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Sample records for secondary mineral microtextures

  1. Heavy Minerals in Palaeotsunami Deposits: Assemblages, Spatial Distribution and Microtextural Imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, P. J.; Andrade, C.; Cascalho, J.; Dawson, A. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Dawson, S.; Mahaney, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The sedimentological record provides a database useful to characterize and evaluate recurrence of tsunamis, which contributes to assessing the vulnerability of any coastal area to this natural hazard. Thus, the enhancement of our ability to recognize signatures specific of tsunami activity imprinted in coastal sediments is of unquestionable interest. The aim of this study is to discuss and further contribute to the improvement of the characterization of (palaeo)tsunami deposits, and of their source materials. With that purpose the vertical and horizontal distribution of heavy mineral (HM) assemblages in sand-sized tsunamigenic deposits from six locations exhibiting a varied suite of coastal contexts and corresponding to three inundation events -(8200yrs BP - Scotland, 1500yrs BP - Scotland, AD 1755 - Portugal) were studied. In general, results from paleotsunami sediments show that site-specific effects prevent 'blind' extrapolations; instead, the bulk of the HM assemblages reflect local specificities related with the regional geology. In the Portuguese sediments (Martinhal, Boca do Rio and Salgados) ca. 90% of the non-opaque HM population consists of tourmaline, andalusite and staurolite, whereas amphiboles are dominant (> 90% of the assemblage) in the Scottish sediments (Scasta Voe, Basta Voe and Whale Firth). Principal Components Analyses revealed that the first 2 components explain more than 2/3 of the total variance found in each site. Horizontal and vertical variations in the HM were observed and especially in the heavier mineral species. Although, in some of the studied cases, the deposit was macroscopically massive, data on HM allowed the distinction of backwash layer(s), related with incorporation of inland materials. In what concerns sources, results indicate that palaeotsunami sediments share fewer compositional similarities with present-day inshore and offshore materials and more resemblances with dune and beach sediment, thus indicating these as the more likely source areas. In addition, preliminary results of SEM analysis of microtextural features imprinted in the surface of heavy minerals indicate an increase in the number of mechanical marks in the surface of palaeotsunami grains when compared with potential source materials (beach, dune, inshore and offshore samples). This work further reveals the potential to use heavy minerals as a complementary sedimentological tool in the study of palaeotsunami deposits.

  2. Metal, mineral waste processing and secondary recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    Approximately 40 million tons of precious metals chemical wastes are produced in the United States every year. An estimated five percent of these wastes are being reused/recycled to recover the precious and critical metals they contain. The rest of these chemical wastes are disposed of by the methods incineration, dumping at sea and dumping on land. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the research work published during 1985-1986 on metal, mineral waste processing, secondary recovery and safe disposal.

  3. Weathering and Secondary Minerals in the Martian Meteorite Shergotty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; McKay, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The Shergotty martian meteorite contains weathering features and secondary minerals much like those in Nakhla, including secondary silicates, NaCl, and Ca-sulfate. It is likely that the weathering occurred on Mars.

  4. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  5. Ion beam microtexturing and enhanced surface diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed with particular emphasis on microtexturing induced by the deliberate deposition of controllable amounts of an impurity material onto a solid surface while simultaneously sputtering the surface with an ion beam. Experimental study of the optical properties of microtextured surfaces is described. Measurements of both absorptance as a function of wavelength and emissivity are presented. A computer code is described that models the sputtering and ion reflection processes involved in microtexture formation.

  6. Bisphosphonates do not Alter the Rate of Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    R Fuchs; M Faillace; M Allen; R Phipps; L Miller; D Burr

    2011-12-31

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), ALN (n=12; 2.4 {mu}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n=12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  7. Bisphosphonates do not alter the rate of secondary mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs R. K.; Miller L.; Faillace M.E.; Allen M.R.; Phipps R.J. and Burr D.B.

    2011-05-18

    Bisphosphonates function to reduce bone turnover, which consequently increases the mean degree of tissue mineralization at an organ level. However, it is not clear if bisphosphonates alter the length of time required for an individual bone-modeling unit (BMU) to fully mineralize. We have recently demonstrated that it takes {approx}350 days (d) for normal, untreated cortical bone to fully mineralize. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which newly formed trabecular BMUs become fully mineralized in rabbits treated for up to 414 d with clinical doses of either risedronate (RIS) or alendronate (ALN). Thirty-six, 4-month old virgin female New Zealand white rabbits were allocated to RIS (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), ALN (n = 12; 2.4 {micro}g/kg body weight), or volume-matched saline controls (CON; n = 12). Fluorochrome labels were administered at specific time intervals to quantify the rate and level of mineralization of trabecular bone from the femoral neck (FN) by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The organic (collagen) and inorganic (phosphate and carbonate) IR spectral characteristics of trabecular bone from undecalcified 4 micron thick tissue sections were quantified from fluorescently labels regions that had mineralized for 1, 8, 18, 35, 70, 105, 140, 210, 280, and 385 d (4 rabbits per time point and treatment group). All groups exhibited a rapid increase in mineralization over the first 18 days, the period of primary mineralization, with no significant differences between treatments. Mineralization continued to increase, at a slower rate up, to 385 days (secondary mineralization), and was not different among treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for the rate of mineralization within an individual BMU; however, ALN and RIS both increased global tissue mineralization as demonstrated by areal bone mineral density from DXA. We conclude that increases in tissue mineralization that occur following a period of bisphosphonate treatment is a function of the suppressed rate of remodeling that allows for a greater number of BMUs to obtain a greater degree of mineralization.

  8. Secondary Iron Mineral Formation by Shewanellae Using Different Carbon Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, E. C.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Nealson, K. H.

    2007-12-01

    It has been known for some time that microbes play an important role in the redox cycling of iron. A considerable amount of work has been done investigating the various factors that play a role in solid phase iron reduction such as the type of iron oxide available for reduction, medium composition, surface area and ferrous iron concentration. However, the rate at which a single cell reduces iron oxides and the impact of dissimilatory iron reduction kinetics on mineral speciation are not well understood. In order to determine the relationship between iron oxide reduction rates and secondary mineral formation, we have tested 4 different strains of Shewanella with different carbon sources. Strains MR-1, MR-4, CN32 and W3-18-1 were incubated with HFO (hydrous ferric oxide) as electron acceptor and either lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine or uridine as the organic carbon source. Mineral products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Initial results suggest that reduction rates are similar among strains when using the same carbon source. However, qualitative assessment of mineral products suggests that while reduction rates for the tested strains may be similar, the secondary mineral products can be quite different.

  9. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  10. Secondary hydrothermal mineral system in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mormone, A.; Piochi, M.; Di Vito, M. A.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mineral systems generally develop around the deep root of the volcanoes down to the degassing magma chamber due the selective enrichment process of elements within the host-rock. The mineralization process depends on i) volcanic structure, ii) magma and fluid chemistry, iii) host-rock type and texture, iv) temperature and pressure conditions, and v) action timing that affect the transport and precipitation conditions of elements in the solution. Firstly, it generates a hydrothermal system that in a later phase may generate considerable metallogenic mineralization, in terms of both spatial extension and specie abundance. The study of secondary assemblages through depth and, possibly, through time, together with the definition of the general geological, structural, mineralogical and petrological context is the background to understand the genesis of mineral-to-metallogenic systems. We report our study on the Campi Flegrei volcano of potassic Southern Italy belt. It is a sub-circular caldera characterized by an active high-temperature and fluid-rich geothermal system affected by seismicity and ground deformation in the recent decades. The circulating fluids originate at deeper level within a degassing magma body and give rise at the surface up to 1500 tonnes/day of CO2 emissions. Their composition is intermediate between meteoric water and brines. Saline-rich fluids have been detected at ~3000 in downhole. The hydrothermal alteration varies from argillitic to phillitic, nearby the caldera boundary, to propilitic to thermo-metamorphic facies towards its centre. The Campi Flegrei caldera was defined as analogue of mineralized system such as White Island (New Zealand) that is an example of an active magmatic and embryonic copper porphyry system. In order to enhance the knowledge of such a type of embryonic-like metallogenic system, we have carried out macroscopic and microscopic investigations, SEM-EDS and electron microprobe analyses on selected samples from deep wells drilled in the '80s by the Agip Oil Company at the Campi Flegrei caldera. The new data have been merged with those available in the current volcanological, mineralogical and petrological literature in order to generate an innovative model and define the relationship between the caldera structure and the secondary mineralogy.

  11. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content < 300 g/t) occurred from 1972 to 1990 using acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.7-2.8) and diluted sulphuric acid (10 g/l). Secondary mineral phases like birnessite, todorokite and goethite occur within a natural attenuation process associated with enrichment of heavy metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance of iron on this process, as some MOB isolates were able to oxidize manganese independently from the iron content, whereas some are not. The latter isolates are only able to oxidize manganese if iron is present in the media. In the lysimeter, SEM-EDX data showed microorganisms in organic rich phases together with the occurrence of manganese, oxygen, and nickel, indicating manganese oxides enriched in nickel. Although this new mineral phases could not yet be identified microprobe EDX results from polished thin sections showed needle-like mineral structures that are similar to the birnessite and todorokite samples observed from field samples. Hence, the lysimeter experiment revealed that the formation of iron and manganese minerals that are involved in heavy metal natural attenuation is result of both abiotic and biotic processes.

  12. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  13. Secondary mineral formation in the White River tephra in grassland and forest soils in central Yukon Territory

    E-print Network

    Sanborn, Paul

    Secondary mineral formation in the White River tephra in grassland and forest soils in central July 2005. Strickland, A. J., Arocena, J. M., Sanborn, P. and Smith, C. A. S. 2005. Secondary mineral-arid climate were investigated to evaluate the formation of secondary minerals within the White River tephra

  14. The role of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Samson, Sherry D.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2004-06-27

    The effects of secondary mineral precipitates on radionuclide sequestration at the Hanford Site were investigated by reacting quartz and Hanford sediment (Warden Soil) with caustic solution of high ionic strength (2 M NaNO3), high pH (~13), high temperature (~90oC), and dissolved Al(0.01 M Al(NO3)3). Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3-10 days reaction time. The presence of dissolved Al in the simulated tank fluid was found to depress the net Si dissolved concentration. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results, secondary precipitates (cancrinite) at the primary mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides of major concern at the Hanford Site such as 129I, 79Se, 99Tc, and 90Sr.

  15. Mandrels For Microtextured Small-Vessel Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Gabriel, Stephen B.

    1989-01-01

    Research shows artificial blood-vessel and heart-valve implants made more compatible with their biological environments by use of regularly microtextured surfaces. In new manufacturing process, ion beam etches patterned array of small pillars on mandrel used to mold tubular plastic implant. Pillars create tiny regularly spaced holes in inner surface of tube. Holes expected to provide sites for attachment of healthy lining. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) used as mandrel material because it can be etched by ion beam.

  16. The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5) and a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 4558.6 Ma for the LEW86010 angrite. However. the (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of "intermediate" age D'Orbigny-clan angrites and Asuka 881394 are inconsistent with radioactive decay from CAI values with a Mn-55 half-life of 3.7+/-0.4 Ma. in spite of consistency between (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) and (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I). Nevertheless, it appears that the Mn-Cr method with I(Mn)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) can be used to date primary igneous events and also secondary mineralization on asteroid parent bodies. We summarize ages thus determined for igneous events on differentiated asteroids and for carbonate and fayalite formation on carbonaceous asteroids.

  17. Direct Mineral Melting in the Maniitsoq Structure, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keulen, N.; Garde, A. A.; Johansson, L.

    2013-09-01

    Microtextures of shock-melted minerals in the Maniitsoq structure constitute compelling evidence of impact-induced single mineral melting, and also document differential crustal reverberation during the solidification of each shock-melted phase.

  18. Sorption of trace constituents from aqueous solutions onto secondary minerals. II. Radium

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, L.L.; McGarrah, J.E.; Walker, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Radium sorption efficiencies as a function of temperature, Ra concentration, and secondary mineral sorbate were determined in a 0.01 M NaCl solution. Radium sorption on a characterized clinoptilolite, montmorillonite, nontronite, opal, silica gel, illite, kaolinite, and glauconite under comparable experimental conditions allowed determination of Ra sorption efficiency curves for each, through use of Freundlich constants, over the same temperature and initial Ra solution concentration range Similar sorption data for U on the same secondary minerals over the same temperatures allowed comparison of sorption efficiencies for Ra and U. Clinoptilolite, illite, and nontronite were the most efficient Ra sorbents, while opal and silica gel were the poorest Ra sorbents. Generally, Ra sorption on secondary minerals was much greater than U sorption under the same experimental conditions. 13 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Effects of the secondary minerals of the natural pozzolans on their pozzolanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Habert, G. Choupay, N.; Montel, J.M.; Guillaume, D.

    2008-07-15

    Natural pozzolans have been widely used as substitutes for Portland cement, because of their binding properties. Some of them are natural volcanic rocks which contain secondary minerals such as clays and zeolites corresponding to products of the alteration of the rock. The objective of this study was to document the potential effect of the secondary minerals on the strength development of pozzolanic mortars. We chose to investigate this effect by thermally destabilising these minerals in three different pozzolanic deposits (poz-1, poz-2 and poz-3). We first did a detailed mineralogical study, to identify the occurrence and the nature of the different secondary minerals. Kaolinite is abundant in poz-1 and different types of zeolite were identified in poz-2 and poz-3. Thermal treatments were monitored by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, in order to document mineralogical transformations. The effect on the pozzolanic activity has been tested by strength measurements on normalised mortars at 1, 7 and 28 days. Strength of all blended cements is enhanced while destabilising secondary alteration minerals. For kaolinite, we showed that a strength improvement occurs as soon as it is destructured, even if it is not transformed in metakaolin. For zeolites, destabilisation takes place at low temperature (350 deg. C), but as recrystallisation products are easily formed, activation temperature window is narrow. Endly, we have evidence that the presence of calcite in pozzolans has an effect on early strength. Therefore this study is giving new perspectives for a better use of natural pozzolanic materials in the cement industry.

  20. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78...

  1. Weathering features and secondary minerals in Antarctic Shergottites ALHA77005 and LEW88516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Gooding, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that all three sub-groups of the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) clan of meteorites contain aqueous precipitates of probable pre-terrestrial origin. In the context of secondary minerals, the most thoroughly studied shergottite has been Elephant Moraine, Antarctica A79001 (EETA79001). The recognition of LEW88516 as the latest SNC specimen, and its close similarity with ALHA77005, invite a comparative study of the latter two meteorites, and with EETA79001, from the perspective of aqueous alteration. The fusion crusts of the two meteorites are quite similar except that ALHA77005 is more vesicular (possibly indicating a higher indigenous volatile content). Secondary aluminosilicates (and salts on LEW88516) of definite Antarctic origin partially fill vesicles and fractures on both fusion crusts. Interior samples of the two meteorites are grossly similar in that traces of secondary minerals are present in both.

  2. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals from Chemical Weathering of Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; McGrail, B PETER.; Legore, Virginia L.

    2002-09-01

    Data from corrosion and radionuclide sequestration studies on two waste glasses indicated chemical weathering resulted in the formation of zeolite minerals such as herschelite and analcime. We also found that these minerals incorporated {approx}8 - 22%, {approx}1- 13% and {approx}8 - 25% of spiked 125-I, 99-Tc, and 75-Se respectively. Increasing concentrations of radionuclides in spike solution resulted in higher degree of sequestration as observed by significantly higher proportion of stable isotopes ({approx}70 - 95% I, {approx}58 - 100% Re, and {approx}100% Se) in secondary minerals. The radionuclide incorporation mechanisms for these minerals appear to be mainly isomorphic substitution of Se and Re in tetrahedral sites and iodide substitution for framework oxygen.

  3. Method of making a coating of a microtextured surface

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D [Tucson, AZ; Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Gross, Mark E [Pasco, WA; Burrows, Paul E [Kennewick, WA; Sapochak, Linda S [Henderson, NV

    2004-11-02

    A method for conformally coating a microtextured surface. The method includes flash evaporating a polymer precursor forming an evaporate, passing the evaporate to a glow discharge electrode creating a glow discharge polymer precursor plasma from the evaporate, cryocondensing the glow discharge polymer precursor plasma on the microtextured surface and crosslinking the glow discharge polymer precursor plasma thereon, wherein the crosslinking resulting from radicals created in the glow discharge polymer precursor plasma.

  4. Alteration Products and Secondary Minerals in Martian Meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The martian meteorites contain alteration products and secondary minerals that are a critical part of understanding their near-surface histories on both Mars and Earth. In some martian meteorites, suspected martian preterrestrial alteration products can be distinguished from terrestrial weathering effects Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), we are studying natural fracture surfaces of ALH 84001 chips, including samples from both the interior and the exterior of the meteorite. Exterior samples include fusion crust surfaces, which are important in determining the extent of terrestrial weathering of meteorites. The focus of this study is weathering features and secondary minerals other than the distinctive carbonate globules that continue to be studied by many researchers.

  5. Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; Sturchid, Neil C.

    2003-06-01

    Objective: The primary goals of this project are to (1) quantify the kinetics and thermodynamics of dominant mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions considered to result in significant uptake of contaminants upon mixing of leaked tank fluids and Hanford soil and soil solutions; (2) quantify the kinetics of subsequent reactions that might enhance the mobility of the contaminants; and, (3) quantify the uptake of radionuclide contaminants in the secondary precipitates.

  6. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  7. Reduction of jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and secondary mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingjie, Ouyang; Xiancai, Lu; Huan, Liu; Juan, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Xiangyu, Zhu; Jianjun, Lu; Rucheng, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Jarosite is a common mineral in a variety of environments formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide normally accompanying with the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) in mining areas or acid rock drainages (ARD) in many localities. Decomposition of jarosite by dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) influences the mobility of many heavy metals generally accommodated in natural jarosite. This study examined the anaerobic reduction of synthesized jarosite by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a typical facultative bacteria. The release of ferrous and ferric ion, as well as sulfate and potassium, in the inoculated experimental group lasting 80 days is much higher than that in abiotic control groups. The detection of bicarbonate and acetate in experimental solution further confirms the mechanism of microbial reduction of jarosite, in which lactate acts as the electron donor. The produced ferrous iron stimulates the subsequent secondary mineralization, leading to precipitation and transformation of various iron-containing minerals. Green rust and goethite are the intermediate minerals of the microbial reduction process under anoxic conditions, and the end products include magnetite and siderite. In aerobic environments, goethite, magnetite and siderite were also detected, but the contents were relatively lower. While in abiotic experiments, only goethite has been detected as a product. Thus, the microbial reduction and subsequent mineral transformation can remarkably influence the geochemical cycling of iron and sulfur in supergene environments, as well as the mobility of heavy metals commonly accommodated in jarosite.

  8. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  9. Mineral dissolution and secondary precipitation on quartz sand in simulated Hanford tank solutions affecting subsurface porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-01

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89 °C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  10. Inhibition Effect of Secondary Phosphate Mineral Precipitation on Uranium Release from Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Deng, Baolin

    2009-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release was evaluated using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment collected from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The sediment contained U(VI) that was associated with diffusion-limited intragrain regions within its mm-size granitic lithic fragments. The sediment was first treated to promote phosphate mineral precipitation in batch suspensions spiked with 1 and 50 mM aqueous phosphate, and calcium in a stoichiometric ratio of mineral hydroxyapatite. The phosphate-treated sediment was then leached to solubilize contaminant U(VI) in a column system using a synthetic groundwater that contained chemical components representative of Hanford groundwater. Phosphate treatment significantly decreased the extent of U(VI) release from the sediment. Within the experimental duration of about 200 pore volumes, the effluent U(VI) concentrations were consistently lower by over one and two orders of magnitude after the sediment was treated with 1 and 50 mM of phosphate, respectively. Measurements of solid phase U(VI) using various spectroscopes and chemical extraction of the sediment collectively indicated that the inhibition of U(VI) release from the sediment was caused by: 1) U(VI) adsorption to the secondary phosphate precipitates and 2) the transformation of initially present U(VI) mineral phases to less soluble forms.

  11. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    PubMed

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. PMID:21879833

  12. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets

    PubMed Central

    Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

  13. Secondary-mineral formation during natural weathering of pyroxene: Review and thermodynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Noack, Y.; Nahon, D.; Michaux, L. ); Colin, F.; Delvigne, J. )

    1993-02-01

    Physical and chemical factors controlling natural weathering processes of pyroxenes through the formation of secondary minerals are reviewed. It has been shown that besides climate, mineralogy, and petrology of parent rocks, mineralogy and structural arrangement of secondary phases rule over the composition of the pyroxene-derived products during increased weathering. Drainage conditions, however, are the most critical factors in constraining weathering paths from the earlier stages of cation-depleted layer-silicate formation to the last stages of goethite/kaolinite formation. A succession of transitional phyllosilicates develops from Mg-endmembers to Fe- or Al-endmembers. The chemistry of natural percolating waters remains poorly known, and local pH and Eh are generally unknown and difficult to measure in situ. Nevertheless these agents should play an important role at the microscale in the formation of weathering products. Therefore, thermodynamic simulation is required for a better understanding of the natural secondary products formed at the expense of pyroxene. In this paper, computerized calculations were used to monitor the theoretical congruent dissolution, without kinetic effects, of a known mixture of minerals with a solution defined by initial pH, O[sub 2], and CO[sub 2] fugacities, temperature, and opening degree of the system. Results of this thermodynamic modeling generally agree with natural weathering paths, as, for example, successive replacements of pyroxene by Fe- and Al-bearing products such as goethite, kaolinite, and smectites. Changes of pO[sub 2] and Al-content strongly control the composition of the clay solid-solution. Consideration of kinetic effects, composition of weathering solutions in the field, and in situ oxygen fugacity measurement should rank high among future research priorities. 57 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration in Oregon's Newberry Volcano No. 2: fluid chemistry and secondary-mineral distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Mariner, R.H.; Bargar, K.E.; Evans, W.C.; Presser, T.S.

    1984-04-01

    Newberry 2 was drilled in the caldera floor of Newberry Volcano, Oregon, by the US Geological Survey during 1979-81. The maximum temperature measured was 265C at the bottom of the hole, 932 m below the surface. Rocks recovered fr9om the drill hole are divided into three intervals on the basis of hydrothermal alteration and mineral deposition: (1) 0-290 m consists of unaltered, largely glassy volcanic material, with present temperatures ranging from 20 to 40C; (2) 290-700 m consists of permeable tuff layers, tuff breccia units, and brecciated and fractured rhyodacitic to dacitic lava flows, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 100C; (3) 700-932 m consists of impermeable andesitic to basaltic lava flows that generally show little effect of alteration, interlayered with permeable hydrothermally altered flow breccia, with temperatures gradually increasing from 100 at 700 m to 265C at 932 m. Hydrothermal alteration throughout the system is controlled by rock permeability, temperature, composition of geothermal fluids, and composition and crystallinity of host rocks. Rock alteration consists mainly of replacement of glass by clay minerals and, locally, zeolites, partial replacement of plagioclase phenocrysts by calcite +/- epidote +/- illite, and whole-rock leaching adjacent to fluids channels. Open-space deposition of hydrothermal minerals in fractures, vesicles, and interbreccia pore space is far more abundant than replacement. A cooling shallow convection system in the upper 700 m is indicated by the occurrence of hydrothermal minerals that were deposited in a slightly higher temperature environment than presently exists. Below 700 m, the heat flow is conductive, and fluid flow is controlled by horizontal lava flows. Homogenization temperatures of secondary quartz fluid inclusions were as high as 370C.

  16. Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Minerals KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Fabulous Food > Minerals Print A A A Text Size What's in ... commercials for breakfast cereal always mention vitamins and minerals ? But when you think of minerals, food isn' ...

  17. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  18. Evidence for an unsaturated-zone origin of secondary minerals in Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Joseph F.; Roedder, Edwin; Paces, James B.

    2001-04-29

    The unsaturated zone (UZ) in Miocene-age welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Secondary calcite and silica minerals deposited on fractures and in cavities in the UZ tuffs are texturally, isotopically, and geochemically consistent with UZ deposition from meteoric water infiltrating at the surface and percolating through the UZ along fractures. Nonetheless, two-phase fluid inclusions with small and consistent vapor to liquid (V:L) ratios that yield consistent temperatures within samples and which range from about 35 to about 80 C between samples have led some to attribute these deposits to formation from upwelling hydrothermal waters. Geochronologic studies have shown that calcite and silica minerals began forming at least 10 Ma and continued to form into the Holocene. If their deposition were really from upwelling water flooding the UZ, it would draw into question the suitability of the site as a waste repository.

  19. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  20. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish require the same minerals or inorganic elements as terrestrial animals for tissue formation, osmoregulation and various metabolic functions. Those required in large quantities are termed macro- or major minerals and those required in small quantities are called micro- or trace minerals. Fish ca...

  1. Interest of Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix in Secondary Autogenous Bone Graft for the Treatment of Alveolar Clefts.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Florian; Chaput, Benoit; Périssé, Jean; de Bérail, Ambre; Lauwers, Frédéric; Lopez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    The authors describe a new material termed mineralized plasmatic matrix (MPM), a combination of platelets, fibrin concentrate, and autogenous bone to repair alveolar cleft defects. Autogenous cancellous bone is widely used to this end because such bone affords the functionalities (osteogenesis, osteoinduction, and osteoconduction) required for successful outcomes. To optimize these features, autologous blood products high in platelet concentrations have recently been developed. On the basis of our experience with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) and PRF (platelet-rich fibrin), we developed MPM, which contains platelets and fibrin concentrate in a liquid state; these materials can become bound to bone particles. The filling material is easy to shape and a PRF-type membrane is also generated. Ten patients with cleft lips and alveoli, with or without cleft palates (median, or uni- or bilateral) benefited from secondary bone grafts placed using our new material. We transferred autogenous bone from the iliac crest, an abundant source of cancellous bone associated with a high success rate. The 6-month outcomes of all patients were excellent in terms of both bone graft stability and closure of the oronasal fistulae. The preparation procedure is simple and the technical requirements minimal. Upon further optimization, MPM may serve as a third-generation platelet concentrate with potential applications in various fields. PMID:26468799

  2. Mineral phases and metals in baghouse dust from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; El Badawy, Amro M; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Adkins, Renata; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2015-09-01

    Baghouse dust (BHD) is a solid waste generated by air pollution control systems during secondary aluminum processing (SAP). Management and disposal of BHD can be challenging in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 78 BHD samples collected from 13 different SAP facilities across the U.S. were investigated. The XRD semi-quantitative analysis of BHD samples suggests the presence of metallic aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel, elpasolite as well as diaspora. BHD also contains halite, sylvite and fluorite, which are used as fluxes in SAP activities. Total aluminum (Al) in the BHD samples averaged 18% by weight. Elevated concentrations of trace metals (>100 ?g L(-1) As; >1000 ?g L(-1) Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Mn and Zn) were also detected in the leachate. The U.S. toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that some samples leached above the toxicity limit for Cd, Pb and Se. Exceeding the TCLP limits in all sample is independent of facilities generating the BHD. From the metal content perspective only, it appears that BHD has a higher potential to exhibit toxicity characteristics than salt cake (the largest waste stream generated by SAP facilities). PMID:25898346

  3. 9 M.y. record of southern Nevada climate from Yucca Mountain secondary minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, J.F.; Moscati, R.J.

