management of gene bank resources and the pitfalls of inference methods applied to crop domestication due to violation of model assumptions and model complexity. PMID:26607414

  6. End-use quality of U.S. soft white winter and spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality of wheat grain is central to the breeding, selection, production, marketing, use, and value of varieties. The objective assessment of the end-use quality of individual wheat varieties and advance breeding lines in the U.S. often falls under the purview of the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Re...

  7. Overview of secondary neutron production relevant to shielding in space.

    PubMed

    Heilbronn, L; Nakamura, T; Iwata, Y; Kurosawa, T; Iwase, H; Townsend, L W

    2005-01-01

    An overview of experimental secondary neutron measurements relevant to space-related activities is presented. Stopping target yields and cross section measurements conducted at particle accelerators using heavy ions with energies > 100 MeV per nucleon are discussed. PMID:16604615

  8. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  9. Variability of Polychaete Secondary Production in Intertidal Creek Networks along a Stream-Order Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tianjiang; Sheng, Qiang; Wang, Sikai; Wu, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic tidal creek networks are important habitats for sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in salt marsh wetlands. To evaluate the importance of creek heterogeneity in supporting benthic secondary production, we assess the spatial distribution and secondary production of a representative polychaete species (Dentinephtys glabra) in creek networks along a stream-order gradient in a Yangtze River estuarine marsh. Density, biomass, and secondary production of polychaetes were found to be highest in intermediate order creeks. In high order (3rd and 4th) creeks, the density and biomass of D. glabra were higher in creek edge sites than in creek bottom sites, whereas the reverse was true for low order (1st and 2nd) creeks. Secondary production was highest in 2nd order creeks (559.7 mg AFDM m−2 year−1) and was ca. 2 folds higher than in 1st and 4th order creeks. Top fitting AIC models indicated that the secondary production of D. glabra was mainly associated with geomorphological characters including cross-sectional area and bank slope. This suggests that hydrodynamic forces are essential factors influencing secondary production of macrobenthos in salt marshes. This study emphasizes the importance of microhabitat variability when evaluating secondary production and ecosystem functions. PMID:24817092

  10. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  11. Secondary metabolomics: natural products mass spectrometry goes global.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Roland D; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2009-08-21

    A global LC-MS metabolite analysis of wild-type Pseudomonas auerigunosa and mutants targeting the natural product pyochelin revealed the production of previously unknown metabolites, the 2-alkyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylates. PMID:19817465

  12. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  13. Heterologous production of fungal secondary metabolites in Aspergilli

    PubMed Central

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal natural products comprise a wide range of compounds. Some are medically attractive as drugs and drug leads, some are used as food additives, while others are harmful mycotoxins. In recent years the genome sequence of several fungi has become available providing genetic information of a large number of putative biosynthetic pathways. However, compound discovery is difficult as the genes required for the production of the compounds often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, the lack of available tools for genetic manipulation of most fungal species hinders pathway discovery. Heterologous expression of the biosynthetic pathway in model systems or cell factories facilitates product discovery, elucidation, and production. This review summarizes the recent strategies for heterologous expression of fungal biosynthetic pathways in Aspergilli. PMID:25713568

  14. Shielding calculations for a production target for secondary beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.E.; Back, B.B.; Jiang, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    In order to estimate the amount of shielding required for a radioactive beam facility dose rate were performed. The calculations for production targets with different geometries were performed. The calculations were performed with the MSU shielding code assuming a 500-p{mu}A 200-MeV deuteron beam stopped in a thick Al target. The target and the ion-optical elements for beam extraction are located in a 2 m{sup 3} large volume at the center of the production cell. These dose rate calculations show that with a combination of Fe and concrete it is possible to reduce the dose rate expected at the surface of a 7-m-wide cube housing the production target to less than 2 mrem/hr.

  15. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. PMID:24747373

  16. Genomes to natural products PRediction Informatics for Secondary Metabolomes (PRISM).

    PubMed

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Rees, Philip N; Johnston, Chad W; Li, Haoxin; Webster, Andrew L H; Wyatt, Morgan A; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2015-11-16

    Microbial natural products are an invaluable source of evolved bioactive small molecules and pharmaceutical agents. Next-generation and metagenomic sequencing indicates untapped genomic potential, yet high rediscovery rates of known metabolites increasingly frustrate conventional natural product screening programs. New methods to connect biosynthetic gene clusters to novel chemical scaffolds are therefore critical to enable the targeted discovery of genetically encoded natural products. Here, we present PRISM, a computational resource for the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, prediction of genetically encoded nonribosomal peptides and type I and II polyketides, and bio- and cheminformatic dereplication of known natural products. PRISM implements novel algorithms which render it uniquely capable of predicting type II polyketides, deoxygenated sugars, and starter units, making it a comprehensive genome-guided chemical structure prediction engine. A library of 57 tailoring reactions is leveraged for combinatorial scaffold library generation when multiple potential substrates are consistent with biosynthetic logic. We compare the accuracy of PRISM to existing genomic analysis platforms. PRISM is an open-source, user-friendly web application available at http://magarveylab.ca/prism/. PMID:26442528

  17. Production of L-carnitine by secondary metabolism of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Vicente; Sevilla, Ángel; Cánovas, Manuel; Iborra, José L

    2007-01-01

    The increasing commercial demand for L-carnitine has led to a multiplication of efforts to improve its production with bacteria. The use of different cell environments, such as growing, resting, permeabilized, dried, osmotically stressed, freely suspended and immobilized cells, to maintain enzymes sufficiently active for L-carnitine production is discussed in the text. The different cell states of enterobacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Proteus sp., which can be used to produce L-carnitine from crotonobetaine or D-carnitine as substrate, are analyzed. Moreover, the combined application of both bioprocess and metabolic engineering has allowed a deeper understanding of the main factors controlling the production process, such as energy depletion and the alteration of the acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio which are coupled to the end of the biotransformation. Furthermore, the profiles of key central metabolic activities such as the TCA cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the acetate metabolism are seen to be closely interrelated and affect the biotransformation efficiency. Although genetically modified strains have been obtained, new strain improvement strategies are still needed, especially in Escherichia coli as a model organism for molecular biology studies. This review aims to summarize and update the state of the art in L-carnitine production using E. coli and Proteus sp, emphasizing the importance of proper reactor design and operation strategies, together with metabolic engineering aspects and the need for feed-back between wet and in silico work to optimize this biotransformation. PMID:17910757

  18. Genomes to natural products PRediction Informatics for Secondary Metabolomes (PRISM)

    PubMed Central

    Skinnider, Michael A.; Dejong, Chris A.; Rees, Philip N.; Johnston, Chad W.; Li, Haoxin; Webster, Andrew L. H.; Wyatt, Morgan A.; Magarvey, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial natural products are an invaluable source of evolved bioactive small molecules and pharmaceutical agents. Next-generation and metagenomic sequencing indicates untapped genomic potential, yet high rediscovery rates of known metabolites increasingly frustrate conventional natural product screening programs. New methods to connect biosynthetic gene clusters to novel chemical scaffolds are therefore critical to enable the targeted discovery of genetically encoded natural products. Here, we present PRISM, a computational resource for the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, prediction of genetically encoded nonribosomal peptides and type I and II polyketides, and bio- and cheminformatic dereplication of known natural products. PRISM implements novel algorithms which render it uniquely capable of predicting type II polyketides, deoxygenated sugars, and starter units, making it a comprehensive genome-guided chemical structure prediction engine. A library of 57 tailoring reactions is leveraged for combinatorial scaffold library generation when multiple potential substrates are consistent with biosynthetic logic. We compare the accuracy of PRISM to existing genomic analysis platforms. PRISM is an open-source, user-friendly web application available at http://magarveylab.ca/prism/. PMID:26442528

  19. Some Recent Secondary Production Measurements for Neutrino Flux Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Geoffrey B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent measurements of meson production in proton-nucleus interactions have made possible reliable neutrino flux determinations at modern neutrino experiments. This article discusses preliminary results from the HARP, MIP, and E910 are discussed along with some of their implications for the MINOS, K2K, and MiniBooNE neutrino experiments.

  20. PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FROM MULTIPHASE TERPENE PHOTOOXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves a field and laboratory study of the production of aerosol from the atmospheric photooxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), specifically the terpenes α- and β-pinene, using a unique combination of approaches that rely on produ...

  1. Preliminary consultation on preferred product characteristics of benzathine penicillin G for secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Boyd, Ben J; Colquhoun, Samantha; Currie, Bart J; Engel, Mark; Kado, Joseph; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sullivan, Mark; Saxena, Anita; Sheel, Meru; Steer, Andrew; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Zühlke, Liesl; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatic fever is caused by an abnormal immune reaction to group A streptococcal infection. Secondary prophylaxis with antibiotics is recommended for people after their initial episode of rheumatic fever to prevent recurrent group A streptococcal infections, recurrences of rheumatic fever and progression to rheumatic heart disease. This secondary prophylaxis must be maintained for at least a decade after the last episode of rheumatic fever. Benzathine penicillin G is the first line antibiotic for secondary prophylaxis, delivered intramuscularly every 2 to 4 weeks. However, adherence to recommended secondary prophylaxis regimens is a global challenge. This paper outlines a consultation with global experts in rheumatic heart disease on the characteristics of benzathine penicillin G formulations which could be changed to improve adherence with secondary prophylaxis. Characteristics included dose interval, pain, administration mechanism, cold chain independence and cost. A sample target product profile for reformulated benzathine penicillin G is presented. PMID:27465618

  2. Microbial production of isoquinoline alkaloids as plant secondary metabolites based on metabolic engineering research

    PubMed Central

    SATO, Fumihiko; KUMAGAI, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites that possess strong physiological activities. Unfortunately, however, their production can suffer from a variety of serious problems, including low levels of productivity and heterogeneous quality, as well as difficulty in raw material supply. In contrast, microorganisms can be used to produce their primary and some of their secondary metabolites in a controlled environment, thus assuring high levels of efficiency and uniform quality. In an attempt to overcome the problems associated with secondary metabolite production in plants, we developed a microbial platform for the production of plant isoquinoline alkaloids involving the unification of the microbial and plant metabolic pathways into a single system. The potential applications of this system have also been discussed. PMID:23666088

  3. 77 FR 16987 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Secondary Aluminum Production

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... for hazardous air pollutants for secondary aluminum production (77 FR 8576). The EPA is extending the... the proposed rule published February 14, 2012, (77 FR 8576) is being extended for 14 days to April 13... Aluminum Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of extension of...

  4. Energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions: End-use analysis. Final report, July 1991-November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a comparative model of energy sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuels production, processing, and transportation, through the final end-use. The report addresses the end-uses of energy and the interaction of competing fuels and equipment to meet specific energy service demands. The development of the GHG/energy accounting framework will provide GRI with an enhanced ability to incorporate environmental considerations into R D planning.

  5. Secondary metabolism in simulated microgravity: beta-lactam production by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, A.; Pierson, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Koenig, D. W.; Demain, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Rotating bioreactors designed at NASA's Johnson Space Center were used to simulate a microgravity environment in which to study secondary metabolism. The system examined was beta-lactam antibiotic production by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Both growth and beta-lactam production occurred in simulated microgravity. Stimulatory effects of phosphate and L-lysine, previously detected in normal gravity, also occurred in simulated microgravity. The degree of beta-lactam antibiotic production was markedly inhibited by simulated microgravity.

  6. Twenty-eight Years of Stream Invertebrate Abundance, Biomass, and Secondary Production From Three Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, J.; Eggert, S. L.; Cross, W. F.; Rosemond, A. D.; Meyer, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed 28 years of abundance, biomass and secondary production data from 3 headwater streams at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, USA. These data include years of extreme drought and precipitation (78-y record) and 8 years of reduced litter inputs (litter exclusion) and wood removal for one stream. Analysis of functional feeding group (FFG) proportions revealed strong habitat-specific preferences for either mixed substrates or bedrock outcrop habitats, with remarkable between year similarities. For both reference streams and litter reduction streams there was a significant relationship between annual CPOM standing crop and secondary production for the dominant mixed substrate habitats. Habitat-weighted production across reference streams averaged 8.2 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 4.6 to 13.2) versus 1.7 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 0.9 to 3.5) for litter exclusion years. Predator production was strongly correlated (P<0.001) with total secondary production over all years, and based on known bioenergetic efficiencies, indicate the importance of predators in these streams. Our study suggests that trophic interactions, including standing crop of CPOM as a food source, strongly influence secondary production in these headwater streams.

  7. Plankton secondary productivity and biomass: Their relation to lake trophic state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, G.L.; Welch, E.B.; Litt, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The biomass and production of the most important zooplankton species were followed for two years in three lakes of varying trophic status in the Lake Washington watershed. Cladocerans and copepods were of equal importance in the biomass of lakes Findley and Chester Morse (both oligotrophic), whereas, copepods were the main biomass component in Lake Sammamish (mesotrophic). Cladocerans dominated production in lakes Sammamish and Chester Morse, while in Findley Lake their productive role, like that of biomass, was equal to that of the copepods. Rotifers contributed a relatively small biomass and production. Data from this study supported Hillbricht-Ilkowska's postulate that the energy transfer efficiency between the primary and secondary trophic levels decreases with increasing trophic state. Energy transfer efficiencies for the lakes of this study expressed as a two year mean of the ratio-secondary: primary production, were as follows: Findley Lake-0.13; Chester Morse Lake-0.08; and Lake Sammanish-0.04. On the other hand, the hypothesis of Patalas that the secondary productivity: biomass ratio (P/B) tended to increase in proportion to the productivity of a lake, could not be supported. Lake Sammamish, the most productive of the lakes studied, had a P/B ratio of 0.03 while lakes Findley and Chester Morse had P/B ratios of 0.04. ?? 1976 Dr. W. Junk b. v. Publishers.

  8. Propagation and secondary production of low energy antiprotons in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, T.; Moats, A.

    1985-01-01

    Current theories, in which the observed antiproton component is attributed strictly to secondary production in high energy inelastic collisions of protons with the interstellar medium or the atmosphere, apparently fail to explain the relatively high p vertical intensities measured at mountain and balloon altitudes. Therefore, a more careful calculation of the theoretical secondary intensity spectra is required before more exotic sources for these excess p's can be explored. A one dimensional diffusion equation is used to calculate the expected vertical intensity of p's due only to secondary production in the atmosphere; any assumed primary p spectrum is also included. Two adjustable parameters, the inelasticity and charge exchange in nucleon-nucleus collisions, were included in the algorithm. In order to obtain an independent estimate of their values the proton vertical intensities in the atmosphere were calculated, adjusting the parameters until the curves fit the experimental proton data, and then assumed that these values were identical in antinucleon-nucleus collisions.

  9. Dynamics of interleukin-21 production during the clinical course of primary and secondary dengue virus infections.

    PubMed

    Vivanco-Cid, H; Maldonado-Rentería, M J; Sánchez-Vargas, L A; Izaguirre-Hernández, I Y; Hernández-Flores, K G; Remes-Ruiz, R

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have revealed the clinical relevance of pro-inflammatory cytokine production during dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, we evaluated the production of interleukin-21 (IL-21), a key soluble mediator mainly produced by CD4+ T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-21 production during the clinical course of primary and secondary DENV infections and the potential association of IL-21 serum levels with the disease pathogenesis. Blood samples from DENV-infected patients were collected on different days after the onset of symptoms. Patients were classified according to their phase of disease (acute vs. convalescent phases), the type of infection (primary vs. secondary), and the clinical severity of their disease (dengue fever (DF) vs. dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)). IL-21 levels were measured using a quantitative capture ELISA assay. The levels of IL-21 were significantly elevated in the disease group compared with the control group. IL-21 was detected in primary and secondary DENV infections, with a significantly higher concentration in the convalescent phase of primary infections. IL-21 levels were significantly higher in patients with secondary acute DHF infections when compared with those with secondary acute DF infection. There was a relationship between the elevated serum levels of IL-21 and the production of DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. Taking together, our results show for the first time the involvement of IL-21 during the clinical course of DENV infections. We speculate that IL-21 may play a protective role in the context of the convalescent phase of primary infections and the acute phase of secondary infections. PMID:24858204

  10. Utilization of secondary-treated wastewater for the production of freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, C; Morales-Amaral, M M; Acién, F G; Escudero, R; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Molina-Grima, E

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we studied the potential use of secondary-treated wastewater as nutrient source in the production of freshwater microalgae strains. Experiments were performed indoors in a semicontinuous mode, at 0.3 day(-1), simulating outdoor conditions. We demonstrated that all the tested strains can be produced by using only secondary-treated wastewater as the nutrient source. The utilization of secondary-treated wastewater imposes nutrient-limiting conditions, with maximal biomass productivity dropping to 0.5 g l(-1) day(-1) and modifies the biochemical composition of the biomass by increasing the amount of lipids and carbohydrates while reducing the biomass protein content. We measured fatty acid content and productivity of up to 25 %d.wt. and 110 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. We demonstrated that all the tested strains were capable of completely removing the nitrogen and phosphorus contained in the secondary-treated wastewater, and while the use of this effluent reduced the cells' photosynthetic efficiency, the nitrogen and phosphorus coefficient yield increased. Muriellopsis sp. and S. subpicatus were selected as the most promising strains for outdoor production using secondary-treated wastewater as the culture medium; this was not only because of their high productivity but also their photosynthetic efficiency, of up to 2.5 %, along with nutrient coefficient yields of up to 96 gbiomass gN (-1) and 166 gbiomass gP (-1). Coupling microalgae production processes to tertiary treatment in wastewater treatment plants make it possible to recover nutrients contained in the water and to produce valuable biomass, especially where nutrient removal is required prior to wastewater discharge. PMID:26036706

  11. Chaper 20: Passing the Test on Wheat End-Use Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimum results for wheat flour products depend on a specific array of functional properties. The factors that impact suitability for a specific end-use include kernel texture, starch properties, and gluten composition. Each of the attributes that contribute to product quality vary qualitatively or ...

  12. End-use matching of solar energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Kearney, D.; Bejan, A.

    1980-09-01

    End-use matching, a procedure for introducing solar energy into the national energy infrastructure, results in an identification of the most cost-effective combination of process energy needs, solar collector technology, geographic location, and economics by matching currently available solar system hardware with particular industrial processes and their locations. End-use matching is a planning tool for determining where and why general applications solar systems appear economically viable in the near future. End-use matching methodology is discussed, and first and second law thermodynamics analyses applied to a solar system producing process steam are illustrated.

  13. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  14. 48 CFR 225.802-71 - End use certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Other International Agreements... selling the item. When encountering this situation, refer to DoD Directive 2040.3, End Use...

  15. 48 CFR 225.802-71 - End use certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Other International Agreements... selling the item. When encountering this situation, refer to DoD Directive 2040.3, End Use...

  16. 48 CFR 225.802-71 - End use certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Other International Agreements... selling the item. When encountering this situation, refer to DoD Directive 2040.3, End Use...

  17. 48 CFR 225.802-71 - End use certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Other International Agreements... selling the item. When encountering this situation, refer to DoD Directive 2040.3, End Use...