    1998-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation`s high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs within which the depth to water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present day arid to semi-arid climate, is considered a favorable attribute of the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relation between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible future transport and release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration. Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences, coupled with the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite, allow broadbrush reconstructions of climate patterns during the past 9 M.y.

  4. Volcanic stratigraphy and secondary mineralization of U. S. G. S. Pucci geothermal test well, Mount Hood, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Gannett, M.W.; Bargar, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-one sample splits of drill cuttings from approximately 6.1 m intervals in the 610 m hole that was completed in 1979 were provided for this study. An additional 225 sample splits (3.05 m intervals) from 536 m to the bottom of the drill hole at 1220 m were added to the study following the deepening of the drill hole. Stratigraphic and petrologic observations of the cuttings were made. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer examinations were made of alteration minerals. The lithology and secondary mineralization are discussed.

  5. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report for Subtask 3d

    SciTech Connect

    SV Mattigod; DI Kaplan; VL LeGore; RD Orr; HT Schaef; JS Young

    1998-10-23

    Experiments were conducted in fiscal year 1998 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low- Activity Waste-Petiormance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field enviromnent of disposed vitrified wastes. An initial experiment was conducted to identify the types of secondary minerals that form from two glass samples of differing compositions, LD6 and SRL202. Chemical weathering of LD6 glass at 90oC in contact with an aliquot of uncontaminated Hanford Site groundwater resulted in the formation of a Crystalline zeolitic mineral, phillipsite. In contrast similar chemical weathering of SRL202 glass at 90"C resulted in the formation of a microcrystalline smectitic mineral, nontronite. A second experiment was conducted at 90"C to assess the degree to which key radionuclides would be sequestered in the structure of secondary crystalline minerals; namely, phillipsite and nontronite. Chemical weathering of LD6 in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater indicated that substantial ilactions of the total activities were retained in the phillipsite structure. Similar chemical weathering of SRL202 at 90"C, also in contact with radionuclide-spiked Hanford Site groundwater, showed that significant fractions of the total activities were retained in the nontronite structure. These results have important implications regarding the radionuclide mobilization aspects of the ILAW-PA. Additional studies are required to confkm the results and to develop an improved under- standing of mechanisms of sequestration and attenuated release of radionuclides to help refine certain aspects of their mobilization.

  6. The effects of secondary mineral formation on Coe-type paleointensity determinations: Theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Liu, Qingsong; Paterson, Greig A.; Qin, Huafeng; Cai, Shuhui; Yu, Yongjae; Zhu, Rixiang

    2014-04-01

    experiments are the most widely applied approaches for determining the absolute paleointensities of Earth's magnetic field. One major problem, however, is that specimens are prone to thermal alteration due to the intensive thermal treatment during experiments. Linear Arai plots with acceptable partial thermal remanent magnetization (pTRM) checks have been considered as evidence for the absence of or negligible effects of thermal alteration and as reliable indicators of high-quality paleointensity estimates. However, by simulating the Coe variant of the Thellier method on assemblages of single domain (SD) magnetite particles, it is demonstrated that new magnetic minerals, which form during thermal treatments, can result in linear, concave-up, or concave-down Arai plots depending on the magnetic properties of both the primary and secondary magnetic phases. Among this range of behavior, pseudoideal Arai plots, which are linear with acceptable pTRM check statistics, would lead to paleointensity underestimates. It is further demonstrated that pTRM checks are proportional to the degree of underestimate with a magnetic granulometry dependency for SD particles. Due to the complexity of this dependency, pTRM check statistics are only comparable when specimens have similar magnetic properties. This suggests that a universal threshold for pTRM check statistics is not likely to be effective. Since the criteria of linearity and low pTRM check statistics are insufficient to guarantee the fidelity of the estimates auxiliary rock magnetic methods such as temperature-dependent hysteresis parameters and anhysteretic remanent magnetization are highly recommended to identify the presence of alteration.

  7. Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: new data in a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Holmes, Jennifer L; Vajda, Eric G; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2005-09-01

    Using qualitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, some investigators have concluded that cement (reversal) lines located at the periphery of secondary osteons are poorly mineralized viscous interfaces with respect to surrounding bone. This conclusion contradicts historical observations of apparent highly mineralized (or collagen-deficient) cement lines in microradiographs. Such conclusions, however, may stem from unrecognized artifacts that can occur during scanning electron microscopy. These include specimen degradation due to high-energy beams and the sampling of electron interaction volumes that extend beyond target locations during EDX analysis. This study used quantitative BSE imaging and EDX analysis, each with relatively lower-energy beams, to test the hypothesis that cement lines are poorly mineralized. Undemineralized adult human femoral diaphyses (n = 8) and radial diaphyses (n = 5) were sectioned transversely, embedded in polymethyl methacrylate, and imaged in a scanning electron microscope for BSE and EDX analyses. Unembedded samples were also evaluated. Additional thin embedded samples were stained and evaluated with light microscopy and correlated BSE imaging. BSE analyses showed the consistent presence of a bright line (higher atomic number) coincident with the classical location and description of the cement line. This may represent relative hypermineralization or, alternatively, collagen deficiency with respect to surrounding bone. EDX analyses of cement lines showed either higher Ca content or equivalent Ca content when compared to distant osteonal and interstitial bone. These data reject the hypothesis that cement lines of secondary osteons are poorly mineralized. PMID:16037990

  8. Comparison of microstructure of superplastically deformed synthetic materials and ultramylonite: Coalescence of secondary mineral grains via grain boundary sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Tasaka, M.; Yoshida, H.

    2011-12-01

    Using very fine-grained aggregates of forsterite containing ~10vol% secondary mineral phase such as periclase and enstatite, we have been able to demonstrate their superplascity, that is, achievement of more than a few 100 % tensile strain (Hiraga et al. 2010). Superplastic deformation is commonly considered to proceed via grain boundary sliding (GBS) which results in grain switching in the samples. Hiraga et al. (2010) succeeded in detecting the operation of GBS from observing the coalescence of grains of secondary phase in superplastically deformed samples. The secondary phase pins the motion of grain boundaries of the primary phase; however, the reduction of the number of the grains of secondary phase due to their coalescence allows grain growth of the primary phase. We analyzed the relationships between grain size of the primary and secondary phases, between strain and grain size, and between strain and the number of coalesced grains in the superplastically deformed samples. The results supports participation of all the grains of the primary phase in grain switching process indicating that the grain boundary sliding accommodates almost entire strain during the deformation. Mechanical properties of these materials such as their stress and grain size exponents of 1-2 do not conflict this conclusion. We applied the relationships obtained from analyzing superplastic materials to the microstructure of the natural samples, which has been considered to have deformed via grain boundary sliding, that is, ultramylonite. The microstructure of greenschist-grade ultramylonite reported by Fliervoet et al. (1997) was analyzed. Distributions of the mineral phases (i.e., quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite) show distinct coalescence of the same mineral phases in the direction almost perpendicular to the foliation of the rock. The number of coalesced grains indicates that the strain that rock experienced is > 2. [reference] Hiraga et al. (2010) Nature 468, 1091-1094; Fliervoet et al. (1997) Journal of Structural Geology 19, 1495-1520

  9. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO2(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fibroblast extracellular matrix and adhesion on microtextured polydimethylsiloxane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Morgan M; Parrillo, Allegra; Thomas, Gawain M; McGimpsey, W Grant; Wen, Qi; Bellin, Robert M; Lambert, Christopher R

    2015-05-01

    The immediate physical and chemical surroundings of cells provide important biochemical cues for their behavior. Designing and tailoring biomaterials for controlled cell signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) can be difficult due to the complexity of the cell-surface relationship. To address this issue, our research has led to the development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffold with defined microtopography and chemistry for surface driven ECM assembly. When human fibroblasts were cultured on this microtextured PDMS with 2-6 µm wide vertical features, significant changes in morphology, adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, and fibronectin generation were noted when compared with cells cultured on unmodified PDMS. Investigation of cellular response and behavior was performed with atomic force microscopy in conjunction with fluorescent labeling of focal adhesion cites and fibronectin in the ECM. Changes in the surface topography induced lower adhesion, an altered actin cytoskeleton, and compacted units of fibronectin similar to that observed in vivo. Overall, these findings provide critical information of cell-surface interactions with a microtextured, polymer substrate that can be used in the field of tissue engineering for controlling cellular ECM interactions. PMID:25142015

  11. Spectroscopic vibrations of austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) and its mineral structure: implications for identification of secondary arsenic-containing mineral.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Ming, Dengshi; Cheng, Hongfei; Xu, Zhiqiang; Frost, Ray L

    2015-01-25

    Austinite (CaZnAsO4?OH) is a unique secondary mineral in arsenic-contaminated mine wastes. The infrared and Raman spectroscopies were used to characterize the austenite vibrations. The IR bands at 369, 790 and 416 cm(-1) are assigned to the ?2, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3-) unit, respectively. The Raman bands at 814, 779 and 403 cm(-1) correspond to the ?1, ?3 and ?4 vibrations of AsO4(3(-) unit respectively. The sharp bands at 3265 cm(-1) for IR and 3270 cm(-(1) both reveals that the structural hydroxyl units exist in the austenite structure. The IR and Raman spectra both show that some SO4 units isomorphically replace AsO4 in austinite. X-ray single crystal diffraction provides the arrangement of each atom in the mineral structure, and also confirms that the conclusions made from the vibrational spectra. Micro-powder diffraction was used to confirm our mineral identification due to the small quantity of the austenite crystals. PMID:25087167

  12. Minerals and rocks, what a passion! A CLIL unit in an Italian lower secondary class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Piera; Fiorineschi, Beatrice

    2015-04-01

    CLIL means Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since September 2014 the teaching of a discipline in a foreign language has been compulsory in the final year of all high schools of Italy and recommended in lower secondary schools. So I decided to take part in a training course about "CLIL in Sciences teaching " that ANISN (Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Scienze Naturali ) was being held in Bologna from October to December 2014. There I learned that CLIL is much more than the translation of a traditional lecture to a foreign language. It is actually a set of new methodologies, largely based on Bloom's taxonomy, and making use of many kinds of technical support often referred to as "scaffolding" . It provides a context to improve communication because "natural language is never learned divorced from meaning". But CLIL is even more effective in order to learn the content, which is more important here than in immersion methodology. In the course we had to chose a subject , develop it in a structured unit, experiment the unit in a class of ours, using just English, and finally present it to the colleagues in Bologna. I decided to do the activity with 13 year old students. We had started the science lessons with chemistry, this year and I needed a subject consistent with that. So the choice was: Minerals! Because they belong to chemistry, being chemical compounds. Subsequently, even when the course in Bologna had come to an end, we continued with: Rocks! Since the pupils were pleased to do it and I was satisfied with their results. I worked together with my colleague who teaches English in the same class. We developed the subject following the instructions I had been given at the course: we showed the students videos found on line, providing them with the script; we made the text easier for them; we made them work in couples; I organized lab activities to improve learning skills to which they could apply their knowledge . Cross - curricolar links are an important advantage of such a unit; minerals and rocks are linked to physics, chemistry, geomorphology, and also to geography , history, econonomics, and maths. The follow up activities were even more interesting. When we found that the weathering of feldspars to clay can increase the probability of a landslide, I gave the students an example of one of the most famous landslides in the world, Vajont. The students were so interested that they looked by themselves for further information about that tragedy, and the context in which it was possible to happen. Another concept which turned out to be fascinating to the students was how rocks can tell us the geological history of a region . The results of the activities were quite good in Sciences and good in English; the students accepted the challenge, they played along with us and had fun explaining their activities during the open labs devoted to the families of younger students.

  13. Coupled alkai fieldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipatation in batch systems-2: New experiments with supercritical CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Peng; Fu, Qi; Seyfried, William E. Jr.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Soong, Yee; Jones, Kyle; Zhua, Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the extent of CO{sub 2}–water–rock interactions in geological formations for C sequestration, three batch experiments were conducted on alkali feldspars–CO{sub 2}–brine interactions at 150–200 °C and 300 bars. The elevated temperatures were necessary to accelerate the reactions to facilitate attainable laboratory measurements. Temporal evolution of fluid chemistry was monitored by major element analysis of in situ fluid samples. SEM, TEM and XRD analysis of reaction products showed extensive dissolution features (etch pits, channels, kinks and steps) on feldspars and precipitation of secondary minerals (boehmite, kaolinite, muscovite and paragonite) on feldspar surfaces. Therefore, these experiments have generated both solution chemistry and secondary mineral identity. The experimental results show that partial equilibrium was not attained between secondary minerals and aqueous solutions for the feldspar hydrolysis batch systems. Evidence came from both solution chemistry (supersaturation of the secondary minerals during the entire experimental duration) and metastable co-existence of secondary minerals. The slow precipitation of secondary minerals results in a negative feedback in the dissolution–precipitation loop, reducing the overall feldspar dissolution rates by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the experimental data indicate the form of rate laws greatly influence the steady state rates under which feldspar dissolution took place. Negligence of both the mitigating effects of secondary mineral precipitation and the sigmoidal shape of rate–?G{sub r} relationship can overestimate the extent of feldspar dissolution during CO{sub 2} storage. Finally, the literature on feldspar dissolution in CO{sub 2}-charged systems has been reviewed. The data available are insufficient and new experiments are urgently needed to establish a database on feldspar dissolution mechanism, rates and rate laws, as well as secondary mineral information at CO{sub 2} storage conditions.

  14. A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.

    2012-12-01

    A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

  15. Solution spraying of poly(methyl methacrylate) blends to fabricate microtextured, superoleophobic surfaces

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Siddarth

    We describe a simple technique to prepare superhydrophobic and superoleophobic microtextured surfaces by spray coating a blend of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the low surface energy molecule 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadeca ...

  16. Secondary minerals of weathered orpiment-realgar-bearing tailings in Shimen carbonate-type realgar mine, Changde, Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangyu; Wang, Rucheng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Huan; Li, Juan; Ouyang, Bingjie; Lu, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    The formation and dissolution of arsenic minerals commonly controls the mobility of As in sulfide mines. Here, we present the results of research based on X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman microprobe spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, Scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses to further understand the weathering of orpiment- and realgar-bearing tailings from the Shimen realgar deposit, the largest realgar deposit in Asia. These analyses indicate that four different types of As-bearing secondary minerals are present in the tailings, including arsenic oxides, arsenates, As-gypsum, and As-Fe minerals, and that arsenic in the tailings is present in +3 and +5 valence states. The precipitation of arsenates is attributed to the interaction between As-enriched run-off waters and carbonate minerals. The Ca-arsenates in the tailings are dominantly weilite and pharmacolite, both of which have Ca/As atomic ratios of 1. In addition, SO4 2-/HAsO4 2- substitution in gypsum is another important mechanism of arsenic precipitation.

  17. Spatial distributions of secondary minerals in the Martian meteorite MIL 03346,168 determined by Raman spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Wang, Alian

    2015-06-01

    Miller Range (MIL) 03346 is a nakhlite meteorite that has been extensively studied due to its unique complex secondary mineral phases and their potential implications for the hydrologic history of Mars. We conducted a set of Raman spectroscopic and Raman imaging studies of MIL 03346,168, focusing on the secondary mineral phases and their spatial distributions, with a goal to better understand the possible processes by which they were generated on Mars. This study revealed three types of calcium sulfates, a solid solution of (K, Na)-jarosite and two groups of hydrated species with low crystallinity (HSLC) in the veins and/or mesostasis areas of the meteorite. The most abundant Ca-sulfate is bassanite that suggests two possible paths for its direct precipitation from a Ca-S-H2O brine, either having low water activity or with incomplete development (producing bassanite with gypsum microcrystals) on Mars. The second most abundant Ca-sulfate is soluble ?-CaSO4 which raises a new question on the origins of this phase in the Martian meteorite, since ?-CaSO4 readily hydrates in the laboratory but is apparently stable in Atacama Desert. The close spatial relationship of (K, Na)-jarosite solid solutions with rasvumite (KFe2S3), magnetite, HSLC, and fine-grained low-crystallinity alkali feldspar in mesostasis suggests a potential in situ formation of mesostasis jarosite from these Fe-K,Na-S-O-H2O species.

  18. Radionuclide Incorporation in Secondary Crystalline Minerals Resulting from Chemical Weathering of Selected Waste Glasses: Progress Report: Task kd.5b

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Legore, Virginia L.; Parker, Kent E.; Orr, Robert D.; McCready, David E.; Young, James S.

    2003-09-29

    Experiments were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate potential incorporation of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases that form from weathering vitrified nuclear waste glasses. These experiments were conducted as part of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste-Performance Assessment (ILAW-PA) to generate data on radionuclide mobilization and transport in a near-field environment of disposed vitrified wastes. The results of these experiments demonstrated that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of cage structured minerals such as sodalite from weathering glasses. These results have important implications regarding radionuclide sequestration/mobilization aspects that are not currently accounted for in the ILAW PA. Additional studies are required to confirm the results and to develop an improved understanding of the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides into the secondary and tertiary weathering products of the ILAW glass to help refine how contaminants are released from the near-field disposal region out into the accessible environment. Of particular interest is to determine whether the contaminants remain sequestered in the glass weathering products for hundreds to thousands of years. If the sequestration can be shown to continue for long periods, another immobilization process can be added to the PA analysis and predicted risks should be lower than past predictions.

  19. Collagen type-I leads to in vivo matrix mineralization and secondary stabilization of Mg-Zr-Ca alloy implants.

    PubMed

    Mushahary, Dolly; Wen, Cuie; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Lin, Jixing; Harishankar, Nemani; Hodgson, Peter; Pande, Gopal; Li, Yuncang

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-zirconia-calcium (Mg-Zr-Ca) alloy implants were coated with Collagen type-I (Coll-I) and assessed for their rate and efficacy of bone mineralization and implant stabilization. The phases, microstructure and mechanical properties of these alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and compression test, respectively, and the corrosion behavior was established by their hydrogen production rate in simulated body fluid (SBF). Coll-I extracted from rat tail, and characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, was used for dip-coating the Mg-based alloys. The coated alloys were implanted into the femur bones of male New Zealand white rabbits. In vivo bone formation around the implants was quantified by measuring the bone mineral content/density (BMC/BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Osseointegration of the implant and new bone mineralization was visualized by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Upon surface coating with Coll-I, these alloys demonstrated high surface energy showing enhanced performance as an implant material that is suitable for rapid and efficient new bone tissue induction with optimal mineral content and cellular properties. The results demonstrate that Coll-I coated Mg-Zr-Ca alloys have a tendency to form superior trabecular bone structure with better osteoinduction around the implants and higher implant secondary stabilization, through the phenomenon of contact osteogenesis, compared to the control and uncoated ones in shorter periods of implantation. Hence, Coll-I surface coating of Mg-Zr-Ca alloys is a promising method for expediting new bone formation in vivo and enhancing osseointegration in load bearing implant applications. PMID:25179112

  20. U/Pb dating of discordant 0.1 Ma old secondary U minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, I.; Carl, C.

    1985-05-01

    A modified Tera-Wasserburg U/Pb concordia plot which takes care of initial disequilibrium of radioactive daughter nuclides has been applied to date discordant torbernite samples from Höhenstein (northeast Bavaria) to 137 ± 11ka (lower intercept) and 66 ± 27Ma (upper intercept). The secondary U/Pb—age is supported by the 230Th/ 234U disequilibrium age of 132 ± 4 *ka .

  1. The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2013-06-03

    The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  2. Characterization of Secondary Mineral Grain Coatings and their Role as Diffusion-controlled Sinks and Sources for Metal Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Guo, H.; Lai, B.; Kemner, K. M.; Ercius, P.; Fox, P. M.; Singer, D. M.; Minor, A.; Waychunas, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many important geochemical reactions occur at the mineral-water interface, including sorption and desorption reactions of contaminants. Fundamental knowledge of the kinetics of these processes is based primarily on experimental observations of reactions at faces of single crystals or macroscopic data from pure mineral powder suspensions. Sorption reactions at crystal faces are generally very fast, on the order of microseconds or less, with reaction times often limited only by film diffusion at the mineral-water interface. In well-stirred suspensions of aquifer sediments, however, sorptive equilibrium can take many hours or days to achieve steady-state concentrations. We have examined the potential reasons for sorption rate limitation using uranium(VI) sorption by sediments from a sandy aquifer in Savannah River, South Carolina (USA). U(VI) sorption by sand-sized grains from the aquifer is dominated by reaction with secondary mineral coatings on quartz and feldspar grains. The coatings studied were on the order of 15 microns in thickness (i.e., from quartz grain to aqueous solution) and composed primarily of clay minerals and hematite of varying particle size. Microfocused-XRF imaging of elemental concentrations (e.g., U, Fe) of polished cross-sections of the grain/coating contact showed strong spatial correlations of U and Fe within the coatings, regardless of the length of reaction time (30 minutes to 4 weeks). The spatial resolution of the ?-XRF technique is of the order of 2 microns in horizontal directions, but the uncertainty of the observed spatial gradients is high due to grain curvature away from the polished surface and fluorescence contributed from the entire 30 micron thickness of a typical grain/epoxy thin section. TEM characterization of focused-ion-beam (FIB), vertically-extracted samples of the grain-coating contact shows that complex pore networks exist within the coatings of variable dimensions and unknown connectivity. Using scanning TEM (STEM) tomography, it can be seen that there are large numbers of pore throat sizes less than 10 nm within the coatings. We hypothesize that diffusion through these pores, which likely have electrically charged surfaces, controls the observed macroscopic rates of U(VI) sorption in batch experiments with sand grains. Evidence to support this hypothesis was observed by studying U and Fe fluorescence spatial variation within FIB samples (1 micron thick) at 200 nm spatial resolution. With this greater spatial resolution, it is possible to see U concentration variations within the coatings that are dependent on the time of sorption reaction, and illustrates how the coating environment constitutes a diffusion constraint to achieve adsorptive equilibrium between an aqueous phase and the mineral surfaces. Including this diffusion constraint within conceptual models for reactive contaminant transport may be significant at the field scale, because secondary mineral coatings are potentially both sinks and sources of contaminants depending on the history of a contaminated site. This is important in resolving long-term transport predictions at DOE sites, such as Hanford and Savannah River, where equilibrium versus kinetic reactive transport models are being evaluated.

  3. Mineral Association Changes the Secondary Structure and Dynamics of Murine Amelogenin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Junxia; Xu, Yimin; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2013-12-18

    Biomineralization proteins, present during the formation of hard tissues including bones, teeth, egg shells and nacre, result in the exquisite structures and properties of the resulting materials.[1] The structure of these proteins is often implicated in the control of the mineral properties, however very little structural data is available for the bulk of these proteins due to the difficulty in determining structures of immobilized proteins. Solid-state NMR is uniquely suited to the study of the structure of proteins bound to surfaces, demonstrated with the structural and orientation insights provided for the hydroxyapatite mineralization proteins statherin and the amelogenin, LRAP.[2] While these data are some of the only structural data available for this important class of protein, the experiments are often expensive and time consuming, due to the need to prepare and measure samples with isolated spin pairs, and are limited to a size of ~60 residues. In this work, we utilized a combination of 1D and recent 2D[3] solid-state NMR techniques along with a sparsely labelled sample to characterize the structure and dynamics of potential HAP binding residues of the 180 residue enamel protein, amelogenin. Amelogenin nanospheres and mineral bound amelogenin were investigated and a shift from unstructured to ?-sheet structure was observed, along with a decrease in protein flexibility. This work provides the first molecular level structure and dynamic information of full-length amelogenin on the surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and within nanospheres, and demonstrates the ability to evaluate structural characteristics of large biomineralization proteins bound to their physiologically relevant surface. The research was performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a facility operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, with a portion of it performed at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. DOE Biological and Environmental Research program.

  4. Radioelements and their occurrence with secondary minerals in heated and unheated tuff at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Flexser, S.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1992-06-01

    Samples of devitrified welded tuff near and away from the site of a heater test in Rainier Mesa were examined with regard to whole-rock radioelement abundances, microscopic distribution of U, and oxygen isotope ratios. Wholerock U averages between 4 and 5 ppM, and U is concentrated at higher levels secondary opaque minerals as well as in accessory grains. U in primary and secondary sites is most commonly associated with Mn phases, which average {approximately}30 ppM U in more uraniferous occurrences. This average is consistent and apparently unaffected by proximity to the heater. The Mn phases differ compositionally from Mn minerals in other NTS tuffs, usually containing abundant Fe, Ti, and sometimes Ce, and are often poorly crystalline. Oxygen isotope ratios show some depletion in {delta}{sup 18}O in tuff samples very close to the heater; this depletion is consistent with isotopic exchange between the tuff and interstitial water, but it may also reflect original heterogeneity in isotopic ratios of the tuff unrelated to the heater test. Seismic properties of several tuff samples were measured. Significant differences correlating with distance from the heater occur in P- and S-wave amplitudes; these may be due to loss of bound water. Seismic velocities are nearly constant and indicate a lack of significant microcracking. The absence of clearer signs of heater-induced U mobilization or isotopic variations may be due to the short duration of the heater test, and to insufficient definition of pre-heater-test heterogeneities in the tuff.

  5. Syntrophic Effects in a Subsurface Clostridial Consortium on Fe(III)-(Oxyhydr)oxide Reduction and Secondary Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Madhavi; Lin, Chu-Ching; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhao, Xiuhong; Wang, Yangping; Barkay, Tamar; Yee, Nathan

    2013-12-02

    In this study, we cultivated from subsurface sediments an anaerobic Clostridia 25 consortium that was composed of a fermentative Fe-reducer Clostridium species (designated as 26 strain FGH) and a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium belonging to the Clostridia family 27 Vellionellaceae (designated as strain RU4). In pure culture, Clostridium sp. strain FGH mediated 28 the reductive dissolution/transformation of iron oxides during growth on peptone. When 29 Clostridium sp. FGH was grown with strain RU4 on peptone, the rates of iron oxide reduction 30 were significantly higher. Iron reduction by the consortium was mediated by multiple 31 mechanisms, including biotic reduction by Clostridium sp. FGH and biotic/abiotic reactions 32 involving biogenic sulfide by strain RU4. The Clostridium sp. FGH produced hydrogen during 33 fermentation, and the presence of hydrogen inhibited growth and iron reduction activity. The 34 sulfate-reducing partner strain RU4 was stimulated by the presence of H2 gas and generated 35 reactive sulfide which promoted the chemical reduction of the iron oxides. Characterization of 36 Fe(II) mineral products showed the formation of magnetite during ferrihydrite reduction, and 37 the precipitation of iron sulfides during goethite and hematite reduction. The results suggest an 38 important pathway for iron reduction and secondary mineralization by fermentative sulfate-39 reducing microbial consortia is through syntrophy-driven biotic/abiotic reactions with biogenic 40 sulfide.

  6. Evidence for biological activity in mineralization of secondary sulphate deposits in a basaltic environment: implications for the search for life in the Martian subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Jill R. Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evidence of microbial activity associated with mineralization of secondary Na-sulphate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM), Idaho were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, laser desorption Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LD-FTICR-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Peaks suggestive of bio/organic compounds were observed in the secondary Na-sulphate deposits by LD-FTICR-MS. FTIR provided additional evidence for the presence of bio/organic compounds. Sulphur fractionation was explored to assist in determining if microbes may play a role in oxidizing sulphur. The presence of bio/organic compounds associated with Na-sulphate deposits, along with the necessity of oxidizing reduced sulphur to sulphate, suggests that biological activity may be involved in the formation of these secondary minerals. The secondary Na-sulphate minerals probably form from the overlying basalt through leached sodium ions and sulphate ions produced by bio-oxidation of Fe-sulphide minerals. Since the COM basalts are one of the most comparable terrestrial analogues for their Martian counterparts, the occurrence of biological activity in the formation of sulphate minerals at COM has direct implications for the search for life on Mars. In addition, the presence of caves on Mars suggests the importance of these environments as possible locations for growth and preservation of microbial activity. Therefore, understanding the physiochemical pathways of abiotic and biotic mineralization in the COM subsurface and similar basaltic settings has direct implications for the search for extinct or extant life on Mars.

  7. Secondary arsenic minerals and arsenic mobility in a historical waste rock pile at Ka?k near Kutná Hora, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourková-Víšková, E.; Loun, J.; Sracek, O.; Houzar, S.; Filip, J.

    2015-02-01

    The arsenic mineralization in historical waste rock pile at Ka?k site near Kutná Hora developed over a period of about 500 years. The objective of this study was to determine principal secondary arsenic mineral phases and their environmental stability. The only common primary As-bearing mineral - arsenopyrite - occurs in the mineral assemblage of Kutná Hora base-metal deposit together with quartz, pyrite, sphalerite, and pyrrhotite. Most of arsenic is bound in supergene minerals (scorodite, jarosite-beudantite, bukovskýite, pitticite), which are relatively stable under oxidizing conditions prevailing in the pile. The Ka?k site is a type locality for bukovskýite, ka?kite, zýkaite, and parascorodite. In long-term perspective, the most stable minerals from viewpoint of As-binding appear to be scorodite and beudantite. A higher mobility was observed for As incorporated into jarosite and poorly crystalline to amorphous phases (FeIII -oxyhydroxides, pitticite). This study has not confirmed significant mobility of arsenic within the pile and water infiltrating in recharge periods of the year (late winter-early spring) should not mobilize arsenic at a significant rate. However, monitoring of the stability of secondary As-phases and dissolved arsenic in the environment around the pile is required to avoid future migration of arsenic out of the pile.

  8. Field Observation of Heterogeneous Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols on Asian Mineral Dust Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the heterogeneous formation mechanism of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on dust surfaces by characterizing molecular compositions and size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, keto-carboxylic acids, a-dicarbonyls and inorganic ions in size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) in the urban atmosphere of Xi'an, China during dust storm periods and comparing with those in non-dust storm periods. In the presence of a dust storm, all the above mentioned SOA species in Xi'an are predominantly enriched on coarse particles (>2.1 µm). Oxalic acid well correlated with NO3- (r2=0.72, p<0.01) rather than SO42-. This phenomenon differs greatly from the observed particles during a non-dust storm period, which is characterized by an enrichment of the SOA on fine particles (<2.1 µm) with a strong correlation between C2 and SO42-. We propose a three-step formation pathway to explain these observations as follows. First, nitric acid and nitrogen oxides react with dust to form a liquid film on the surface via water vapor-absorption of calcium nitrate. Second, gaseous Gly and mGly partition into the aqueous-phase. Finally, the aqueous-phase Gly and mGly oxidize into glyoxylic acid (wC2), followed by a further oxidation into C2. To the best of our knowledge, we found for the first time the enrichments of glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) on dust surfaces. Our data indicate a more critical role of nitrate than sulfate in the heterogeneous formation process of SOA on dust surfaces. Mass ratio of C2 to wC2 was found to be higher in coarse particles than in fine particles during the dust storm events, which is due to low acidity condition of large particles that is favorable for conversion of wC2 to C2.

  9. Pore-scale study of the effect of secondary carbonate precipitation on the dissolution of primary minerals using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Reactive transport processes involving dissolution and/or precipitation are pervasive in Earth, energy, and environmental systems. One typical example is geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Among these reactive processes, it is commonly encountered that a second phase precipitates while the primary phase dissolves, and the precipitation and dissolution reactions are fully coupled with each other. In the case of mineral trapping of CO2, the primary silicate mineral dissolves due to a decrease of pH caused by the dissolution of CO2 into the solution; meanwhile the dissolved CO2 can react with cations to form a secondary precipitate of carbonate mineral. Although the effect of precipitation of secondary solid phase on the dissolution of the primary solid phase has been studied extensively, the results reported in the literature are often inconclusive and sometimes even contradict one another. The reason is that the coupled dissolution and precipitation processes are controlled by several factors whose contribution is difficult to ascertain, including the dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, temperature and pressure, pH and species concentration of the solution, physicochemical properties of the primary and secondary minerals, as well as the nucleation and crystal mechanisms of the precipitates, etc. In this study, a pore-scale (mesoscopic) model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to investigate the effects of secondary precipitation on the dissolution of the primary mineral. The model can predict coupled multiple physicochemical processes including fluid flow, mass transport, chemical reaction, dissolution, precipitation consisting of nucleation and crystal growth, as well as dynamical evolution of pore geometries. Effects of dissolution and precipitation reaction kinetics, molar volumes of primary and secondary minerals, initial powder size and surface roughness of the primary mineral, as well as nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms on the dissolution and precipitation processes are investigated in terms of rate and amount of dissolution and precipitation. Several types of dissolution and precipitation processes are identified based on the morphology and structure of the precipitates and on the extent to which the precipitates affect the dissolution of the primary mineral. Simulation results are also compared with existing experimental results. Depending on the conditions, the effect of the precipitates spans the full range of possible behavior from trivial changes to enhanced or reduced dissolution rates of the primary phase.

  10. A patterned microtexture to reduce friction and increase longevity of prosthetic hip joints.

    PubMed

    Chyr, Anthony; Qiu, Mingfeng; Speltz, Jared; Jacobsen, Ronald L; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-07-15

    More than 285,000 total hip replacement surgeries are performed in the US each year. Most prosthetic hip joints consist of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) femoral head that articulates with a polyethylene acetabular component, lubricated with synovial fluid. The statistical survivorship of these metal-on-polyethylene prosthetic hip joints declines significantly after 10 to 15 years of use, primarily as a result of polyethylene wear and wear debris incited disease. The current engineering paradigm to increase the longevity of prosthetic hip joints is to improve the mechanical properties of the polyethylene component, and to manufacture ultra-smooth articulating surfaces. In contrast, we show that adding a patterned microtexture to the ultra-smooth CoCr femoral head reduces friction when articulating with the polyethylene acetabular liner. The microtexture increases the load-carrying capacity and the thickness of the joint lubricant film, which reduces contact between the articulating surfaces. As a result, friction and wear is reduced. We have used a lubrication model to design the geometry of the patterned microtexture, and experimentally demonstrate reduced friction for the microtextured compared to conventional smooth surrogate prosthetic hip joints. PMID:25013240

  11. A patterned microtexture to reduce friction and increase longevity of prosthetic hip joints

    PubMed Central

    Chyr, Anthony; Qiu, Mingfeng; Speltz, Jared; Jacobsen, Ronald L.; Sanders, Anthony P.; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-01-01

    More than 285,000 total hip replacement surgeries are performed in the US each year. Most prosthetic hip joints consist of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) femoral head that articulates with a polyethylene acetabular component, lubricated with synovial fluid. The statistical survivorship of these metal-on-polyethylene prosthetic hip joints declines significantly after 10 to 15 years of use, primarily as a result of polyethylene wear and wear debris incited disease. The current engineering paradigm to increase the longevity of prosthetic hip joints is to improve the mechanical properties of the polyethylene component, and to manufacture ultra-smooth articulating surfaces. In contrast, we show that adding a patterned microtexture to the ultra-smooth CoCr femoral head reduces friction when articulating with the polyethylene acetabular liner. The microtexture increases the load-carrying capacity and the thickness of the joint lubricant film, which reduces contact between the articulating surfaces. As a result, friction and wear is reduced. We have used a lubrication model to design the geometry of the patterned microtexture, and experimentally demonstrate reduced friction for the microtextured compared to conventional smooth surrogate prosthetic hip joints. PMID:25013240

  12. Superhydrophobic Friction Reduction Microtextured Surfaces Tae Jin KIM, Carlos H. HIDROVO

    E-print Network

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    Superhydrophobic Friction Reduction Microtextured Surfaces Tae Jin KIM, Carlos H. HIDROVO University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA ABSTRACT Superhydrophobic surfaces are surfaces with fluid contact angles larger than 150º. Superhydrophobicity can be achieved by chemically modifying the surface

  13. Fabrication of Highly-Oleophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Microtextured al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changsong; Zhou, Jigen; Zheng, Dongmei; Wan, Yong; Li, Zhiwen

    2011-06-01

    Theoretical calculations suggest that creating highly-oleophobic surfaces would require a surface energy lower than that of any known materials. In the present work, we demonstrate microtextured Al substrate surfaces with veins-like micro/nanostructures displaying apparent contact angles (CA) greater than 120°, even with nitromethane (surface tension ?1 = 37 mN/m). The Al substrate was microtextured by a chemical solution mixed by zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamethyltetramine and a little of hydrofluoric acid. A fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) agent was used to tune the surface wettability. The Al substrates were microtextured by veins-like micro/nanostructures and generating a solid-liquid-vapor composite interface. Combination with FAS modification, the Al surfaces resulted in an oleophobicity with CA for nitromethane was 126.3° (152.7° for diethylene glycol, ?1 = 45.2 mN/m). In addition, the Al surfaces demonstrated a low rolling-off angle with < 6° even for diethylene glycol. However, nitromethane droplet favored to pin on the sample surface even the sample stage is tilted to 90°. It is noted that this highly-oleophobic behavior is induced mainly by topography, which form a composite surface of air and solid with oil drop sitting partially on air. The results are expected to promote the study on self-cleaning applications, especially in the condition with oil contaminations.

  14. Assessment of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite - NaFeFe53+()4(·2(HO), a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Andrés; Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Ribeiro, Érika

    2013-11-01

    The mineral natrodufrénite a secondary pegmatite phosphate mineral from Minas Gerais, Brazil, has been studied by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Electron probe analysis shows the formula of the studied mineral as (Na0.88Ca0.12)?1.00(Fe0.722+Mn0.11Mg0.08Ca0.04Zr0.01Cu0.01)?0.97(Fe4.893+Al0.02)?4.91(PO4)3.96(OH6.15F0.07)6.22?2.05(H2O). Raman spectroscopy identifies an intense peak at 1003 cm-1 assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. Raman bands are observed at 1059 and 1118 cm-1 and are attributed to the PO43- ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. A comparison is made with the spectral data of other hydrate hydroxy phosphate minerals including cyrilovite and wardite. Raman bands at 560, 582, 619 and 668 cm-1 are assigned to the ?4PO43- bending modes and Raman bands at 425, 444, 477 and 507 cm-1 are due to the ?2PO43- bending modes. Raman bands in the 2600-3800 cm-1 spectral range are attributed to water and OH stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of natrodufrénite to be assessed.

  15. Assessment of toxic potential of primary and secondary particulates/aerosols from biodiesel vis-à-vis mineral diesel fuelled engine.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Gupta, Tarun; Dixit, Neelabh; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra

    2013-05-01

    Toxicity of engine out emissions from primary and secondary aerosols has been a major cause of concern for human health and environmental impact. This study aims to evaluate comparative toxicity of nanoparticles emitted from a modern common rail direct injection engine (CRDI) fuelled with biodiesel blend (B20) vis-à-vis mineral diesel. The toxicity and potential health hazards of exhaust particles were assessed using various parameters such as nanoparticle size and number distribution, surface area distribution, elemental and organic carbon content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the particle surfaces, followed by toxic equivalent factor assessment. It was found that biodiesel particulate toxicity was considerably lower in comparison to mineral diesel. PMID:23631768

  16. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Heavy minerals in surficial sediments from lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Amphiboles, orthopyroxenes, and clinopyroxenes dominate the heavy mineral suite of surficial sediments in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. Sources for these sediments include the igneous arc terrane of the northeast Alaska Range, reworked intrabasinal sediments, and local drainages in lower Cook Inlet. The distribution of these deposits is a reflection of both the tidal currents and the prevailing southerly net movement from the head of Cook Inlet. The heavy mineral studies concur with similar findings from gravel analyses, clay mineral investigations, and quartz microtexture observations. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Laser surface micro-texturing to enhance the frictional behavior of lubricated steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancona, Antonio; Carbone, Giuseppe; Scaraggi, Michele; Mezzapesa, Francesco P.; Sorgente, Donato; Lugarà, Pietro M.

    2014-03-01

    Surface micro-texturing has been widely theoretically and experimentally demonstrated to be beneficial to friction reduction in sliding contacts under lubricated regimes. Several microscopic mechanisms have been assessed to concur to this macroscopic effect. In particular, the micro-textures act as lubricant reservoirs, as well as traps for debris. Furthermore, they may produce a local reduction of the shear stress coupled with a stable hydrodynamic pressure between the lubricated sliding surfaces. All these mechanisms are strongly dependent both on the micro-texturing geometry and on the operating conditions. Among the various micro-machining techniques, laser ablation with ultrashort pulses is an emerging technology to fabricate surface textures, thanks to the intrinsic property of laser light to be tightly focused and the high flexibility and precision achievable. In addition, when using sub-ps pulses, the thermal damage on the workpiece is negligible and the laser surface textures (LST) are not affected by burrs, cracks or resolidified melted droplets, detrimental to the frictional properties. In this work several LST geometries have been fabricated by fs-laser ablation of steel surfaces, varying the diameter, depth and spacing of micro-dimples squared patterns. We compared their frictional performance with a reference nontextured sample, on a range of sliding velocities from the mixed lubrication to the hydrodynamic regime. The measured Stribeck curves data show that the depth and diameter of the microholes have a huge influence in determining the amount of friction reduction at the interface. Different theoretical interpretations to explain the experimental findings are also provided.

  19. Secondary sulfate minerals associated with acid drainage in the eastern US: Recycling of metals and acidity in surficial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R., II; Meier, A.L.; Kornfeld, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Weathering of metal-sulfide minerals produces suites of variably soluble efflorescent sulfate salts at a number of localities in the eastern United States. The salts, which are present on mine wastes, tailings piles, and outcrops, include minerals that incorporate heavy metals in solid solution, primarily the highly soluble members of the melanterite, rozenite, epsomite, halotrichite, and copiapite groups. The minerals were identified by a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron-microprobe. Base-metal salts are rare at these localities, and Cu, Zn, and Co are commonly sequestered as solid solutions within Fe- and Fe-Al sulfate minerals. Salt dissolution affects the surface-water chemistry at abandoned mines that exploited the massive sulfide deposits in the Vermont copper belt, the Mineral district of central Virginia, the Copper Basin (Ducktown) mining district of Tennessee, and where sulfide-bearing metamorphic rocks undisturbed by mining are exposed in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina and Tennessee. Dissolution experiments on composite salt samples from three minesites and two outcrops of metamorphic rock showed that, in all cases, the pH of the leachates rapidly declined from 6.9 to 30 mg L-1), Fe (>47 mg L-1), sulfate (>1000 mg L-1), and base metals (>1000 mg L-1 for minesites, and 2 mg L-1 for other sites). Geochemical modeling of surface waters, mine-waste leachates, and salt leachates using PHREEQC software predicted saturation in the observed ochre minerals, but significant concentration by evaporation would be needed to reach saturation in most of the sulfate salts. Periodic surface-water monitoring at Vermont minesites indicated peak annual metal loads during spring runoff. At the Virginia site, where no winter-long snowpack develops, metal loads were highest during summer months when salts were dissolved periodically by rainstorms following sustained evaporation during dry spells. Despite the relatively humid climate of the eastern United States, where precipitation typically exceeds evaporation, salts form intermittently in open areas, persist in protected areas when temperature and relative humidity are appropriate, and contribute to metal loadings and acidity in surface waters upon dissolution, thereby causing short-term perturbations in water quality.

  20. Reaction path modelling used to explore the relationship between secondary mineral precipitation and low Si content in the meltwaters of a polythermal surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, J. W.; Flowers, G. E.; Kirste, D. M.; Hagedorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    The subglacial chemical weathering environment is characterized by low temperatures and the hydrolysis and carbonation of freshly comminuted mineral surfaces. Such conditions motivate the hypothesis that relatively low silica fluxes should be found in glacierized basins. Additionally, it is often assumed that glacier meltwaters are far from saturation and that the water chemistry is controlled solely by the dissolution of primary silicates and trace quantities of sulphide and carbonate minerals. Alternatively, we propose that the formation of secondary minerals and precipitates in the delayed drainage system play an important role in controlling the low silica fluxes observed in subglacial envrionments. Borehole and proglacial meltwater samples were collected from a polythermal surge-type glacier overlying granodiorite bedrock in the St. Elias Mountains of Yukon, Canada. The meltwater chemistry, along with the mineralogy of the bedrock and suspended sediments indicate the presence of mineral precipitation accompanied by substantial basal freeze-on. This is supported by field evidence of debris rich basal ice at the terminus and at the base of a borehole. The surplus of Cl- above the supraglacial input is used to calculate the amount of basal freeze-on in the delayed drainage system, and the amount of mixing between the delayed and fast drainage systems. We use Geochemist's Workbench for reaction path modelling with a focus on the silica composition to simulate the chemical evolution of glacial meltwater from (1) the initial water rock contact, (2) basal freeze on, and (3) mixing and post mixing reactions. Unless there is a substantial degree of non-stoichiometric dissolution, we find that the observed proglacial water chemistry at the terminus is largely controlled by the hydrochemistry of water in the delayed drainage system. Lastly, we use this model to explore the relationship between the proglacial water chemistry and the daily glacier surface velocities for the period of July, 2013, with an eye to identifying a relationship between water chemistry and short-term glacier dynamics.

  1. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization, including potassic (biotite+sericite+ quartz), propylitic (clinozoisite+chlorite+saussuritized plagioclase), phyllic (sericite+quartz+ pyrite+hydromuscovite/illite) and argillic (kaolinite+chlorite+dolomite) alteration. The clays were identified with XRD. All the rocks show penetrative deformational textures and fabrics. Our textural studies show that phyllic zone pyrite crystals have quartz-rich pressure shadows, and they predate all phases of deformation. Similarly, in the potassic zone, fracture-controlled biotite stringers in particular orientations are deformed, and partly replaced by chlorite, again showing their pre-deformational, pre-metamorphic origin. Copper sulfide-bearing quartz veinlets are deformed. Many of the alteration assemblages containing biotite or sericite have been deformed into crenulated schists, showing that they were formed early in the deformation history. Coupled with the dating of a Samba metavolcanic rock at 1964±12 Ma (Rainaud et al., 2005, JAES, 42, 1-31), we regard the Samba deposit as a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry-type Cu deposit, which has undergone deformation, and retrograde metamorphism of its alteration assemblages, during the Neoproterozoic Lufilian Orogeny, followed by post-tectonic cooling, which occurred throughout the Copperbelt at about 480±20 Ma. Samba, together with the Mkushi deposits, is part of a long-lived (>100 Ma) Palaeoproterozoic porphyry-Cu province in the Zambian Copperbelt basement, and ore genetic theories for the Copperbelt mineralization must now seriously take this into account.

  2. 2D imaging in a 3D world: Observing sub-grain scale variations and secondary mineral precipitates in reacted pore networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandell, L. E.; Peters, C. A.; Um, W.; Jones, K. W.; Lindquist, W. B.

    2012-12-01

    Advancements in 3D imaging techniques and analysis methods, and easier access to benchtop 3D X-ray microscopes, have led to a proliferation of 3D imaging studies of chemical alterations within porous media. However, 2D imaging methods continue to offer complementary insights into processes controlling sub-grain scale variations in mineralogy and intragranular porosity that are often difficult to observe with 3D methods. For example, 2D imaging studies of mineral precipitation-induced changes in the pore network structure including detailed observations of distributions of secondary mineral precipitates can be coupled with 3D image analysis of a pore network to determine the pore properties required to infer permeability. In this work, the combined advantages of 2D and 3D imaging methods are highlighted through 3D X-ray Computed Microtomography (X-ray CT) and 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging of a reacted column experiment in the context of the Hanford, WA site and a sedimentary rock sample from the Alberta basin. Both samples were imaged using 3D X-ray CT imaging at a voxel resolution of 4 ?m and analyzed using 3DMA Rock to determine pore and throat size distributions as well as pore coordination numbers. Polished sections were then created from each sample and imaged using 2D SEM imaging with resolutions of 0.4 ?m for the reacted column and an order of magnitude larger for the sedimentary rock. 2D images were analyzed using an erosion dilation method to determine pore and throat size distributions that were then corrected using sample-specific bias correction factors. The permeability of each sample was predicted from pore network models informed with the 2D or 3D pore and throat size distributions and the coordination numbers determined from the 3D analysis. Differences in 2D and 3D image resolutions resulted in over- or under- estimating small pore throats and led to predicted permeabilities that differed by orders of magnitude. For both samples, higher resolution images resulted in over-estimating small pore throats and under-estimating expected permeability. While higher resolution images are generally favored, they may not improve predictions of permeability as they require additional processing to distinguish small flow-conducting pore throats from surface roughness features. While 3D imaging is required to determine the network coordination, 2D imaging is necessary to understand where secondary minerals precipitate within the pore network and to quantify sub-grain scale variations. These advantages are demonstrated through SEM imaging of polished sections from the reacted column experiment. 2D images revealed that secondary mineral precipitates occurred as a relatively uniform coating on grain surfaces, unrelated to mineralogy, pore size, or other factors. SEM images also revealed new observations of sub-grain scale variations that showed that Hanford sand grains have a high amount of intragranular porosity and mineral precipitates formed in intragranular regions. These observations, which are important to understanding the reactive system, could not have been made if 3D imaging was used exclusively.

  3. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats: evaluation of bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulou, M; Kirpensteijn, J; Nielsen, D H; Buelund, L; Hansen, M S

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands. After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. PMID:19997669

  4. DOE FG02-03ER63557: Final Technical Report: Reactivity of Primary Soil Minerals and Secondary Precipitates Beneath Leaking Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn L. Nagy

    2009-05-04

    The purpose of the project was to investigate rates and mechanisms of reactions between primary sediment minerals and key components of waste tank solutions that leaked into the subsurface at the Hanford Site. Results were expected to enhance understanding of processes that cause (1) changes in porosity and permeability of the sediment and resultant changes in flow paths of the contaminant plumes, (2) formation of secondary precipitates that can take up contaminants in their structures, and (3) release of mineral components that can drive redox reactions affecting dissolved contaminant mobility. Measured rates can also be used directly in reactive transport models. Project tasks included (1) measurement of the dissolution rates of biotite mica from low to high pH and over a range of temperature relevant to the Hanford subsurface, (2) measurement of dissolution rates of quartz at high pH and in the presence of dissolved alumina, (3) measurement of the dissolution rates of plagioclase feldspar in high pH, high nitrate, high Al-bearing solutions characteristic of the BX tank farms, (4) incorporation of perrhenate in iron-oxide minerals as a function of pH, and (5) initiation of experiments to measure the formation of uranium(VI)-silicate phases under ambient conditions. Task 2 was started under a previous grant from the Environmental Management Science Program and Task 4 was partially supported by a grant to the PI from the Geosciences Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Task 5 was continued under a subsequent grant from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program, Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  5. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 um) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulfate-hydrate minerals associated with sulfide-bearing mine waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom1, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Mars, J.C.; Chou, I-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate mineral species commonly associated with sulphide bearing mine wastes were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope methods. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples show diagnostic absorption features related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl ions. Such spectral features enable field and remote sensing based studies of the mineral distributions. Because secondary minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of these minerals promises to have important applications to mine waste remediation studies. This report releases digital (ascii) spectra (spectral_data_files.zip) of the fifteen mineral samples to facilitate usage of the data with spectral libraries and spectral analysis software. The spectral data are provided in a two-column format listing wavelength (in micrometers) and reflectance, respectively.

  6. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 ?m) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  7. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  8. SECONDARY MINERALS FOUND IN CORES DC2 Al AND DC2 TAKEN FROM THE GRANDE RONDE BASALT FORMATION, PASCO BASIN, WASHINGTON

    E-print Network

    Teague, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    clinoptilolite crystals. Unknown mineral. INTRODUCTION Thecrystals (under crossed polars) smectite silica speroidal tridymite . unknown mineral,crystals. Mordenite (Figure 5) occurs as fibrous masses and is among the last minerals

  9. Shock-thermal history of Kavarpura IVA iron: Evidences from microtextures and nickel profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Ghosh, S.; Murty, S. V. S.

    2015-11-01

    We classify Kavarpura iron (fell in August, 2006, in Rajasthan, India), an inclusion-free member of high-Ni IVA group. Widmanstätten pattern and finger-cellular plessites textures characteristic of IVA group are present in Kavarpura. Symmetric and asymmetric textural zoning within the cloudy taenite and plessite refer to long term martensitisation process with mean metallographic cooling rate of 200 °C/Ma. Imprints of variable shock pressure domains (Neumann bands and shock hatched ? kamacite) suggest alteration by up to 600 kb shock pressure. Degeneration of cellular plessites, bending of finger plessites and plastic flowage of taenites bear textural evidences corresponding to post-shock annealing which is further confirmed by Ni profiles across the cloudy taenites and plessites under high shock pressure domains. Based on microtextural evidences and Ni profiling, we suggest Kavarpura had cooled at steady state and subsequently suffered multiple impacts.

  10. Wavelength dependence of spectro-photometric properties and link with the microtexture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilorget, C.; Fernando, J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Schmidt, F.; Hiroi, T.

    2015-10-01

    The surface scattered sunlight carries major information about the composition and microtexture of surface materials, thus enabling tracing back the geological and climatic processes that occurred on the planetary body. Here we perform laboratory spectro-goniometric measurements of different kinds of granular samples over the VIS-NIR spectral range, coupling the spectral and geometric dimensions to analyze their scattering behavior. To quantify the evolution of the scattering properties with the wavelength, we use an innovative inversion procedure based on a Bayesian approach to estimate photometric parameters from the Hapke model. The granular samples are also characterized by optical and SEM techniques in order to link these scattering variations with the grains' physical properties.

  11. Microtexture and Nanoindentation Study of Delamination Cracking in Al-Cu-Li-X Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crooks, R.; Domack, M. S.; Wagner, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial Al-Li alloys have strength and weight advantages over non-Li aluminum alloys. The fracture behavior of these alloys is unusual and has limited their use. The fracture mode, described as delamination, is intergranular, along the broad grain boundaries parallel to the rolling plane of the plate. Microtexture analyses have shown that delaminations occur along boundaries with greater than 30 misorientation. However, it was observed that relatively few of the high angle boundaries exhibited this behavior. Some grains of the retained deformation texture show high internal misorientation, which is a measure of stored strain energy. Delamination tends to occur between these grains and adjacent, recrystallized grains. Nanoindentation studies indicate a higher hardness for the high internal misorientation grains. These results suggest that the delamination could be reduced by processing the alloys to minimize grain-to-grain property disparities.