  18. 48 CFR 225.802-71 - End use certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Other International Agreements... selling the item. When encountering this situation, refer to DoD Directive 2040.3, End Use...

  19. Accelerator experiments on the contribution of secondary particles to the production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragovitsch, P.; Englert, P.

    1985-01-01

    Through the interaction of galactic cosmic particle radiation (GCR) a wide variety of cosmogenic nuclides is produced in meteorites. They provide historical information about the cosmic radiation and the bombarded meteorites. An important way to understand the production mechanisms of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites is to gather information about the depth and size dependence of the build-up of Galactic Rays Cosmic-secondary particles within meteorites of different sizes and chemical compositions. Simulation experiments with meteorite models offer an alternative to direct observation providing a data basis to describe the development and action of the secondary cascade induced by the GCR in meteorites.

  20. Effect of ammonia on ozone-initiated formation of indoor secondary products with emissions from cleaning products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Kin Fai; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Nanying; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. Ammonia (NH3) is ubiquitous in ambient and indoor environments. In this study, we investigated the effect of ammonia (NH3) on secondary pollutants formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from cleaning products including floor cleaner (FC), kitchen cleaner (KC) and dishwashing detergent (DD) in a large environmental chamber. Our results demonstrated that the presence of NH3 (maximum concentration is 240 ppb) could significantly enhance secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation from the ozonolysis of all the three categories of cleaning products. For example, for the FC sample, the maximum total particle concentration was up to 2.0 × 104 # cm-3 in the presence of NH3, while it was 1.3 × 104 # cm-3 which was 35% lower without NH3. However, it was found that the extent of NH3 effect on SOAs formation from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emissions was component-dependent. The presence of NH3 in the reaction systems could increase the consumptions of d-limonene that is the dominant BVOC species as identified in cleaning products. The percent yields (%) of secondary carbonyl compounds generated from the ozonolysis of BVOCs emitted from three categories of cleaning products were identified in the presence and absence of NH3, respectively. The increase in SOAs particle number concentration can be attributed to the formation of condensable salts from reactions between NH3 and organic compounds generated from the BVOCs ozonolysis processes. By investigating the NH3 effect on the ozonolysis of BVOCs mixtures in contrast to the chemistry of individual compounds, a better assessment can be made of the overall impact cleaning products have on real indoor environments.

  1. Case study of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions and factors influencing emission variations in secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Chen; Li, Li; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-04-01

    Secondary aluminum production has been recognized as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Large variations in PCN emissions as the smelting process proceeds have not been determined. In this study, solid and gaseous discharges, including fly ash, slag, and stack gas samples collected from four secondary smelting plants during different smelting stages were analyzed for PCNs. The average emission factor of ∑(1-8)PCNs to air was calculated to be 17.4 mg t(-1), with a range of 4.3-29.5 mg t(-1). The average emission factors of ∑(1-8)PCNs from fly ash and slag were 55.5 ng t(-1) and 0.13 ng t(-1), respectively. The derived emission factors may enable a more accurate estimation of annual emissions and a more comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of PCNs emitted from secondary aluminum production. The emission levels and characteristics of PCNs during different smelting stages were compared. Possible factors, including the organic impurities from aluminum scrap, fuel, and chloride additives, which could contribute to variations in PCN emissions and characteristics were discussed. These results may provide useful information for developing better control strategies for reducing PCN emissions in secondary aluminum production. PMID:25637821

  2. Larvacean (Chordata, Tunicata) abundance and inferred secondary production off southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Leonardo K.; Lopes, Rubens M.

    2011-05-01

    We studied the temporal and vertical variability in larvacean abundance and secondary production on a fixed station off southeast Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2008. Larvacean biomass was derived from length-weight regressions, and growth rates were estimated from an empirical model. We identified eleven larvacean species. Oikopleura longicauda occurred throughout the studied period and was the most abundant species, followed by Oikopleura fusiformis. Fritillaria haplostoma, O. fusiformis and O. longicauda were found mainly above the thermocline, whereas Oikopleura dioica and Fritillaria pellucida preferred bottom layers. Higher abundance and biomass were observed in warmer months, when the water column was stratified as a result of the bottom intrusions of the cold and nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water. Secondary production mirrored the biomass seasonal pattern. Larvacean biomass equaled to less than 10% of copepod biomass during the same period, but larvacean production comprised on average 77% that of copepods, whereas the production of discarded houses and fecal pellets comprised up to 2800% of larvaceans secondary production. This confirms the potential significance of larvaceans in the carbon flux in tropical and subtropical coastal regions.

  3. Modeling of corrosion product migration in the secondary circuit of nuclear power plants with WWER-1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritskii, V. G.; Berezina, I. G.; Gavrilov, A. V.; Motkova, E. A.; Zelenina, E. V.; Prokhorov, N. A.; Gorbatenko, S. P.; Tsitser, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Models of corrosion and mass transfer of corrosion products in the pipes of the condensate-feeding and steam paths of the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 are presented. The mass transfer and distribution of corrosion products over the currents of the working medium of the secondary circuit were calculated using the physicochemical model of mass transfer of corrosion products in which the secondary circuit is regarded as a cyclic system consisting of a number of interrelated elements. The circuit was divided into calculated regions in which the change in the parameters (flow rate, temperature, and pressure) was traced and the rates of corrosion and corrosion products entrainment, high-temperature pH, and iron concentration were calculated. The models were verified according to the results of chemical analyses at Kalinin NPP and iron corrosion product concentrations in the feed water at different NPPs depending on pH at 25°C (pH25) for service times τ ≥ 5000 h. The calculated pH values at a coolant temperature t (pH t ) in the secondary circuit of NPPs with WWER-1200 were presented. The calculation of the distribution of pH t and ethanolamine and ammonia concentrations over the condensate feed (CFC) and steam circuits is given. The models are designed for developing the calculation codes. The project solutions of ATOMPROEKT satisfy the safety and reliability requirements for power plants with WWER-1200. The calculated corrosion and corrosion product mass transfer parameters showed that the model allows the designer to choose between the increase of the correcting reagent concentration, the use of steel with higher chromium contents, and intermittent washing of the steam generator from sediments as the best solution for definite regions of the circuit.

  4. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    PubMed Central

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed. PMID:12232364

  5. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9220 - Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction products of secondary alkyl... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9220 Reaction products of secondary alkyl amines with a substituted benzenesulfonic acid and sulfuric...

  10. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Coleman, Beverly K.; Destaillats, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m 3 chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm-weather seasons: an air exchange rate of 1.0 h -1 and an inlet ozone concentration of approximately 120 ppb, when included. Three products were used in separate experiments. An orange oil-based degreaser and a pine oil-based general-purpose cleaner were used for surface cleaning applications. A plug-in scented-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs was of similar magnitude to homogeneous reaction with continuously emitted constituents. Formaldehyde generation resulted from product use with ozone present, increasing indoor levels by the order of 10 ppb. Cleaning product use in the presence of ozone generated substantial fine particle concentrations (more than 100 μg m -3) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods.

  11. Endophytes as in vitro production platforms of high value plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have been published on bioprospecting of endophytic fungi capable of producing high value bioactive molecules like, paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. However, commercial exploitation of endophytes for high value-low volume plant secondary metabolites remains elusive due to widely reported genomic instability of endophytes in the axenic culture. While most of the endophyte research focuses on screening endophytes for novel or existing high value biomolecules, very few reports seek to explore the possible mechanisms of production of host-plant associated or novel secondary metabolites in these organisms. With an overview of host-endophyte relationship and its possible impact on the secondary metabolite production potential of endophytes, the review highlights the evidence reported for and against the presence of host-independent biosynthetic machinery in endophytes. The review aims to address the question, why should and how can endophytes be exploited for large scale in vitro production of high value phytochemicals? In this regard, various bioprocess optimization strategies that have been applied to sustain and enhance the product yield from the endophytes have also been described in detail. Further, techniques like mixed fermentation/co-cultivation and use of epigenetic modifiers have also been discussed as potential strategies to activate cryptic gene clusters in endophytes, thereby aiding in novel metabolite discovery and overcoming the limitations associated with axenic culture of endophytes. PMID:26225453

  12. Intentional synthesis of corrosion inhibitors based on secondary products of sugar cane processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ledovskykh, V.M.

    1988-07-01

    Secondary products of sugar cane processing (mosto, wax, furfurol) were studied as starting raw materials for creating inhibitors for different purposes and temporary means of protecting metals from corrosion. In order to protect metals in different corrosive media the following inhibitors have been developed: an inhibitor for acid solutions (pickling metals, acid washing of the equipment) based on high-tonnage water-soluble waste mosto and combined synergistic inhibitors based on mixtures of it with cation- and anion-active surfactants, including nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances obtained by intentional synthesis of another secondary product, furfurol; inhibitors for two-phase media (oil recovery and refining) of the carbonic acid amide and 2-alkylimidazoline classes from sugar cane wax; and inhibitors comprised of Li-, Na-, Ca-, and Al-plastic greases from sugar cane wax for atmospheric conditions.

  13. Energy end-use model of the Jordanian SMES industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bashir, Adnan; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Hadethi, Rami

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, an energy end-use model of the Jordanian SMEs industries is presented. The industrial sector in Jordan consumes about 23% of the country's total energy. To establish the end-use model, a survey covering 150 facilities of different types of industries was conducted. The results show that the main electricity end-use consumers are electrical motors with a share of 55% of the total electricity consumption. On the other hand, fossil fuel is mainly used for hot water and steam generation with diesel fuel as a dominant fuel. The results of the study can be considered as an insight into the energy usage pattern of the Jordanian industrial sector for the policy maker. Furthermore, the results could provide important guidelines and insights for future research and development allocations and energy projects.

  14. Secondary Plant Products Causing Photosensitization in Grazing Herbivores: Their Structure, Activity and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Jane C.; Kessell, Allan; Weston, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems. PMID:24451131

  15. Secondary plant products causing photosensitization in grazing herbivores: their structure, activity and regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jane C; Kessell, Allan; Weston, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    Photosensitivity in animals is defined as a severe dermatitis that results from a heightened reactivity of skin cells and associated dermal tissues upon their exposure to sunlight, following ingestion or contact with UV reactive secondary plant products. Photosensitivity occurs in animal cells as a reaction that is mediated by a light absorbing molecule, specifically in this case a plant-produced metabolite that is heterocyclic or polyphenolic. In sensitive animals, this reaction is most severe in non-pigmented skin which has the least protection from UV or visible light exposure. Photosensitization in a biological system such as the epidermis is an oxidative or other chemical change in a molecule in response to light-induced excitation of endogenous or exogenously-delivered molecules within the tissue. Photo-oxidation can also occur in the plant itself, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species, free radical damage and eventual DNA degradation. Similar cellular changes occur in affected herbivores and are associated with an accumulation of photodynamic molecules in the affected dermal tissues or circulatory system of the herbivore. Recent advances in our ability to identify and detect secondary products at trace levels in the plant and surrounding environment, or in organisms that ingest plants, have provided additional evidence for the role of secondary metabolites in photosensitization of grazing herbivores. This review outlines the role of unique secondary products produced by higher plants in the animal photosensitization process, describes their chemistry and localization in the plant as well as impacts of the environment upon their production, discusses their direct and indirect effects on associated animal systems and presents several examples of well-characterized plant photosensitization in animal systems. PMID:24451131

  16. The Research and Development of a Soluble Reactants and Products Secondary Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    A redox battery system which employs an aqueous dectrolyte is developed. Results are presented of the following experimental studies (1) measurement of the essential physical and chemical properties of the reactants and products; (2) evaluation of commerically available anion membranes as the cell separator, (3) determination of the composition and degradation mechanism of the anion membrane, and/or developing an anion membrane separator; and (4) evaluation of the performance of prototype secondary battery systems.

  17. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-12

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  18. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  19. Annual Cycle of Bacterial Secondary Production in Five Aquatic Habitats of the Okefenokee Swamp Ecosystem †

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Robert E.; Hodson, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of bacterial secondary production by free-living bacterioplankton in the Okefenokee Swamp are high and comparable to reported values for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Bacterial production in the water column of five aquatic habitats of the Okefenokee Swamp was substantial despite the acidic (pH 3.7), low-nutrient, peat-accumulating character of the environment. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine into cold-trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material ranged from 0.03 to 2.93 nmol liter−1 day−1) and corresponded to rates of bacterial secondary production of 3.4 to 342.2 μg of carbon liter−1 day−1 (mean, 87.8 μg of carbon liter−1 day−1). Bacterial production was strongly seasonal and appeared to be coupled to annual changes in temperature and primary production. Bacterial doubling times ranged from 5 h to 15 days and were fastest during the warm months of the year, when the biomass of aquatic macrophytes was high, and slowest during the winter, when the plant biomass was reduced. The high rates of bacterial turnover in Okefenokee waters suggest that bacterial growth is an important mechanism in the transformation of dissolved organic carbon into the nutrient-rich bacterial biomass which is utilized by microconsumers. PMID:16346757

  20. The Primary and Secondary Production of Germanium: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Different Process Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertz, Benedicte; Verhelle, Jensen; Schurmans, Maarten

    2015-02-01

    Germanium is a semiconducting metalloid element used in optical fibers, catalysis, infrared optics, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes. The need for Ge in these markets is considered to increase by a steady ~1% on a yearly basis. Its economic importance, coupled with the identified supply risks, has led to the classification of germanium as a critical raw material within Europe. Since the early 1950s, Umicore Electro-Optic Materials has supplied germanium-based materials solutions to its markets around the world. Umicore extracts germanium from a wide range of refining and recycling feeds. The main objectives of this study were to quantify the potential environmental impacts of the production of germanium from production scraps from the photovoltaic industry and to compare them with the potential impacts of the primary production of germanium from coal. The data related to the secondary production are Umicore-specific data. Environmental impact scores have been calculated for the impact categories recommended by the International reference life cycle data system. The comparison of the primary and secondary production highlights the benefit linked to the recycling of metals.

  1. Basis for selecting soft wheat for end-use quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the United States, end-use quality of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is determined by several genetically controlled components: milling yield, flour particle size, and baking characteristics related to flour water absorption caused by glutenin macropolymer, non-starch polysaccharides, and...

  2. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  3. A COMPENDIUM OF SYNFUEL END USE TESTING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives information on major, recently completed, current, and planned synfuel end-use testing projects. It is intended to promote the flow of information between synfuel testing programs, thereby reducing the duplication of effort and enabling design and implementation ...

  4. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  5. Secondary Neutron Production from Space Radiation Interactions: Advances in Model and Experimental Data Base Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Braley, G. Scott; Iwata, Yoshiyuki; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    For humans engaged in long-duration missions in deep space or near-Earth orbit, the risk from exposure to galactic and solar cosmic rays is an important factor in the design of spacecraft, spacesuits, and planetary bases. As cosmic rays are transported through shielding materials and human tissue components, a secondary radiation field is produced. Neutrons are an important component of that secondary field, especially in thickly-shielded environments. Calculations predict that 50% of the dose-equivalent in a lunar or Martian base comes from neutrons, and a recent workshop held at the Johnson Space Center concluded that as much as 30% of the dose in the International Space Station may come from secondary neutrons. Accelerator facilities provide a means for measuring the effectiveness of various materials in their ability to limit neutron production, using beams and energies that are present in cosmic radiation. The nearly limitless range of beams, energies, and target materials that are present in space, however, means that accelerator-based experiments will not provide a complete database of cross sections and thick-target yields that are necessary to plan and design long-duration missions. As such, accurate nuclear models of neutron production are needed, as well as data sets that can be used to compare with, and verify, the predictions from such models. Improvements in a model of secondary neutron production from heavy-ion interactions are presented here, along with the results from recent accelerator-based measurements of neutron-production cross sections. An analytical knockout-ablation model capable of predicting neutron production from high-energy hadron-hadron interactions (both nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions) has been previously developed. In the knockout stage, the collision between two nuclei result in the emission of one or more nucleons from the projectile and/or target. The resulting projectile and target remnants, referred to as

  6. Bioreactor production of secondary metabolites from cell cultures of periwinkle and sandalwood.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Jagan V

    2009-01-01

    A bench-top bioreactor allowing continuous extraction of secondary metabolites is designed for Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don (periwinkle) and Santalum album L. (sandalwood) plant cell suspensions. Periwinkle cell cultures are exposed to biotic elicitors (Aspergillus niger, crude chitin) and abiotic elicitors (mannitol, methyl jasmonate) to induce alkaloid production. Whereas most of the biotic elicitors are effective when added on day 15 of culture, the abiotic elicitors are effective when added on day 20. The use of trans-cinnamic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, results in significant increase in the alkaloid production of periwinkle cell cultures. Exposure of the cells to mannitol-induced osmotic stress produced marked increment in the total alkaloid production. When biotic and abiotic stress treatments are applied sequentially, an additive effect in alkaloid accumulation is observed. Although no essential oils are detected, secondary metabolites in the form of phenolics are produced by the sandalwood cell cultures in the bioreactor environment. The use of morphologic modification such as organ cultures and transformed cultures is believed to be required for both production and storage of essential oil constituents in sandalwood. The present chapter demonstrates that periwinkle and sandalwood cell suspensions could be developed and successfully cultured in a modified air-lift bioreactor. The exploitation of variant cell strains and biotransformation of added precursors can certainly improve the use of periwinkle and sandalwood cell cultures for the bioproduction of desired compounds. PMID:19521856

  7. Secondary Production and Its Trophic Basis of Two Mayfly Species in a Subtropical Stream of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2006-05-01

    During June 2003 to June 2004, an investigation on life cycle, production and trophic basis of two species of mayfly in a second-order river of Hanjiang River Basin, Hubei, China was conducted. The results showed Epeorus sinensis Umler and Caenis nigropunctata Wu both developed two generations a year. The mean annual production and P/B ratio of E. sinensis were 9.154 g m-2 a-1 dry weight and 16.0, and those of C. nigropunctata were 1.554 g m-2 a-1 and 9.6, respectively. For E. sinensis , the proportions contributing to secondary production of the main food types were: amorphous detritus 33.46%, fungi 10.8%, vascular plant detritus 1.8%, diatoms 53.9%; for C. nigropunctata , the proportions were 70.8%, 6.90%, 3.5% and 18.8%, respectively. Compared with those species reported in North America and Europe, although land use mode and local climate were greatly different in China, life history and trophic basis of the mayflies seemed roughly similar, yet secondary production appeared to be much higher.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, a promising cell factory for production of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Yeon; Yoo, Young Ji; Lim, Si-Kyu; Cha, Sun Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun; Roe, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2016-02-10

    Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, which produces 12- and 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotics, is a platform strain for heterologous expression of secondary metabolites. Its 9.05-Mb genome sequence revealed an abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and their precursors, which should be useful for the production of bioactive compounds. PMID:26718561

  9. Secondary Production as the Origin of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruskal, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Tarlé, G.