  12. Oxygen Isotope and Microtextural Biosignatures of Hydroxylapatite in Karst Caves of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Blake, R. E.; Kim, S.

    2006-05-01

    Hydroxylapatite is precipitating in restricted areas of bat habitats in three karst caves (Gosu, Sungryu, and Ssang caves) in S. Korea. It covers the surfaces of carbonate speleothem and host rock forming a 0.1 to 0.5 mm thick crust. In order to elucidate the process of formation of this hydroxylapatite crust, the O isotope composition of phosphate (?18OP), in the crust and in bat guano, as well as the O isotope compositions of calcite carbonate (?18OC) in speleothems, and of dripping water (?18OW) were determined together with mineralogical and textural analyses. The ?18OP values of the crust (approx. 13 permil) are between ?18OP values of bat guano (approx. 21 permil) and ?18OW values of dripping water (approx. -9.5 permil). These ?18O values and a close relation between crust distribution and bat habitat indicate that bat excretion provides phosphate for formation of the hydroxylapatite crust. The ?18OP values of the crust are in temperature-dependent isotopic equilibrium with dripping water. This suggests that the phosphate has been metabolized and has undergone oxygen isotope exchange with dripping water by enzyme-catalyzed reactions at low temperatures (13 to 16°C). The ?18OC values of speleothem calcite below the crust are approx. 9 permil higher than the ?18OP values of the crust. This suggests that both speleothem and crust have formed in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the dripping water as a result of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Electron microscopy shows that sulfur-bearing filamentous bacteria are distributed on and within the crust. Also, four different microtextures (colloform, sea- and-island, cellular, and reticulate textures) are observed in the crust, and are produced by the distribution patterns of bacteria. Thus, both isotopic and microtextural signatures reflect bacterially-mediated biomineralization of hydroxylapatite in karst cave ecosystems.

  13. Nanotexturing process on microtextured surfaces of silicon solar cells by SF6/O2 reactive ion etching.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyungyong; Choi, Jaeho; Lim, Gyoungho; Parida, Bhaskar; Kim, Keunjoo; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Hong Seub

    2013-12-01

    We investigated a nanotexturing process on the microtextured surface of single crystalline silicon solar cell by the reactive ion etching process in SF6/O2 mixed gas ambient. P-type Si wafer samples were prepared using a chemical wet etching process to address saw damage removal and achieve microtexturing. The microtextured wafers were further processed for nanotexturing by exposure to reactive ions within a circular tray of wafer carrier containing many small holes for uniform etching. As the dry etching times were increased to 2, 4 and finally to 8 min, surface structures were observed in a transition from nanoholes to nanorods, and a variation in wafer color from dark blue to black. The surface nanostructures showed a lowered photoreflectance and enhanced quantum efficiency within the visible light region with wavelengths of less than 679 nm. The nanohole structure etched for 2 min showed enhanced conversion efficiency when compared to the bare sample; however, the nanorod structure etched for 8 min exhibited the decreased efficiency with a reduced short circuit current, indicating that the surface nanostructural damage with the enlarged nanoperimetric surface area is sensitive to surface passivation from the surface recombination process. PMID:24266144

  14. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  15. A thermoresponsive, microtextured substrate for cell sheet engineering with defined structural organization

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, Brett C.; Tsuda, Yukiko; Williams, Corin; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Wong, Joyce Y.

    2008-01-01

    The proper function of many tissues depends critically on the structural organization of the cells and matrix of which they are comprised. Therefore, in order to engineer functional tissue equivalents that closely mimic the unique properties of native tissues it is necessary to develop strategies for reproducing the complex, highly organized structure of these tissues. To this end, we sought to develop a simple method for generating cell sheets that have defined ECM/cell organization using microtextured, thermoresponsive polystyrene substrates to guide cell organization and tissue growth. The patterns consisted of large arrays of alternating grooves and ridges (50 ?m wide, 5 ?m deep). Vascular smooth muscle cells cultured on these substrates produced intact sheets consisting of cells that exhibited strong alignment in the direction of the micropattern. These sheets could be readily transferred from patterned substrates to non-patterned substrates without the loss of tissue organization. Ultimately, such sheets will be layered to form larger tissues with defined ECM/cell organization that spans multiple length scales. PMID:18377979

  16. Micro-texture of extruded Zr?2.5Nb tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. A.; Zhao, Pingshun

    2004-12-01

    We report the micro-texture of two extruded Zr-2.5Nb tubes determined using scanning electron microscopy combined with electron back-scattering diffraction (SEM/EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction (TEM/SAD). The pole figures determined by SEM/EBSD correspond well with bulk pole figures previously determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Three components of texture are seen to correlate with the shape and morphology of the ?-grains and their contained dislocation substructures. The first component corresponds to elongated alpha grains containing a high density of a and c + a dislocations in which the c-axis is oriented at a relatively high angle to the long dimension of the ?-grains as viewed in transverse section; these grains comprise a texture component with the c-axes in the radial transverse plane, tilted towards the radial direction. The second component corresponds to elongated ?-grains containing a low dislocation density in which the c-axis is oriented parallel to the long dimension of the alpha grains: these grains also comprise a texture component with the c-axis in the radial/transverse plane, but predominantly in the transverse direction. The final component corresponds to colonies of Widmanstätten-like ?-grains that are transformed from the ?-phase: the majority of these grains have their c-axes in the axial direction. These grain have very low dislocation densities and are probably developed during cooling, after extrusion.

  17. Metal nanoparticle-enhanced photocurrent in GaAs photovoltaic structures with microtextured interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dmitruk, Nicolas L; Borkovskaya, Olga Yu; Mamontova, Iryna B; Mamykin, Sergii V; Malynych, Sergii Z; Romanyuk, Volodymyr R

    2015-01-01

    The photocurrent enhancement effect caused by Au and Ag nanoparticles for GaAs-based photovoltaic structures of surface barrier or p-n junction type with microtextured interfaces has been investigated in dependence on the conditions of nanoparticles deposition and, respectively, on the shape and local dielectric environment of obtained nanoparticle arrays. Three nanoparticle deposition methods have been checked: 1) photoinduced chemical deposition of Au from aqueous AuCl3 solution forming nanowires on the ridges of quasigrating-type surface microrelief, 2) deposition of Ag nanoparticles from colloidal suspension on the GaAs substrate covered with poly(vinylpyridine), and 3) drop and dry deposition of Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles from aqueous colloid solution. The comprehensive investigation of optical reflectance, photoelectric, and electrical characteristics of the fabricated barrier structures has shown the highest photovoltaic parameters for surface microrelief of quasigrating-type and electroless Au nanoparticle deposition. The analysis of characteristics obtained allowed us also to define the mechanisms of the total photocurrent enhancement. PMID:25852368

  18. Metal nanoparticle-enhanced photocurrent in GaAs photovoltaic structures with microtextured interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitruk, Nicolas L.; Borkovskaya, Olga Yu; Mamontova, Iryna B.; Mamykin, Sergii V.; Malynych, Sergii Z.; Romanyuk, Volodymyr R.

    2015-02-01

    The photocurrent enhancement effect caused by Au and Ag nanoparticles for GaAs-based photovoltaic structures of surface barrier or p-n junction type with microtextured interfaces has been investigated in dependence on the conditions of nanoparticles deposition and, respectively, on the shape and local dielectric environment of obtained nanoparticle arrays. Three nanoparticle deposition methods have been checked: 1) photoinduced chemical deposition of Au from aqueous AuCl3 solution forming nanowires on the ridges of quasigrating-type surface microrelief, 2) deposition of Ag nanoparticles from colloidal suspension on the GaAs substrate covered with poly(vinylpyridine), and 3) drop and dry deposition of Au/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles from aqueous colloid solution. The comprehensive investigation of optical reflectance, photoelectric, and electrical characteristics of the fabricated barrier structures has shown the highest photovoltaic parameters for surface microrelief of quasigrating-type and electroless Au nanoparticle deposition. The analysis of characteristics obtained allowed us also to define the mechanisms of the total photocurrent enhancement.

  19. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  20. Micro-textures and in situ sulfur isotopic analysis of spheroidal and zonal sulfides in the giant Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China: Implications for biogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chunji; Chi, Guoxiang; Fayek, Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    The Jinding deposit in Yunnan, southwest China, is the largest sandstone- and conglomerate-hosted Zn-Pb deposit in the world. In this paper, we report various micro-textures of spheroidal and zonal sulfides, such as pellet-shaped and colloform aggregates of pyrite and sphalerite, from the deposit and interpret them to be possibly related to micro-colonies of sulfate reducing bacteria, probably supporting an in situ BSR hypothesis. Micro-scale sulfur isotope analysis in different parts of the spheroidal and zonal sulfide aggregates, using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), revealed ?34S (VCDT) values as low as -48.4‰ for sulfides formed in the early-main stage disseminated ores in the western part of the deposit, possibly suggesting maximum sulfur isotopic fractionation through BSR. Relatively elevated ?34S (VCDT) values (-7.7‰ to -34.8‰, mainly from -10‰ to -20‰) for the late-stage, cavity-filling ores in the eastern part of the deposit, are interpreted to be possibly related to elevated temperatures close to the hydrothermal conduit and elevated ?34S values of the remaining sulfates resulting from the preceding BSR processes. The apparent discrepancy between the low temperatures required for BSR and the high temperatures indicated by fluid inclusions (>120 °C) may be reconciled through invoking episodic influx of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids into a shallow, relatively cool environment. It is proposed that the host rocks of the Jinding deposit have not been buried to great depths (?1 km), which, combined with the availability of hydrocarbons in the Jinding dome (a paleo-oil and gas reservoir), provides an ideal environment for BSR. Episodic influx of metal-carrying hydrothermal fluids temporarily and locally suppressed BSR and promoted thermo-chemical sulfate reduction (TSR), resulting in deposit- and micro-scale variations of ?34S.

  1. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 ?g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 ?g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 ?g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 ?g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock.

  2. Time-temperature evolution of microtextures and contained fluids in a plutonic alkali feldspar during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Lee, James K. W.; Ivanic, Tim; Golla-Schindler, Ute

    2010-08-01

    Microtextural changes brought about by heating alkali feldspar crystals from the Shap granite, northern England, at atmospheric pressure, have been studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A typical unheated phenocryst from Shap is composed of about 70 vol% of tweed orthoclase with strain-controlled coherent or semicoherent micro- and crypto-perthitic albite lamellae, with maximum lamellar thicknesses <1 ?m. Semicoherent lamellae are encircled by nanotunnel loops in two orientations and cut by pull-apart cracks. The average bulk composition of this microtexture is Ab27.6Or71.8An0.6. The remaining 30 vol% is deuterically coarsened, microporous patch and vein perthite composed of incoherent subgrains of oligoclase, albite and irregular microcline. The largest subgrains are ~3 ?m in diameter. Heating times in the laboratory were 12 to 6,792 h and T from 300°C into the melting interval at 1,100°C. Most samples were annealed at constant T but two were heated to simulate an 40Ar/39Ar step-heating schedule. Homogenisation of strain-controlled lamellae by Na?K inter-diffusion was rapid, so that in all run products at >700°C, and after >48 h at 700°C, all such regions were essentially compositionally homogeneous, as indicated by X-ray analyses at fine scale in the transmission electron microscope. Changes in lamellar thickness with time at different T point to an activation energy of ~350 kJmol-1. A lamella which homogenised after 6,800 h at 600°C, therefore, would have required only 0.6 s to do so in the melting interval at 1,100°C. Subgrains in patch perthite homogenised more slowly than coherent lamellae and chemical gradients in patches persisted for >5,000 h at 700°C. Homogenisation T is in agreement with experimentally determined solvi for coherent ordered intergrowths, when a 50-100°C increase in T for An1 is applied. Homogenisation of lamellae appears to proceed in an unexpected manner: two smooth interfaces, microstructurally sharp, advance from the original interfaces toward the mid-line of each twinned, semicoherent lamella. In places, the homogenisation interfaces have shapes reflecting the local arrangements of nanotunnels or pull-aparts. Analyses confirm that the change in alkali composition is also relatively sharp at these interfaces. Si-Al disordering is far slower than alkali homogenisation so that tweed texture in orthoclase, tartan twinning in irregular microcline, and Albite twins in albite lamellae and patches persisted in all our experiments, including 5,478 h at 700°C, 148 h at 1,000°C and 5 h at 1,100°C, even though the ensemble in each case was chemically homogeneous. Nanotunnels and pull-aparts were modified after only 50 min at 500°C following the simulated 40Ar/39Ar step-heating schedule. New features called ‘slots’ developed away from albite lamellae, often with planar traces linking slots to the closest lamella. Slot arrays were often aligned along ghost-like regions of diffraction contrast which may mark the original edges of lamellae. We suggest that the slot arrays result from healing of pull-aparts containing fluid. At 700°C and above, the dominant defects were subspherical ‘bubbles’, which evolved from slots or from regions of deuteric coarsening. The small degree of partial melting observed after 5 h at 1,100°C was often in the vicinity of bubbles. Larger micropores, which formed at subgrain boundaries in patch perthite during deuteric coarsening, retain their shape up to the melting point, as do the subgrain boundaries themselves. It is clear that modification of defects providing potential fast pathways for diffusion in granitic alkali feldspars begins below 500°C and that defect character progressively changes up to, and beyond, the onset of melting.

  3. The influence of the microtexture, corrugation inclination angle, and perforation of corrugated surfaces on the character of liquid spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A. N.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Gao, X.; Volodin, O. A.; Surtaev, A. S.; Serdyukov, V. S.

    2015-08-01

    The spreading of liquid nitrogen film over the surface of single structured packing elements has been experimentally studied. Comparative analysis of experimental data showed the influence of a horizontal microtexture, perforation, and inclination angle of large corrugation ribs on the character of liquid film spreading over the corrugated surface at various values of the film-flow Reynolds number. Experimental data are also presented on the dependence of the relative fraction of liquid retained in a single irrigated channel in corrugated plates of various thicknesses on the extent of irrigation.

  4. A three dimensional scaffold with precise micro-architecture and surface micro-textures

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Alvaro; Kim, Eun Jung; Boehm, Cynthia A.; Fleischman, Aaron J.; Muschler, George F.; Roy, Shuvo

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising precisely defined microarchitecture and surface micro-textures, designed to present specific physical cues to cells and tissues, may provide an efficient scaffold in a variety of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. We report a fabrication technique based on microfabrication and soft lithography that permits for the development of 3D scaffolds with both precisely engineered architecture and tailored surface topography. The scaffold fabrication technique consists of three key steps starting with microfabrication of a mold using an epoxy-based photoresist (SU-8), followed by dual-sided molding of a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a mechanical jig for precise motion control; and finally, alignment, stacking, and adhesion of multiple PDMS layers to achieve a 3D structure. This technique was used to produce 3D Texture and 3D Smooth PDMS scaffolds, where the surface topography comprised 10 ?m-diameter/height posts and smooth surfaces, respectively. The potential utility of the 3D microfabricated scaffolds, and the role of surface topography, were subsequently investigated in vitro with a combined heterogeneous population of adult human stem cells and their resultant progenitor cells, collectively termed connective tissue progenitors (CTPs), under conditions promoting the osteoblastic phenotype. Examination of bone-marrow derived CTPs cultured on the 3D Texture scaffold for 9 days revealed cell growth in three dimensions and increased cell numbers compared to those on the 3D Smooth scaffold. Furthermore, expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was higher on the 3D Texture scaffold, while osteocalcin mRNA expression was comparable for both types of scaffolds. PMID:19524292

  5. Compositional and quantitative microtextural characterization of historic paintings by micro-X-ray diffraction and Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Duran, Adrian; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro Basilio; Van Grieken, René; Cardell, Carolina

    2011-11-15

    This work shows the benefits of characterizing historic paintings via compositional and microtextural data from micro-X-ray diffraction (?-XRD) combined with molecular information acquired with Raman microscopy (RM) along depth profiles in paint stratigraphies. The novel approach was applied to identify inorganic and organic components from paintings placed at the 14th century Islamic University-Madrasah Yusufiyya-in Granada (Spain), the only Islamic University still standing from the time of Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain). The use of ?-XRD to obtain quantitative microtextural information of crystalline phases provided by two-dimensional diffraction patterns to recognize pigments nature and manufacture, and decay processes in complex paint cross sections, has not been reported yet. A simple Nasrid (14th century) palette made of gypsum, vermilion, and azurite mixed with glue was identified in polychromed stuccos. Here also a Christian intervention was found via the use of smalt, barite, hematite, Brunswick green and gold; oil was the binding media employed. On mural paintings and wood ceilings, more complex palettes dated to the 19th century were found, made of gypsum, anhydrite, barite, dolomite, calcite, lead white, hematite, minium, synthetic ultramarine blue, and black carbon. The identified binders were glue, egg yolk, and oil. PMID:21981573

  6. Micro-texture and Structure of High-pressure Quenched Graphite and Related Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohfuji, H.; Aibara, K.; Sumiya, H.; Irifune, T.

    2007-12-01

    There have been extensive studies in room-temperature compression of graphite and related carbon materials such as nanotubes and fullerene. Some reports claimed that the transformation of carbon hybridized state from sp2 to sp3 takes place under high pressure at room temperature, and the hardness of the quench products may be comparable to that of cubic diamond. Here, we investigated the micro-texture and structure involved in such high-pressure quenched carbon materials using high-resolution electron microscopy. High- pressure experiments were conducted on a variety of carbon materials including graphite (synthetic, highly- oriented sheet), single/multi-walled carbon nanotubes, amorphous carbons in a diamond anvil cell (DAC, with 250 ?m culet non-beveled anvils) at room temperature. Pelletized sample was loaded into a 70 ?m hall, drilled in a preindented Re gasket, without a pressure medium. The sample was compressed up to 70 ~ 90 GPa at room temperature, kept at the highest pressure at least overnight, and then decompressed. The pressure dependence of graphite E2g( G) Raman band at ~1580cm-1 was measured on compression and decompression. A1g( D) band, so called defect band at ~1350 cm-1, was also collected for the recovered products. The quenched materials were examined by high-resolution (HR) field emission (FE-) SEM and (HR)TEM. A focused ion beam (FIB) was employed to fabricate thin cross-sections of the samples. The most notable change in texture upon compression was observed in multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT); the elongated tubes were fragmented into short rods (ca. 100 - 300 nm in length and 80 - 100 nm in width, almost two times wider than that of the original MWNT). TEM observations showed that the short rod- shaped particles consist of piles of graphene shells (stacked walls of MWNT, characterized by (002) lattice fringes) which were significantly bent and fragmented. Some of those rod-shaped particles showed lattice fringes with an interlayer spacing of ca. 2 Å at the core regions, which may be derived from a high-pressure phase of carbon. More detailed textural observations and structural analysis based on electron diffraction are works in progress.

  7. Kinetics and microtextures formation during serpentinization: role of grain scale processes and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    malvoisin, B.; Brunet, F.; Carlut, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of mantle rocks plays a key role on the physical properties of the lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges and in subduction zones. This reaction is controlled by processes occurring at scales ranging from the grain to the lithosphere but the relative importance of these processes on the kinetics and microtextures formation has not been investigated. First, hydrothermal experiments on powders of San Carlos olivine at 500 bars in the 250 - 350 °C range were monitored with a magnetic method to study the kinetics and processes of the reaction at the grain scale. For an initial grain size (IGS) > 5 ?m, lizardite, brucite, magnetite and hydrogen formed at a rate one to two orders of magnitude slower than the kinetics used to model serpentinization-related processes. Moreover, the serpentinization rate decreased linearly with the square of the IGS and reaction progress vs. time curves displayed a sigmoid form. The kinetics were controlled by the dissolution of olivine increasing with its reactive surface area which was generated with two cooperating processes (etch pits and grain fracturing) during the first stages of the reaction. Then, hydrothermal experiments were conducted on sintered San Carlos olivine to investigate the role of transport on the reaction. On sintered with a grain size of 1 to 5 ?m, low reaction progresses of ~ 3 % in 10 months were obtained and the rate of serpentinization was one order of magnitude slower than on powders and one order of magnitude faster than on a single grain of the size of the sintered. Kinetics were controlled by a coupling between the reaction rate at the grain scale and the rate of fluid pathways formation at grain boundaries. Lizardite precipitated where olivine dissolved whereas magnetite and brucite segregated at the surface of the sintered. These results are in agreement with the observation of magnetite formation and segregation in fractures in naturally serpentinized peridotites and could explain the sparse description of brucite in these rocks. Thermodynamical modelling shows that a removal of brucite in serpentinized peridotites could explain the loss of 10 % of the Mg measured in oceanic peridotites [1, 2]. [1] Snow, J.E. and H.J.B. Dick (1995) Pervasive magnesium loss by marine weathering of peridotites, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 4219-4235. [2] Niu, Y. (2004) Bulk-rock major and trace element compositions of abyssal peridotites: implications for mantle melting, melt extraction and post-melting processes beneath mid-ocean ridges, J. Petrol., 45, 2423-2458.

  8. On the Integration of Micro-textural and Crystal-Chemical Data With Magma Chamber Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantz, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    Many magmatic systems display a dual nature: compositional uniformity at the macro-to-meso scales, and great complexity of provenance, textures and age at the micro-to-meso scale. The integration of microtextural and crystal-chemical data with dynamic models and U-series age dating has tremendous potential to reveal the inner-workings of magmatic systems. However, a means of extending that crystal-scale data back to the largest scales is needed to evaluate the statistical significance of any conclusions drawn on the basis of a few crystals or thin sections. We will address two aspects of this: 1) The application of various statistical tools for the ordering of geochemical information to yield crystal populations who share distinct chemical environments and, 2) exemplify how dynamic templates of crystal dispersal and gathering, linked with kinetics, can reveal the timescales of the emergence, persistence and decay of regions of distinct chemical potential and the corresponding crystal-cargo. We will reprise Wallace and Bergantz (2005), which introduced the concept of the shared characteristics diagram as an organizational framework for crystal zoning that compares information from different phases and chemical tracers, in a common framework. It combines elements of cluster and structured data analysis to create a crystal phylogeny. This allows one recognize the progression of shared environments in the crystal-cargo at any level of statistical significance. We will then use numerical experiments of multiphase reacting flow to illustrate how various regions of distinct compositional character arise, and the controls on how that information is propagated to resident crystals. We will illustrate the diversity of outcomes that even simple open-systems produce, and how the ratio of the Damkohler (kinetic reaction time scale to diffusion time) and Peclet (convection time scale to diffusion time) numbers can be used to characterize both simple and competitive-consecutive reactions. This ratio of dimensionless numbers yields the characteristic time for reaction to that of convection. To first order, this allows one to explore and rationalize the interplay between equilibrium as dictated by the (changing) far-field environment at the largest scales, mediated by the kinetics at the crystal interface. Wallace, G., Bergantz, G.W., 2005, "Reconciling heterogeneity in crystal zoning data: An application of shared characteristic diagrams at Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic Center, California," Contrib. Min. Pet., v. 149, p. 98-112.

  9. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  10. The distribution of secondary mineral phases along an eroding hillslope and its effect on carbon stabilization mechanisms and the fate of soil carbon fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, Sebastian; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Opfergelt, Sophie; Boeckx, Pascal; Bodé, Samuel; Six, Johan; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Soil redistribution processes can change soil carbon (C) dynamics drastically by moving carbon from high decomposition and re-sequestration environments at the eroding hillslope to low decomposition and burial at the depositional footslope and valley basin. This leads to not only spatially diverse soil carbon storage throughout the landscape, but also to qualitative changes of the transported carbon and the mineral phase. The interaction between those parameters and the effect on stabilization mechanisms for soil C are still a matter of debate. Here, we present an analysis that aims to clarify the bio/geo-chemical and mineralogical components involved in stabilizing C at various depths along an eroding cropped slope and how this affects the abundance of microbial derived carbon. We use the results of an incubation experiment combined with the abundance of amino sugars in different isolated soil C fractions as a tracer for the stability of the respective fraction. We applied further (i) a sequential extraction of the reactive soil phase using pyrophosphate, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, and (ii) a qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, to analyze the changes in the mineral phase for the different isolated fractions along the slope transect. Our results emphasize the importance of physical protection within microaggregates to stabilize buried, chemically labile C. Our data further indicates that the stability of these aggregates is related to the presence of organo-mineral associations and poorly crystalline minerals. However, decreasing contents of these minerals with depth indicate a temporal limitation of this stabilization mechanism. Non-expandable clay minerals experience a relative enrichment at the depositional site while expandable clay minerals experience the same at the eroding site. These changes in clay mineralogy along the slope are partly responsible for the abundance of silt and clay associated C and the effectiveness of the clay fractions to stabilize C. In summary, our data clearly show that a variety of stabilization mechanisms together with changes in the organic and the mineral phase of soils need to be considered to understand this highly dynamic environment.

  11. Chemical composition, plant secondary metabolites, and minerals of green and black teas and the effect of different tea-to-water ratios during their extraction on the composition of their spent leaves as potential additives for ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Seal, Chris J

    2013-05-22

    This study characterized the chemical composition of green and black teas as well as their spent tea leaves (STL) following boiling in water with different tea-to-water ratios. The green and black tea leaves had statistically similar (g/kg dry matter (DM), unless stated otherwise) DM (937 vs 942 g/kg sample), crude protein (240 vs 242), and ash (61.8 vs 61.4), but green tea had significantly higher (g/kg DM) total phenols (231 vs 151), total tannins (204 vs 133), condensed tannins (176 vs 101), and total saponins (276 vs 86.1) and lower neutral detergent fiber (254 vs 323) and acid detergent fiber (211 vs 309) than the black tea leaves. There was no significant difference between the green and black tea leaves for most mineral components except Mn, which was significantly higher in green tea leaves, and Na and Cu, which were significantly higher in black tea leaves. A higher tea-to-water ratio during extraction significantly reduced the loss of soluble compounds into water and hence yielded more nutrient-rich STL. On the basis of these analyses it appears that the green and black tea leaves alongside their STL have the potential for use as sources of protein, fiber, secondary metabolites, and minerals in ruminant diets. The presence of high levels of plant secondary metabolites in either tea leaves or their STL suggests that they may have potential for use as natural additives in ruminant diets. PMID:23621359

  12. Characterization of the sulphate mineral coquimbite, a secondary iron sulphate from Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru - Using infrared, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Gobac, Željka Žigove?ki; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2014-04-01

    The mineral coquimbite has been analysed using a range of techniques including SEM with EDX, thermal analytical techniques and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Javier Ortega mine, Lucanas Province, Peru. The chemical formula was determined as ()?2.00()3·9HO. Thermal analysis showed a total mass loss of ˜73.4% on heating to 1000 °C. A mass loss of 30.43% at 641.4 °C is attributed to the loss of SO3. Observed Raman and infrared bands were assigned to the stretching and bending vibrations of sulphate tetrahedra, aluminium oxide/hydroxide octahedra, water molecules and hydroxyl ions. The Raman spectrum shows well resolved bands at 2994, 3176, 3327, 3422 and 3580 cm-1 attributed to water stretching vibrations. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with thermal analysis provides insight into the structure of coquimbite.

  13. Estimation of martensite feature size in a low-carbon alloy steel by microtexture analysis of boundaries.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, T; Dash, Manmath Kumar; Saroja, S; Vijayalakshmi, M

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for classifying the hierarchy of martensite boundaries from the EBSD microtexture data of low-carbon steel is presented. Quaternion algebra has been used to calculate the ideal misorientation between product ? variants for Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) and its nearby orientation relationships, and arrive at the misorientation angle-axis set corresponding to packet (12 types), block (3 types) and sub-block boundaries. Analysis of proximity of experimental misorientation between data points from the theoretical misorientation set is found to be useful for identifying the different types of martensite boundaries. The optimal OR in the alloy system and the critical deviation threshold for identification of martensite boundaries could both be ascertained by invoking the 'Enhancement Factor' concept. The prior-? grain boundaries, packet, block and sub-block boundaries could be identified reasonably well, and their average intercept lengths in a typical tempered martensite microstructure of 9Cr-1Mo-0.1C steel was estimated as 31 ?m, 14 ?m, 9 ?m and 4 ?m respectively. PMID:25464145

  14. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism during winter in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi and Somali immigrant and ethnic Finnish women: associations with forearm bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Viljakainen, Heli T; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Saarnio, Elisa; Laitinen, Kalevi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the outcomes of vitamin D deficiency that negatively affects bone metabolism. We studied the ethnic differences in vitamin D status in Finland and its effect on serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentration and bone traits. The study was done in the Helsinki area (60°N) during January-February 2008. A total of 143 healthy women (20-48 years of age) from two groups of immigrant women (Bangladeshi, n 34 and Somali, n 48), and a group of ethnic Finnish women (n 61) were studied in a cross-sectional setting. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) and S-iPTH were measured. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements were taken at 4 and 66 % of the forearm length. In all groups, the distribution of S-25OHD was shifted towards the lower limit of the normal range. A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (S-25OHD < 50 nmol/l) was observed (89·6 %) in the Somali group. The prevalence of SHPT (S-iPTH>65 ng/l) was higher (79·1 %) in Somali women than in Finnish women (16 %). There was a significant association between S-25OHD and S-iPTH (r - 0·49, P < 0·001). Ethnicity and S-25OHD together explained 30 % of the variation in S-iPTH. The total bone mass at all sites of the forearm, fracture load and stress-strain index was higher (P < 0·001) in Bangladeshi and Finnish women than in Somali women. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, SHPT and low bone status in Somali women indicates a higher risk of osteoporosis. PMID:21824446

  15. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  16. Minerals yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals in the economies of these nations. A separate chapter reviews the international minerals industry in general and its relationship to the world economy.

  17. Mineral Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Mineral Chart KidsHealth > Teens > Miscellaneous > Mineral Chart Print A A A Text Size Type ... sources of calcium. You'll also find this mineral in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables. Soy ...

  18. Bone Mineral Measurements.

    PubMed

    Doroudinia, Abtin; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-08-01

    The accurate measurement of bone mineral density using noninvasive methods can be of value in the detection and evaluation of primary and secondary causes of decreased bone mass. This includes primary osteoporosis and secondary disorders, such as hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, multiple myeloma, diffuse metastases, and glucocorticoid therapy or intrinsic excess.By far, the largest patient population is that encompassed by primary osteoporosis with increased susceptibility to fractures in the absence of other recognizable causes of bone loss.Primary osteoporosis is a common clinical disorder and a major public health problem because of the significant number of related bone fractures occurring annually. Because the risk of vertebral and femoral neck fractures rises dramatically as bone mineral density falls, fracture risk in individual patients may be estimated. Furthermore, in estrogen-deficient women, bone mineral density values may be used to make rational decisions about hormone replacement therapy, or other bone mineral therapies, and as follow-up in assessing the success of such treatment.In this article, we discuss different methods of bone densitometry and will focus on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with discussing the factors which should be considered for interpretation of DXA scan. PMID:26147459

  19. Compositional and Microtextural Analysis of Basaltic Feedstock Materials Used for the 2010 ISRU Field Tests, Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, N.; Farmer, J. D.; Zacny, K.; Sellar, R. G.; Nunez, J.

    2011-12-01

    This study seeks to understand variations in composition and texture of basaltic pyroclastic materials used in the 2010 International Lunar Surface Operation-In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test (ILSO-ISRU) held on the slopes of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii (1). The quantity and quality of resources delivered by ISRU depends upon the nature of the materials processed (2). We obtained a one-meter deep auger cuttings sample of a basaltic regolith at the primary site for feed stock materials being mined for the ISRU field test. The auger sample was subdivided into six, ~16 cm depth increments and each interval was sampled and characterized in the field using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI; 3) and a portable X-ray Diffractometer (Terra, InXitu Instruments, Inc.). Splits from each sampled interval were returned to the lab and analyzed using more definitive methods, including high resolution Powder X-ray Diffraction and Thermal Infrared (TIR) spectroscopy. The mineralogy and microtexture (grain size, sorting, roundness and sphericity) of the auger samples were determined using petrographic point count measurements obtained from grain-mount thin sections. NIH Image J (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/) was applied to digital images of thin sections to document changes in particle size with depth. Results from TIR showed a general predominance of volcanic glass, along with plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene. In addition, thin section and XRPD analyses showed a down core increase in the abundance of hydrated iron oxides (as in situ weathering products). Quantitative point count analyses confirmed the abundance of volcanic glass in samples, but also revealed olivine and pyroxene to be minor components, that decreased in abundance with depth. Furthermore, point count and XRD analyses showed a decrease in magnetite and ilmenite with depth, accompanied by an increase in Fe3+phases, including hematite and ferrihydrite. Image J particle analysis showed that the average grain size decreased down the depth profile. This decrease in average grain size and increase in hydrated iron oxides down hole suggests that the most favorable ISRU feedstock materials were sampled in the lower half-meter of the mine section sampled.

  20. The Chemistry of Rocks and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezaro, Peter; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the curriculum, operation and pilot study of a secondary school course on the study of rocks and minerals. Teacher training procedures and modification of the curriculum for other countries (outside of Israel) are discussed. (CP)

  1. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  2. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  3. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  4. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  5. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  6. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  7. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  8. 30 CFR 56.3400 - Secondary breakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secondary breakage. 56.3400 Section 56.3400 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control...

  9. Mineral bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  10. Influence of cross-rolling on the micro-texture and biodegradation of pure iron as biodegradable material for medical implants.

    PubMed

    Obayi, Camillus Sunday; Tolouei, Ranna; Paternoster, Carlo; Turgeon, Stephane; Okorie, Boniface Adeleh; Obikwelu, Daniel Oray; Cassar, Glenn; Buhagiar, Joseph; Mantovani, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Iron-based biodegradable metals have been shown to present high potential in cardiac, vascular, orthopaedic and dental in adults, as well as paediatric, applications. These require suitable mechanical properties, adequate biocompatibility while guaranteeing a low toxicity of degradation products. For example, in cardiac applications, stents need to be made by homogeneous and isotropic materials in order to prevent sudden failures which would impair the deployment site. Besides, the presence of precipitates and pores, chemical inhomogeneity or other anisotropic microstructural defects may trigger stress concentration phenomena responsible for the early collapse of the device. Metal manufacturing processes play a fundamental role towards the final microstructure and mechanical properties of the materials. The present work assesses the effect of mode of rolling on the micro-texture evolution, mechanical properties and biodegradation behaviour of polycrystalline pure iron. Results indicated that cross-rolled samples recrystallized with lower rates than the straight-rolled ones due to a reduction in dislocation density content and an increase in intensity of {100} crystallographic plane which stores less energy of deformation responsible for primary recrystallization. The degradation resulted to be more uniform for cross-rolled samples, while the corrosion rates of cross-rolled and straight-rolled samples did not show relevant differences in simulated body solution. Finally, this work shows that an adequate compromise between biodegradation rate, strength and ductility could be achieved by modulating the deformation mode during cold rolling. PMID:25644452

  11. Secondary Headaches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Migraine and Other Headaches Headache Journal - Public Site Art Gallery Art Gallery Support the AMF American Migraine Foundation The ... but there are usually clues in the medical history or examination to suggest secondary headache. Headache can ...

  12. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  13. Minerals yearbook vol. I: metals and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    0000-01-01

    This volume, covering metals and minerals, contains chapters on approximately 90 commodities. In addition, this volume has chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on statistical surveying methods used by Minerals Information, plus a statistical summary.

  14. [Secondary dyslipidemias].

    PubMed

    Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V

    2012-03-01

    Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice. PMID:22486289

  15. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and ... fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  16. New Minerals and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, William D.

    1997-01-01

    Defines geodiversity, compares it to biodiversity, and discusses the mineral classification system. Charts the discovery of new minerals in Australia over time and focuses on uses of these minerals in technological advances. (DDR)

  17. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  18. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral Supplements Fact Sheet for Consumers What are multivitamin/mineral (MVM) dietary supplements? Multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements contain ...

  19. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Vitamins and ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  20. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  1. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

  2. MINERAL FACILITIES MAPPING PROJECT

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    MINERAL FACILITIES MAPPING PROJECT Yadira Soto-Viruet Supervisor: David Menzie, Yolanda Fong-Sam Minerals Information Team (MIT) USGS Summer Internship 2009 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Minerals Information Team (MIT): Annually reports on the minerals facilities of more than 180 countries

  3. Mineral chemical study of U-bearing minerals from the Dominion Reefs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantzsch, Ulrike; Gauert, Christoph D. K.; van der Westhuizen, Willem A.; Duhamel, Isabelle; Cuney, Michel; Beukes, Gerhard J.

    2011-02-01

    The Neo-Archean Dominion Reefs (~3.06 Ga) are thin meta-conglomerate layers with concentrations of U- and Th-bearing heavy minerals higher than in the overlying Witwatersrand Reefs. Ore samples from Uranium One Africa's Rietkuil and Dominion exploration areas near Klerksdorp, South Africa, were investigated for their mineral paragenesis, texture and mineral chemical composition. The ore and heavy mineral assemblages consist of uraninite, other uraniferous minerals, Fe sulphides, Ni-Co sulfarsenides, garnet, pyrite, pyrrhotite, monazite, zircon, chromite, magnetite and minor gold. Sub-rounded uraninite grains occur associated with the primary detrital heavy mineral paragenesis. U-Ti, U-Th minerals, pitchblende (colloform uraninite) and coffinite are of secondary, re-mobilised origin as evidenced by crystal shape and texture. Most of the uranium mineralisation is represented by detrital uraninite with up to 70.2 wt.% UO2 and up to 9.3 wt.% ThO2. Re-crystallised phases such as secondary pitchblende (without Th), coffinite, U-Ti and U-Th phases are related to hydrothermal overprint during low-grade metamorphism and are of minor abundance.

  4. Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Physicochemical Controls on the Formation of Polynuclear Metal Complexes at Clay Mineral Surfaces R. G. Ford Metal sorption to clay minerals may lead to the formation of secondary precipitates, by enhanced dissolution of the clay mineral structure as indicated by enhanced levels of dissolved silica

  5. Fungal degradation of calcium-, lead- and silicon-bearing minerals.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ademola O; Gadd, Geoffrey M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nutritional influence on the ability of selected filamentous fungi to mediate biogenic weathering of the minerals, apatite, galena and obsidian in order to provide further understanding of the roles of fungi as biogeochemical agents, particularly in relation to the cycling of metals and associated elements found in minerals. The impact of three organic acid producing fungi (Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor) on apatite, galena and obsidian was examined in the absence and presence of a carbon and energy source (glucose). Manifestation of fungal weathering included corrosion of mineral surfaces, modification of the mineral substrate through transformation into secondary minerals (i.e. crystal formation) and hyphal penetration of the mineral substrate. Physicochemical interactions of fungal metabolites, e.g. H+ and organic acids, with the minerals are thought to be the primary driving forces responsible. All experimental fungi were capable of mineral surface colonization in the absence and presence of glucose but corrosion of the mineral surface and secondary mineral formation were affected by glucose availability. Only S. himantioides and T. versicolor were able to corrode apatite in the absence of glucose but none of the fungi were capable of doing so with the other minerals. In addition, crystal formation with galena was entirely dependent on the availability of glucose. Penetration of the mineral substrates by fungal hyphae occurred but this did not follow any particular pattern. Although the presence of glucose in the media appeared to influence positively the mineral penetrating abilities of the fungi, the results obtained also showed that some geochemical change(s) might occur under nutrient-limited conditions. It was, however, unclear whether the hyphae actively penetrated the minerals or were growing into pre-existing pores or cracks. PMID:15984571

  6. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  7. Secondary and Interactive Effects of Chronic Gaseous Pollutant Exposure

    E-print Network

    Secondary and Interactive Effects of Chronic Gaseous Pollutant Exposure of Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers Influence of Chronic Air Pollution on Mineral Cycling in Forests1 Paul J. Zinke 2 Abstract: This paper reviews the literature concerning the impact of'chronic air pollution on mineral element

  8. Textures of Secondary Alteration Zones in Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Longazo, T. G.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Gibson, E. K.

    2001-01-01

    Textures of secondary minerals in cracks in Nakhla are described and illustrated with high resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and BSE. Some Nakhla textures resemble alteration textures of glass in seafloor basalts. Criteria for inorganic vs. biogenic alteration are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... selenium, Vitamin E (Tocopherol), and Vitamin C Magnesium , Selenium, Calcium and Zinc WHAT ABOUT OTHER SUPPLEMENTS? In ...

  10. Bartering for Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students are assigned occupations that rely on specific minerals. To obtain the needed minerals, students learn how to trade services and commodities. Includes details on preparation, modeling behaviors, and printed materials. (DDR)

  11. Scientists observe fungi-dissolving minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) live in moist dark recesses and never see daylight. They cling to the roots of trees in boreal forests, break down soil minerals and supply essential elements and nutrients to the trees. Along the way, they play a distinct but not yet well-understood role in bioweathering, a process in which water, air, and organisms interact to break down soil minerals within the first few meters of Earth's surface. In a synthetically designed and controlled laboratory environment, Gazzè et al. cultured EMF; the researchers monitored the process as the fungi colonized a soil mineral on a petri dish over a period of 7 months. The authors then extracted individual grains of chlorite, a common soil-forming clay mineral, and cleaned the mineral surfaces to look at how the fungi had affected the mineral surfaces they came in contact with. Using atomic force microscopy, a specialized process that allows observations of three-dimensional features at nanometer (10-9 meter) scales, the authors found numerous primary channels, of the order of a micron (10-6 meters) in width and up to 50 nanometers in depth, from which smaller secondary channels extended outward. The network of channels resembled a herringbone-like pattern—evidence of dissolution by EMF.

  12. Ion beam microtexturing of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Some recent work in surface microtecturing by ion beam sputtering is described. The texturing is accomplished by deposition of an impurity onto a substrate while simultaneously bombarding it with an ion beam. A summary of the theory regarding surface diffusion of impurities and the initiation of cone formation is provided. A detailed experimental study of the time-development of individual sputter cones is described. A quasi-liquid coating was observed that apparently reduces the sputter rate of the body of a cone compared to the bulk material. Experimental measurements of surface diffusion activation energies are presented for a variety of substrate-seed combinations and range from about 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. Observations of apparent crystal structure in sputter cones are discussed. Measurements of the critical temperature for cone formation are also given along with a correlation of critical temperature with substrate sputter rate.

  13. Rocks, minerals, and a dusty world

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The Earth`s troposphere and hydrosphere contain abundant naturally generated dust. The ultimate source materials from which the terrestrially produced dust is generated are the various rock types exposed at the Earth`s surface. Natural dust is a composite of (1) lithic, primary mineral grains; (2) mineral grains formed by secondary chemical reactions; (3) volcanic ash and dust; (4) salts from sea sprays; (5) extra-terrestrial dust; and (6) biologic materials. In this paper the various pathways to the natural generation of dust (via the hydrologic cycle) will be discussed, and two geologically well-known natural dust sources will be described, paying particular attention to quantitative measurements of the dusts from these areas. General dust studies that provide data on possibly global background levels will be presented as well.. A few general aspects of the mineralogical characterization of dust particles and a discussion of some of the mineralogy of several mineral groups are first presented. 89 refs., 39 figs.

  14. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  15. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in...

  16. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in...

  17. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in...

  18. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in...

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in...

  20. Paricalcitol for secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trillini, Matias; Cortinovis, Monica; Ruggenenti, Piero; Reyes Loaeza, Jorge; Courville, Karen; Ferrer-Siles, Claudia; Prandini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Cannata, Antonio; Villa, Alessandro; Perna, Annalisa; Gotti, Eliana; Caruso, Maria Rosa; Martinetti, Davide; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Perico, Norberto

    2015-05-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism contributes to post-transplant CKD mineral and bone disorder. Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. This single-center, prospective, randomized, crossover, open-label study compared the effect of 6-month treatment with paricalcitol (1 ?g/d for 3 months and then uptitrated to 2 µg/d if tolerated) or nonparicalcitol therapy on serum parathyroid hormone levels (primary outcome), mineral metabolism, and proteinuria in 43 consenting recipients of renal transplants with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Participants were randomized 1:1 according to a computer-generated sequence. Compared with baseline, median (interquartile range) serum parathyroid hormone levels significantly declined on paricalcitol from 115.6 (94.8-152.0) to 63.3 (52.0-79.7) pg/ml (P<0.001) but not on nonparicalcitol therapy. At 6 months, levels significantly differed between treatments (P<0.001 by analysis of covariance). Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin decreased on paricalcitol therapy only and significantly differed between treatments at 6 months (P<0.001 for all comparisons). At 6 months, urinary deoxypyridinoline-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria level decreased only on paricalcitol (P<0.05). L3 and L4 vertebral mineral bone density, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorption, significantly improved with paricalcitol at 6 months (P<0.05 for both densities). Paricalcitol was well tolerated. Overall, 6-month paricalcitol supplementation reduced parathyroid hormone levels and proteinuria, attenuated bone remodeling and mineral loss, and reduced eGFR in renal transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Long-term studies are needed to monitor directly measured GFR, ensure that the bone remodeling and mineral effects are sustained, and determine if the reduction in proteinuria improves renal and cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25194004

  1. Reagan issues mineral policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  3. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  4. The Miner's Canary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  5. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

  6. Digging into Minnesota Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul.

    This publication presents students with facts about geology and several learning activities. Topics covered include rocks and minerals, volcanoes and earthquakes, fossils, exploration geology, mining in Minnesota, environmental issues related to mining, mineral uses, mining history, and the geology of Minnesota's state parks. A geologic timetable…

  7. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  9. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapters on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, centennial edition 1981. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook Marks the centennial of the first annual publication of comprehensive mineral industry statistics by the Federal Government. This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 71 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  12. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  13. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of kilometres from the initial reaction site to form ore deposits. The coupling of dissolution and precipitation has important consequences for all reactions between fluids and rocks and understanding this coupling has applications well beyond mineralogy, for example, in developing new methods of materials synthesis, for carbon removal from the atmosphere and for safe storage of nuclear waste.

  14. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...S7-40-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality...its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the...

  15. American Strategic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeYoung, John H., Jr.; Chidester, Alfred H.

    American Strategic Minerals is a collection of six papers that were presented in December 1982 at a conference organized by the Center for the Study of Marine Policy at the University of Delaware. According to editor Gerard J. Mangone, director of the center, the papers were commissioned “to investigate not only the objective resource situation, but also past United States policy on strategic minerals and future options open to Washington.” The authors and their chapter titles are John C. Kraft, University of Delaware: “Strategic minerals and world stability” V. Anthony Cammarota, Jr., U.S. Bureau of Mines: “America's dependence on strategic minerals” John D. Morgan, U.S. Bureau of Mines: “Future demands of the United States for strategic minerals” J. Robert Moore, University of Texas: “Alternative sources of strategic minerals from the seabed” Allan I. Mendelowitz and John E. Watson, U.S. General Accounting Office: “U.S. mining investments in developing countries” and James W. Curlin, Nautilus Press: “The political dimensions of strategic minerals.”

  16. Elastic properties of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.

    1993-09-01

    Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Minerals Management Service: Strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-30

    This plan addresses the management of the mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in an environmentally sound and safe manner and the timely collection, verification, and distribution of mineral revenues from Federal and Indian lands. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) manages the Nation`s natural gas, oil and other mineral resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and collects, accounts for, and disburses revenues from offshore federal mineral leases and from onshore mineral leases on Federal and Indian lands.

  18. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  20. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  1. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  2. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8...patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. Regulations issued under...and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  3. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.M.; Turney, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of wastewater related to minerals and mine drainage. Topics covered include: environmental regulations and impacts; and characterization, prevention, treatment and reclamation. 65 refs.

  4. Mineral Requirements of Sheep. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01

    In order to prevent overfertilization, which could lead to groundwater contamination, rapid and accurate soil testing procedures are needed to evaluate agricultural surface soils for their potential to mineralize C and N. Our objectives were...

  5. Minerals, Inorganic Substances

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Minerals, Inorganic Substances Updated:Feb 26,2014 Fluoridation No ... been implicated as possible contributors to cardiovascular disease. Zinc, copper, cadmium and lead, individually or in combination, ...

  6. Estimation of palaeohydrochemical conditions using carbonate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amamiya, H.; Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Yuguchi, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito-Kokubu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term evolution of geochemical environment in deep underground is indispensable research subject for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because the evolution of geochemical environment would impact migration behavior of radionuclides in deep underground. Many researchers have made efforts previously to elucidate the geochemical environment within the groundwater residence time based on the analysis of the actual groundwater. However, it is impossible to estimate the geochemical environment for the longer time scale than the groundwater residence time in this method. In this case, analysis of the chemical properties of secondary minerals are one of useful method to estimate the paleohydrochemical conditions (temperature, salinity, pH and redox potential). In particular, carbonate minerals would be available to infer the long-term evolution of hydrochemical for the following reasons; -it easily reaches chemical equilibrium with groundwater and precipitates in open space of water flowing path -it reflects the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater at the time of crystallization We reviewed the previous studies on carbonate minerals and geochemical conditions in deep underground and estimated the hydrochemical characteristics of past groundwater by using carbonate minerals. As a result, it was found that temperature and salinity of the groundwater during crystallization of carbonate minerals were evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, pH and redox potential can only be understood qualitatively. However, it is suggested that the content of heavy metal elements such as manganese, iron and uranium, and rare earth elements in the carbonate minerals are useful indicators for estimating redox potential. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  7. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Lyday, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    U.S. production and sales of boron minerals and chemicals decreased during the year. Glass-fiber insulation was the largest use for borates, followed by sales to distributors, textile-grade glass fibers, and borosilicate glasses. California was the only domestic source of boron minerals. The report discusses the following: domestic data coverage; legislation and government programs; domestic production; comsumption and uses; prices; foreign trade; world capacity; world review--Argentina, Chile, France, Italy, Turkey, United Kingdom; Technology.

  8. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The United States led the world in lithium mineral and compound production and consumption. Estimated consumption increased slightly, and world production also grew. Sales increased for domestic producers, who announced price increases for the third consecutive year. Because lithium is electrochemically reactive and has other unique properties, there are many commercial lithium products. Producers sold lithium as mineral concentrate, brine, compound, or metal, depending upon the end use. Most lithium compounds were consumed in the production of ceramics, glass, and primary aluminum.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1982. volume 1. metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1983. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 73 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends and a statistical summary.

  11. Biomimetic Mineralization: Mesoporous Biological mineral synthesis, in contrast to conven-

    E-print Network

    to conven- tional mineral processing techniques, generates mat- erials of very highly controlled size, habit. These biomineraliza- tion processes occur in a diversity of species and tissues, including bone mineral, marine shellsBiomimetic Mineralization: Mesoporous Structures Biological mineral synthesis, in contrast

  12. 36 CFR 293.14 - Mineral leases and mineral permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral leases and mineral permits. 293.14 Section 293.14 Parks...AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.14 Mineral leases and mineral permits. (a) All laws...

  13. Minerals Yearbook, 1989. Volume i. Metals and Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral industry during 1989 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on advanced materials also has been added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  14. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  15. Minerals yearbook, 1993. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. It contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. A chapter on survey methods with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals, and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are also included.

  16. Minerals yearbook, 1994. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1994 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. The volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. The volume also contains chapters on Survey Methods, a Statistical Summary of Nonfuel Minerals, and Trends in Mining and Quarrying.

  17. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  18. Mineral hydrolysis kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Arnold, G.W.; Casey, W.H.

    1993-07-01

    Dissolution rate laws for silicate mineral weathering can be related to kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions. This relation is being tested with an experimental/analytical/theoretical program for measuring the dissolution kinetics of orthosilicate minerals for use in ionic modeling and molecular dynamics computer simulations of solid, aqueous solution, and solid/liquid interface. To date, dissolution rate have been measured for a suite of endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals (both olivine and willemite structures) as well as a few inosilicate minerals (pyroxenes). Dissolution rates appear to correlate well with solvent exchange rates around the hydrated divalent cations. Siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds are relatively unreactive at low pH`s close to zero point of neutral charge for quartz. The correlation suggests that silicic acid would be released from the reacting surfaces after protonation and hydration of bonds between divalent metals and structural oxygens; congruent dissolution is confirmed by Rutherford backscattered analysis of the near-surface of an acid-reacted forsterite. In the ionic modeling, except for liebenbergite, there is a general trend of increasing lattice energy with decreasing dissolution rate for endmember and mixed-cation orthosilicate minerals at pH 2. 3 figs, 4 refs.

  19. Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

    1983-09-01

    The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

  20. Applied Mineral Inventory Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Alastair J.; Blackwell, Garston H.

    2002-05-01

    Applied Mineral Inventory Estimation presents a comprehensive applied approach to the estimation of mineral resources/reserves with particular emphasis on the geological basis of such estimations, the need for and maintenance of a high quality assay data base, the practical use of comprehensive exploratory data evaluation, and the importance of a comprehensive geostatistical approach to the estimation methodology. Practical problems and real data are used throughout as illustrations. Each chapter ends with a summary of practical concerns, a number of exercises and a short list of references for supplementary study. This textbook is suitable for any university or mining school that offers senior undergraduate and graduate student courses on mineral resource/reserve estimation.

  1. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O ? (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily implemented and economically efficient alternative to other technologies currently under development for mineral sequestration. Dismukes GC, Carrieri D, Bennette N, Ananyev GM, Posewitz MC (2008) Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19, 235-240. Ferris FG, Wiese RG, Fyfe WS (1994) Precipitation of carbonate minerals by microorganisms: Implications of silicate weathering and the global carbon dioxide budget. Geomicrobiology Journal, 12, 1-13. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL, Jr., Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy, 20, 1153-1170. Power IM, Wilson SA, Thom JM, Dipple GM, Gabites JE, Southam G (2009) The hydromagnesite playas of Atlin, British Columbia, Canada: A biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration. Chemical Geology, 206, 302-316. Thompson JB, Ferris FG (1990) Cyanobacterial precipitation of gypsum, calcite, and magnesite from natural alkaline lake water. Geology, 18, 995-998.