    2016-02-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer has released high-precision data for cosmic rays, and has verified an excess of positrons relative to expectations from cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium. An exciting and well-known possibility for the excess is production of electron-positron pairs by annihilating dark matter particles in the halo of the Galaxy. We have constructed a new scenario for the propagation of cosmic rays, based on the 2000 SMILI results and various other astrophysical observations and measurements in which the positron excess is due to secondary production. The scenario is studied from a simple heuristic perspective, and also within the constraints of a diffusion-reacceleration model using GALPROP. The conclusions of each approach agree with one another, showing that the scenario agrees well with the observed positron flux, without any need for dark matter or other exotic production mechanisms.

  10. End-Use Efficiency to Lower Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Osborn, Julie; Webber, Carrie

    2001-03-01

    Compelling evidence demonstrating the warming trend in global temperatures and the mechanism behind it, namely the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHG), has spurred an international effort to reduce emissions of these gases. Despite improving efficiency of the U.S. economy in terms of energy cost per dollar of GDP since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, energy consumption and carbon emissions are continuing to rise as the economy expands. This growing gap further emphasizes the importance of improving energy use efficiency as a component in the U.S. climate change mitigation program. The end-use efficiency research activities at Berkeley Lab incorporate residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors. This paper focuses on two successful U.S. programs that address end-use efficiency in residential and commercial demand: energy efficient performance standards established by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR(registered trademark) program.

  11. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  12. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  13. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters. PMID:9706802

  14. Secondary production in waters influenced by upwelling off the coast of Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.

    1991-12-31

    During the southwest monsoon of 1979, plankton samples were collected between the equator and 12{degrees}N. Surface samples collected while the research vessel was surveying this area have been analyzed for the abundance of copepod nauplii, primarily the young of the copepod Calanoides carinatus. These samples revealed a sharp rise in the abundance of nauplii in regions where sea-surface temperatures were less than 10{degrees}C. The development state of the gonads of female C. carinatus also showed that reproduction was likely to be most intense nearshore in cold, recently upwelled water. Lipid content of females was inversely related to gonad development, suggesting that lipids sequestered at some earlier point in the life cycle were being used to synthesize eggs. Secondary production is therefore highest in the nearshore areas having cool sea-surface temperatures. Growth of phytoplankton and growth of C. carinatus seem to be closely coupled; daily ingestion rates estimated in nearshore areas where potential secondary production was high were equal to or greater than measured rates of primary production. This study was done of the waters influenced by upwelling off the coast of Somalia.

  15. Secondary production in waters influenced by upwelling off the coast of Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the southwest monsoon of 1979, plankton samples were collected between the equator and 12{degrees}N. Surface samples collected while the research vessel was surveying this area have been analyzed for the abundance of copepod nauplii, primarily the young of the copepod Calanoides carinatus. These samples revealed a sharp rise in the abundance of nauplii in regions where sea-surface temperatures were less than 10{degrees}C. The development state of the gonads of female C. carinatus also showed that reproduction was likely to be most intense nearshore in cold, recently upwelled water. Lipid content of females was inversely related to gonad development, suggesting that lipids sequestered at some earlier point in the life cycle were being used to synthesize eggs. Secondary production is therefore highest in the nearshore areas having cool sea-surface temperatures. Growth of phytoplankton and growth of C. carinatus seem to be closely coupled; daily ingestion rates estimated in nearshore areas where potential secondary production was high were equal to or greater than measured rates of primary production. This study was done of the waters influenced by upwelling off the coast of Somalia.

  16. Effects of dietborne cadmium on life history and secondary production of a tropical freshwater cladoceran.

    PubMed

    Souza, J P; Melo, D C; Lombardi, A T; Melão, M G G

    2014-11-01

    The presence of metals in aquatic environments has increased worldwide. Environmental assessments of metals in freshwater ecosystems presume that toxicity is mainly caused by aqueous exposure, but dietborne exposure (contaminated food) in zooplankton may occur because microalgae carry metal ions through adsorption/absorption of dissolved metal species, resulting in toxic effects once ingested by the animals. However, official regulations for ecotoxicological assays in most countries do not consider the toxic effects caused by dietborne exposure. Here, we provide life history parameters and secondary production of Simocephalus serrulatus (Koch 1841) (Cladocera: Daphniidae) fed with cadmium (Cd) contaminated algae during a 21-day bioassay. The microalgae Chlorophyceae Scenedesmus quadricauda was exposed for 96 h to dissolved Cd concentrations of 0.03; 5.87; 12.27 and 22.27 µg Cd l(-1) (equivalent to 1.6 × 10(-10); 3.2 × 10(-8); 6.7 × 10(-8); 1.2 × 10(-7) mol l(-1)) that resulted in algae internal Cd burdens of 0.004; 0.032; 0.270 and 0.280 pg Cd cell(-1), respectively. Significant toxic effects on life history parameters of S. serrulatus were observed. Time of embryonic development, generation time and age at first reproduction (primipara) showed significant delay. Length at first reproduction, number of eggs and clutches produced per female, hatching percentage, body length, survival and feeding rates were significantly reduced. Secondary production, that is, accumulated biomass for growth and reproduction, decreased significantly with dietborne Cd concentrations. Our results emphasize that food can be an important source of metals to zooplankton in aquatic ecosystems. Environmental regulations should consider the diet in ecotoxicological assessments. Furthermore, secondary production may be considered as a suitable endpoint in ecotoxicity tests. PMID:25248828

  17. Lincomycin at Subinhibitory Concentrations Potentiates Secondary Metabolite Production by Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yu; Sato, Seizo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics have either bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity. However, they also induce considerable gene expression in bacteria when used at subinhibitory concentrations (below the MIC). We found that lincomycin, which inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the ribosomes of Gram-positive bacteria, was effective for inducing the expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism in Streptomyces strains when added to medium at subinhibitory concentrations. In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), lincomycin at 1/10 of its MIC markedly increased the expression of the pathway-specific regulatory gene actII-ORF4 in the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin (ACT) biosynthetic gene cluster, which resulted in ACT overproduction. Intriguingly, S. lividans 1326 grown in the presence of lincomycin at a subinhibitory concentration (1/12 or 1/3 of its MIC) produced abundant antibacterial compounds that were not detected in cells grown in lincomycin-free medium. Bioassay and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that some antibacterial compounds were novel congeners of calcium-dependent antibiotics. Our results indicate that lincomycin at subinhibitory concentrations potentiates the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces strains and suggest that activating these strains by utilizing the dose-response effects of lincomycin could be used to effectively induce the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. In addition to these findings, we also report that lincomycin used at concentrations for markedly increased ACT production resulted in alteration of the cytoplasmic protein (FoF1 ATP synthase α and β subunits, etc.) profile and increased intracellular ATP levels. A fundamental mechanism for these unique phenomena is also discussed. PMID:25819962

  18. DETERMINATION OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL PRODUCTS FROM THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF TOLUENE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN AMBIENT PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the secondary organic aerosol products from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene/NOX/air mixtures in a smog chamber operated in the dynamic mode...

  19. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Keywood, Melita D.; Gao, Song; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Bahreini, Roya; Ng, Nga L.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-04-01

    The ozonolyses of six monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and myrcene), two sesquiterpenes (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene), and two oxygenated terpenes (methyl chavicol and linalool) were conducted individually in Teflon chambers to examine the gas-phase oxidation product and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from these reactions. Particle size distribution and number concentration were monitored and allowed for the calculation of the SOA yield from each experiment, which ranged from 1 to 54%. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to monitor the evolution of gas-phase products, identified by their mass to charge ratio (m/z). Several gas-phase oxidation products, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, and nopinone, were identified and calibrated. Aerosol yields, and the yields of these identified and calibrated oxidation products, as well as many higher m/z oxidation products observed with the PTR-MS, varied significantly between the different parent terpene compounds. The sum of measured oxidation products in the gas and particle phase ranged from 33 to 77% of the carbon in the reacted terpenes, suggesting there are still unmeasured products from these reactions. The observations of the higher molecular weight oxidation product ions provide evidence of previously unreported compounds and their temporal evolution in the smog chamber from multistep oxidation processes. Many of the observed ions, including m/z 111 and 113, have also been observed in ambient air above a Ponderosa pine forest canopy, and our results confirm they are consistent with products from terpene + O3 reactions. Many of these products are stable on the timescale of our experiments and can therefore be monitored in field campaigns as evidence for ozone oxidative chemistry.

  20. Regulation of secondary metabolite production in the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Scott; Saccomanno, Benedetta; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Collemare, Jérôme

    2015-11-01

    Cladosporium fulvum is a non-obligate biotrophic fungal tomato pathogen for which fifteen secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters were previously identified in its genome. However, most of these SM biosynthetic pathways remain cryptic during growth in planta and in different in vitro conditions. The sole SM produced in vitro is the pigment cladofulvin. In this study, we attempted to activate cryptic pathways in order to identify new compounds produced by C. fulvum. For this purpose, we manipulated orthologues of the global regulators VeA, LaeA and HdaA known to regulate SM biosynthesis in other fungal species. In C. fulvum, deleting or over-expressing these regulators yielded no new detectable SMs. Yet, quantification of cladofulvin revealed that CfHdaA is an activator whilst CfVeA and CfLaeA seemed to act as repressors of cladofulvin production. In the wild type strain, cladofulvin biosynthesis was affected by the carbon source, with highest production under carbon limitation and traces only in presence of saccharose. Repression of cladofulvin production by saccharose was dependent on both CfVeA and CfLaeA. Deletion of CfVeA or CfLaeA caused production of sterile mycelia, whilst Δcfhdaa deletion mutants sporulated, suggesting that cladofulvin production is not linked to asexual reproduction. Profiling the transcription of these regulators showed that CfHdaA-mediated regulation of cladofulvin production is independent of both CfVeA and CfLaeA. Our data suggest CfLaeA directly affects cladofulvin production whilst the effect of CfVeA is indirect, suggesting a role for CfLaeA outside of the Velvet complex. In conclusion, our results showed that regulation of SM production in C. fulvum is different from other fungi and indicate that manipulation of global regulators is not a universal tool to discover new fungal natural products. PMID:26415644

  1. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Characterizing residential thermal performance from high resolution end-use data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.E.; Pearson, E.W.; Stokes, G.M.; Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983. Prior to beginning the ELCAP, there was an abundance of information regarding total power consumption for residential structures in the Pacific Northwest and limited information regarding power consumption by various end uses. The purpose of ELCAP is to collect actual end-use load data from both residential and commercial buildings in the region. This report presents the methodology used in several statistical modeling studies carried out on the ELCAP data between 1986 and 1989. These studies involve the thermal characterization of homes and comparisons of building techniques and conservation measures by residential and commercial consumers within the Bonneville service area of the Pacific Northwest. Each data gathering technique was successful in extracting a specific set of consumer-related energy use information. The analytical techniques used in these studies are compiled in this methodology report and are to be used in conjunction with Volume 2 -- Analysis. This should facilitate ease of reference use during future analyses. It is anticipated that the data gathered on participating consumers could potentially be used to aid in decisions regarding the management of the Northwest's electrical energy resources. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Productivity in using school's resources: A case study of secondary school in Dumai, Riau Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozamuri, Arif Murti; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Definition of good school's differs for every individual. The performance of the school's has always been an interesting discussion topic. This situation requires parents to be more selective for choosing the best school's for their child, especially in the efficient management of resources. This study evaluated changes in total productivity, technology, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency among 12 school of Dumai City in Riau Indonesia using DEA Malmquist Index. The inputs include number of teacher's, number of students, and number of classrooms while output is the number of students that passed the national examination. The results show that average efficiency of secondary school in Dumai City from 2011 to 2013 recorded good changes in terms of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. However, technological and total factor productivity change do not show a positive change.

  3. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  4. Gas concentration effects on secondary metabolite production by plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Linden, J C; Haigh, J R; Mirjalili, N; Phisaphalong, M

    2001-01-01

    One aspect of secondary metabolite production that has been studied relatively infrequently is the effect of gaseous compounds on plant cell behavior. The most influential gases are believed to be oxygen, carbon dioxide and other volatile hormones such as ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Organic compounds of interest include the promising antimalarial artemisinin (known as "qing hao su" in China where it has been a folk remedy for centuries) that is produced by Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood) and taxanes used for anticancer therapy that are produced by species of Taxus (yew). The suspension cultures of both species were grown under a variety of dissolved gas conditions in stoppered culture flasks and under conditions of continuous headspace flushing with known gas mixtures. An analysis is presented to show the culture conditions are such that equilibrium between the culture liquid and gas head-space is assured. The growth rate of the cells and their production rates of artemisinin and paclitaxel were determined. These and other parameters are correlated as functions of the gas concentrations. Interdependence of ethylene and methyl jasmonate is also explored with respect to regulation of secondary metabolite formation. PMID:11729755

  5. A Comparison of Parameterizations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production: Global Budget and Spatiotemporal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Z.; Horowitz, L. W.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Fan, S.; Cheng, Y.; Ervens, B.; Fu, T. M.; He, C.; Tao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have a profound influence on air quality and climate, but large uncertainties exist in modeling SOA on the global scale. In this study, five SOA parameterization schemes, including a two-product model (TPM), volatility basis-set (VBS) and three cloud SOA schemes (Ervens et al. (2008, 2014), Fu et al. (2008) , and He et al. (2013)), are implemented into the global chemical transport model (MOZART-4). For each scheme, model simulations are conducted with identical boundary and initial conditions. The VBS scheme produces the highest global annual SOA production (close to 35 Tg·y-1), followed by three cloud schemes (26-30 Tg·y-1) and TPM (23 Tg·y-1). Though sharing a similar partitioning theory to the TPM scheme, the VBS approach simulates the chemical aging of multiple generations of VOCs oxidation products, resulting in a much larger SOA source, particularly from aromatic species, over Europe, the Middle East and Eastern America. The formation of SOA in VBS, which represents the net partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds from vapor to condensed phase, is highly sensitivity to the aging and wet removal processes of vapor-phase organic compounds. The production of SOA from cloud processes (SOAcld) is constrained by the coincidence of liquid cloud water and water-soluble organic compounds. Therefore, all cloud schemes resolve a fairly similar spatial pattern over the tropical and the mid-latitude continents. The spatiotemporal diversity among SOA parameterizations is largely driven by differences in precursor inputs. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the evolution, wet removal, and phase partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds, particularly above remote land and oceanic areas, is critical to better constrain the global-scale distribution and related climate forcing of secondary organic aerosols.

  6. Production of secondary metabolites by some terverticillate penicillia on carbohydrate-rich and meat substrates.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Félix; Westphal, Carmen D; Bermúdez, Elena; Asensio, Miguel A

    2007-12-01

    Most terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured meat products are toxigenic, but their ability to produce hazardous metabolites on meat-based substrates is not well known. The production of extrolites by selected terverticillate penicillia isolated from dry-cured ham has been studied on carbohydrate-rich media (malt extract agar, Czapek yeast autolysate agar, rice extract agar, and rice), meat extract triolein salt agar, and ham slices. Chloroform extracts from the selected strains grown on malt extract agar were toxic for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae and VERO cells at a concentration of 2 mg/ml, but 0.02 mg/ml produced no toxic effect. Analysis by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) or with mass spectrometry (MS) and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source revealed different biologically active metabolites: cyclopiazonic acid and rugulovasine A from Penicillium commune; verrucosidin, anacine, puberuline, verrucofortine, and viridicatols from Penicillium polonicum; arisugacin and viridicatols from Penicillium echinulatum; and compactin and viridicatols from Penicillium solitum. Most of these metabolites, including the amino acid-derived compounds, were produced in the media containing high levels of carbohydrates. High concentrations of nitrogen compounds in the medium does not imply a greater production of the metabolites studied, not even those derived from the amino acids. However, molds growing on dry-cured ham are able to synthesize limited amounts of some secondary metabolites, a fact not previously reported. The combination of HPLC coupled with DAD and MS-APCI was useful for identification of closely related terverticillate Penicillium species from dry-cured ham. These techniques could be used to characterize the risk associated with the potential production of secondary metabolites in cured meats. PMID:18095438

  7. Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; McVay, Renee C; Huang, Dan D; Dalleska, Nathan F; Aumont, Bernard; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-11-17

    Much of our understanding of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from volatile organic compounds derives from laboratory chamber measurements, including mass yield and elemental composition. These measurements alone are insufficient to identify the chemical mechanisms of SOA production. We present here a comprehensive dataset on the molecular identity, abundance, and kinetics of α-pinene SOA, a canonical system that has received much attention owing to its importance as an organic aerosol source in the pristine atmosphere. Identified organic species account for ∼58-72% of the α-pinene SOA mass, and are characterized as semivolatile/low-volatility monomers and extremely low volatility dimers, which exhibit comparable oxidation states yet different functionalities. Features of the α-pinene SOA formation process are revealed for the first time, to our knowledge, from the dynamics of individual particle-phase components. Although monomeric products dominate the overall aerosol mass, rapid production of dimers plays a key role in initiating particle growth. Continuous production of monomers is observed after the parent α-pinene is consumed, which cannot be explained solely by gas-phase photochemical production. Additionally, distinct responses of monomers and dimers to α-pinene oxidation by ozone vs. hydroxyl radicals, temperature, and relative humidity are observed. Gas-phase radical combination reactions together with condensed phase rearrangement of labile molecules potentially explain the newly characterized SOA features, thereby opening up further avenues for understanding formation and evolution mechanisms of α-pinene SOA. PMID:26578760

  8. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in

  9. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and

  10. Effects of Regulation and Technology on End Uses of Nonfuel Mineral Commodities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matos, Grecia R.

    2007-01-01

    The regulatory system and advancement of technologies have shaped the end-use patterns of nonfuel minerals used in the United States. These factors affected the quantities and types of materials used by society. Environmental concerns and awareness of possible negative effects on public health prompted numerous regulations that have dramatically altered the use of commodities like arsenic, asbestos, lead, and mercury. While the selected commodities represent only a small portion of overall U.S. materials use, they have the potential for harmful effects on human health or the environment, which other commodities, like construction aggregates, do not normally have. The advancement of technology allowed for new uses of mineral materials in products like high-performance computers, telecommunications equipment, plasma and liquid-crystal display televisions and computer monitors, mobile telephones, and electronic devices, which have become mainstream products. These technologies altered the end-use pattern of mineral commodities like gallium, germanium, indium, and strontium. Human ingenuity and people?s demand for different and creative services increase the demand for new materials and industries while shifting the pattern of use of mineral commodities. The mineral commodities? end-use data are critical for the understanding of the magnitude and character of these flows, assessing their impact on the environment, and providing an early warning of potential problems in waste management of products containing these commodities. The knowledge of final disposition of the mineral commodity allows better decisions as to how regulation should be tailored.