  2. Impact of nano-size weathering products on dissolution rates of primary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Ague, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Weathering rates of primary minerals determined in field studies are typically orders of magnitude lower than mineral dissolution rates found in laboratory experiments. We propose that this discrepancy is due to a combination of two factors: (i) secondary minerals that form from the incongruent dissolution of primary phases are often nano-scale in size; (ii) field conditions are often far closer to equilibrium than those encountered in laboratory experiments. Using a non-standard formulation that relates interfacial free energy, crystal size, and degree of supersaturation to precipitation kinetics in a population of crystals growing in a supersaturated fluid, we demonstrate that the net rate of secondary mineral precipitation in systems that are close to equilibrium - and which possess a large number of micron and nanometer scale crystals - can be much lower than rates predicted by standard kinetic formulations. Furthermore, when crystals are small enough, net dissolution can dominate even when the system is supersaturated with respect to the secondary mineral, with standard kinetic models breaking down entirely. As the dissolution rates of primary minerals are thought to be determined by the rate of secondary mineral precipitation, standard kinetic models - which ignore interfacial free energy effects in small crystals - may therefore be unsuitable to describe reaction kinetics in weathering systems.

  3. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  4. Bioleaching of Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  5. Oxidants from Pulverized Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2007-06-01

    Joel Hurowitz (previously at State University of New York at Stony Brook and now at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Nick Tosca, Scott McLennan, and Martin Schoonen (SUNY at Stony Brook) studied the production of hydrogen peroxide from freshly pulverized minerals in solution. Their experiments focused on olivine, augite, and labradorite; silicate minerals of basaltic planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, that are exposed to the intense crushing and grinding of impact cratering processes. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the experiments was enough to adequately explain the oxidizing nature of Martian regolith first determined by the Viking Landers and the results suggest, for the first time, that mechanically activated mineral surfaces may be an important part of the overall explanation for the Viking Lander biology experiment results. Hurowitz and coauthors further showed that when the pulverized minerals are heat-treated to high temperature under vacuum (to cause dehydroxylation) there is almost a 20 times increase in hydrogen peroxide production, a result which may be highly relevant to lunar dust. These careful studies demonstrate the importance of and concern about reactive dusts on planetary surfaces from two standpoints: the health of astronauts on surface maneuvers who may inadvertently breath it and the viability of possible Martian organic species to survive in such a corrosive, antiseptic surface environment.

  6. TRACE MINERAL DEFICIENCIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of trace element deficiencies of human health and well-being is presented in an abridged form. The general biological roles, mechanisms involved in homeostasis, factors affecting the manifestation of deficiency signs, and treatments for deficiencies of trace mineral elements are described...

  7. Identification of Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Diane

    2005-01-01

    The lab described in this article was developed to satisfy two major goals. First, the activity is designed to show students the proper techniques used to identify the seven characteristics of all minerals. Second, the lab gives students a glimpse into the life of a professional field geologist. The author has students complete this lab at the end…

  8. Minerals yearbook 1977. Volume I. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report contains chapters on virtually all metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities important to the domestic economy. In addition, it includes a general review chapter on the mineral industries, a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, and a statistical summary.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume I of the 1988 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 79 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains chapters on mining and quarrying trends and on the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines and a statistical summary.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1985. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the 1985 Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  11. Minerals yearbook, 1984. Volume 1. Metals and minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The volume of the Minerals Yearbook, covering metals and minerals, contains 72 commodity or commodity group chapters with data on approximately 90 minerals that were obtained as a result of the mineral information gathering activities of the Bureau of Mines. In addition, the volume contains a chapter on mining and quarrying trends, a chapter discussing the statistical surveying methods used by the Bureau of Mines, and a statistical summary.

  12. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  13. International minerals: a national perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Seven authors bring a variety of perspectives to the subject of minerals availability. In the domestic area, an overview of the US strategic mineral situation is followed by a discussion of changes in one state's mineral policy decisions over a 200-year period. Later chapters describe the potential of Alaska's mineral resources, with a focus on the immediate need for a thorough inventory of this vast area, and the nature and sources of mineral information available to Canadian policymakers as useful models in making inventories. In the international area, there is a discussion of the key role of South Africa in the world mineral picture and the strategic importance to the Soviet Union of the mineral wealth of Afghanistan. The volume concludes with a review of the history of US mineral policies. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  14. Linking Home Plate and Algonquin Class Rocks through Microtextural Analysis: Evidence for Hydrovolcanism in the Inner Basin of Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2007-01-01

    Examining the his-tory of a rock as the summed history of its constituent grains is a proven and powerful strategy that has been used on Earth to maximize the information that can be gleaned from limited samples. Grain size, sorting, roundness, and texture can be observed at the handlens scale, and may reveal clues to transport regime (e.g. fluvial, glacial, eolian) and transport distance. Diagenetic minerals may be of a form and textural context to allow identification, and to point to dominant diagenetic processes (e.g. evaporitic concentration, intermittent dissolution, early vs. late diagenetic emplacement). Handlens scale features of volcaniclastic particles may be diagnostic of primary vs recycled (by surface processes) grains and may provide information about eruptive patterns and processes. When the study site is truly remote, such as Mars, and when there are severe limitations on sample return or sample analysis with other methods, examination at the hand lens scale becomes critical both for extracting a maximum of information, and for best utilizing finite analytical capabilities.

  15. Silicosis in barium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  16. Minerals and mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.C.; Thomson, B.M.

    2009-09-15

    A review of literature published in 2008 and early 2009 on research related to the production of acid mine drainage and/or in the dissolution of minerals as a result of mining, with special emphasis on the effects of these phenomena on the water quality in the surrounding environment, is presented. This review is divided into six sections: 1) Site Characterization and Assessment, 2) Protection, Prevention, and Restoration, 3) Toxicity Assessment, 4) Environmental Fate and Transport, 5) Biological Characterization, and 6) Treatment Technologies. Because there is much overlap in research areas associated with minerals and mine drainage, many papers presented in this review can be classified into more than one category, and the six sections should not be regarded as being mutually-exclusive, nor should they be thought of as being all-inclusive.

  17. Education Secondary the stars ...

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    knowledge and developed experience of these processes to maximise the quality of education experienced of Stirling is rated number one in Scotland for Education by a number of University Guides and for the qualityBA(Hons) Education Secondary Reach for the stars ... #12;Why study Secondary Education

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1991. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook discusses the performance of the worlwide minerals and materials industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume 1, Metals and Mineral, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials and nonrenewable organic materials also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989 and 1990 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on nonferrous metals recycling has been initiated in this 1991 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  19. Minerals yearbook, 1992. Volume 1. Metals and minerals. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide mineral and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on advanced materials, nonrenewable organic materials, and nonferrous metals recycling also were added to the Minerals Yearbook series beginning with the 1989, 1990, and 1991 volumes, respectively. A new chapter on materials recycling has been initiated in this 1992 volume. In addition, a chapter on survey methods used in data collection with a statistical summary of nonfuel minerals and a chapter on trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries are included.

  20. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 ?m thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence in the silicate (clay mineral in our case) structure, the specific bonding of these ions, and other factors. In fact, the reasons for coloration are not known completely, but it is certain that a combination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions is necessary to give a nice green color to clays. In the green clay minerals discussed here, the colors vary greatly as seen under the optical microscope (not always the same as the one seen in hand specimen). Yellow to blue-green hues can be found. However, for the moment, no clear relation between iron content, iron valence ratio, or other factors such as minor transition element concentrations can be found to explain the greenness of green clay minerals. The fact that a clay is green just indicates a combination of the two oxidation states of iron. The color, however, indicates the key to the formation in nature of green clay minerals.Green clay minerals are in general the product of "mixed valence" conditions of formation, most often in a situation where some iron is reduced from Fe3+ and enters into a silicate mineral structure. In general, iron would rather be an oxide when it is in the trivalent state. The moment iron is reduced to a divalent state under surface or near-surface conditions, it looks for a silicate, sulfide, or carbonate to hide in. The reverse is also true, of course. When a silicate is oxidized, Fe2+ becoming Fe3+, the iron begins to group together in oxide clumps and eventually exits the silicate structure. This is seen in thin section in altered rocks (weathering or hydrothermal action). The production of trivalent, oxidized iron usually results in a brownish or orange mineral.If the geology of the formation of green silicate minerals is relatively well defined, especially at near surface or surface conditions, the question remains how much of the iron is in a reduced oxidation state and how? In the case of reduction of iron in surface environments: if most of the iron goes to Fe2+, one mineral is formed; if only part of it is reduced, another is formed. This is the fundamental geochemical aspect of

  1. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  2. Enzymatic mineralization of silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sangram K; Dash, Mamoni; Declercq, Heidi A; Gheysens, Tom; Dendooven, Jolien; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Cornelissen, Ria; Dubruel, Peter; Kaplan, David L

    2014-07-01

    The present study focuses on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals on porous silk fibroin protein (SFP) scaffolds. Porous SFP scaffolds impregnated with different concentrations of ALP are homogeneously mineralized under physiological conditions. The mineral structure is apatite while the structures differ as a function of the ALP concentration. Cellular adhesion, proliferation, and colonization of osteogenic MC3T3 cells improve on the mineralized SFP scaffolds. These findings suggest a simple process to generate mineralized scaffolds that can be used to enhanced bone tissue engineering-related utility. PMID:24610728

  3. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us You are here Home » Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Vitamins and minerals are important ... the form of supplements. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances needed by your ...

  4. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  5. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  6. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  7. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  8. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  9. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  10. 43 CFR 3816.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3816.1 Section 3816.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  11. 43 CFR 3815.1 - Mineral locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral locations. 3815.1 Section 3815.1...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Mineral Locations...

  12. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is a compilation of X-ray tables and spectra recorded from various mineral matrices. Spectra were obtained using electron microprobe, equipped with LiF geared, curved crystal X-ray spectrometers, utilizing typical analytical operating conditions: 15 Kv acceleration potential, 0.02 microampere sample current as measured on a clinopyroxene standard (CP19). Tables and spectra are presented for the majority of elements, fluorine through uranium, occurring in mineral samples from lunar, meteoritic and terrestrial sources. Tables for each element contain relevant analytical information, i.e., analyzing crystal, X-ray peak, background and relative intensity information, X-ray interferences and a section containing notes on the measurement. Originally intended to cover silicates and oxide minerals the tables and spectra have been expanded to cover other mineral phases. Electron microprobe mineral analysis guide is intended as a spectral base to which additional spectra can be added as the analyst encounters new mineral matrices.

  13. Mineral characterization in biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    A thorough characterization of mineral samples is critical to studies on mineral-induced pathogenesis. The variation in biological activity exhibited by different mineral species and different samples of specific mineral species imply that the pathogenicity of minerals is related to their physical and chemical properties. This chapter briefly discusses how one might characterize many of the aspects of minerals that may be important in determining biological activity, including bulk properties and surface properties. The chapter provides the reader with a starting point for some of the more common techniques that can be used to characterize a mineral sample by addressing the following questions: What needs to be characterized: what are some of the techniques that can be used to provide this information. 90 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Canine Secondary Glaucomas.

    PubMed

    Pumphrey, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Secondary glaucomas are common in dogs, and occur due to obstruction of aqueous humor flow at the pupil, iridocorneal angle, or trabecular meshwork by numerous mechanisms. Secondary glaucoma is suspected based on examination findings, or presence of elevated IOP in an animal with a signalment inconsistent with primary glaucoma. Animals with secondary glaucoma require more diagnostic testing than animals with primary glaucoma. Management is challenging, and treatments used for primary glaucoma may be ineffective or even detrimental. Prognosis for vision and/or globe retention may be better than for primary glaucoma, particularly if underlying causes can be found and addressed promptly. PMID:26319444

  15. Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmij, Harry R.; Cabri, Louis J.

    2015-09-01

    Low-grade copper and nickel mineralization was found near the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika at Kungwe Bay in the early part of the twentieth century. The mineralization occurs in harzburgite at the base of a layered gabbro complex known as the Kapalagulu Intrusion, emplaced between the Paleoproterozoic Ubendian basement and overlying Neoproterozoic Itiaso Group metasediments. Several mining and exploration companies continued the geophysical and drilling exploration for base metals throughout the last century culminating in the discovery of high-grade platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization associated with chromitite and sulfide-bearing harzburgite within the southeastern extension of the Kapalagulu Intrusion (known as the Lubalisi Zone) that is covered by a layer of nickel-rich laterite regolith. The poorly layered southeastern harzburgite forms part of the >1500 m-thick Lower Ultramafic Sequence and resembles a dike-like body that flares upwards into a succession of well-layered gabbroic rocks of the Upper Mafic Sequence. No PGE mineralization has been found in the layered gabbro; all the mineralization is associated with the chromite- and sulfide-rich harzburgite of the Lower Ultramafic Sequence and the laterite regolith overlying the mineralized harzburgite. The Lubalisi Zone harzburgite is underlain by basal dunite and overlain by an interval of layered harzburgite and troctolite and this ultramafic sequence is folded into a syncline that plunges towards the northwest that has been modified by major dolerite-filled faults orientated subparallel to the fold axial surface. Extensive deep drilling in the Lubalisi Zone of the Kapalagulu Intrusion shows that the folded harzburgite can be subdivided into a lower feldspathic harzburgite, a harzburgite containing chromitite seams and intervals of sulfide and chromite mineralization known as the Main Chromite Sulfide Succession (MCSS), an overlying sulfide-rich harzburgite, and an upper feldspathic harzburgite. Impersistent, stratiform PGE mineralized horizons occur within the MCSS harzburgite from which drill core samples were taken for platinum-group mineral (PGM) characterization from two drill holes. Where the PGE reefs reach the surface there is residual PGE mineralization within the laterite regolith from which drill core samples were taken from various laterite lithological units for PGM characterization. As the harzburgite PGE reefs contain significant concentrations of both sulfide and chromite (including chromitite seams) they resemble the PGE-rich chromitite seams of the Bushveld Complex rather than the PGE-bearing Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke and Main Sulfide Layer of the Munni Munni Complex. The dominant Pd PGM in three PGE reef samples varies, ranging (n = 164, relative wt%) from bismuthides (63 %), bismuthtellurides (19 %), and tellurides (6 %), to tellurides (39 %), bismuthtellurides (24 %), stannides (14 %), and alloys (13 %), and to antimon-arsenides (33 %), stannides (21 %), bismuthides (17 %), tellurides (13 %), and alloys (10 %). From 13.5 % to 21.0 % of the total Pd occurs as a solid solution in pentlandite. The three samples have similar Pt PGM modal distributions (n = 172, relative wt%); the dominant Pt mineral is sperrylite (79, 58, and 47 %) followed by tellurides (15, 17, 21 %), alloys (2, 1, 1 %), and sulfides (2, 1, 0 %). Comparison of Pd/Pt ratios from assays to those calculated from minerals show that the data for the Pt and Pd PGM are very robust, confirming the concentration methodology and characterization. Study of samples from a shallow drill hole penetrating the laterite regolith shows that the primary Pd mineralization has not survived oxidation, is mainly dispersed, but some was reconstituted to form secondary minerals: cabriite, unnamed tellurides, a selenide, a Pd-Te-Hg mineral, alloys and Pd-bearing secondary sulfides (millerite and heazlewoodite). The primary Pt minerals are more resistant to oxidation and dissolution, especially sperrylite and isoferroplatinum, but it is likely that other Pt alloys (tetraferroplat

  16. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation or movement in a part of the body ... weakness. Many medicines may affect the development of neuropathy, including: Heart or blood pressure drugs: Amiodarone Hydralazine ...

  18. Secondary hyperkalaemic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Evers, S.; Engelien, A.; Karsch, V.; Hund, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the hereditary hyperkalaemic paralysis, a secondary form exists which often mimicks Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 62year old patient is reported on who developed severe hyperkalaemic paralysis on the basis of mild renal failure and additive spironolactone intake. Neurophysiological examinations disclosed normal muscle fibre activity but delayed nerve conduction velocities indicating that the mechanism underlying secondary hyperkalaemic paralysis is different from channelopathies. Haemodialysis led to complete recovery. Review of the medical literature showed that spironolactone intake is the most common cause of secondary hyperkalaemic paralysis. Typical symptoms are flaccid tetraplegia sparing the cranial nerves with only mild or lacking sensory impairment. Symptoms promptly resolve after haemodialysis or after glucose and insulin infusion. Only three out of 18 patients reviewed died, because of cardiopulmonary complications. Thus the prognosis of secondary hyperkalaemic paralysis is good.?? PMID:9489541

  19. Secondary Procedures in Replantation

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, S. Raja; Bhardwaj, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    The success of replantation surgery is not judged by survival of the replanted part, but by the functional outcome attained. Hence, primary repair of all injured structures is the preferred aim. At times, constraints induced by the ischemia time and nature of injury preclude primary repair. In such situations, secondary procedures are inevitable. Secondary procedures are also frequently required to improve the function and appearance of the replanted extremity. The incidence of secondary procedures will vary with the level of replantation and the type of patient population. Secondary procedures are difficult because they carry risk of injury to the vital neurovascular structures that now lay at nonanatomical locations. Nevertheless, when indicated and performed with caution they could significantly raise the functional status of the individuals. PMID:24872769

  20. Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the adrenal gland. The condition is most common in people 30 to 50 years old. ... Primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism have common symptoms, ... Headache Muscle weakness Numbness Paralysis that comes and goes

  1. Are colors Secondary Qualities?

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Alex

    Introduction: Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century discussions of the senses are often thought to contain a profound truth: some perceptible properties are secondary qualities, dispositions to produce certain sorts of ...

  2. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Secondary Conditions Autonomic Dysreflexia Bladder Management Bowel Management Deep Vein Thrombosis Depression Fitness and Exercise Nutirition Pain ... pain related to spinal cord injury or disease. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) People with spinal cord injury ( ...

  3. Mineral dust as ice nuclei in the upper troposphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyd, K.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Composition, size, and phase are key properties that define the ability of an aerosol particle to initiate ice in cirrus clouds. Properties of cirrus ice nuclei (IN) have not been well constrained due to a lack of systematic measurements in the upper troposphere. In a recent study of several northern hemisphere regions we report the size and composition of sublimated cirrus particles sampled from a high altitude research aircraft using both in situ and offline techniques. Mineral dust was consistently the most abundant particle type in cirrus residuals, suggesting that heterogeneous nucleation was a dominant cirrus formation mechanism in these study regions. Other proposed heterogeneous IN, including biomass burning particles, elemental carbon, and biological material, were not abundant in cirrus residuals. Clear sky measurements show that mineral dust was ubiquitous in the background upper troposphere at levels from ~1 to 100's per liter and typically accounted for 5-40% of the particulate mass. Principal sources of upper tropospheric mineral dust include strong biomass burning events and deep convection, although some evidence suggests that dust aerosol is preferentially scavenged in convective systems. During transport mineral dust accumulates secondary sulfate, nitrate, and organic material that can reduce IN efficiency. Most upper tropospheric dust particles contain secondary material, and coating type and thickness depend on coemissions and the vertical transport mechanism.

  4. Minerals Yearbook: Minerals in the world economy. 1988 International review

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbell, C.L.; Zajac, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    In overview, 1988 appeared to be the best year for the world's mineral industry since 1980, although the all-important petroleum component suffered severely from low prices. With this notable exception, the traditional statistical measures of mineral industry performance, namely production, trade, and consumption, reflected growth in most elements of the world mineral industry from crude material extraction through the gamut of downstream processing. Moreover, the growth was reasonably well distributed geographically, with many countries sharing in the substantial upturn in activity. The report discusses production, trade, consumption, investment, transportation, prices, and statistical summary of world production and trade of major mineral commodities.

  5. Secondary psychoses: an update

    PubMed Central

    Keshavan, Matcheri S; Kaneko, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Psychotic disorders due to a known medical illness or substance use are collectively termed secondary psychoses. In this paper, we first review the historic evolution of the concept of secondary versus primary psychosis and how this distinction supplanted the earlier misleading classification of psychoses into organic and functional. We then outline the clinical features and approach to the diagnosis of secondary psychotic disorders. Features such as atypical presentation, temporal relation to detectable medical cause, evidence of direct physiological causal relationship to the etiological agent, and the absence of evidence of a primary psychotic illness that may better explain the presentation suggest consideration of a secondary psychosis. Finally, we discuss how careful studies of secondary psychotic disorders can help elucidate the pathophysiology of primary, or idiopathic, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. We illustrate this issue through a discussion of three secondary psychotic disorders — psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, velocardiofacial syndrome, and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis — that can, respectively, provide neuroanatomical, genetic, and neurochemical models of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:23471787

  6. The mineral and rock resources of Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Kesse, G.O.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents in this publication information on the mineral and rock resources of Ghana. Minerals that do not exist in Ghana in commercial quantities are also treated and mention is made where they have been found in Ghana. Topics covered include the following: the importance of minerals; the geography, physiography, geology and geohydrology of Ghana; metallic minerals; non-metallic minerals; bulk construction materials; radioactive minerals; petroleum and other fossil fuels; minor minerals; minerals in concentrates; the Ghana Geological Survey and mineral exploration and exploitation in Ghana; and legislation affecting mineral concessions and the mining industry.

  7. Biologically enhanced mineral weathering: what does it look like, can we model it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, M. S.; Lawrence, C. R.; Harden, J. W.; White, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between plants and minerals in soils is hugely important and poorly understood as it relates to the fate of soil carbon. Plant roots, fungi and bacteria inhabit the mineral soil and work symbiotically to extract nutrients, generally through low molecular weight exudates (organic acids, extracelluar polysachrides (EPS), siderophores, etc.). Up to 60% of photosynthetic carbon is allocated below ground as roots and exudates, both being important carbon sources in soils. Some exudates accelerate mineral weathering. To test whether plant exudates are incorporated into poorly crystalline secondary mineral phases during precipitation, we are investigating the biologic-mineral interface. We sampled 5 marine terraces along a soil chronosequence (60 to 225 ka), near Santa Cruz, CA. The effects of the biologic interactions with mineral surfaces were characterized through the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Morphologically, mycorrhizal fungi were observed fully surrounding minerals, fungal hyphae were shown to tunnel into primary silicate minerals and we have observed direct hyphal attachment to mineral surfaces. Fungal tunneling was seen in all 5 soils by SEM. Additionally, specific surface area (using a nitrogen BET method) of primary minerals was measured to determine if the effects of mineral tunneling are quantifiable in older soils. Results suggest that fungal tunneling is more extensive in the primary minerals of older soils. We have also examined the influence of organic acids on primary mineral weathering during soil development using a geochemical reactive transport model (CrunchFlow). Addition of organic acids in our models of soil development at Santa Cruz result in decreased activity of Fe and Al in soil pore water, which subsequently alters the spatial extent of primary mineral weathering and kaolinite precipitation. Overall, our preliminary modeling results suggest biological processes may be an important but underrepresented aspect of soil development in geochemical models.

  8. Microelectrophoresis of selected mineral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Alexander, K. D.

    1982-01-01

    Particle mobilities of ilmenite, labradorite plagioclase, enstatite pyroxene, and olivine were measured with a Rank microelectrophoresis system to evaluate indicated mineral separability. Sodium bicarbonate buffer suspension media with and without additives (0.0001 M DTAB and 5 percent v/v ethylene glycol) were used to determine differential adsorption by mineral particles and modification of relative mobilities. Good separability between some minerals was indicated; additives did not enhance separability.

  9. Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing.

    PubMed

    Norris, P R; Burton, N P; Foulis, N A

    2000-04-01

    Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale. A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized, but the most active strains have not been fully characterized. PMID:10805560

  10. Mineral Time Capsules on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Like dinosaur-age insects trapped in amber, biomolecules sequestered in million-year-old sulfate minerals could provide a glimpse into the past, say researchers who've recently analyzed such minerals from N orth America. The same minerals have recently been discovered on Mars , so they may be a good place to look for traces of past life on the red planet, the researchers say.

  11. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  12. Quantifying Mineralization Utilizing Bone Mineral Density Distribution in the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Donneys, Alexis; Nelson, Noah S.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Boguslawski, Matthew J.; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Farberg, Aaron S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Microcomputed Tomography (?CT) is an efficient method for quantifying the density and mineralization of mandibular microarchitecture. Conventional radiomorphometrics such as Bone and Tissue Mineral Density are useful in determining the average, overall mineral content of a scanned specimen; however, solely relying on these metrics has limitations. Utilizing Bone Mineral Density Distribution (BMDD), the complex array of mineralization densities within a bone sample can be portrayed. This information is particularly useful as a computational feature reflective of the rate of bone turnover. Here we demonstrate the utility of BMDD analyses in the rat mandible and generate a platform for further exploration of mandibular pathology and treatment. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=8) underwent ?CT and histogram data was generated from a selected volume of interest. A standard curve was derived for each animal and reference criteria were defined. An average histogram was produced for the group and descriptive analyses including the means and standard deviations are reported for each of the normative metrics. Results Mpeak (3444 Hounsfield Units, SD =138) and Mwidth (2221 Hounsfield Units SD =628) are two metrics demonstrating reproducible parameters of BMDD with minimal variance. A total of eight valuable metrics quantifying biologically significant events concerning mineralization are reported. Conclusion Here we quantify the vast wealth of information depicted in the complete spectrum of mineralization established by the BMDD analysis. We demonstrate its potential in delivering mineralization data that encompasses and enhances conventional reporting of radiomorphometrics. Moreover, we explore its role and translational potential in craniofacial experimentation. PMID:22976646

  13. Mineralization by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajander, E. Olavi; Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    1998-07-01

    Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and in commercial cell culture serum. In this study, we identified with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and chemical analysis that all growth phases of nanobacteria produce biogenic apatite on their cell envelope. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed the mineral as carbonate apatite. Previous models for stone formation have lead to a hypothesis that an elevated pH due to urease and/or alkaline phosphatase activity are important lithogenic factors. Our results indicate that carbonate apatite can be formed without these factors at pH 7.4 at physiological phosphate and calcium concentrations. Due to their specific macromolecules, nanobacteria can produce apatite very efficiency in media mimicking tissue fluids and glomerular filtrate and rapidly mineralizing most of available calcium and phosphate. This can be also monitored by (superscript 85)Sr incorporation and provides a unique model for in vitro studies on calcification. Recently, bacteria have been implicated in the formation of carbonate (hydroxy)fluorapatite in marine sediments. Apatite grains are found so commonly in sedimentary rocks that apatite is omitted in naming the stone. To prove that apatite and other minerals are formed by bacteria would implicate that the bacteria could be observed and their actions followed in stones. We have started to approach this in two ways. Firstly, by the use of sensitive methods for detecting specific bacterial components, like antigens, muramic acid and nucleic acids, that allow for detecting the presence of bacteria and, secondly, by follow-up of volatile bacterial metabolites observed by continuous monitoring with ion mobility spectrometry, IMCELL, working like an artificial, educatable smelling nose. The latter method might allow for remote real time detection of bacterial metabolism, a signature of life, in rocks via fractures of drillholes with or without injected substrate solutions. Nanobacteria may provide a model for primordial life-forms, such as replicating clay crystallites in a sandstone, where minerals and metal atoms associated to membranes, may play catalytic and structural roles reducing the number of enzymes and structural proteins needed for life. Such simple metabolic pathways may support the 10,000-fold slower growth rate of nanobacteria, as compared to the usual bacteria. They may also explain the endurability of this life-form in extreme environmental conditions. Altogether such properties do suggest that nanobacteria may have evolved from environmental sources, such a shot springs, to take advantage of the steady-state calcium and phosphate supply of the mammalian blood. Based upon our findings of nanobacteria, a novel theory for the early development of life, based on apatite-mediated chemistry on membranes selecting itself for its own catalytical machinery, is presented.

  14. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  15. Longwall mineral mining installation

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, H.; Erwien, H.; Grundken, D.; Kerklies, B.; Kumor, B.; Linke, H.; Mainusch, R.; Mohn, U.; Wleklinski, B.

    1983-06-21

    A mineral mining installation comprises a longwall conveyor, a plough movable to and fro along a guide fixed to the face side of the longwall conveyor, and a drive station at one end of the longwall conveyor. The drive station includes a drive frame supporting drive means for driving the longwall conveyor. A support beam is provided at the goaf side of the drive station. The support beam extends substantially parallel to the drive frame. A floor plate extends beneath the drive frame. The goafside end portion of the floor plate is supported on the support beam by means of a lifting device, whereby the goaf-side end portion of the floor plate can be moved up and down relative to the support beam by the lifting device.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.

    1962-01-01

    In the ten years since the publication of the national Bureau of Standards comprehensive tables of thermochemical properties, by Rossini and other (1952), a very large body of modern calorimetric and equilibrium data has become available. Because of the complex interrelations among many thermochemical data and the necessity for internal consistency among these values, a complete revision of this standard reference is required. This is also true of the summaries of thermochemical data for the sulfides (Richardson and Jeffes 1952) and for the oxides (Coughlin 1954). The following tables present critically selected values for the heat and free energy of formation, the logarithm of the equilibrium constant of formation Log Kf, the entropy and the molar volume, at 298.15°K (25.0°C) and one atmosphere for minerals.

  17. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, J C; Schwenzer, S P; Leveille, R; Westall, F; Wiens, R C; Mangold, N; Bristow, T; Edwards, P; Berger, G

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO2-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water) in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ?7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component. PMID:26213668

  18. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO?-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water) in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.

  19. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO?-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water)more »in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less

  20. Electrokinetic properties of soil minerals and soils modified with polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurochkina, G. N.; Pinskii, D. L.; Haynos, M.; Sokolowska, Z.; Tsesla, I.

    2014-07-01

    The formation features of nanoadsorption polyelectrolyte (PE) layers with the formation of a mineral-organic matrix on the surface of clay minerals and soils (kaolinite, montmorillonite, quartz sand, gray forest soil, and chernozemic soil) have been elucidated by direct adsorption measurements. It has been found that the experimental values for the limit adsorption of polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) on all the minerals are significantly higher than the calculated values for the formation of a monolayer. This indicates adsorption on the surface of not only separate macromolecules but also secondary PE structures as packets or fibrils determining the cluster-matrix structure of the modified surface. The study of the electro-surface properties (electrophoretic mobility, electrokinetic potential, pH, and electroconductivity) of mineral and soil particles adsorption-modified with PEs has confirmed the differences in the adsorption mechanisms (from physical sorption to chemisorption) with the formation of surface compounds depending on the different polar groups of PEs and the mineral type.

  1. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Yen, Jen-Fen; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30?mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients. PMID:24501586

  2. Secondary differential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyatnikova, V. N.; Vinogradov, A. M.; Umaguzhin, V. A.

    Let ? be an arbitrary sustem of partial (non-linear differential equations. Higher infinitesimal sysmmetries of ? may be interpreted as vector fields on the «manifoldå Sol ? of all local solution of this system. The paper deals with construction of differential operators of arbitrary orders on Sol ?. These approaches to construction of the theory of these operators, geometric and functional are presented, and their equivalence is proved when ? is the trivial equation. Coincidence of «extrinsicå and «intrinsicå geometric secondary operator is proved for an arbitrary system ?. It is shown that each geometric secondary operator may be approximated by a sum of compositions of evolution differentiations with any possible accuracy, a description of geometric secondary operators in local coordinates is algo given. These results are obtained by studying the geometry of finite jets and infinitely prolonged equations.

  3. Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2011-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. Secondary metabolites play a major role in the adaptation of plants to the environment and in overcoming stress conditions. Environmental factors viz. temperature, humidity, light intensity, the supply of water, minerals, and CO2 influence the growth of a plant and secondary metabolite production. Drought, high salinity, and freezing temperatures are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth of plants and the productivity of crops. Plant cell culture technologies have been effective tools for both studying and producing plant secondary metabolites under in vitro conditions and for plant improvement. This brief review summarizes the influence of different abiotic factors include salt, drought, light, heavy metals, frost etc. on secondary metabolites in plants. The focus of the present review is the influence of abiotic factors on secondary metabolite production and some of important plant pharmaceuticals. Also, we describe the results of in vitro cultures and production of some important secondary metabolites obtained in our laboratory. PMID:22041989

  4. Assessment of the geoavailability of trace elements from selected zinc minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Hageman, Phillip L.; Benzel, William M.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Morman, Suzette; Choate, LaDonna M.; Lowers, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This assessment focused on five zinc-bearing minerals. The minerals were subjected to a number of analyses including quantitative X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, leaching tests, and bioaccessibility and toxicity studies. Like a previous comprehensive assessment of five copper-bearing minerals, the purpose of this assessment was to obtain structural and chemical information and to characterize the reactivity of each mineral to various simulated environmental and biological conditions. As in the copper minerals study, analyses were conducted consistent with widely accepted methods. Unless otherwise noted, analytical methods used for this study were identical to those described in the investigation of copper-bearing minerals. Two sphalerite specimens were included in the zinc-minerals set. One sphalerite was recovered from a mine in Balmat, New York; the second came from a mine in Creede, Colorado. The location and conditions of origin are significant because, as analyses confirmed, the two sphalerite specimens are quite different. For example, data acquired from a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) study indicate that the hydrothermally formed Creede sphalerite contains orders of magnitude higher arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and lead than the much older metamorphic Balmat sphalerite. The SGF and other experimental results contained in this report suggest that crystallizing conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluidization, or alteration processes significantly affect mineral properties—properties that, in turn, influence reactivity, solubility, and toxicity. The three remaining minerals analyzed for this report—smithsonite, hemimorphite, and hydrozincite—are all secondary minerals or alteration products of zinc-ore deposits. In addition, all share physical characteristics such as tenacity, density, streak, and cleavage. Similarities end there. The chemical composition, unit-cell parameters, acid-neutralizing potential, and other observable and quantifiable properties indicate very different minerals. Only one of each of these minerals was studied. Had this assessment included multiples of these minerals, geochemical and mineralogical distinctions would have emerged, similar to the results for the two sphalerite specimens.

  5. Investigating Minerals: Promoting Integrated Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rudi; Carmack, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    "Mineral Detectives!" is one of eighteen lessons in the "Private Whys?" integrated science unit, which uses a guided inquiry investigation to teach students in grades three through five about the role of minerals in our lives. The University of North Texas developed "Private Whys?" with funding from the Copper Development Association. This lesson…

  6. Mineral Resources and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  7. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  8. Evaporates, petroleum and mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers oxide minerals under the following topics: oxygen fugacity and its petrologic importance; crystal chemistry of oxides and oxyhydroxides; petrogenetic indicators; oxygen barometry of spinel peridotites; iron-titanium oxides in igneous rocks; oxide minerals in metamorphic rocks; and magnetic petrology.

  9. A Mineral Processing Field Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmody, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a field course in Cornwall looking at mineral processing with the focus on the chemistry involved. The course was split into two parts. The first looked at tin mining based around Penzance. This involved visiting mines, hunting for mineral samples, carrying out a stream survey and visiting the Camborne School of Mines…

  10. Microbial mineral colonization across a subsurface redox transition zone

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Brandon J.; McKinley, James P.; Resch, Charles T.; Roden, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) would preferentially colonize the Fe(II)-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ) at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II) in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013). Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for 5 months within a multilevel sampling (MLS) apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite vs. sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonadaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ) as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II), and HS- oxidizing) taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the RTZ. PMID:26379637

  11. Microbial mineral colonization across a subsurface redox transition zone.

    PubMed

    Converse, Brandon J; McKinley, James P; Resch, Charles T; Roden, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) would preferentially colonize the Fe(II)-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ) at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II) in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013). Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for 5 months within a multilevel sampling (MLS) apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite vs. sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonadaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ) as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4 (+), H2, Fe(II), and HS(-) oxidizing) taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the RTZ. PMID:26379637

  12. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  13. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  14. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  15. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  16. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22608 Secondary... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22608 Secondary... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22608 Secondary... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22608 Secondary... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22608 Secondary... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A...

  2. Modeling results of calcium-containing minerals precipitation in the alkaline hydrotherms of Baikal Rift Zone: calcite and dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarenko, O. G.; Zippa, E. V.

    2015-11-01

    The calculation modeling results of the nitric hydrotherms saturation in Baikal Rift Zone with calcite and dolomite are presented. The calcite and dolomite make the carbonate barrier to thermal waters equilibrium with primary minerals of igneous rocks. In the research territory, there are three main types of geochemical thermal waters which are characterized by the saturation degree with the calcite and dolomite and the proportion of precipitating minerals phases. It has been established that nitric thermal waters-rock system has equilibrium with these minerals, which leads to bonding migrated from the rocks calcium and magnesium by the secondary formed minerals - calcite and dolomite.

  3. Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Teotia, S. P. S.; Teotia, Mohini

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of 20 patients with skeletal fluorosis showed that five had clear evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The hyperactivity of the parathyroid glands in skeletal fluorosis in the presence of decreased solubility of the bone mineral (fluoroapatite) strongly suggests that it is a compensatory attempt to maintain a normal extracellular ionized calcium equilibrium. Further study of the parathyroid glands and of bone lesions in skeletal fluorosis is in progress. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4692708

  4. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT:...

  5. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT:...

  6. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT:...

  7. 43 CFR 3000.8 - Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Management of Federal minerals from reserved mineral estates. 3000.8 Section 3000.8 Public...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERALS MANAGEMENT:...

  8. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS...

  9. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS...

  10. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  11. Secondary alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  12. Secondary Services in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Terry, Edward

    The basic characteristics of sixty-nine secondary services in physics were analyzed in terms of sponsorship and distribution by: (1) country of origin, (2) language, (3) age, (4) frequency of publication, (5) subject and geographical coverage and (6) size. The eight major services, in terms of size, are identified. The use of the services by the…

  13. Secondary Syphilitic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Baughn, Robert E.; Musher, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    An important theme that emerges from all early historical accounts is that in addition to the decreased virulence of Treponema pallidum, the incidence of secondary syphilis has decreased drastically over the past three centuries. Even in the early 20th century, most syphilologists were of the opinion that the disease had undergone changes in its manifestations and that they were dealing with an attenuated form of the spirochete. Such opinions were based primarily on the observations that violent cutaneous reactions and fatalities associated with the secondary stage had become extremely rare. The rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States increased in 2002 for the second consecutive year. After a decade-long decline that led to an all-time low in 2000, the recent trend is attributable, to a large extent, by a increase in reported syphilis cases among men, particularly homosexual and bisexual men having sex with men. The present review addresses the clinical and diagnostic criteria for the recognition of secondary syphilis, the clinical course and manifestations of the disease if allowed to proceed past the primary stage of disease in untreated individuals, and the treatment for this stage of the disease. PMID:15653827

  14. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  15. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated critical energy. A key assumption in these calculations is that above a certain critical energy, significant damage will be done. This is not true for all structures. Double-walled, bumpered structures are an example for which damage may be reduced as energy goes up. The critical energy assumption is probably conservative, however, in terms of secondary damage. To understand why the secondary impacts seem to, in general, contribute less than 10 percent of the flux above a given critical energy, consider the case of a meteoroid impact of a given energy on a fixed, large surface. This impact results in a variety of secondary particles, all of which have much less energy than the original impact. Conservation of energy prohibits any other situation. Thus if damage is linked to a critical energy of a particle, the primary flux will always deliver particles of much greater energy. Even if all the secondary particles impacted other Space Station structures, none would have a kinetic energy more than a fraction of the primary impact energy.

  16. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  17. Universal ripper miner

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Larson, David A. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  18. Fate of organo-mineral particles in streams: Microbial degradation by streamwater & biofilm assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, W. R.; Raich, M.; Wanek, W.; Battin, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Inland waters are of global biogeochemical importance. They receive carbon inputs of ~ 4.8 Pg C/ y of which, 12 % is buried, 18 % transported to the oceans, and 70 % supports aquatic secondary production. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of organic matter (OM) in these systems are poorly defined. One aspect of this is the formation of organo-mineral complexes in aquatic systems and their potential as a route for OM transport and burial vs. their use as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sources within aquatic systems. Organo-mineral particles form by sorption of dissolved OM to freshly eroded mineral surfaces and may contribute to ecosystem-scale particulate OM fluxes. We experimentally tested the availability of mineral-sorbed OM as a C & N source for streamwater microbial assemblages and streambed biofilms. Organo-mineral particles were constructed in vitro by sorption of 13C:15N-labelled amino acids to hydrated kaolin particles, and microbial degradation of these particles compared with equivalent doses of 13C:15N-labelled free amino acids. Experiments were conducted in 120 ml mesocosms over 7 days using biofilms and water sampled from the Oberer Seebach stream (Austria). Each incubation experienced a 16:8 light:dark regime, with metabolism monitored via changes in oxygen concentrations between photoperiods. The relative fate of the organo-mineral particles was quantified by tracing the mineralization of the 13C and 15N labels and their incorporation into microbial biomass. Here we present the initial results of 13C-label mineralization, incorporation and retention within dissolved organic carbon pool. The results indicate that 514 (× 219) ?mol/ mmol of the 13:15N labeled free amino acids were mineralized over the 7-day incubations. By contrast, 186 (× 97) ?mol/ mmol of the mineral-sorbed amino acids were mineralized over a similar period. Thus, organo-mineral complexation reduced amino acid mineralization by ~ 60 %, with no differences observed between the streamwater and biofilm assemblages. Throughout the incubations, biofilms were observed to leach dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, within the streamwater assemblage the presence of both organo-mineral particles and kaolin particles was associated with significant DOC removal (-1.7 % and -7.5 % respectively). Consequently, the study demonstrates that mineral and organo-mineral particles can limit the availability of DOC in aquatic systems, providing nucleation sites for flocculation and fresh mineral surfaces, which facilitate OM-sorption. The formation of these organo-mineral particles subsequently restricts microbial OM degradation, potentially altering the transport and facilitating the burial of OM within streams.

  19. Mineral Losses During Extreme Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advisory groups that make recommendations for mineral intakes continue to identify accurate determinations of sweat mineral losses during physical activity as a critical void in their deliberations. Although estimates of sweat mineral concentrations are available, they are highly variable. Practica...

  20. 43 CFR 3830.10 - Locatable minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Locatable minerals. 3830.10 Section 3830.10 ...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING, RECORDING...SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS Mining Law Minerals § 3830.10 Locatable...

  1. Minerals Processing Research Institute Louisiana State University

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Minerals Processing Research Institute Louisiana State University White Paper on Integrating, Director Debalina Sengupta Graduate Research Assistant Minerals Processing Research Institute 1139 Energy Mosaic Corporation Uncle Sam, LA 70792 November 3, 2008 Minerals Processing Research Institute Louisiana

  2. 43 CFR 3861.3 - Mineral surveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral surveyors. 3861.3 Section 3861.3 Public...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats §...

  3. [Mineral water as a cure].

    PubMed

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients was to attribute, on the one hand to the physico-chemical properties of the water and on the other hand to the climatic, nutritional and social factors characterising the selected health resort. All over Europe, pharmacists were dealing with mineral waters, among them even very famous names such as Klaproth, Trommsdorf, Lampadius and Fresenius. They were on one side involved in the development and analysis of the waters, while on the other side they were interested in their artificial production. Their knowledge and findings in the area of the mineral water source chemistry gave a crucial impetus to the future evolution of analytic chemistry. Following the improvements in the precision of analysis and classification of the composition of the mineral waters, the imitation of artificial mineral waters increased significantly. Certain pharmacists tried to copy well-known mineral waters in their properly furnished laboratories. At the same time, pharmacies were important sales points: natural and artificial mineral waters as well as their dried components were either sold there, or delivered upon prescription. In the second part of this work, specifically concerning the situation in the Canton Tessin, the most important local sources and spa resorts are described, as well as the analyses performed and the researchers involved. Moreover, the types of therapies used at that time are mentioned. The integration of the local mineral waters into the pharmacopoeia of the Canton Tessin, the Farmacopea Ticinese, is also discussed. Of particular interest are the delivery and the sale of mineral waters and their dried components by a local pharmacy. In the Canton Tessin, the five most frequented spa resorts were Acquarossa, Brissago, Craveggia, Rovio and Stabio. Craveggia spa resort is of course based in Italy; it has however been included in the present work due to its proximity to Switzerland and to a connected historical Substantial differences existed among the individual health resorts mentioned, especially regarding the quality and quantity aspects of the per

  4. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  5. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  6. Enhanced radionuclide immobilization and flow path modifications by dissolution and secondary precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Owen, Antionette T.

    2005-07-05

    Caustic radioactive wastes that have leaked at Hanford Site (Richland, WA) induce mineral dissolution and subsequent secondary precipitation that influence the fate and transport of contaminants present in the waste solutions. The effects of secondary mineral precipitates, formed after contacting solids with simulated caustic wastes, on the flow path changes and radionuclide immobilization were investigated by reacting quartz, a mixture of quartz and biotite, and a Hanford sediment (Warden soil) with simulated caustic tank waste solution. Continuous Si dissolution and concomitant secondary mineral precipitation were the principal reactions observed in both batch and flow-through tests. Nitrate-cancrinite was the dominant secondary precipitate on mineral surfaces after 3 to 10 d reaction times in batch experiments. X-ray microtomography images of a reacted quartz column revealed that secondary precipitates cemented quartz grains together and modified pore geometry in the center of the column. Along the circumference of the packed column, however, quartz dissolution continuously occurred, suggesting that wastes that leaked from buried tanks in the past likely did not migrate vertically as modeled in risk assessments but rather the pathways likely changed to be dominantly horizontal upon precipitation of secondary precipitate phases in the Hanford vadose zone. Based on batch equilibrium sorption results on the reacted sediments, the dominant secondary precipitates (cancrinites) on the mineral surfaces enhanced the sorption capacity of typical Hanford sediment for radionuclides 129I(-I), 79Se(VI), 99Tc(VII), and 90Sr(II), all of which are of major concern at the Hanford Site.

  7. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  8. Secondary School Advisors as Mentors and Secondary Attachment Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship is vital to student outcomes in secondary school. Unfortunately, the transition from elementary to secondary school is associated with a decrease in the quality or supportiveness of this relationship. In response, some secondary schools implement advisory programs, in which a teacher/advisor meets periodically with…

  9. Microtextured Surfaces for Turbine Blade Impingement Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Gas turbine engine technology is constantly challenged to operate at higher combustor outlet temperatures. In a modern gas turbine engine, these temperatures can exceed the blade and disk material limits by 600 F or more, necessitating both internal and film cooling schemes in addition to the use of thermal barrier coatings. Internal convective cooling is inadequate in many blade locations, and both internal and film cooling approaches can lead to significant performance penalties in the engine. Micro Cooling Concepts, Inc., has developed a turbine blade cooling concept that provides enhanced internal impingement cooling effectiveness via the use of microstructured impingement surfaces. These surfaces significantly increase the cooling capability of the impinging flow, as compared to a conventional untextured surface. This approach can be combined with microchannel cooling and external film cooling to tailor the cooling capability per the external heating profile. The cooling system then can be optimized to minimize impact on engine performance.

  10. Lifetime sedentary living accelerates some aspects of secondary aging.

    PubMed

    Booth, Frank W; Laye, Matthew J; Roberts, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Lifetime physical inactivity interacts with secondary aging (i.e., aging caused by diseases and environmental factors) in three patterns of response. First, lifetime physical inactivity confers no apparent effects on a given set of physiological functions. Second, lifetime physical inactivity accelerates secondary aging (e.g., speeding the reduction in bone mineral density, maximal oxygen consumption, and skeletal muscle strength and power), but does not alter the primary aging of these systems. Third, a lifetime of physical activity to the age of ?60-70 yr old totally prevents decrements in some age-associated risk factors for major chronic diseases, such as endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. The present review provides ample and compelling evidence that physical inactivity has a large impact in shortening average life expectancy. In summary, physical inactivity plays a major role in the secondary aging of many essential physiological functions, and this aging can be prevented through a lifetime of physical activity. PMID:21836048

  11. Highwall miners pursue thinner seams

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-04-15

    OEMs have implemented design changes to reduce the machine's footprint and to mine more accurately. Three manufacturers offer highwall mining systems, American Highwall Systems (AMS), ICG Addcar and Superior Highwall Miners. Latest developments in their machines are reported. 3 photos.

  12. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook Volume 3. 1991 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbell, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook - International Review records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, International Review, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The 1991 review is presented as five area reports and one world overview: Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and the U.S.S.R., Mineral Industries of the Middle East, and Minerals in the World Economy.

  13. Origin and paleoenvironmental interpretation of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in a Neoproterozoic Baltic paleosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vircava, Ilze; Somelar, Peeter; Liivamägi, Sirle; Kirs, Juho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2015-04-01

    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) mineral solid-solutions occur as accessory phases in different sedimentary and hydrothermal deposits. Their composition is a sensitive environmental indicator recording changes in pH, temperature and chemical composition of the weathering, diagenetic or hydrothermal fluids. In this contribution we studied APS mineralization in a Neoproterozoic paleotropical paleosol developed on Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement in the Baltic Basin. Small and disseminated APS minerals occur in high abundance (up to 4 wt.% of crystalline phases) in the weathering profile developed on gabbroic rocks rich in magmatic apatite. APS minerals belonging to a goyazite-florencite-svanbergite-woodhouseite solid-solution series occur in the uppermost part of the weathering profile and are replaced down-profile with secondary apatite. The change from APS minerals to secondary apatite precipitates reflects a paleo-pH gradient in the weathering profile from acidic (pH < 6) in the uppermost few meters in the APS precipitation zone, to neutral or near neutral at 4-5 m-depth from the paleoweathered surface where secondary apatite occurs. Typically uniform < 5 ?m-size APS crystallites suggest rapid precipitation in a highly supersaturated solution, but these crystals show a fine zonal structure whose nature and formation mechanism remain unclear.

  14. Research paper In situ sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals by SIMS: Precision and accuracy,

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Research paper In situ sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals by SIMS: Precision and accuracy: Sphalerite Ion microprobe SIMS Sulfur isotopes NBS-123 Crystal orientation effects Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement of sulfur isotope ratios is a potentially powerful technique for in situ

  15. The Zapot pegmatite mineral county

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Soregaroli, A.E.; Gordon, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Zapot pegmatite is currently being mined for mineral specimens (chiefly amazonite, topaz and smoky quartz in miarolitic cavities), for gemstones (topaz and smoky quartz) and for decorative rock (amazonite). The deposit is owned and operated by Harvey Gordon Minerals of Reno, Nevada, and is the only amazonite-topaz mining operation in the state. Thousands of specimens from this operation have reached the collector market.

  16. Mineral deposit density; an update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Sutphin, David M.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; contributions to global mineral resource assessment research edited by Schulz, Klaus J.

    2001-01-01

    A robust method to estimate the number of undiscovered deposits is a form of mineral deposit model wherein numbers of deposits per unit area from well-explored regions are counted and the resulting frequency distribution is used either directly for an estimate or indirectly as a guideline in some other method. The 27 mineral deposit density estimates reported here for 13 different deposit types represent a start at compiling the estimates necessary to guide assessments.

  17. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  18. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  19. Cellular compartmentalization of secondary metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal secondary metabolism is often considered apart from the essential housekeeping functions of the cell. However, there are clear links between fundamental cellular metabolism and the biochemical pathways leading to secondary metabolite synthesis. Besides utilizing key biochemical precursors sh...

  20. RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory of J. Ronald Miner, an

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    RON MINER MEMORIAL BIOENGINEERING SCHOLARSHIP The Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship honors the memory of J. Ronald Miner, an Agricultural Engineering professor at OSU for over thirty years. Ron came to OSU from the Ron Miner Memorial Scholarship which resides with the OSU Foundation. The name

  1. Accelerated Growth Plate Mineralization and Foreshortened Proximal Limb Bones in Fetuin-A Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W. C.; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix - a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth. PMID:23091616

  2. Understanding mineral dusts from the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; McDonald, E.; Gillies, J. A.; Jayanty, J.; Casuccio, G.; Gertler, A.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the program was to provide scientifically founded information on the chemical and physical properties of airborne mineral dust collected during a period of approximately one year, largely in 2006, at Djibouti, Afghanistan (Bagram, Khowst), Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, Al Asad), and Kuwait (Northern, Central, Coastal, and Southern regions). To fully understand mineral dusts, their chemical and physical properties as well as mineralogical interrelationships were accurately established. Three collocated low volume particulate samplers, one each for the total suspended (TSP), less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) particulate matter were deployed at each of the 15 sites, operating on a "1 in 6 day" sampling schedule. A total of 3,136 filter samples were collected on a 1-in-6 day schedule, along with one-time bulk soil samples, at each of the 15 sites. Sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The provisional study of the data revealed three broad air pollution sources: geological dust, smoke from burn pits, and until now unidentified lead-zinc smelters and battery-processing facilities. SEM results and secondary electron imagery show that quartz and other silicate minerals and, to a lesser extent, dolomite and calcite particles are coated by a thin Si-Al-Mg layer, probably the clay minerals palygorskite and/or montmorillonite/illite. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on aerosol samples collected at six military sites in Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, and Al Asad). PMF results reflect chemical differences amongst sources impacting at individual sites, further complicated by the regional geomorphology and meteorology. Sampling sites are seldom impacted by one source at a time. Also, dust palls are continually being modified by added dust from soils across which they migrate, and by particle segregation in the dust plume followed by precipitation of the coarser particles. PMF was applied separately to two ambient data sets collected in Iraq in 2006, the one on Teflon membrane filters and the other on quartz fiber. Each of the filter types were previously analyzed for different chemical species: Teflon membrane for elements, by XRF and ICP-MS, while quartz fiber filters were analyzed for ions and carbon. A set of 392 Teflon filter samples analyzed for 25 elemental species was modeled by PMF. A five factor solution identified three soil factors, a silicate soil, limestone soil, and a gypsum soil, as well as a salt factor and an anthropogenic metal factor. Similarly, a set of 362 quartz filter samples analyzed for 10 selected chemical species was modeled by PMF. A five factor solution provided a limestone-gypsum soil, diesel combustion, secondary ammonium sulfate, salt and agricultural-burnpit combustion source type.

  3. Fe-Ni metal and sulfide minerals in CM chondrites: An indicator for thermal history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimura, M.; Grossman, J.N.; Weisberg, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    CM chondrites were subjected to aqueous alteration and, in some cases, to secondary metamorphic heating. The effects of these processes vary widely, and have mainly been documented in silicate phases. Herein, we report the characteristic features of Fe-Ni metal and sulfide phases in 13 CM and 2 CM-related chondrites to explore the thermal history of these chondrites. The texture and compositional distribution of the metal in CM are different from those in unequilibrated ordinary and CO chondrites, but most have similarities to those in highly primitive chondrites, such as CH, CR, and Acfer 094. We classified the CM samples into three categories based on metal composition and sulfide texture. Fe-Ni metal in category A is kamacite to martensite. Category B is characterized by pyrrhotite grains always containing blebs or lamellae of pentlandite. Opaque mineral assemblages of category C are typically kamacite, Ni-Co-rich metal, and pyrrhotite. These categories are closely related to the degree of secondary heating and are not related to degree of the aqueous alteration. The characteristic features of the opaque minerals can be explained by secondary heating processes after aqueous alteration. Category A CM chondrites are unheated, whereas those in category B experienced small degrees of secondary heating. CMs in category C were subjected to the most severe secondary heating process. Thus, opaque minerals can provide constraints on the thermal history for CM chondrites. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2011.