  11. Bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, M A; Hodson, R E

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (Juncus effusus, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. Bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial C mg of detritus-1 day-1. The three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per milligram of detritus, in accordance with the predicted biodegradability of the plant material based on initial nitrogen content, lignin content, and C/N ratio. Bacterial production also varied throughout the 22 weeks of in situ decomposition and was positively related to the nitrogen content and lignin content of the remaining detritus, as well as to the temperature of the lake water. Over time, production was negatively related to the C/N ratio and cellulose content of the degrading plant material. Bacterial production on degrading plant material was also calculated on the basis of plant surface area and ranged from 0.17 to 1.98 micrograms of bacterial C cm-2 day-1. Surface area-based calculations did not correlate well with either initial plant composition or changing composition of the remaining detritus during decomposition. The rate of bacterial detritus degradation, calculated from measured production of surface-attached bacteria, was much lower than the actual rate of weight loss of plant material. This discrepancy may be attributable to the importance of nonbacterial organisms in the degradation and loss of plant material from litterbags or to the microbially mediated solubilization of particulate material prior to bacterial utilization, or both. PMID:2802603

  12. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; and others

    2015-05-15

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  13. Secondary neutron-production cross sections from heavy-ion interactions in composite targets

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.; Iwase, H.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ronningen, R.M.; Ieki, K.; Gudowska, I.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2006-02-15

    Secondary neutron-production cross sections have been measured from interactions of 290 MeV/nucleon C and 600 MeV/nucleon Ne in a target composed of simulated Martian regolith and polyethylene, and from 400 MeV/nucleon Ne interactions in wall material from the International Space Station. The data were measured between 5 deg. and 80 deg. in the laboratory. We report the double-differential cross sections, angular distributions, and total neutron-production cross sections from all three systems. The spectra from all three systems exhibit behavior previously reported in other heavy-ion neutron-production experiments, namely, a peak at forward angles near the energy corresponding to the beam velocity, with the remaining spectra generated by pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes. The double-differential cross sections are fitted with a moving-source parametrization. Also reported are the data without corrections for neutron flux attenuation in the target and other intervening materials and for neutron production in nontarget materials near the target position. These uncorrected spectra are compared with SHIELD-HIT and PHITS transport model calculations. The transport model calculations reproduce the spectral shapes well but, on average, underestimate the magnitudes of the cross sections.

  14. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Herrmann, Mark

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  15. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; et al

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used tomore » infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.« less

  16. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectraa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2015-05-01

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG . cm, a ˜ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  17. Secondary neutron-production cross sections from heavy-ioninteractions in composite targets.

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, L.; Iwata, Y.; Iwase,H.; Murakami, T.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, T.; Ronningen, R.M.; Ieki, K.; Gudowska, I.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2005-12-19

    Secondary neutron-production cross-sections have been measured from interactions of 290 MeV/nucleon C and 600 MeV/nucleon Ne in a target composed of simulated Martian regolith and polyethylene, and from 400 MeV/nucleon Ne interactions in wall material from the International Space Station. The data were measured between 5 and 80 deg in the laboratory. We report the double-differential cross sections, angular distributions, and total neutron-production cross sections from all three systems. The spectra from all three systems exhibit behavior previously reported in other heavy-ion, neutron production experiments; namely, a peak at forward angles near the energy corresponding to the beam velocity, with the remaining spectra generated by pre-equilibrium and equilibrium processes. The double differential cross sections are fitted with a moving-source parameterization. Also reported are the data without corrections for neutron flux attenuation in the target and other intervening materials, and for neutron production in non-target materials near the target position. These uncorrected spectra are compared with SHIELD-HIT and PHITS transport model calculations. The transport model calculations reproduce the spectral shapes well, but, on average, underestimate the magnitudes of the cross sections.

  18. More than anticipated - production of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Koumoutsi, Alexandra; Scholz, Romy; Borriss, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The genome of environmental Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 harbors numerous gene clusters involved in synthesis of antifungal and antibacterial acting secondary metabolites. Five gene clusters, srf, bmy, fen, nrs, dhb, covering altogether 137 kb, direct non-ribosomal synthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides surfactin, bacillomycin, fengycin, an unknown peptide, and the iron siderophore bacillibactin. Bacillomycin and fengycin were shown to act against phytopathogenic fungi in a synergistic manner. Three gene clusters, mln, bae, and dif, with a total length of 199 kb were shown to direct synthesis of the antibacterial acting polyketides macrolactin, bacillaene, and difficidin. Both, non-ribosomal synthesis of cyclic lipopeptides and synthesis of polyketides are dependent on the presence of a functional sfp gene product, 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase, as evidenced by knockout mutation of the sfp gene resulting in complete absence of all those eight compounds. In addition, here we present evidence that a gene cluster encoding enzymes involved in synthesis and export of the antibacterial acting dipeptide bacilysin is also functional in FZB42. In summary, environmental FZB42 devoted about 340 kb, corresponding to 8.5% of its total genetic capacity, to synthesis of secondary metabolites useful to cope with other competing microorganisms present in the plant rhizosphere. PMID:18957859

  19. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes in Streptomyces peucetius: effects of SODs on secondary metabolites production.

    PubMed

    Kanth, Bashistha Kumar; Jnawali, Hum Nath; Niraula, Narayan Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2011-07-20

    Two superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes; sod1 and sod2, from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 show high similarity to other known SODs from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680. These sod1 and sod2 were cloned into pIBR25 expression vector under a strong ermE* promoter to enhance secondary metabolites from Streptomyces strains. The recombinant expression plasmids; pIBR25SD1 and pIBR25SD2, were constructed to overexpress sod1 and sod2 respectively to enhance production of doxorubicin (DXR) in S. peucetius, clavulanic acid (CA) in Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodigiosin (Red) in Streptomyces lividans TK24. Biomass variation, antibiotics production and transcriptional analysis of regulatory genes in recombinant strains have been studied to understand the effect of sod1 and sod2. The cell growth analysis shows that life span of all recombinant strains was found to be elevated as compared to wild type cells. In S. peucetius, overexpression of sod1 and sod2 was not effective in DXR production but in case of S. clavuligerus, CA production was increased by 2.5 and 1.5 times in sod1 and sod2 overexpression, respectively while in case of S. lividans, ACT production was increased by 1.4 and 1.6 times and Red production by 1.5 and 1.2 times upon sod1 and sod2 overexpressions, respectively as compared to the corresponding wild type strains. PMID:20888207

  20. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  1. Is a Schools' Performance Related to Technical Change?--A Study on the Relationship between Innovations and Secondary School Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between innovations and productivity in Dutch secondary schools. Innovation clusters are directly included in the production model. In order to correct for differences between schools, we add school type, region and year controls. The results indicate that process innovations, teacher professionalization…

  2. Secondary production of neutral pi-mesons and the diffuse galactic gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1986-01-01

    Isobaric and scaling model predictions of the secondary spectra of neutral pi-mesons produced in proton-proton collisions, at energies between threshold and a few GeV, are compared on the basis of accelerator data and found to show the isobaric model to be superior. This model is accordingly used, in conjuction with a scaling model representation at high energies, in a recalculation of the pi exp (0) gamma-radiation's contribution to the diffuse galactic gamma background; the cosmic ray-induced production of photons (whose energy exceeds 100 MeV) by such radiation occurs at a rate of 1.53 x 10 to the -25 photons/(s-H atom). These results are compared with previous calculations of this process as well as with COS-B observations of the diffuse galactic gamma-radiation.

  3. The “deduction” approach: A non-invasive method for estimating secondary production of earthworm communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen-Hamel, Nikita S.; Whalen, Joann K.

    2009-05-01

    Secondary production is an important parameter for the study of population dynamics and energy flow through animal communities. Secondary production of earthworm communities has been determined with the size-frequency and instantaneous growth rate methods, whereby earthworm populations are repeatedly sampled at regular intervals and the change in biomass of cohorts or individuals between sampling dates is determined. The major disadvantage of repeated sampling is that it disturbs the soil and permanently removes earthworms from the study area. The " deduction" approach is a theoretical model that partitions individuals into defined pools and makes assumptions about the growth, recruitment and mortality of each pool. In 2004 and 2005, earthworms were added to undisturbed field enclosures and the " deduction" approach was used to estimate secondary production of the indigenous and added earthworm populations during the crop growing period (17-18 weeks) in each year. Secondary production estimates made by the " deduction" approach were similar to estimates from direct earthworm sampling in temperate agroecosystems. The "deduction" approach is an indirect method that estimates population dynamics and secondary production, and is appropriate for manipulation experiments where removal of organisms and physical disturbance of the habitat by repeated sampling could bias results.

  4. Residential end use demand modeling: Improvements to the ORNL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, J. E.

    1981-10-01

    The ORNL/LBL Residential Energy Demand Model incorporated major improvements in three areas: efficiency of appliances, current construction practice in new houses, and appliance retirements. The new methodology is more general, and provides energy demand estimates in better agreement with recent data. Key areas for future improvements are indicated, including: quantifying the uncertainty in model simulation, redefining the set of end uses, updating the algorithm, and broadening the model's applicability to different geographic areas. A US Department of Energy survey of appliance manufacturers was used to determine new appliance efficiencies. Similarly, surveys of current housing practices (e.g., ceiling insulation level) were used to estimate changes in heating and cooling energy requirements. Appliances are assumed to retire as a function of their age.

  5. Secondary formation of disinfection by-products by UV treatment of swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Hansen, Kamilla M S; Andersen, Henrik R

    2015-07-01

    Formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during experimental UV treatment of pool water has previously been reported with little concurrence between laboratory studies, field studies and research groups. In the current study, changes in concentration of seven out of eleven investigated volatile DBPs were observed in experiments using medium pressure UV treatment, with and without chlorine and after post-UV chlorination. Results showed that post-UV chlorine consumption increased, dose-dependently, with UV treatment dose. A clear absence of trihalomethane formation by UV and UV with chlorine was observed, while small yet statistically significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile and dichloropropanone concentrations were detected. Results indicate that post-UV chlorination clearly induced secondary formation of several DBPs. However, the formation of total trihalomethanes was no greater than what could be replicated by performing the DBP formation assay with higher chlorine concentrations to simulate extended chlorination. Post-UV chlorination of water from a swimming pool that continuously uses UV treatment to control combined chlorine could not induce secondary formation for most DBPs. Concurrence for induction of trihalomethanes was identified between post-UV chlorination treatments and simulated extended chlorination time treatment. Trihalomethanes could not be induced by UV treatment of water from a continuously UV treated pool. This indicates that literature reports of experimentally induced trihalomethane formation by UV may be a result of kinetic increase in formation by UV. However, this does not imply that higher trihalomethane concentrations would occur in pools that apply continuous UV treatment. The bromine fraction of halogens in formed trihalomethanes increased with UV dose. This indicates that UV removes bromine atoms from larger molecules that participate in trihalomethane production during post-UV chlorination. Additionally, no significant

  6. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  7. Hygroscopicity of dicarbonyl-amine secondary organic aerosol products investigated with HTDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, L. N.; de Haan, D. O.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown the importance of amine-dicarbonyl chemistry as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation pathway, producing imines, imidazoles, and N-containing oligomers. Preliminary work in our group has suggested that some of these products may be surface active. Therefore, the presence of these products may result in important changes to submicron particle hygroscopicity that affect aerosol scattering and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, especially in regions with significant amine-containing particles. To investigate their hygroscopicity, we have designed a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system around a 300 L Teflon chamber that allows for longer humidification times needed for some organic aerosol components that are only slightly hygroscopic. This modification provides a range of residence times from 2.5 minutes up to 1 hour, unlike previously published systems that vary from 2-30 seconds. Using the modified hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA), we have measured the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of SOA formed from reactions of glyoxal (and methylglyoxal) with methylamine, ammonium sulfate, and several amino acids. Changes to inorganic aerosol HGF in response to the presence of SOA products are also investigated.

  8. Mechanisms of simultaneous hydrogen production and estrogenic activity removal from secondary effluent though solar photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Qing; Wang, Dawei

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms of simultaneous photocatalytic hydrogen production and estrogenic activity (EA) removal from secondary effluent were investigated by evaluating the effects of initial dissolved oxygen (DO), organic matter, and inorganic ions on the process. The photocatalytic process was enhanced and can be divided into two phases according to the availability of DO. In aerobic phase, the humic/fulvic-like compounds in hydrophilic substances fraction were preferentially decomposed by aerobic photo-formed reactive oxygen species (i.e. O2(-), h(+), and OH) with generation of electron donors (i.e. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetate, and formate). Approximately 41% of dissolved organic carbon and 90% of EA were reduced in the aerobic phase. In the following anoxic phase, the hydrogen production was significantly improved (apparent photonic efficiency 3.04 × 10(-3)) by the generated electron donors and accompanied with completely EA removal by the anoxic photo-formed OH. Hydrogen production was enhanced with the presence of low concentrations of HPO4(2-) (below 0.1 mmol/L) and HCO(3-) (below 0.2 mmol/L) through accelerating electrons accumulation while it was inhibited at high concentrations since the formed ion-radicals could not decompose humic/fulvic-like compounds. EA removal was inhibited by HPO4(2-) and HCO(3-) through scavenging h(+)/$OH. The presence of NO(3-) (below 1 mmol/L) only resulted in minor impacts since NO(3-) was almost unreactive toward electronor OH in neutral conditions. PMID:23562501

  9. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  10. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial vegetation releases a great variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. Monoterpenes, like myrcene, contribute significantly to this global biogenic VOC emission. In the atmosphere, monoterpenes rapidly undergo oxidation reactions by OH radicals (mainly during the daytime), NO3 radicals (mainly during the nighttime) and O3 to form multifunctional oxidation products. The products of these reactions are likely to be of low volatility and hence might lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In the present study, we report results from a series of chamber experiments performed in the LEAK chamber at TROPOS in which the gas-phase products and SOA yields obtained from myrcene O3 reactions with and without an OH radical scavenger as well as from the myrcene OH radical reaction in the presence of NOx have been measured. During the experiments the consumption of myrcene as well as the formation of gas-phase products was monitored using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Ozone concentration was measured by an O3 monitor and the mixing ratios of nitrogen oxides were measured by a NOx monitor. Particle size distributions between 3-900 nm were monitored every 11 min using a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) system. In addition to the products observed by means of the PTR-MS by their m/z values, an identification of carbonylic compounds by their DNPH derivatives was performed. Beside low molecular mass products the formation of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal with a yield of 55 % in myrcene ozonolysis has been observed. The further oxidation of this major first generation product lead to the formation of two dicarbonylic products with m/z 113 and to SOA formation. The influence of the continuing oxidation of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal on SOA formation will be discussed in detail. The emergence of the gas-phase product hydroxyacetone as direct result of the myrcene ozone reaction will be mooted, because hydroxyacetone seems to

  11. Photooxidation Products of Isoprene Epoxydiols (IEPOX) and IEPOX-Derived Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, K. H.; Nguyen, T. B.; Coggon, M. M.; Lignell, H.; Stoltz, B.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) has recently been identified as a key intermediate in the photooxidation of isoprene under low-NO conditions and in the formation of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). IEPOX is generally expected to react with OH in the gas phase, where it has been found to form predominantly C4O3H8 products, or undergo reactive uptake onto particles, where it is converted into 2-methyltetrols or organosulfates by acid- or ammonium-catalyzed mechanisms. The subsequent chemistry of these gas- and particle-phase products has not yet been explored. Using synthetic standards of IEPOX and its gas-phase products, we have performed environmental chamber and flow tube experiments to investigate the fate of IEPOX in both the gas and particle phases. To explore the gas-phase chemistry of IEPOX, three potential isomers of the C4O3H8 products were synthesized and photooxidized by exposure to OH. Detection with CF3O- chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) allowed for determination of their oxidation rates, fractional yields from IEPOX oxidation, and major products. To explore the photooxidation of IEPOX-derived SOA, synthetic IEPOX was reacted with various salts and atomized into a flow tube, where it was photooxidized by exposure to OH. We will present results showing changes in gas- and particle-phase chemical composition, monitored during oxidation by CIMS and aerosol mass spectrometry, including their dependence on both seed particle composition and OH concentration. Preliminary data show that the photochemical loss of IEPOX-derived SOA mass may be an important consideration for predicting aerosol loading and gas phase oxidative chemistry in isoprene-rich environments.

  12. Small Chemical Chromatin Effectors Alter Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus clavatus

    PubMed Central

    Zutz, Christoph; Gacek, Agnieszka; Sulyok, Michael; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus clavatus is known to produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SM) such as patulin, pseurotin A, and cytochalasin E. In fungi, the production of most SM is strongly influenced by environmental factors and nutrients. Furthermore, it has been shown that the regulation of SM gene clusters is largely based on modulation of a chromatin structure. Communication between fungi and bacteria also triggers chromatin-based induction of silent SM gene clusters. Consequently, chemical chromatin effectors known to inhibit histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA-methyltransferases (DNMTs) influence the SM profile of several fungi. In this study, we tested the effect of five different chemicals, which are known to affect chromatin structure, on SM production in A. clavatus using two growth media with a different organic nitrogen source. We found that production of patulin was completely inhibited and cytochalasin E levels strongly reduced, whereas growing A. clavatus in media containing soya-derived peptone led to substantially higher pseurotin A levels. The HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, trichostatin A and butyrate, as well as the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AZA) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, which was used as a proxy for bacterial fungal co-cultivation, had profound influence on SM accumulation and transcription of the corresponding biosynthetic genes. However, the repressing effect of the soya-based nitrogen source on patulin production could not be bypassed by any of the small chemical chromatin effectors. Interestingly, AZA influenced some SM cluster genes and SM production although no Aspergillus species has yet been shown to carry detectable DNA methylation. PMID:24105402

  13. The importance of hydrothermal venting to water-column secondary production in the northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that seafloor hydrothermal venting in the open northeast Pacific Ocean has a marked impact on secondary biomass and production within the overlying water column. Specifically, we use net tows and concurrently measured acoustic backscatter data collected over six summers to examine the effects of hydrothermal venting from the Endeavour Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge on macro-zooplankton biomass and production throughout the entire 2000 m depth range. Previous research shows that ontogenetic diapausing migrators and their predators from the upper ocean aggregate above the neutrally buoyant plumes in summer and resume feeding on plume and bottom upwelled particles, resulting in increased zooplankton reproductive output to the upper ocean. Within the limitations of our sampling methodology, net tows reveal a statistically significant exponential decline in total water-column biomass with increasing lateral distance from the vent fields. The acoustic backscatter data show a similar decline, but only below 800 m depth. Near-surface biomass was highly variable throughout the region, but values near vents consistently ranged higher than summer values found elsewhere in the offshore northeast Pacific. Water-column biomass was similar in magnitude above and below 800 m depth throughout the region. Because epiplume biomass can be advected a considerable distance from vent fields, biomass enhancement of the water column from hydrothermal venting may extend considerable distances to the west and northwest of the vent sites, in the prevailing directions of the subsurface flow. Based on the extensive acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data collected, and the strong correlation between zooplankton production derived from net sample biomass and acoustic backscatter intensity, we estimate that daily macro-zooplankton production in the upper 400 m of the water column within 10 km of the vent fields averages approximately 16% of photosynthetic

  14. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program: Characterizing residential thermal performance from high resolution end-use data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.E.; Williamson, M.A.; Bailey, S.A.; Pratt, R.G.; Stokes, G.M.; Sandusky, W.F.; Pearson, E.W.; Roberts, J.S.

    1991-06-01

    This document is part of a two-volume set describing a series of thermal analyses of the residential buildings monitored under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program. Volume 1 describes in detail the thermal analysis methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the results of applying the methodology in a series of four distinct analyses: (1) an analysis of the first monitored heating season, 1985--1986; (2) an analysis of the second monitored heating season, (3) a comparison of first- and second-year analyses showing changes in residential consumption with changes in weather and evaluating the ability of the analytical technique to discriminate those changes; and (4) a continuation of the previous analyses evaluating the effects of foundation type and heating system type on the results.

  15. Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) production from the Aqueous Reactions of Phenols and Triplet Aromatic Carbonyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Sun, Y.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Anastasio, C.

    2010-12-01

    The phenolic compounds guaiacol, syringol and phenol have recently been shown to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) at high yields in the aqueous phase upon exposure to simulated sunlight and hydroxyl radical. These phenols are significant products from wood combustion that can readily enter atmospheric waters, such as aqueous aerosol particles and cloud/fog droplets. Once in the aqueous phase, phenols can react with the triplet excited states of non-phenolic aromatic carbonyls (NPCs), particle-bound organics that are also emitted from wood combustion. In this study, we examined the aqueous-phase production of SOA from the reaction of phenolic compounds with triplet excited state organics. These aqueous phase reactions were tested by illuminating solutions containing a phenolic compound and NPC under simulated sunlight at various concentrations and pH values. The phenolic compound is consumed during these reactions, following a first-order decay that varies with phenol concentration, phenol identity, and pH. The non-volatile product mass formed in our illuminated solutions was determined gravimetrically and by analysis with High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-AMS). The SOA mass yield was determined as the mass of non-volatile product formed per mass of phenolic consumed during illumination. We also used HR-AMS to analyze for elemental composition, carbon oxidation state, and oligomers in the SOA produced. Our results to date indicate that phenols can be rapidly oxidized by triplet excited states under environmentally relevant conditions and that the accompanying SOA mass yields are very high.

  16. Biodegradability and methane production from secondary paper and pulp sludge: effect of fly ash and modeling.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, César; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fly ash on biodegradability and methane production from secondary paper and pulp sludge, including its modeling, was evaluated. Three tests with fly ash concentrations of 0, 10 and 20 mg/L were evaluated at 32 °C. Methane production was modeled using the modified Gompertz equation. The results show that the doses used produce a statistically significant increase of accumulated methane, giving values greater than 225 mL of CH4 per gram of volatile solids (VS) added, and 135% greater than that obtained in the control assay. Biodegradability of VS increased 143% with respect to the control assays, giving values around 43%. The modified Gompertz model can describe well methane generation from residual sludge of the paper industry water treatment, with parameter values between those reported in the literature. Thus, the addition of fly ash to the process causes a significant increase of accumulated methane and VS removal, improving the biodegradability of paper and pulp sludge. PMID:26177405

  17. Temporal trends in the secondary metabolite production of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Sacristán-Soriano, Oriol; Banaigs, Bernard; Becerro, Mikel A

    2012-04-01

    Temporal changes in the production of secondary metabolites are far from being fully understood. Our study quantified, over a two-year period, the concentrations of brominated alkaloids in the ectosome and the choanosome of Aplysina aerophoba, and examined the temporal patterns of these natural products. Based on standard curves, we quantified the concentrations of aerophobin-2, aplysinamisin-1, and isofistularin-3: three of the four major peaks obtained through chemical profiling with high-performance liquid chromatography. Our results showed a striking variation in compound abundance between the outer and inner layers of the sponge. The ectosome showed high concentrations of bromocompounds during the summer months, while the choanosome followed no pattern. Additionally, we found that, from the outer layer of the sponge, aerophobin-2 and isofistularin-3 were significantly correlated with water temperature. The present study is one of the first to document quantitative seasonal variations in individual compounds over multiple years. Further studies will clarify the role of environmental, biological, and physiological factors in determining the seasonal patterns in the concentration of brominated alkaloids. PMID:22690137

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from m-xylene photooxidation: The role of the phenolic product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, S.; Qi, L.; Clark, C.; Sato, K.; Tang, P.; Cocker, D.

    2009-12-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons comprise a significant fraction of volatile organic compounds in the urban atmosphere and their importance as precursors to secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been widely recognized. However, SOA formation from aromatics is one of the least understood processes among all the classes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) due to its complex multi-generation reactions. Phenolic compounds have been identified as one of the significant products from OH-initiated reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons and are suggested to have a very high potential of SOA formation (e.g., cresol isomers having SOA yield 9~42%, Henry et al., Atmos. Environ., 2008). We examined the effect of extent of oxidation of m-xylene on chemical composition and physical properties using m-xylene and xylenol as reactants in environmental chamber experiments. Chemical composition of SOA was investigated by Liquid Chromatography / Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC/ToF-MS), and Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Physical properties of SOA such as density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were investigated by Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer - Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (APM-SMPS), Hygroscopicity/Volatility - Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H/V-TDMA), respectively. Also SOA yields were obtained to evaluate the importance of xylenol as an intermediate product.

  19. ATR-FTIR microscopy in mapping mode for the study of verdigris and its secondary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prati, S.; Bonacini, I.; Sciutto, G.; Genty-Vincent, A.; Cotte, M.; Eveno, M.; Menu, M.; Mazzeo, R.

    2016-01-01

    To study degradation processes occurring on painting materials, the use of high-resolution micro-analytical techniques is highly requested since it provides a detailed identification and localisation of both the original and deteriorated ingredients. Among the various pigments recently studied, the characterisation of verdigris has received a major interest. This pigment has not a unique chemical formula, but its composition depends on the recipe employed for its manufacturing. Moreover, verdigris paints are not stable and are subject to a colour change from blue-green to green, which occurs in the first few months after the application. In this paper, we focused our attention on the use of ATR-FTIR mapping as a useful method to identify verdigris secondary products and pathways. Several mock-ups and real samples have been analysed, and the correlation among the detected compounds and their spatial location, obtained by the application of ATR-FTIR microscopy in mapping mode, allowed formulating some hypotheses on the degradation pattern of verdigris, which may feed the discussion on the transformation and stability of this pigment. From an analytical point of view, we showed how FTIR mapping approaches may be extremely useful both for the identification of compounds in complex matrix in which single spectra may limit the exhaustive characterisations due to bands overlapping and for the study of degradation pathways by taking into consideration the relative distribution of degradation products.

  20. Reconstituting Plant Secondary Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Production of High-Value Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Pyne, M E; Narcross, L; Fossati, E; Bourgeois, L; Burton, E; Gold, N D; Martin, V J J

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) constitute a diverse class of plant secondary metabolites that includes the opiate analgesics morphine and codeine. Collectively, BIAs exhibit a myriad of pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antitussive, antispasmodic, and anticancer properties. Despite 2500 known BIA products, only a small proportion are currently produced though traditional crop-based manufacturing, as complex stereochemistry renders chemical synthesis of BIAs largely unfeasible. The advent of synthetic biology and sophisticated microbial engineering coupled with recent advances in the elucidation of plant BIA metabolic networks has provided growing motivation for producing high-value BIAs in microbial hosts. Here, we provide a technical basis for reconstituting BIA biosynthetic pathways in the common yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methodologies outlined in this chapter include fundamental techniques for expressing and assaying BIA biosynthetic enzymes, bioprospecting large libraries of BIA enzyme variants, and reconstituting and optimizing complete BIA formation pathways in yeast. To expedite construction of superior BIA-producing yeast strains, we emphasize high-throughput techniques. Finally, we identify fundamental challenges impeding deployment of yeast-based BIA production platforms and briefly outline future prospects to overcome such barriers. PMID:27417930

  1. Temporal Trends in the Secondary Metabolite Production of the Sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    PubMed Central

    Sacristán-Soriano, Oriol; Banaigs, Bernard; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal changes in the production of secondary metabolites are far from being fully understood. Our study quantified, over a two-year period, the concentrations of brominated alkaloids in the ectosome and the choanosome of Aplysina aerophoba, and examined the temporal patterns of these natural products. Based on standard curves, we quantified the concentrations of aerophobin-2, aplysinamisin-1, and isofistularin-3: three of the four major peaks obtained through chemical profiling with high-performance liquid chromatography. Our results showed a striking variation in compound abundance between the outer and inner layers of the sponge. The ectosome showed high concentrations of bromocompounds during the summer months, while the choanosome followed no pattern. Additionally, we found that, from the outer layer of the sponge, aerophobin-2 and isofistularin-3 were significantly correlated with water temperature. The present study is one of the first to document quantitative seasonal variations in individual compounds over multiple years. Further studies will clarify the role of environmental, biological, and physiological factors in determining the seasonal patterns in the concentration of brominated alkaloids. PMID:22690137

  2. Effect of copper contaminated food on the life cycle and secondary production of Daphnia laevis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Giseli S; Tonietto, Alessandra E; Lombardi, Ana T; Melão, Maria da G G

    2016-11-01

    In aquatic environments, copper (Cu) plays important physiological roles in planktonic food chain, such as electron transfer in photosynthesis and constituting proteins that transport oxygen in some arthropods, while at higher concentrations it is toxic on these organisms and higher trophic levels. The combined effects of natural (e.g. volcanic activity) and anthropogenic sources (e.g. mining waste) contribute to the increase in copper pollution in different ecosystems and regions around the world. In the present study, we evaluated the bioaccumulation and effect of Cu on Raphidocelis subcapitata (freshwater algae), and the influence of Cu-contaminated food (algae) on Daphnia laevis (tropical cladoceran). The amount of copper accumulated in microalgae and cladoceran was quantified, and life-history parameters of D. laevis such as growth, reproduction and longevity were measured. The cell density of Cu exposed R. subcapitata declined, and cladoceran fed with contaminated food had lower longevity, production of eggs and neonates, and reduced secondary production. A concentration dependent increase in Cu accumulation was observed in the microalgae, while the opposite occurred in the animal, indicating a cellular metal regulatory mechanism in the latter. However, this regulation seems not to be sufficient to avoid metal induced damages in the cladoceran such as decreased longevity and reproduction. We conclude that diet is an important metal exposure route to this cladoceran, and the assessment of chronic contamination during the complete life cycle of cladoceran provides results that are similar to those observed in natural environments, especially when native organisms are investigated. PMID:27472028

  3. Growth and secondary production of aquatic insects along a gradient of Zn contamination in Rocky Mountain streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, D.M.; Clements, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary production estimates from several Rocky Mountain streams were used to test hypotheses about the effects of chronic metal contamination on insect populations and ecosystem processes. Quantitative samples of chemistry, habitat, and benthic insects were collected monthly during the ice-free period (May-November) from five 2nd- to 3rd-order streams that varied primarily in Zn contamination. Secondary production was estimated for the 19 dominant taxa using increment-summation, size-frequency, and P/B methods. Uncertainty was estimated by bootstrapping estimates of mean abundance, biomass, and cohort production intervals. Secondary production of metal-sensitive Heptageniidae (Rhithrogena robusta, Cinygmula spp., and Epeorus longimanus) was lower in lightly to moderately contaminated streams than in reference streams. Experiments were done to determine whether herbivore growth was influenced by food quality in contaminated streams. Growth estimates from field and microcosm experiments revealed that low mayfly production in contaminated streams was caused mostly by reduced population abundances. Production of predatory stoneflies was also lower in contaminated streams than reference streams. Estimates of the trophic basis of production revealed that, although the relative contribution to community production from various food sources was similar among streams, total production attributable to algae and animal prey declined in contaminated streams. Much of the reduction in herbivory in contaminated streams was the result of lower production of heptageniids, especially R. robusta. Assemblage and taxon-specific estimates of secondary production were sensitive to variation in metal contamination and indicated that relatively low metal concentrations may have ecosystem-wide consequences for energy flow.

  4. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  5. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  6. Residential End-use Energy Planning System (REEPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goett, A.; McFadden, D.

    1982-07-01

    The Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS) is described. REEPS is a forecasting model of residential energy patterns that is capable of evaluating the impacts of a broad range of energy conservation measures. REEPS forecasts appliance installations, operating efficiencies, and utilization patterns for space heating, water heating, air conditioning, and cooking. Each of these decisions is sensitive to energy prices, mandatory policies, and household/dwelling and geographical characteristics. The parameters of these choice models have been estimated statistically from national household survey data. The structure of the choice models and the results of the statistical analysis are reported in detail. REEPS forecasts energy choices for a large number of market segments representing households with different socioeconomic, dwelling, and geographical characteristics. These segments reflect the joint distribution of characteristics in the population. Aggregate forecasts are generated by summing up the decisions for all population segments. This technique provides a consistent method of obtaining aggregate forecasts from disaggregate, nonlinear choice models. Moreover, it permits evaluation of the distributional impacts of prospective conservation policies. The results of simulation of REEPS are described.

  7. Cultivation of Scenedesmus dimorphus with domestic secondary effluent and energy evaluation for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S S; Liu, H; Fan, J F; Yu, H

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae cultivation in wastewater has gained significant attention as a cost-saving means for algae-based biofuel production. To evaluate the performance of Scenedesmus dimorphus cultivated in a 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using domestic secondary effluent (DSE), algal growth, nutrients removal and energy evaluation were conducted in four scenarios. Prior to the application of continuous cultivation, S. dimorphus was grown in a batch operated 1.5-L bubble column photobioreactor to test the growth feasibility and lipids accumulation of S. dimorphus in DSE. The highest biomass achieved in DSE was 244 mg L(-1)with lipid content at 26.06%. Simultaneously, 98.72% of total phosphorus (TP) and 98.04% of total nitrogen (TN) in DSE were removed. Then, S. dimorphus were inoculated in the 100-L continuously operated photobioreactor using BG11, unsterilized DSE, N, P-added DSE and UV-sterilized DSE as the medium, respectively. Results showed that the highest biomass gained were 567, 174, 276 and 198 mg L(-1), respectively. TP removal rates in four scenarios were all above 90%. With adjustment to DSE, the overall TN removal rates increased up to 80%. Finally, energy evaluation demonstrated that although the case of BG11 as the medium provided the most energy production, the case using DSE with N and P supplementation was of the highest net energy rate, suggesting that microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production by DSE is of obvious potential and advantage over the synthesis medium like BG11. PMID:25253291

  8. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Kroflič, Ana; Čusak, Alen

    2014-05-01

    One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4

  9. Role of growth media and chemical enhancers in secondary metabolites production from Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) and their pharmaceutical potentials.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid Ali; Bacha, Nafess; Ahmad, Bashir; Cox, R J; Bakht, Jehan

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effect of different growth media and chemical enhancer on silent genes in Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) for secondary metabolites production and its in vitro biological activities. Results revealed that Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) grown in Czapeak yeast extract broth medium produced more metabolites compared with other media. Chemical epigenetic modifiers (suberoyl-anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) at concentration of 15mM were effective for the expression of silent genes resulting in increased secondary metabolites production. Secondary metabolites extracted in ethyl acetate and fractionized in n-Hexane showed variable degree of growth inhibitions of the tested microorganisms. Similarly, these samples were also active against brine shrimps and Lemna. PMID:27393435

  10. Preliminary Analysis of the (Process and Product) Quality of Physical Education in Flemish Secondary Schools: Implementation of IKLO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huts, K.; Van Hoecke, J.; De Knop, P.; Theeboom, M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold, namely implementing a multifunctional (self-) evaluation instrument for physical education in a sample of Flemish secondary schools (N=100), while simultaneously obtaining a preliminary picture of the subjects' product and process quality. Descriptive statistics revealed that P. E. teachers' engagement…

  11. Secondary metabolite production by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf-5 confers protection against Naegleria americana in the wheat rhizosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria employ a variety of morphological and metabolic mechanisms to avoid protozoan predation. In Pseudomonas fluorescens strains SS101 and SBW25, cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) production served as a defense mechanism that limited predation by the amoeba-flagellate Naegleria americana, and secondary m...

  12. Allochthonous Organic Matter Subsidize the High Secondary Production of the Invasive Bivalve Corbicula fluminea in Minho Estuary (N-Portugal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea is one of the most invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. In Minho estuary, this species colonize all the middle and upper part of the estuary, dominating the abundance, biomass and secondary production in River Minho tidal freshwater area (T...

  13. Off-flavour masking of secondary lipid oxidation products by pea dextrin.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, S; Steinhäuser, U; Drusch, S

    2015-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the off-flavour masking potential of pea dextrin (PD) in emulsions rich in ω-3 and ω-6-fatty acids in comparison with maltodextrin (MD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD). After optimisation of the homogenisation procedure, stable emulsions were prepared and stored for up to eight weeks. The development of six secondary lipid oxidation products: propanal, 1-penten-3-one, 1-penten-3-ol, hexanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, was monitored via headspace gas chromatography after solid-phase microextraction. Sensory evaluation of the emulsions was performed by a trained panel. PD already showed masking properties for propanal, 1-penten-3-one, hexanal and (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal during validation of the gas chromatographic analysis, but not for 1-penten-3-ol or (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal. During storage, the course of lipid oxidation was similar in all emulsions as concluded from the hydroperoxide value. Results from the sensory evaluation confirmed a masking of rancid off-flavour. In conclusion, pea dextrin is suitable for masking off-flavour resulting from early stages of lipid oxidation. PMID:25236256

  14. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  15. Secondary ion mass spectrometry signatures for verifying declarations of fissile-material production.

    PubMed

    Willingham, D; Naes, B E; Burns, K A; Reid, B D

    2015-03-01

    Direct analysis of uranium enrichment facility components were performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A standard protocol was developed to enable preparation of SIMS samples from a corroded pipe piece without disturbing the corrosion layer. Unique uranium, oxygen and fluorine containing signatures were discovered in the corrosion layer by performing a mass scan of the region of interest from 230 to 280amu. These signatures identified the source of the corrosion layer as uranium hexafluoride (UF6) or an associated hydrolysis product. Isotopic analysis of the corrosion layer determined enrichment of (235)U to a value of 0.0116±0.0019 for the (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio as compared to the NIST traceable standard (CRM 112-A) with a natural (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio of 0.007254±0.000004. SIMS depth analysis revealed that the corrosion layer was isotopically homogenous to a depth of ~23.5µm. Optical profilometry measurements prior to and following SIMS depth analysis were used to determine a sputter rate of 0.48nm/s for 18.5keV O(-) ion bombardment of the corrosion layer. The data presented is conclusive evidence that SIMS depth analysis can be used to identify novel nuclear archeology signatures from uranium enrichment components and perform meaningful isotopic analysis of these signatures. PMID:25575376

  16. Old Meets New: Using Interspecies Interactions to Detect Secondary Metabolite Production in Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes, a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria, have long been a remarkable source of useful therapeutics. Recent genome sequencing and transcriptomic studies have shown that these bacteria, responsible for half of the clinically used antibiotics, also harbor a large reservoir of gene clusters, which have the potential to produce novel secreted small molecules. Yet, many of these clusters are not expressed under common culture conditions. One reason why these clusters have not been linked to a secreted small molecule lies in the way that actinomycetes have typically been studied: as pure cultures in nutrient-rich media that do not mimic the complex environments in which these bacteria evolved. New methods based on multispecies culture conditions provide an alternative approach to investigating the products of these gene clusters. We have recently implemented binary interspecies interaction assays to mine for new secondary metabolites and to study the underlying biology in inter-actinomycete interactions. Here we describe the detailed biological and chemical methods comprising these studies. PMID:23084935

  17. Aqueous secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production from the oxidation of phenols by triplet excited state organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J.; Yu, L.; Zhang, Q.; Anastasio, C.

    2011-12-01

    Recent literature has shown that atmospheric condensed-phase chemistry can play a significant role in the evolution of organic aerosols, including the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). SOA formation from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the aqueous phase has largely focused on oxidations involving the hydroxyl radical and other oxidants, such as photochemically created triplet excited states, have not been fully investigated. Phenolic compounds are one of the primary carbon emission classes from biomass and wood combustion and have significant water solubility. Once in the aqueous phase, phenolic compounds can react with the triplet excited states of non-phenolic aromatic carbonyls (NPCs), particle-bound organics that are also emitted in large quantities from wood combustion. The oxidation of phenolic species in the condensed phase by triplet excited states can result in the production of SOA. A main goal of this study was to investigate bulk solution reaction kinetics under atmospherically relevant conditions in order to ascertain how these reactions can impact aqueous-phase SOA production. In our experiments, we studied the reactions of five phenols (phenol, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, and resorcinol) with the triplet state of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (34-DMB) during simulated solar radiation. We have characterized the impacts of pH, ionic strength and reactant concentrations on the reaction behavior of this system. In addition, we analyzed the SOA formed using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to infer the reaction mechanisms. Our evidence suggests that under atmospherically relevant conditions, triplet excited states can be the dominant oxidant of phenolics and contribute significantly to the total SOA budget.

  18. Impact of modern battery design and the implications for primary and secondary lead production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, M. W.; Manders, J. E.; Eckfeld, S.; Prengaman, R. D.

    The emerging change in the automobile industry with the advent of the 42 V electrical operating system will impose a revolutionary change not only on the car industry, but also on the battery industry overall. The implications of this change will be felt by the battery producers, most of whom will require new or advanced production techniques for 36 V batteries, and subsequently by their suppliers of raw material. The demand for batteries of higher quality—in particular, the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery, which is the battery of choice for the new automotive system—will place much higher demands upon the quality of the raw materials used in battery manufacture. It has been well documented that high-quality raw materials, such as lead, acid and separators, are a requirement in order to guarantee battery performance. The presence of impurities (antimony, arsenic, tellurium, etc.) in the enclosed system of the VRLA battery will impart problems such as dry-out, self-discharge and negative-plate capacity loss which will result in premature failure of the battery. One major problem for both primary and secondary lead producers is the presence of these impurities in their metal streams. Of particular interest to the smelters are the levels of antimony and silver. The latter element is increasing to alarming levels. With changing battery technology, both elements will pose serious problems to the lead producers in maintaining high-quality lead under the present cost structure. Some of the challenges that face the lead industry in meeting the demands of VRLA battery producers for product of higher quality are examined in this paper.

  19. The Natural Product Domain Seeker NaPDoS: A Phylogeny Based Bioinformatic Tool to Classify Secondary Metabolite Gene Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ziemert, Nadine; Podell, Sheila; Penn, Kevin; Badger, Jonathan H.; Allen, Eric; Jensen, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    New bioinformatic tools are needed to analyze the growing volume of DNA sequence data. This is especially true in the case of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where the highly repetitive nature of the associated genes creates major challenges for accurate sequence assembly and analysis. Here we introduce the web tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS), which provides an automated method to assess the secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene diversity and novelty of strains or environments. NaPDoS analyses are based on the phylogenetic relationships of sequence tags derived from polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, respectively. The sequence tags correspond to PKS-derived ketosynthase domains and NRPS-derived condensation domains and are compared to an internal database of experimentally characterized biosynthetic genes. NaPDoS provides a rapid mechanism to extract and classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from PCR products, genomes, and metagenomic datasets. Close database matches provide a mechanism to infer the generalized structures of secondary metabolites while new phylogenetic lineages provide targets for the discovery of new enzyme architectures or mechanisms of secondary metabolite assembly. Here we outline the main features of NaPDoS and test it on four draft genome sequences and two metagenomic datasets. The results provide a rapid method to assess secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene diversity and richness in organisms or environments and a mechanism to identify genes that may be associated with uncharacterized biochemistry. PMID:22479523

  20. Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production--a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Li, Xiangzhi

    2011-06-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production. To confirm and add credibility to the study, uncertainty analysis was conducted. Results showed the impact generated from respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, global warming, and non-renewable energy categories had an important contribution to overall environmental impact, due to energy, clinker, and limestone production stages. Also, uncertainty analysis results showed the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production had little or no effect on changing the overall environmental potential impact generated from general cement production. Accordingly, using the technology of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production is a good choice for reducing the pressure on the environment from dramatically increased sludge disposal. In addition, increasing electricity recovery rate, choosing natural gas fired electricity generation technology, and optimizing the raw material consumption in clinker production are highly recommended to reduce the adverse effects on the environment. PMID:21288709

  1. Comparison and Validation of FLUKA and HZETRN as Tools for Investigating the Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul

    2015-01-01

    NASA's exploration goals are focused on deep space travel and Mars surface operations. To accomplish these goals, large structures will be necessary to transport crew and logistics in the initial stages, and NASA will need to keep the crew and the vehicle safe during transport and any surface activities. One of the major challenges of deep space travel is the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, the electronics, and the vehicle materials. The primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle. These interactions lead to some of the primary radiation being absorbed, being modified, or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles that have large shielding masses, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, and this secondary radiation can be significant enough to cause concern. When considering surface operations, there is also a secondary radiation source from the surface of the planet, known as albedo, with neutrons being one of the most significant species. Given new vehicle designs for deep space and Mars missions, the secondary radiation environment and the implications of that environment is currently not well understood. Thus, several studies are necessary to fill the knowledge gaps of this secondary radiation environment. In this paper, we put forth the initial steps to increasing our understanding of neutron production from large vehicles by comparing the neutron production resulting from our radiation transport codes and providing a preliminary validation of our results against flight data. This paper will review the details of these results and discuss the finer points of the analysis.

  2. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  3. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  4. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Progress in a study to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids is reported.

  5. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study of Marine Bacterial Secondary Metabolite and Antibiotic Production in Salinispora arenicola

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Utpal; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Ng, Yi Kai; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Fuerst, John A.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times). We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the production of rifamycins (antibiotics) and other secondary metabolites in the obligate marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola, isolated from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponges, at two defined salt concentrations and over three different incubation periods. The results indicated that a 14 day incubation period is optimal for the maximum production of rifamycin B, whereas rifamycin S and W achieve their maximum concentration at 29 days. A “chemical profile” link between the days of incubation and the salt concentration of the growth medium was shown to exist and reliably represents a critical point for selection of growth medium and harvest time. PMID:25574739

  6. Increased understanding of metabolism of secondary plant products frequently generates sketchy and incorrect statements concerning their evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Selmar, D

    2009-05-01

    Secondary plant products perform important functions within the complex interactions between plants and their environment, e.g. as protective agents against pathogens and herbivores, or as attractants for potential pollinators. We are all aware that the enormous diversity of these natural products resulted from evolutionary processes driven by the selection of advantageous properties. However, when these nexuses are mentioned, very often we incline to formulate 'Plants have acquired the ability to synthesize secondary plant products in order to ...' without realising that such a statement contradicts the Darwinian principles of evolution and corresponds to a Lamarckian view of teleological evolution. One of the major reasons for these automatic and unconscious misapprehensions is because of the ambiguous usage of the term 'biological function', which is very often thought to comprise an intention or a special purpose. PMID:19470098

  7. Gas phase emissions from cooking processes and their secondary aerosol production potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Felix; Platt, Stephen; Bruns, Emily; Termime-roussel, Brice; Detournay, Anais; Mohr, Claudia; Crippa, Monica; Slowik, Jay; Marchand, Nicolas; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre; El Haddad, Imad

    2014-05-01

    Long before the industrial evolution and the era of fossil fuels, high concentrations of aerosol particles were alluded to in heavily populated areas, including ancient Rome and medieval London. Recent radiocarbon measurements (14C) conducted in modern megacities came as a surprise: carbonaceous aerosol (mainly organic aerosol, OA), a predominant fraction of particulate matter (PM), remains overwhelmingly non-fossil despite extensive fossil fuel combustion. Such particles are directly emitted (primary OA, POA) or formed in-situ in the atmosphere (secondary OA, SOA) via photochemical reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Urban levels of non-fossil OA greatly exceed the levels measured in pristine environments strongly impacted by biogenic emissions, suggesting a contribution from unidentified anthropogenic non-fossil sources to urban OA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) techniques applied to ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) data identify primary cooking emissions (COA) as one of the main sources of primary non-fossil OA in major cities like London (Allan et al., 2010), New York (Sun et al., 2011) and Beijing (Huang et al., 2010). Cooking processes can also emit VOCs that can act as SOA precursors, potentially explaining in part the high levels of oxygenated OA (OOA) identified by the AMS in urban areas. However, at present, the chemical nature of these VOCs and their secondary aerosol production potential (SAPP) remain virtually unknown. The approach adopted here involves laboratory quantification of PM and VOC emission factors from the main primary COA emitting processes and their SAPP. Primary emissions from deep-fat frying, vegetable boiling, vegetable frying and meat cooking for different oils, meats and vegetables were analysed under controlled conditions after ~100 times dilution. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a high resolution proton transfer time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR

  8. Population structure and secondary production of Siriella clausii, a dominant detritus feeding mysid in Posidonia oceanica meadows (W Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, Carmen; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2013-10-01

    Temporal trends in abundance, demographic structure of the population and secondary production of Siriella clausii were studied at three different sectors of Posidonia oceanica meadows in the SE Iberian Peninsula, with different levels of habitat complexity. Secondary production was calculated through three methods widely employed in marine invertebrates: the Hynes method (based on demographic structure data) and models by Morin-Bourassa and Brey (based on biomass data). This filter/grazer and detritus feeder is the most abundant mysid in P. oceanica seagrass meadows in the Mediterranean. The population structure was similar in the three sectors, but the temporal pattern of abundance was different, at times even opposite. This pattern may be related to the aggregated spatial distribution, metapopulation dynamics or stochastic factors, but other potential factors could be involved, such as habitat features or predation rates. The values of production oscillated between 25 and 60 mgAFDW/m2/year, depending on the calculation method that was applied, and showed differences between sites and seagrass complexity. The present values are intermediate between those characterising highly productive systems, such as estuaries, and systems of limited productivity (bathyal habitats). Compared to other peracarids, mysid production is greater than that of isopods and less than amphipod production. This is possibly related to the life cycle and reproductive strategies. Detritus feeders such as S. clausii may play an important trophic role due their capacity to use as food the biomass associated to detritus, which constitutes larges reservoirs of carbon derived from seagrass primary production.

  9. Mechanism for production of secondary organic aerosols and their representation in atmospheric models. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seinfeld, J.H.; Flagan, R.C.

    1999-06-07

    This document contains the following: organic aerosol formation from the oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons; gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds to model inorganic, organic, and ambient smog aerosols; and representation of secondary organic aerosol formation in atmospheric models.

  10. Effect of aposymbiotic conditions on colony growth and secondary metabolite production in the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina dilacerata.

    PubMed

    Timsina, Brinda A; Sorensen, John L; Weihrauch, Dirk; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2013-01-01

    The production of secondary metabolites by aposymbiotic lichen-forming fungi in culture is thought to be influenced by environmental conditions. The effects of the environment may be studied by culturing fungi under defined growing parameters to provide a better understanding of the role of the large number of polyketide synthase (PKS) gene paralogs detected in the genomes of many fungi. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of culture conditions (media composition and pH level) on the colony growth, the numbers of secondary products, and the expression of two PKS genes by the lichen-forming fungus Ramalina dilacerata. Four types of growth media at four different pH levels were prepared to culture spore isolates of R. dilacerata. Colony diameter and texture were recorded. The number of secondary compounds were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Expression of two PKS genes (non-reducing (NR) and 6-MSAS-type PKS) were compared with expression of an internal control mitochondrial small subunit gene (mtSSU). The results showed that media containing yeast extracts produced the largest colony diameters and the fewest number of secondary metabolites. Colony growth rates also varied with different media conditions, and a significant negative relationship occurred between colony diameter and number of secondary metabolites. Expression of the NR PKS gene was significantly higher at pH 6.5 on the glucose malt agar than any other media, and expression of the 6-MSAS-type (partially-reducing) PKS gene was significantly higher at pH 8.5 on (malt agar) malt agar than on the other types of agar. Gene expression was correlated with the pH level and media conditions that induced the production of the larger number of secondary substances. This is the first study to examine secondary metabolite production in R. dilacerata by comparing the number of polyketides detected with quantitative polymerase chain

  11. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  12. A time series of prokaryote secondary production in the oxygen minimum zone of the Humboldt current system, off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levipan, H. A.; Quiñones, R. A.; Urrutia, H.

    2007-11-01

    Because the marine picoplanktonic communities are made up of phylogenetically different microbial groups, the re-evaluation of key processes such as bacterial secondary production (BSP) has become an important contemporary issue. The difficulty of differentiating the metabolic processes of Bacteria from the rest of the microorganisms in the water column (i.e., Archaea and Eukarya) has made it difficult to estimate in situ BSP. This work presents the seasonal variability of the prokaryote secondary production (PSP) measured by the incorporation of 14C-leucine in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off central-southern Chile. The BSP and potential archaeal secondary production (PASP) were determined through the combined use of 14C-leucine and N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC 7), an efficient inhibitor of archaeal and eukaryote cell growth. BSP accounted for the majority of the PSP (total average, 59 ± 7.5%); maximum values were ∼600 μg C m -3 h -1 and, on several dates, BSP represented 100% of the PSP. Similarly, PASP was also an important fraction of the PSP (total average, 42.4 ± 8.5%), although with levels that ranged from not detectable (on given dates) to levels that represented up to ∼97% of PSP (winter 2003). Our results showed that both Bacteria and Archaea accounted for almost equal portions of the prokaryote heterotrophic metabolism in the OMZ, and that PASP is notoriously enhanced through temporal pulses of heterotrophy. This indicates that, at least in marine systems with high abundance of Archaea (e.g., mesopelagic realm), the secondary production obtained through methods measuring the uptake of radiolabeled substrates should be considered as PSP and not as BSP. If the latter is the target measurement, then the use of an inhibitor of both archaeal and eukaryote cell growth such as GC 7 is recommended.

  13. Rethinking the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget: stronger production, faster removal, shorter lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, A.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Jo, D. S.; Cappa, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Park, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Recent laboratory studies suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates are higher than assumed in current models. There is also evidence that SOA removal by dry and wet deposition occurs more efficiently than some current models suggest, and that photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation may be important (but currently ignored) SOA sinks. Here, we have updated the global GEOS-Chem model to include this new information on formation (i.e. wall-corrected yields and emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds) and on removal processes (photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation). We compare simulated SOA from various model configurations against ground, aircraft and satellite measurements to assess the extent to which these improved representations of SOA formation and removal processes are consistent with observed characteristics of the SOA distribution. The updated model presents a more dynamic picture of the lifecycle of atmospheric SOA, with production rates 4 times higher and sinks a factor of 3.7 more efficient than in the base model. In particular, the updated model predicts larger SOA concentrations in the boundary layer and lower concentrations in the upper troposphere, leading to better agreement with surface and aircraft measurements of organic aerosol compared to the base model. Our analysis thus suggests that the long-standing discrepancy in model predictions of the vertical SOA distribution can now be resolved, at least in part, by a stronger source and stronger sinks leading to a shorter lifetime. The predicted global SOA burden in the updated model is 0.95 Tg and the corresponding direct radiative forcing at top of the atmosphere is -0.35 W m-2, which is comparable to recent model estimates constrained by observations. The updated model predicts a population-weighed global mean surface SOA concentration that is a factor of 2 higher than in the base model, suggesting the need for a reanalysis of the contribution of

  14. Rethinking the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget: stronger production, faster removal, shorter lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, Alma; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Jo, Duseong S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent laboratory studies suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates are higher than assumed in current models. There is also evidence that SOA removal by dry and wet deposition occurs more efficiently than some current models suggest and that photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation may be important (but currently ignored) SOA sinks. Here, we have updated the global GEOS-Chem model to include this new information on formation (i.e., wall-corrected yields and emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds) and on removal processes (photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation). We compare simulated SOA from various model configurations against ground, aircraft and satellite measurements to assess the extent to which these improved representations of SOA formation and removal processes are consistent with observed characteristics of the SOA distribution. The updated model presents a more dynamic picture of the life cycle of atmospheric SOA, with production rates 3.9 times higher and sinks a factor of 3.6 more efficient than in the base model. In particular, the updated model predicts larger SOA concentrations in the boundary layer and lower concentrations in the upper troposphere, leading to better agreement with surface and aircraft measurements of organic aerosol compared to the base model. Our analysis thus suggests that the long-standing discrepancy in model predictions of the vertical SOA distribution can now be resolved, at least in part, by a stronger source and stronger sinks leading to a shorter lifetime. The predicted global SOA burden in the updated model is 0.88 Tg and the corresponding direct radiative effect at top of the atmosphere is -0.33 W m-2, which is comparable to recent model estimates constrained by observations. The updated model predicts a population-weighed global mean surface SOA concentration that is a factor of 2 higher than in the base model, suggesting the need for a reanalysis of the contribution of

  15. Measurement of secondary particle production induced by particle therapy ion beams impinging on a PMMA target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppi, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bellini, F.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Durante, M.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Muraro, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Piersanti, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Traini, G.; Voena, C.

    2016-05-01

    Particle therapy is a technique that uses accelerated charged ions for cancer treatment and combines a high irradiation precision with a high biological effectiveness in killing tumor cells [1]. Informations about the secondary particles emitted in the interaction of an ion beam with the patient during a treatment can be of great interest in order to monitor the dose deposition. For this purpose an experiment at the HIT (Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center) beam facility has been performed in order to measure fluxes and emission profiles of secondary particles produced in the interaction of therapeutic beams with a PMMA target. In this contribution some preliminary results about the emission profiles and the energy spectra of the detected secondaries will be presented.

  16. 2007 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Food Products (Meats). (Program CIP: 01.0401 - Agricultural and Food Products Processing)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  17. Sensitivity of macrobenthic secondary production to trawling in the English sector of the Greater North Sea: A biological trait approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolam, S. G.; Coggan, R. C.; Eggleton, J.; Diesing, M.; Stephens, D.

    2014-01-01

    Demersal trawling constitutes the most significant human impact on both the structure and functioning of coastal seabed fauna. While a number of studies have assessed the impacts of trawling on faunal community structure and the degree to which different taxa are vulnerable to trawling, few have focused on how these impacts affect important ecological functions of the seabed. In this study, we use biological trait analysis (BTA) to assess the relative sensitivity of benthic macrofauna to trawling, in both the short- and long-term, and use this information to describe the spatial variation in sensitivity of secondary production for the Greater North Sea (GNS). Within the GNS, estimates of total production varied by almost three orders of magnitude, from 1.66 kJ m- 2 y- 1 to 968.9 kJ m- 2 y- 1. Large-scale patterns were observed in the proportion of secondary production derived from trawling-sensitive taxa. In the southern North Sea, total production is predominantly governed by taxa with low sensitivity to trawling, whereas production is relatively trawling-sensitive in the northern North Sea and western English Channel. In general, the more sensitive and productive regions are associated with poorly-sorted, gravelly or muddy sediments, while the less sensitive and less productive regions are associated with well-sorted, sandy substrates. These relationships between production sensitivity and environmental features are primarily due to variations in long-term recovery; total production of most assemblages is highly sensitive to the direct impacts of trawling. We discuss the implications of these findings for management 1decisions to improve the environmental sustainability of trawling.

  18. Cross-talk between signaling pathways: the link between plant secondary metabolite production and wounding stress response.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Plants subjected to wounding stress produce secondary metabolites. Several of these metabolites prevent chronic diseases and can be used as colorants, flavors, and as antimicrobials. This wound-induced production of plant secondary metabolites is mediated by signaling-molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA). However, their specific role and interactions that modulate the wound-respond in plants is not fully understood. In the present study, a subtractive cDNA library was generated, to better understand the global response of plants to wounding stress. Carrot (Daucus carota) was used as a model system for this study. A total of 335 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequences were obtained. ESTs sequences with a putative identity showed involvement in stress-signaling pathways as well as on the primary and secondary metabolism. Inhibitors of ROS biosynthesis, ET action, and JA biosynthesis alone and in combination were applied to wounded-carrots in order to determine, based on relative gene expression data, the regulatory role of ET, JA, and ROS on the wound-response in plants. Our results demonstrate that ROS play a key role as signaling-molecules for the wound-induced activation of the primary and secondary metabolism whereas ET and JA are essential to modulate ROS levels. PMID:25712739

  19. Effect of Competition on the Production and Activity of Secondary Metabolites in Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary metabolites are of intense interest to humans due to their pharmaceutical and/or toxic properties. Aspergillus species secrete these metabolites by themselves and in the presence of other fungal species. Here, we have performed co-cultivation competition assays among different Aspergillu...

  20. Histories of Discipline: The Performative Re/Productions of Subjectivities of Secondary English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanko, Rebecca Louise

    2012-01-01

    Research on teaching, and research about secondary English teachers in particular, has focused on classroom practice. This focus implicitly devalues knowledges beyond those related to classroom practice, and re/produces a public/private divide in the subjectivities of teachers in which "teacher identity" and "teacher knowledge"…

  1. Genomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genomic sequences of several Pseudomonas spp. that live in a commensal relationship with plants are now available. Among these is the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Nearly 6% of the 7.07 Mb genome of Pf-5 is devoted to the biosynthesis of secondary metaboli...

  2. Regulation of secondary metabolite production in Fusarium species by the global regulator LAE1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are pathogens of corn and wheat and are capable of producing secondary metabolites that are a food safety concern. These mycotoxins include fumonins and trichothecenes which have known carcinogenic potential and can inhibit protein synthesis respectively in animals. In addition to t...

  3. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  4. Energy security and end use: efficiency and fuel switching

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, W.; Carlsmith, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    In terms of vulnerability to an oil supply disruption or the probability of another sudden large increase in the price of oil, the United States is much more secure today than it has been in a decade. Two causes are the large improvement in the apparent efficiency of energy use (less energy use per unit of activity) and the switching from oil to other fuels. Most of the oil savings due to efficiency improvements were in the industrial and transportation sectors, whereas most of the oil savings due to fuel switching occurred in the electric utility and building sectors. Despite these remarkable changes much more is possible. Presently, we are far from the economically justifiable limits of fuel use efficiency. Similarly, additional oil savings can occur if the trend away from oil by electric utilities and in buildings continues. There appears to be a significant short-term fuel switching capability especially in the industrial and building sectors, but the amount is uncertain. Much of what has been accomplished to date has been the result of changes which did not require large capital investments. Future progress will be increasingly more expensive as these investments are made. Research to find additional technological options for efficiency improvements has a very large potential economic benefit to the US economy. Given the considerable potential for continued improvements in economically attractive efficiency improvements and fuel switching, the United States and other developed countries should be able to manage the demand side of the international oil market to minimize the chance of future oil shortages or large price fluctuations. The strategy for doing this is to complement market forces with appropriate government policies so that the margin between effective world oil production capacity and oil demand is kept at a stable, safe level.

  5. Secondary production of the fiddler crab Uca rapax from mangrove areas under anthropogenic eutrophication in the Western Atlantic, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tarso de M M; Soares-Gomes, Abilio

    2015-12-30

    Fiddler crabs Uca rapax were analyzed in three mangrove areas located in both a lagoon and estuarine system in order to study the influence of eutrophication on their population dynamics and production. Populations at the three sites showed a biased sex ratio. Densities were similar at the three sites, but biomass was higher at the lagoon system. Despite biomass being higher at the most eutrophic site, this site exhibited the lowest production. Regarding age structure, the population inhabiting the less eutrophic site mainly comprised younger crabs. The lower production and smaller P/B ratio found in the more eutrophic site were most likely consequences of a high mortality rate and an aged population. Our study evidences the high plasticity of the fiddler crab U. rapax, and confirms secondary production and P/B ratio estimates as useful tools to assess the effects of environmental change. PMID:26549296

  6. Computational and molecular analysis of conserved influenza A virus RNA secondary structures involved in infectious virion production.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Dadonaite, Bernadeta; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Barclay, Wendy S; Pybus, Oliver G

    2016-09-01

    As well as encoding viral proteins, genomes of RNA viruses harbor secondary and tertiary RNA structures that have been associated with functions essential for successful replication and propagation. Here, we identified stem-loop structures that are extremely conserved among 1,884 M segment sequences of influenza A virus (IAV) strains from various subtypes and host species using computational and evolutionary methods. These structures were predicted within the 3' and 5' ends of the coding regions of M1 and M2, respectively, where packaging signals have been previously proposed to exist. These signals are thought to be required for the incorporation of a single copy of 8 different negative-strand RNA segments (vRNAs) into an IAV particle. To directly test the functionality of conserved stem-loop structures, we undertook reverse genetic experiments to introduce synonymous mutations designed to disrupt secondary structures predicted at 3 locations and found them to attenuate infectivity of recombinant virus. In one mutant, predicted to disrupt stem loop structure at nucleotide positions 219-240, attenuation was more evident at increased temperature and was accompanied by an increase in the production of defective virus particles. Our results suggest that the conserved secondary structures predicted in the M segment are involved in the production of infectious viral particles during IAV replication. PMID:27399914

  7. Survey-guided load research: An end-use analysis methodology test

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1993-08-01

    Energy use by end-use equipment is a function of the rated capacity of the equipment, frequency of use, and duration of each use. Many end used include multiple states, each with a different capacity, frequency, and duration. Some equipment provides benefits that are related to other uses, resulting in an indirect linkage between the primary energy-using equipment and the end use. Water heaters are one example. End-use metering of energy-using equipment provides the most accurate measure of energy use. Nevertheless, this energy-use ``signal`` is buried in background ``noise`` due to variations in the capacity, frequency, and duration of each end use and end user. Reliable estimates of energy use depend on a variety of methods to increase the ``signal-to-noise`` ratio (i.e., reduce the variance). Research of the energy consumption of household end-uses contains some inherent sampling problems: intrusiveness, cost, extensive data generated, analyses are time and computationally intensive. The goal of the methodology test described in this paper was to address these problems through a method that focused end-use analyses on a limited set of issues and data for program evaluation purposes. The approach tested used a detailed survey of end-use metered subjects to identify the pattern of end-use behavior as an alternative to estimating the frequency and duration of each use from the end-use data itself.

  8. Crosstalk between ROS Homeostasis and Secondary Metabolism in S. natalensis ATCC 27448: Modulation of Pimaricin Production by Intracellular ROS

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Catarina L.; Osório, Hugo; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Mendes, Marta V.

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces secondary metabolism is strongly affected by oxygen availability. The increased culture aeration enhances pimaricin production in S. natalensis, however the excess of O2 consumption can lead to an intracellular ROS imbalance that is harmful to the cell. The adaptive physiological response of S. natalensis upon the addition of exogenous H2O2 suggested that the modulation of the intracellular ROS levels, through the activation of the H2O2 inducible catalase during the late exponential growth phase, can alter the production of pimaricin. With the construction of defective mutants on the H2O2 related enzymes SodF, AhpCD and KatA1, an effective and enduring modulation of intracellular ROS was achieved. Characterization of the knock-out strains revealed different behaviours regarding pimaricin production: whilst the superoxide dismutase defective mutant presented low levels of pimaricin production compared to the wild-type, the mutants defective on the H2O2-detoxifying enzymes displayed a pimaricin overproducer phenotype. Using physiological and molecular approaches we report a crosstalk between oxidative stress and secondary metabolism regulatory networks. Our results reveal that the redox-based regulation network triggered by an imbalance of the intracellular ROS homeostasis is also able to modulate the biosynthesis of pimaricin in S. natalensis. PMID:22114674

  9. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2) dyn cm-1 in pure water (a 10% surface tension reduction from that of pure water) and 62(±1) dyn cm-1 in AS solutions (a 20.6% reduction from that of a 3.1 M AS solution). Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9% reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

  10. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-07-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2) dyn cm-1 in pure water and 62(±1) dyn cm-1 in AS solutions. Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9 % reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

  11. 7 CFR 782.12 - Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. 782.12... Certificate Program § 782.12 Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. (a) Each entity that imports wheat originating in Canada shall, for each entry into the U.S., obtain form FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for...

  12. 7 CFR 782.12 - Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. 782.12... Certificate Program § 782.12 Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. (a) Each entity that imports wheat originating in Canada shall, for each entry into the U.S., obtain form FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for...

  13. 7 CFR 782.12 - Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. 782.12... Certificate Program § 782.12 Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. (a) Each entity that imports wheat originating in Canada shall, for each entry into the U.S., obtain form FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for...

  14. 7 CFR 782.12 - Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. 782.12... Certificate Program § 782.12 Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. (a) Each entity that imports wheat originating in Canada shall, for each entry into the U.S., obtain form FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for...

  15. 7 CFR 782.12 - Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. 782.12... Certificate Program § 782.12 Filing FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for Wheat. (a) Each entity that imports wheat originating in Canada shall, for each entry into the U.S., obtain form FSA-750, End-Use Certificate for...

  16. Secondary Neutron-Production Cross Sections from Heavy-IonInteractions between 230 and 600 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, L.H.; Zeitlin, C.J.; Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T.; Iwase,H.; Nakamura, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Sato, H.; Yashima, H.; Ronningen, R.M.; Ieki, K.

    2006-10-04

    Secondary neutron-production cross-sections have beenmeasured from interactions of 230 MeV/nucleon He, 400 MeV/nucleon N, 400MeV/nucleon Kr, 400 MeV/nucleon Xe, 500 MeV/nucleon Fe, and 600MeV/nucleon Ne interacting in a variety of elemental and compositetargets. We report the double-differential production cross sections,angular distributions, energy spectra, and total cross sections from allsystems. Neutron energies were measured using the time-of-flighttechnique, and were measured at laboratory angles between 5 deg and 80deg. The spectra exhibit behavior previously reported in otherheavy-ion-induced neutron production experiments; namely, a peak atforward angles near the energy corresponding to the beam velocity, withthe remaining spectra generated by preequilibrium and equilibriumprocesses. The double-differential spectra are fitted with amoving-source parameterization. Observations on the dependence of thetotal cross sections on target and projectile mass arediscussed.

  17. Developing a demand model integrating end uses of water (DMEUW): structure and process of integration.

    PubMed

    Sarker, R C; Gato-Trinidad, S

    2015-01-01

    The process of developing an integrated water demand model integrating end uses of water has been presented. The model estimates and forecasts average daily water demand based on the end-use pattern and trend of residential water consumption, daily rainfall and temperature, water restrictions and water conservation programmes. The end-use model uses the latest end-use data set collected from Yarra Valley Water, Australia. A computer interface has also been developed using hypertext markup language and hypertext pre-processor. The developed model can be used by water authorities and water resource planners in forecasting water demand and by household owners in determining household water consumption. PMID:25746644

  18. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the photooxidation of 16 different terpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Anita; Goldstein, Allen H.; Kroll, Jesse H.; Ng, Nga L.; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-09-01

    The photooxidation of isoprene, eight monoterpenes, three oxygenated monoterpenes, and four sesquiterpenes were conducted individually at the Caltech Indoor Chamber Facility under atmospherically relevant HC:NOx ratios to monitor the time evolution and yields of SOA and gas-phase oxidation products using PTR-MS. Several oxidation products were calibrated in the PTR-MS, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, acetic acid, nopinone, methacrolein + methyl vinyl ketone; other oxidation products were inferred from known fragmentation patterns, such as pinonaldehyde; and other products were identified according to their mass to charge (m/z) ratio. Numerous unidentified products were formed, and the evolution of first- and second-generation products was clearly observed. SOA yields from the different terpenes ranged from 1 to 68%, and the total gas- plus particle-phase products accounted for ˜50-100% of the reacted carbon. The carbon mass balance was poorest for the sesquiterpenes, suggesting that the observed products were underestimated or that additional products were formed but not detected by PTR-MS. Several second-generation products from isoprene photooxidation, including m/z 113, and ions corresponding to glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, methylglyoxal, and hydroxycarbonyls, were detected. The detailed time series and relative yields of identified and unidentified products aid in elucidating reaction pathways and structures for the unidentified products. Many of the unidentified products from these experiments were also observed within and above the canopy of a Ponderosa pine plantation, confirming that many products of terpene oxidation can be detected in ambient air using PTR-MS, and are indicative of concurrent SOA formation.

  19. Microbial production of methylketones: properties of purified yeast secondary alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.N.; Hou, C.T.; Laskin, A.I.; Derelanko, P.

    1981-06-01

    Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH) was purified from extracts of a methanol-grown yeast, Pichia sp. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by ultracentrifugation and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified SADH has a molecular weight of 98,000 as determined by gel filtration and 102,000 as determined by sedimentation equilibrium analysis. The sedimentation constant s/sub 20,w/ was 6.0. The subunit size of the SADH was 48,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that it consists of two subunits. The purified SADH contained two atoms of zinc per mole of enzyme protein. SADH catalyzed the oxidation of secondary alcohols. Primary alcohols (C/sub 1/ to C/sub 8/ tested) were not oxidized. The purified SADH and extracts of various yeasts and bacteria also catalyzed the reduction of methylketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols in the presence of reduced NAD/sup +/ as an electron donor. Both reactions (oxidation of secondary alcohols in the presence of NAD/sup +/ and reduction of methylketones in the presence of reduced NAD/sup +/) catalyzed by the purified SADH were inhibited by metal-chelating agents, thio reagent, and by antisera prepared against the purified enzyme. The apparent K/sub m/ values for NAD/sup +/, reduced NAD/sup +/, reduced NAD/sup +/, 2-butanol, and 2-butanone are 0.05, 0.1, 0.4, and 1 mM, respectively. The purified enzyme preferentially oxidized (-)-2-butanol and (-)-2-octanol, the rate of oxidation of (+)-2-butanol and (+)-2-octanol was 36% and 13% of that of 100% with (-)-2-butanol and (-)-2-octanol, respectively. The K/sub m/ values for (-)-2-butanol and (+)-2-butanol were 3.0 and 0.75 mM, respectively. Antisera prepared against purified Pichia SADH cross-reacted with the SADH derived from bacteria. This suggests difference in immunological properties between yeast and bacterial SADH.

  20. Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics - Part 1: Surface tension depression and light-absorbing products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwier, A. N.; Shapiro, E. L.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

    2009-07-01

    We show that methylglyoxal forms light-absorbing secondary organic material in aqueous ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosol particles. The light-absorbing products form on the order of minutes, and solution composition continues to change over several days. The results suggest an aldol condensation pathway involving the participation of the ammonium ion. Aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal, with and without inorganic salts, exhibit surface tension depression. Methylglyoxal uptake could potentially change the optical properties, climate effects, and heterogeneous chemistry of the seed aerosol over its lifetime.

  1. Evaluation of energy deposition and secondary particle production in proton therapy of brain using a slab head phantom

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Sayyed Bijan; Hadizadeh, Mohammad Hadi; Mowlavi, Ali Asghar; Loushab, Mahdy Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Aim Evaluation of energy deposition of protons in human brain and calculation of the secondary neutrons and photons produced by protons in proton therapy. Background Radiation therapy is one of the main methods of treating localized cancer tumors. The use of high energy proton beam in radiotherapy was proposed almost 60 years ago. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in this subject in the context of radiation therapy. High energy protons suffer little angular deflection and have a well-defined penetration range, with a sharp increase in the energy loss at the end of their trajectories, namely the Bragg peak. Materials and methods A slab head phantom was used for the purpose of simulating proton therapy in brain tissue. In this study simulation was carried out using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code. Results By using mono energetic proton pencil beams, energy depositions in tissues, especially inside the brain, as well as estimating the neutron and photon production as a result of proton interactions in the body, together with their energy spectra, were calculated or obtained. The amount of energy escaped from the head by secondary neutrons and photons was determined. Conclusions It was found that for high energy proton beams the amount of escaped energy by neutrons is almost 10 times larger than that by photons. We estimated that at 110 MeV beam energy, the overall proton energy “leaked” from the head by secondary photons and neutrons to be around 1%. PMID:25337410

  2. Production of secondary particles and nuclei in cosmic rays collisions with the interstellar gas using the FLUKA code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotta, M. N.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gaggero, D.; Loparco, F.; Sala, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    The measured fluxes of secondary particles produced by the interactions of Cosmic Rays (CRs) with the astronomical environment play a crucial role in understanding the physics of CR transport. In this work we present a comprehensive calculation of the secondary hadron, lepton, gamma-ray and neutrino yields produced by the inelastic interactions between several species of stable or long-lived cosmic rays projectiles (p, D, T, 3He, 4He, 6Li, 7Li, 9Be, 10Be, 10B, 11B, 12C, 13C, 14C, 14N, 15N, 16O, 17O, 18O, 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si) and different target gas nuclei (p, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si and 40Ar). The yields are calculated using FLUKA, a simulation package designed to compute the energy distributions of secondary products with large accuracy in a wide energy range. The present results provide, for the first time, a complete and self-consistent set of all the relevant inclusive cross sections regarding the whole spectrum of secondary products in nuclear collisions. We cover, for the projectiles, a kinetic energy range extending from 0.1 GeV/n up to 100 TeV/n in the lab frame. In order to show the importance of our results for multi-messenger studies about the physics of CR propagation, we evaluate the propagated spectra of Galactic secondary nuclei, leptons, and gamma rays produced by the interactions of CRs with the interstellar gas, exploiting the numerical codes DRAGON and GammaSky. We show that, adopting our cross section database, we are able to provide a good fit of a complete sample of CR observables, including: leptonic and hadronic spectra measured at Earth, the local interstellar spectra measured by Voyager, and the gamma-ray emissivities from Fermi-LAT collaboration. We also show a set of gamma-ray and neutrino full-sky maps and spectra.

  3. Macrobenthic Secondary Production in the Intertidal Zone of the Ria Formosa—a Lagoon in Southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Martin

    1994-06-01

    Production and biomass of the macrobenthic intertidal fauna of a sand flat, a Zostera noltii bed, and a mud flat in the Ria Formosa, Southern Portugal were examined over an annual cycle. The following values were obtained for secondary production P (g ash free dry weight m -2 a -1) and average biomass B¯ (g ash free dry weight m -2)—the value in brackets with the epibenthic predator Carcinus maenas included: sand flat: P=32·5 (34·4); B¯ =15·2 (15·4); P/B¯=2·14 (2·23); Zostera noltii bed: P=54·2 (57·6); B¯ =16·7 (17·2); P/B¯=3·24 (3·35); mud flat: P=54·7 (71·5); B¯ =22·4 (25·1); P/B¯=2·44 (2·85). Biomass varied markedly with minimum values during winter and maxima in spring/summer reflecting highest macrobenthic production during spring and summer months. Production and biomass were much more diverse on the sand flat and in the Zostera bed compared to the mud flat. This was interpreted as being due to differences in grain size characteristics between the sand flat and the mud flat and a caging effect of Zostera leaves. Production figures are discussed with reference to the main food sources of the species. It is concluded that detritus must be of outstanding importance for the production processes in the Ria Formosa.

  4. Identification, recombinant expression, and biochemical analysis of putative secondary product glucosyltransferases from Citrus paradisi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonoid and limonoid glycosides influence taste properties as well as marketability of citrus fruit and products, particularly in grapefruit. In this work, nine grapefruit putative natural product glucosyltransferases (PGTs) were resolved by either using degenerate primers against the semi-conser...

  5. Markers of heterogeneous reaction products in α-pinene ozone secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czoschke, Nadine M.; Jang, Myoseon

    A gas chromatograph iontrap mass spectrometer (GC-ITMS) was used to analyze the gas-and particle-phase products of α-pinene ozone oxidation in the presence of three different inorganic seed aerosols: sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate only, and ammonium sulfate with sulfuric acid. Products of α-pinene ozone oxidation common to the literature showed little difference in gas or particle-phase concentrations between seed types within the precision of the measurements even though significantly different aerosol yields were found between seed types. Small amounts of ring-opening products of four-membered cyclic oxygenates and markers of aldol condensation products were tentatively identified in the particle-phase for all seed types. These tentatively identified products are thought to be the result of acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions in the particle-phase or during sampling processes or analysis. The mechanisms for their formation are also proposed in this study.

  6. 77 FR 51459 - Suspension of End-Use Certificate Program Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...) regulation requiring end-use certificates and tracking of wheat produced in Canada that enters the United... program. As a result of these changes, importers and end- users of Canadian produced wheat are no longer required to provide FSA end-use certificates or consumption and resale reports on wheat produced in...

  7. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  8. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  9. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  10. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  11. 15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for... biological weapons in or by any country or destination, worldwide. (b) Additional prohibition on...

  12. 15 CFR 744.2 - Restrictions on certain nuclear end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as amended, as implemented by the Department of Energy's regulations published in 10 CFR 810. (i... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on certain nuclear end... POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.2 Restrictions on certain nuclear end-uses. (a)...

  13. 15 CFR 744.2 - Restrictions on certain nuclear end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as amended, as implemented by the Department of Energy's regulations published in 10 CFR 810. (i... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on certain nuclear end... POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.2 Restrictions on certain nuclear end-uses. (a)...

  14. 15 CFR 744.5 - Restrictions on certain maritime nuclear propulsion end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear propulsion end-uses. 744.5 Section 744.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... nuclear propulsion end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for items... item is for use in connection with a foreign maritime nuclear propulsion project. This...

  15. 15 CFR 744.5 - Restrictions on certain maritime nuclear propulsion end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear propulsion end-uses. 744.5 Section 744.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... nuclear propulsion end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for items... item is for use in connection with a foreign maritime nuclear propulsion project. This...

  16. 48 CFR 245.7001-6, - DD Form 1822, End Use Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1822, End Use Certificate. 245.7001-6, Section 245.7001-6, Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....7001-6, DD Form 1822, End Use Certificate. Use when directed by the plant clearance officer....

  17. 15 CFR 744.5 - Restrictions on certain maritime nuclear propulsion end-uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear propulsion end-uses. 744.5 Section 744.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... nuclear propulsion end-uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition to the license requirements for items... item is for use in connection with a foreign maritime nuclear propulsion project. This...

  18. Grazing processes and secondary production in the Arabian Sea: A simple food web synthesis with measurement constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Michael R.

    The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study in the Arabian Sea during the mid 1990s provides a rare opportunity to elucidate carbon flows in the lower food web of an open ocean ecosystem. Analysis of that data to date has, however, produced widely divergent perspectives on major flux pathways and roles of zooplankton: from zooplankton as controlling grazers tightly coupled to microbial processes to zooplankton as casual consumers who let a large fraction of production, mostly generated by picophytoplankton, flow directly to detritus and export. Synthesis of experimental grazing rates and production inferences for mesozooplankton and microzooplankton fit well in a conceptually simple food web, constrained by measured carbon flows through phytoplankton and bacteria. Microzooplankton dominate grazing processes, consuming over 70% of particulate primary production (PP), on average, and providing steady and significant supplemental nutrition to mesozooplankton. Direct grazing estimates of mesozooplankton, on the order of 25% of PP, are sufficient to balance the remaining particulate production, with additional transfer through a one- to two-step food chain of microzooplankton accounting for a total ingestion of ˜40% of PP required for mesozooplankton secondary production. Dissolved organic carbon fluxes to bacteria are provided mostly within the constraints of gross and net primary production. Contradictory results from inverse models are likely due to an assumption that exaggerates by approximately twofold the production contribution of picophytoplankton and to the failure to use measured rates of gross primary production as a system constraint. Grazing generally balances net particulate primary production in the Arabian Sea, but true grazer control of phytoplankton dynamics remains an open issue for further study.

  19. Bioactive natural products from fungicolous Hawaiian isolates: secondary metabolites from a Phialemoniopsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amninder; Rogers, Kristina D.; Swenson, Dale E.; Dowd, Patrick F.; Wicklow, Donald T.; Gloer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigations of two fungal isolates initially identified as members of the genus Phialemonium are described. Both isolates were obtained as colonists of other fungi collected on the island of Hawaii and were later assigned as P. curvatum. However, P. curvatum has recently been reclassified as a member of a new genus (Phialemoniopsis) and renamed as Phialemoniopsis curvata. Studies of solid–substrate fermentation cultures of one of these isolates afforded an oxirapentyn analogue and destruxin A4 as major components, while analysis of the second strain led to the isolation of several simple aromatic metabolites and a compound of mixed biogenetic origin called gabusectin that had previously been reported only in a patent. Structures were assigned mainly by detailed nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis, and those of two of the major components were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. This report constitutes the first description of secondary metabolites from a member of the genus Phialemoniopsis. PMID:25379336

  20. Further Characterization of CELSS Wastes: A Review of Solid Wastes Present to Support Potential Secondary Biomass Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Matthew S.

    1996-01-01

    Controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) may one day play an essential role in extraterrestrial colonies. Key to the success of any CELSS will be the system's ability to approach a self-supporting status through recovery and reuse of basic resources. Primary CELSS solid wastes with potential to support secondary biomass production will be inedible plant biomass and metabolic human wastes. Solid waste production is summarized and reported as 765 g N per day per person, including 300 g C and 37 g N per day per person. One Resource Recovery configuration using the bioprocessing of solid wastes into a Tilapia feed stream is examined. Based on estimated conversion efficiencies, 12 g of protein per day per person is produced as a nutrition supplement. The unique tissue composition of crops produced at the Kennedy Space Center CELSS Program highlights the need to evaluate Resource Recovery components with data generated in the CELSS environment.

  1. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. PMID:26688290

  2. Analytical methods for the extraction and identification of secondary metabolite production in 'in vitro' plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The production of plant secondary metabolites by in vitro culture is one of the most challenging and thrilling field of recent scientific researches. In the few last years, pharmaceutical and food industry demand in phytochemicals has increased steadily. Therefore, the establishment of in vitro plant protocols has to be monitored by phytochemical investigation of their selected extracts in order to supply standardized raw material. In this chapter, the advantages and disadvantages of some modem techniques have been described for the sampling, extraction and analysis ofthe invitro plants and derivatives. Depending on the volatile or nonvolatile substances produced by in vitro plant raw material, different kinds of laboratory facilities are needed for the extraction and quali-quantitative analysis. Recent extraction technology such as accelerated solvent extraction or microwave assisted extraction in combination with hyphenated techniques such as gas chromathography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) represent a modern approach to perform fast and reproducible analytical methods for the quality control of secondary metabolite production in 'in vitro' plant material. PMID:21520717

  3. Secondary production of sandy beach macrofauna: An evaluation of predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Cardoso, Ricardo Silva; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Turra, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    During the last three decades, several predictive models have been developed to estimate the somatic production of macroinvertebrates. Although the models have been evaluated for their ability to assess the production of macrobenthos in different marine ecosystems, these approaches have not been applied specifically to sandy beach macrofauna and may not be directly applicable to this transitional environment. Hence, in this study, a broad literature review of sandy beach macrofauna production was conducted and estimates obtained with cohort-based and size-based methods were collected. The performance of nine models in estimating the production of individual populations from the sandy beach environment, evaluated for all taxonomic groups combined and for individual groups separately, was assessed, comparing the production predicted by the models to the estimates obtained from the literature (observed production). Most of the models overestimated population production compared to observed production estimates, whether for all populations combined or more specific taxonomic groups. However, estimates by two models developed by Cusson and Bourget provided best fits to measured production, and thus represent the best alternatives to the cohort-based and size-based methods in this habitat. The consistent performance of one of these Cusson and Bourget models, which was developed for the macrobenthos of sandy substrate habitats (C&BSS), shows that the performance of a model does not depend on whether it was developed for a specific taxonomic group. Moreover, since some widely used models (e.g., the Robertson model) show very different responses when applied to the macrofauna of different marine environments (e.g., sandy beaches and estuaries), prior evaluation of these models is essential.

  4. New Synthetic Pyrazine Carboxamide Derivatives as Potential Elicitors in Production of Secondary Metabolite in In vitro Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tůmová, Lenka; Tůma, Jiří; Doležal, Martin; Dučaiová, Zuzana; Kubeš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Silymarin, an active polyphenolic fraction of Silybum marianum, and high flavonoid content of Fagopyrum possess various interesting biological activities. The substituted pyrazine-2-carboxamides were previously used as effective elicitors of studied secondary metabolites. Objective: To study the effect of new synthetic pyrazine carboxamide derivatives, N-(4-chlorobenzyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (1) and 3-(3-((trifluoromethyl) benzyl) amino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide (2), on flavonolignan and flavonoid production in S. marianum and Fagopyrumes culentum in vitro cultures. Materials and Methods: Callus and suspension cultures were cultured on MS medium containing α-naphtaleneacetic acid or 2,4-D. Three elicitor concentrations for different exposure times were tested. Dried and powdered samples of callus and suspension cultures were extracted with methanol and analyzed by DAD-HPLC. Results: Compound 1 showed as a good elicitor of taxifolin production. The effect on silymarin complex was less visible with a maximum between 24 and 48 h after 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. The detailed analysis showed that silychristin was the most abundant. Compound 2 was effective in rutin production only in callus culture with maximum 24 h and 168 h after application of 3.3756 ×10−3 mol/L concentration and 48 and 72 h after 3.3756 ×10−4 mol/L concentration. Conclusion: From the results of the performed experiments, it can be concluded that compound 1 shows to be suitable elicitor for enhanced production of taxifolin and silychristin in S. marianum, mainly when 3.292 ×10−4 mol/L concentration was used, and compound 2 is suitable for increase rutin production in callus cultures and less appropriate for suspension cultures of F. esculentum. SUMMARY The influence of two new synthetic pyrazine-2-carboxamidesderivatives on secondary metabolite content of Silybum marianum and Fagopyrum esculentum in vitro cultures was tested.In S. marianum, the derivate N-(4

  5. Secondary production of benthic insects in three cold-desert streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, W.L.

    1987-07-01

    Aquatic insect production was studied in three cold-desert streams in eastern Washington (Douglas Creek, Snively Springs, and Rattlesnake Springs). The size-frequency method was applied to individual taxa to estimate total insect production. production was also assessed for functional groups and trophic levels in each stream. Optioservus sp. (riffle beetles) and Baetis sp. (mayflies) accounted for 72% of the total insect numbers and 50% of the total biomass in Douglas Creek. Baetis sp. accounted for 42% of the total insect numbers and 25% of the total biomass in Snively Springs. Simulium sp. (blackflies) and Baetis sp. comprised 74% of the total insect numbers and 55% of the total biomass in Rattlesnake Springs. Grazer-scrapers (49%) and collectors (48%) were the most abundant functional groups in Douglas Creek. Collectors were the most abundant functional group in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Herbivores and detritivores were the most abundant trophic level in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Dipterans (midges and blackflies) were the most productive taxa within the study streams, accounting for 40% to 70% of the total community production. Production by collectors and detritivores was the highest of all functional groups and trophic levels in all study streams.

  6. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary and secondary production off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William T.; Arcos, Dagoberto F.; McManus, George B.; Dam, Hans; Bellantoni, Diane; Johnson, Thomas; Tiselius, Peter

    The nearshore region of central Chile is important for spawning of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyii) and the importance of fisheries for these species has led to an interest in factors controlling the area's productivity. We studied daily variations in productivity at a nearshore station (25m depth) off Dichato, Chile (36°30‧S) during January 1986 to understand how wind-driven variability in the hydrography is translated into pulses of primary and secondary production of the plankton. During the study period, we observed three complete cycles of upwelling favourable/unfavourable winds. Water column destratification, as indicated by the surface-to-bottom gradient of sigma-t, lagged the wind by about one day. During active upwelling, cold water (<11.5°C) of high nitrate and low oxygen concentration (20-25μM and 1-2ml 1 -1 respectively) was found near the surface. During subsequent relaxation of upwelling, the water column became stratified as temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll increased. The size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton varied from one event to the next. Over the course of the study, from 15-100% of the chlorophyll could pass a 20μm mesh screen. Chain-forming diatoms, microflagellates, and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum dominated the first, second and third events, respectively. In rank order of abundance, Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus, Oithona spp., Acartia tonsa, Oncaea spp., Calanoides patagoniensis and Calanus chilensis dominated the copepod community. Changes in abundance of most species did not closely follow the upwelling cycle. Possibly, vertical movements or other behavioural responses caused zooplankton distributions to be uncorrelated with movements of the surface Ekman layer. Fecundity of several of the important copepod species was measured using the egg ratio and bottle incubation techniques. Compared to values reported in the literature

  7. Life history, secondary production and trophic basis of two dominant mayflies in a subtropical stream of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yunjun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    Mayflies constitute a major part of macroinvertebrate biomass and production in lotic ecosystems, and play an important role in material cycle and energy flow. There are more than 250 species of mayflies in rivers and streams of China. In order to learn their ecological functions, an investigation on life cycle, production and trophic basis of dominant species of mayflies in a second-order branch of Hanjiang River basin, Hubei, China was carried out during June 2003 to June 2004. The results showed that the dominant mayfly species Epeorus sp. and Caenis sp. developed two generations per year; in term of Epeorus sp., putation mainly occurred in spring and then from late summer to early autumn, while Caenis sp. pupated in spring and autumn. The abundance and biomass of the Epeorus sp. population peaked twice (1 226 ind/m2, 3.142 5g/m2) in April and June. Caenis sp. also had two peaks (307ind/m2, 1.590 g/m2), but in February and June. Cohort production and cohort P/B ratio of Epeorus sp. were 161.009 g/m2 wet weight and 7.7, respectively, and annual production and P/B ratio were 267.46g/m2.a wet weight and 15.4, respectively; cohort production and P/B ratio of Caenis sp. were 26.7995g/m2 wet weight and 4.7, its annual production and P/B ratio were 53.60 g/m2.a wet weight and 9.4, respectively. For Epeorus sp., the proportions contributing to secondary production of the main food types were: amorphous detritus, 33.46%; fungi, 10.83%; vascular plant detritus, 1.80%; diatoms, 53.90%; for Caenis sp., the proportions were 70.79%, 6.90%, 3.52% and 18.77%, respectively.

  8. Alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 3. Saturation states of product minerals and reaction paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Lu, Peng

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate the complex interplay between dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, we examined the hypothesis of partial equilibria between secondary mineral products and aqueous solutions in feldspar-water systems. Speciation and solubility geochemical modeling was used to compute the saturation indices (SI) for product minerals in batch feldspar dissolution experiments at elevated temperatures and pressures and to trace the reaction paths on activity-activity diagrams. The modeling results demonstrated: (1) the experimental aqueous solutions were supersaturated with respect to product minerals for almost the entire duration of the experiments; (2) the aqueous solution chemistry did not evolve along the phase boundaries but crossed the phase boundaries at oblique angles; and (3) the earlier precipitated product minerals did not dissolve but continued to precipitate even after the solution chemistry had evolved into the stability fields of minerals lower in the paragenesis sequence. These three lines of evidence signify that product mineral precipitation is a slow kinetic process and partial equilibria between aqueous solution and product minerals were not held. In contrast, the experimental evidences are consistent with the hypothesis of strong coupling of mineral dissolution/precipitation kinetics [e.g., Zhu C., Blum A. E. and Veblen D. R. (2004a) Feldspar dissolution rates and clay precipitation in the Navajo aquifer at Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. In Water-Rock Interaction (eds. R. B. Wanty and R. R. I. Seal). A.A. Balkema, Saratoga Springs, New York. pp. 895-899]. In all batch experiments examined, the time of congruent feldspar dissolution was short and supersaturation with respect to the product minerals was reached within a short period of time. The experimental system progressed from a dissolution driven regime to a precipitation limited regime in a short order. The results of this study suggest a complex feedback between dissolution and

  9. Secondary-Particle Production in Organic Material by Cosmic Rays: Simulations and CRaTER Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looper, M. D.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Spence, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that material between a radiation environment and a sensitive target, whether the target is an electronic device or living tissue, can enhance the dose received by the target instead of shielding it, depending on the characteristics of the material and of the radiation. The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is designed to measure this effect on the dose that would be received from the space radiation environment by an astronaut on or near the lunar surface. In between its silicon solid-state detectors are two pieces of Tissue-Equivalent Plastic (TEP) with a density and composition similar to muscle tissue, in which interacting primary cosmic-ray nuclei will produce secondary particles that increase dose in an underlying target beyond the base LET of the cosmic-ray particle itself. We will present results of Geant4 simulations of this effect given an incident cosmic-ray spectrum, and will compare those results with observations from CRaTER's first months in lunar orbit.

  10. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 μg L(-1) As; >1000 μg L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). PMID:25898346