  4. Alteration minerals in impact-generated hydrothermal systems - Exploring host rock variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Kring, David A.

    2013-09-01

    Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been previously linked to the alteration of Mars’ crust and the production of secondary mineral assemblages seen from orbit. The sensitivity of the resultant assemblages has not yet been evaluated as a function of precursor primary rock compositions. In this work, we use thermochemical modeling to explore the variety of minerals that could be produced by altering several known lithologies based on martian meteorite compositions. For a basaltic host rock lithology (Dhofar 378, Humphrey) the main alteration phases are feldspar, zeolite, pyroxene, chlorite, clay (nontronite, kaolinite), and hematite; for a lherzolithic host rock lithology (LEW 88516) the main alteration phases are amphibole, serpentine, chlorite, clay (nontronite, kaolinite), and hematite; and for an ultramafic host rock lithology (Chassigny) the main minerals are secondary olivine, serpentine, magnetite, quartz, and hematite. These assemblages and proportions of phases in each of those cases depend on W/R and temperature. Integrating geologic, hydrologic and alteration mineral evidence, we have developed a model to illustrate the distribution of alteration assemblages that occur in different levels of an impact structure. At the surface, hot, hydrous alteration affects the ejecta and melt sheet producing clay and chlorite. Deeper in the subsurface and depending on the permeability of the rock, a variety of minerals - smectite, chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles and hematite - are produced in a circulating hydrothermal system. These modeled mineral distributions should assist with interpretation of orbital observations and help guide surface exploration by rovers and sample return assets.

  5. Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, F. Grant

    2002-06-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) play an important role in regulating the aqueous geochemistry of iron and other metals in anaerobic, non-sulfidogenic groundwater environments; however, little work has directly assessed the cell surface electrochemistry of DIRB, or the nature of the interfacial environment around individual cells. The electrochemical properties of particulate solids are often inferred from titrations in which net surface charge is determined, assuming electroneutrality, as the difference between known added amounts of acid and base and measured proton concentration. The resultant titration curve can then be fit to a speciation model for the system to determine pKa values and site densities of reactive surface sites. Moreover, with the development of non-contact electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), it is now possible to directly inspect and quantify charge development on surfaces. A combination of acid-base titrations and EFM are being used to assess the electrochemical surface properties of the groundwater DIRB, Shewanella putrefaciens. The pKa spectra and EFM data show together that a high degree of electrochemical heterogeneity exists within the cell wall and at the cell surface of S. putrefaciens. Recognition of variations in the nature and spatial distribution of reactive sites that contribute to charge development on these bacteria implies further that the cell surface of these Fe(III)-reducing bacteria functions as a highly differentiated interfacial system capable of supporting multiple intermolecular interactions with both solutes and solids. These include surface complexation reactions involving dissolved metals, as well as adherence to mineral substrates such as hydrous ferric oxide through longer-range electrostatic interactions, and surface precipitation of secondary reduced-iron minerals.

  6. 1996 annual report on Alaska's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Jill L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the fifteenth annual report that has been prepared in response to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. Current Alaskan mineral projects and events that occurred during 1995 are summarized. For the purpose of this document, the term 'minerals' encompasses both energy resources (oil and gas, coal and peat, uranium, and geothermal) and nonfuel-mineral resources (metallic and industrial minerals).

  7. Rock Magnetic Mineral Assemblage in Mineral Separates from Xenoliths of Continental Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhalova, E.; Feinberg, J. M.; Ionov, D. A.; Ferre, E. C.; Friedman, S. A.; Hernandez, F. M.; Neal, C. R.; Conder, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of aeromagnetic anomalies suggest that the lithospheric mantle may contribute to long wavelength features. Examination of unaltered mantle xenoliths may reveal the mineralogical sources of these aeromagnetic anomalies. Prior work has reported microscopic inclusions of magnetic minerals in mantle silicates. Here we explore the magnetism of pure olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and spinel separated from peridotite xenoliths from the Dariganga and Tariat localities in Mongolia that sample the lithospheric mantle. All separates were leached with HF and HCl to remove secondary minerals adhering to the surface of the grains or in cracks. Separates were then mounted in cement to create monomineralic specimens for investigation using hysteresis loops, first order reversal curves (FORC), alternating field and thermal demagnetization of a 1T IRM, and low-temperature magnetometry. All specimens showed trace concentrations of ferromagnetic inclusions with Ms values of ~10-3 Am2kg-1. Thermal demagnetization showed a range of unblocking temperatures with median destructive temperatures of 300-400°C. Two specimens showed a dramatic demagnetization at 585°C, consistent with pure magnetite (Mt). The presence of Mt was confirmed by observations of the Verwey transition at 100-120K and by backfield remanence acquisition curves that plateau at ~300 mT. The median destructive alternating field was ~20 mT and 40-80 mT for specimens from Dariganga and Tariat, respectively. FORC diagrams show single-domain-like behavior with a median Hc of ~20 mT. The demagnetization experiments suggest that Mt inclusions in the lattice of olivine, opx, cpx and spinel carry magnetic remanence. Thus, the lithospheric mantle may exhibit in-situ ferromagnetism carried by Mt below 585°C. The magnetization of separates varies between xenolith localities but is consistent amongst minerals of the same locality. Future work will address whether the Mt formed before or during xenolith ascent.

  8. Mineral-resource data bases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Data bases are essential for modern scientific research. The new and exciting work being done in the Mineral Resource Program in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) usually begins with the question, "Where are the known deposits?" A mineral-resource data base containing this type of information and more can be useful not just to USGS scientists, but to anyone who needs such data. Users of the data bases from outside the USGS include mining and exploration companies, environmental groups, academia, other Federal Agencies, and the general public. At present, the USGS has two large mineral-resource data bases, MRDS (Mineral Resource Data System) and MAS (Minerals Availability System). MRDS was built and is mamtained by the USGS, and MAS was built and maintained by the Bureau of Mines. In 1996, after the Bureau was abolished, MAS was transferred to the USGS. The two data bases were compiled for different purposes and contain very different mformation. For instance, MAS contains information on costs, details of mining methods, and feasibility studies. MRDS has mineralogical and geologic data that are not contained in MAS. Because they are both mineral-resource data bases, however, they contain some information in common, such as location, name(s) of sites, and commodities present. Both data bases are international in scope, and both are quite large. MRDS contains over 110,000 records, while MAS has over 220,000. One reason that MAS has more records is that it contains information on smelters, mill sites, and fossil fuel sites, as well as mineral- resource sites. The USGS is working to combine the information in both data bases. This is a large undertaking that will require some years to complete. In the interim, information from both data bases will still be available

  9. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER...

  10. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. ZHAO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

  11. Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

    This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

  12. Equilibrium of Groundwater with Carbonate Minerals of the Water-Bearing Rocks under Anthropogenic Impact (by the example of Kishinev, Moldova)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkova, A. N.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Tokarenko, O. G.

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents calculation results of equilibrium of groundwater in Kishenev with a variety of secondary carbonate minerals. It is shown that the groundwater-rock system is in equilibrium with some minerals, such as calcite, magnesite, dolomite, siderite, but at the same time is not in equilibrium with strontianite. It indicates that secondary mineral precipitation is possible. Specific nitrate chemical water type, which is rarely observed in nature and characterized by the presence of anthropogenic impact in this territory, in some cases is of higher saturation as compared to calcite, dolomite and magnesite due to the fact that nitrate ion content increases with the increase of calcium content.

  13. Secondary aortoduodenal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Girolamo; Pisello, Franco; Volsi, Francesco Li; Facella, Tiziana; Platia, Lina; Modica, Giuseppe; Sciumè, Carmelo

    2008-01-01

    Aorto-duodenal fistulae (ADF) are the most frequent aorto-enteric fistulae (80%), presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report the first case of a man with a secondary aorto-duodenal fistula presenting with a history of persistent occlusive syndrome. A 59-year old man who underwent an aortic-bi-femoral bypass 5 years ago, presented with dyspepsia and biliary vomiting. Computed tomography scan showed in the third duodenal segment the presence of inflammatory tissue with air bubbles between the duodenum and prosthesis, adherent to the duodenum. The patient was submitted to surgery, during which the prosthesis was detached from the duodenum, the intestine failed to close and a gastrojejunal anastomosis was performed. The post-operative course was simple, secondary ADF was a complication (0.3%-2%) of aortic surgery. Mechanical erosion of the prosthetic material into the bowel was due to the lack of interposed retroperitoneal tissue or the excessive pulsation of redundantly placed grafts or septic procedures. The third or fourth duodenal segment was most frequently involved. Diagnosis of ADF was difficult. Surgical treatment is always recommended by explorative laparotomy. ADF must be suspected whenever a patient with aortic prosthesis has digestive bleeding or unexplained obstructive syndrome. Rarely the clinical picture of ADF is subtle presenting as an obstructive syndrome and in these cases the principal goal is to effectively relieve the mechanical bowel obstruction. PMID:18200675

  14. 43 CFR 3809.101 - What special provisions apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? 3809.101 Section 3809...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? (a) Mineral examination...

  15. 43 CFR 3809.101 - What special provisions apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? 3809.101 Section 3809...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? (a) Mineral examination...

  16. 43 CFR 3809.101 - What special provisions apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? 3809.101 Section 3809...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? (a) Mineral examination...

  17. 43 CFR 3809.101 - What special provisions apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? 3809.101 Section 3809...apply to minerals that may be common variety minerals, such as sand, gravel, and building stone? (a) Mineral examination...

  18. Bone Loss in Diabetes: Use of Antidiabetic Thiazolidinediones and Secondary Osteoporosis

    E-print Network

    Toledo, University of

    including very young children. The most common form is insulin-independent, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2Bone Loss in Diabetes: Use of Antidiabetic Thiazolidinediones and Secondary Osteoporosis Beata in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regardless of normal or even high bone mineral density, T2DM

  19. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. (a...sodium, potassium or other minerals soluble in water, all...authorized officer, backfill with rock or other suitable material...valueless solution. (c) Where minerals are taken from the...

  20. 43 CFR 3814.2 - Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications. 3814.2 Section 3814...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND...

  1. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. 3873.1 Section 3873.1 Public Lands...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS...

  2. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. 3873.1 Section 3873.1 Public Lands...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS...

  3. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. 3873.1 Section 3873.1 Public Lands...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS...

  4. 43 CFR 3873.1 - Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation of mineral from non-mineral land. 3873.1 Section 3873.1 Public Lands...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS...

  5. 43 CFR 3814.2 - Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications. 3814.2 Section 3814...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND...

  6. 43 CFR 3814.2 - Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications. 3814.2 Section 3814...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND...

  7. 43 CFR 3814.2 - Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral reservation in patent; conditions to be noted on mineral applications. 3814.2 Section 3814...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND...

  8. Management of secondary peritonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, D H; Schein, M; Condon, R E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors review current definition, classification, scoring, microbiology, inflammatory response, and goals of management of secondary peritonitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Despite improved diagnostic modalities, potent antibiotics, modern intensive care, and aggressive surgical treatment, up to one third of patients still die of severe secondary peritonitis. Against the background of current understanding of the local and systemic inflammatory response associated with peritonitis, there is growing controversy concerning the optimal antibiotic and operative therapy, intensified by lack of properly conducted randomized studies. In this overview the authors attempt to outline controversies, suggest a practical clinical approach, and highlight issues necessitating further research. METHODS. The authors review the literature and report their experience. RESULTS. The emerging concepts concerning antibiotic treatment suggest that less-in terms of the number of drugs and the duration of treatment-is better. The classical single operation for peritonitis, which obliterates the source of infection and purges the peritoneal cavity, may be inadequate for severe forms of peritonitis; for the latter, more aggressive surgical techniques are necessary to decompress increased intra-abdominal pressure and prevent or treat persistent and recurrent infection. The widespread acceptance of the more aggressive and demanding surgical methods has been hampered by the lack of randomized trials and reportedly high associated morbidity rates. CONCLUSIONS. Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to bacterial peritonitis. To improve results, both the initiator and the biologic consequences of the peritoneal infective-inflammatory process should be addressed. The initiator may be better controlled in severe forms of peritonitis by aggressive surgical methods, whereas the search for methods to abort its systemic consequences is continuing. PMID:8678610

  9. Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.

    PubMed

    Bairnes, V E

    1963-12-27

    Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials. PMID:17834370

  10. Dietary fatty acids and minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulating evidence in animals and humans shows that dietary fatty acids influence the absorption and utilization of certain mineral elements. Fat intake exceeding 10% of energy intake reduces calcium uptake and use by the body, and this effect is more pronounced with saturated compared to unsatu...

  11. goldMINER Tutorial Introduction

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    goldMINER Tutorial Introduction Genomic sequencing or large-scale gene expression studies often produce a large number of sequence fragments. A major challenge in bioinformatics is to identify the function of these sequence fragments, a process commonly known as sequence annotation. This tutorial

  12. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  13. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  14. Mineral of the month: titanium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  15. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  16. Mineral of the month: rhenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magyar, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Rhenium, an exotic, heat-resistant metal, has grown in importance since its discovery nearly 80 years ago. First isolated by a team of German chemists studying a platinum ore, the mineral was named for the Rhine River. From then until the 1960s, only 2 metric tons of rhenium were produced worldwide. In 2004, worldwide production was 40 metric tons.

  17. Mineral of the month: indium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  18. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., Release No. 34-63547 (Dec. 15, 2010) [75 FR 80948] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\5\\ Public Law 111-203... (Jan. 7, 2011) (``WGC I''). \\33\\ Conflict Minerals, Release No. 34-63793 (Jan. 28, 2011) [76 FR 6110... the issuer to be available to the public on its Internet Web site. DATES: Effective Date: November...

  19. Mysterious Lava Mineral on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum captured by the Moessbauer spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the presence of three different iron-bearing minerals in the soil at the rover's landing site. One of these minerals has been identified as olivine, a shiny green rock commonly found in lava on Earth. The other two have yet to be pinned down. Scientists were puzzled by the discovery of olivine because it implies the soil consists at least partially of ground up rocks that have not been weathered or chemically altered. The black line in this graph represents the original data; the three colored regions denote individual minerals and add up to equal the black line.

    The Moessbauer spectrometer uses two pieces of radioactive cobalt-57, each about the size of pencil erasers, to determine with a high degree of accuracy the composition and abundance of iron-bearing minerals in martian rocks and soil. It is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'

  20. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are clearly needed. We also show how the combination of single-crystal elasticity data and volume compression data for diopside can be used to constrain the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus -- an important parameter for modeling seismic velocities in mantle assemblages. More broadly, the mineral elasticity data set can provide insights into the systematic variation of elastic properties that are of great importance in mineral physics and geophysics. We will examine the role of anisotropy, Vp/Vs variations, pressure derivatives of elastic moduli, and auxetic behavior to name a few properties of interest. The pioneering work on mineral elasticity carried out by Bob Liebermann has made an immense contribution to this important database, as well as providing strong scientific motivation for this work.

  1. Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

  2. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  3. Mineral Supplementation of Beef Cows in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Herd, Dennis B.

    1997-06-04

    Nutrient balance is the key to any effective nutrition program, especially where trace minerals are concerned. Many factors cannot be optimized when mineral intake is not properly balanced. Recommendations are given for the producer....

  4. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets A - E | F - L | M - S | ... Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked ...

  5. Novel Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Mineral Metabolism Abnormalities in End Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are a universal complication in dialysis patients and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Hyperphosphatemia, increased fibroblast growth factor 23 levels and secondary hyperparathyroidism are all strongly associated with adverse outcomes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and most treatment strategies target these parameters. Over the past few years, new therapies have emerged for the treatment of abnormalities of mineral metabolism in ESRD and many are promising. This article will review these new therapeutic options including the potential advantages and disadvantages compared to existing therapies. PMID:26278462

  6. Secondary Education Graduate Program Manual

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Secondary Education Graduate Program Manual 2014-2015 The University of Vermont College of Education and Social Services #12;Welcome! This handbook is an important resource. Its primary purpose it helpful. #12;UVM Secondary Teacher Education Graduate Handbook 2014-2015 2 University of Vermont College

  7. Preparing Preservice Secondary Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Johnston-Rodriguez, Sarah; Hartman, Paula; Kemp, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Through a mixed-methods study, teacher education faculty members investigated the implementation of a new block of courses and an associated secondary clinical experience designed to prepare preservice secondary special educators. Seventy-three preservice candidates (a) completed then-and-now surveys assessing their confidence implementing 25…

  8. INDUCED SECONDARY COMBUSTION IN WOODSTOVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides information useful for woodstove designers concerned with reducing emissions. A dual-chamber woodstove was modified to induce secondary combustion by utilizing an ignition source and forced flow of secondary air. The ignition source was an electric glow plug in...

  9. Reading in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching English, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The topic of discussion of this issue of the journal "Teaching English" is reading instruction in the secondary school. Articles include "Reading in the Primary School" (Alastair Hendry), "Patterns of Progress" (Fergus McBride), "Teaching Reading--Whose Business?" (James Maxwell), "A Reading Policy for the Secondary School" (Iain McGillivray),…

  10. Metabolomics for Secondary Metabolite Research

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer; Ceniceros, Ana; Jankevics, Andris; Takano, Eriko

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics, the global characterization of metabolite profiles, is becoming an increasingly powerful tool for research on secondary metabolite discovery and production. In this review we discuss examples of recent technological advances and biological applications of metabolomics in the search for chemical novelty and the engineered production of bioactive secondary metabolites. PMID:24958266

  11. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the Madison Limestone, but pyrite will persist and iron oxyhydroxides will not recrystallize.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Massachusetts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Sinnott, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $111.6 million, a decrease of $16 million compared with the 1990 value. The decrease in 1991 was largely attributable to lower sales of construction sand and gravel and crushed stone, the State's two leading mineral commodities. Other mineral commodities produced included common clay, industrial sand, dimension stone, lime, and peat. Nationally, the State ranked 41st in the production of nonfuel minerals. It ranked fifth of 34 States that produced dimension stone.

  13. Secondary containment options for ASTs

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, W.E.; Heintz, J.V. )

    1994-01-01

    Widespread publicity generated by several large overfill incidents and tank ruptures questioned the integrity of above ground petroleum storage tanks (ASTs). In response, several states have enacted requirements for the installation of adequate secondary containment at most above ground fuel tank locations. The federal government is also considering regulations for above ground fuel storage tanks. Secondary containment usually consists of a combination of dikes, liners, ponds, impoundments, curbs, ditches, sumps, receiving tanks, or other equipment capable of containing the products stored. Secondary containment facilities may contain single or multiple storage tanks. A secondary containment system should be constructed so that spills do not escape to ground or surface waters before cleanup occurs. Construction of diking and storage capacity of the diked area should be in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) recommendations. Factors to consider when designing secondary containment systems include capacity, liner type, and spill cleanup.

  14. [Secondary dyslipidemias and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Soska, V

    2007-04-01

    Secondary dyslipidemias may develop as a result of other diseases or some major exogenous influences. The most common are secondary dyslipidemias due to the following diseases: poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, hypothyreosis, hyperfunction of suprarenal glands, cholestasis, chronic renal diseases (chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome), acute infectious diseases. A very common cause of secondary dyslipidemia is abuse of alcohol. Also some drugs may induce dyslipidemias: corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, less frequently also thiazide diuretics and non-selective beta-blockers. Secondary dyslipidemia is physiologic during pregnancy. If causal treatment of secondary dyslipidemia is possible, hypolipidemic drugs are not indicated. The decision to initiate treatment with hypolipidemic drugs depends on the degree of risk of a fatal cardiovascular event rather than on the blood lipids level. When hypolipidemic treatment is indicated, the choice of the drug and its dose also depends on the type of the primary disease and its severity. PMID:17578173

  15. Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

  16. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and...

  17. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and...

  18. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and...

  19. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and...

  20. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and...

  1. Minerals yearbook vol. III : area reports international

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    0000-01-01

    This volume of the Minerals Yearbook provides an annual review of mineral production and trade and of mineral-related government and industry developments in more than 175 foreign countries. Each report includes sections on government policies and programs, environmental issues, trade and production data, industry structure and ownership, commodity sector developments, infrastructure, and a summary outlook.

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1991: North Dakota. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.K.; Biek, R.F.

    1993-05-01

    The value of North Dakota's nonfuel mineral industry in 1991 was about $17 million, a decrease of 35% from that of 1990. The State ranked 48th nationally in nonfuel mineral production, accounting for less than 1% of the Nation's total mineral value for the year. The report presents tables and data on the industry.

  3. MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES - AN UPDATE AND INTRODUCTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William

    1985-01-01

    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  4. Mineral matter identification of some Turkish lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.; Kadioglu, E.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of 15 Turkish lignites were oxidized by performic acid. Their mineral matter was isolated without any important chemical decomposition. The X-ray diffraction method was employed to determine the mineral species in the isolated mineral matter and in the ashes of the lignite samples. The results were compared and discussed.

  5. Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and Geomorphology

    E-print Network

    Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and Geomorphology Remote Sensing of Soils,Remote Sensing of Soils, Minerals, and GeomorphologyMinerals, and Geomorphology #12;· 26% of the Earth's surface, drainage patterns, and geomorphology (landforms). ·· 26% of the Earth's surface is exposed land26

  6. Earth's "missing" minerals robert M. Hazen1,

    E-print Network

    Downs, Robert T.

    Letter Earth's "missing" minerals robert M. Hazen1, *, GretHe Hystad2 , robert t. downs3 , JosHua J, Orono, Maine 04469, U.S.A. abstract Recent studies of mineral diversity and distribution lead to the prediction of >1563 mineral species on Earth today that have yet to be described--approximately one fourth

  7. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and Drugs...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject...

  8. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331.17 Parks...KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with...or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably...

  9. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public Lands...ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas rights will not be acquired...

  10. Mineral minimization in nature's alternative teeth

    E-print Network

    Zok, Frank

    REVIEW Mineral minimization in nature's alternative teeth Christopher C. Broomell1, , Rashda K, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA Contrary to conventional wisdom, mineralization, with little to no help from mineralization. Based on biochemical analyses, three of these mouthparts, the jaws

  11. PGE mineralization of dunite-wehrlite massifs at the Gutara-Uda interfluve, Eastern Sayan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekhonoshin, A. S.; Tolstykh, N. D.; Podlipsky, M. Yu.; Kolotilina, T. B.; Vishnevsky, A. V.; Benedyuk, Yu. P.

    2013-05-01

    The Pt-Pd and Au-Ag mineralization hosted in both wehrlite without visible links to sulfide mineralization (dispersed assemblage of the Tartai massif) and disseminated Cu-Ni sulfide ore (ore assemblage of the Ognit massif) was found in dunite-wehrlite massifs localized in the fold framework of the Siberian Craton. The Pt minerals in both assemblages comprise sperrylite (PtAs2) and secondary Pt-Fe-Ni alloys in the Ognit massif and Pt-Fe-Cu and Pt-Cu alloys in the Tartai massif. The Pd minerals are widespread in the ore assemblages as compounds with Te, Sb, and Bi, whereas in the dispersed assemblage Pd is concentrated primarily in Pd-Cu-Sb compounds. Both assemblages are characterized by similar substitution of sperrylite with orcelite (Ni5 - xAs2) and then with secondary Pt-Fe-Ni or Pt-Fe-Cu and Pt-Cu alloys; the occurrence of Au-Ag alloys with prevalence of Ag over Au; and replacement of them with auricupride (Cu3Au) at the late stage. Sperrylite in both assemblages contains Ir impurities, while the Pd minerals contain Cu and Ni admixtures, which are typical of mineral assemblages related to the ultramafic intrusions with nickel specialization. PGM were formed under a low sulfur fugacity and high As, Bi, and Sb activities. The postmagmatic fluids affected the primary mineral assemblages under reductive conditions, and this effect resulted in replacement of sperrylite with Ni arsenide (orcelite) and Pt-Fe-Ni and Pt-Fe-Cu alloys; Ni and Cu sulfides were replaced with awaruite and native copper.

  12. Simulating the Changes of Minerals and Elements under Chemical Weathering by Acid Hydrothermal Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, F.; Chen, H.

    2013-12-01

    In paleoenvironmental research, previous investigations reveal that the intensity of chemical weathering can be inferred from the elemental variations of marine or lacustrine sediments. Different kinds of rocks from Taiwan were applied in hydrothermal experiments to simulate element proportions and leaching sequence under chemical weathering. In our experiments, powder samples (2g) are treated in sulfuric acid solutions (20 ml) of 0.05M and 0.5M at 150°C for 1, 4, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days, respectively. We can further discuss mineral alteration and relative elemental migration according to the experimental results. There is no obvious variation in mineral phase and element at 0.05M, but the results of 0.5M have significant variations. The elemental contents are affected by the mineral leaching and secondary mineral deposited, so we use XRD and SEM to identify the existence of secondary minerals and their compositions. Our research exhibits that K/Rb, Ti/Al and Rb/Sr ratios show similar trend in most parent rocks (i.e. granite, andesite, quartz sandstone, calcite sandstone and mudstone) at 0.5M long-term experiments; however, the CIA value, was generally used as the proxy of chemical weathering, keep in a stable condition. The K/Rb and Ti/Al ratio increase, but Rb/Sr ratio decreases. In contrast, the actinolite schist and serpentinite show the different result. It is probably caused by the major mineral, chlorite and serpentinite in the rocks. We conclude that the major element Ti is relatively stable. Therefore, we use each element divided by Ti for judging relatively enriched or depleted under chemical weathering processes. Finally, we find that K/Rb ratio, which has obvious variations, is seldom influenced by mineral assemblage, so it can be regarded as a suitable weathering proxy.

  13. USSR and Afghanistan mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Shroder, J.F. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Afghanistan is a geological complex in which plentiful minerals and fuels were formed. Western geologists explored that country during the last 100 years and produced many reports and maps. Real progress in a systematic analysis, however, was not made until the intensive efforts of the Soviet Union during the past two decades. By diplomatic and economic maneuvers, the Soviets took control of Afghanistan's nascent hydrocarbon indusry during the 1960s. Following the 1973 coup, the Soviets and Afghan supporters replaced pro-Western technical advisors and hampered Western-linked development. Intensive field investgations led to the discovery of hundreds of mineral deposits and several good petroleum prospects. The current Russian military occupation is partially subsidized with Afghanistan resources. 83 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    E-print Network

    Antonio G. Checa; Julyan H. E. Cartwright; Marc-Georg Willinger

    2012-07-20

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (mineral bridges, found to be such.

  15. 43 CFR 3594.5 - Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minerals soluble in water; brines; minerals taken in solution. 3594.5 Section 3594.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION...

  16. Minerals yearbook: Minerals industries of Asia and the Pacific. Volume 3. 1993 international review

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. This report is on the Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, and it contains production and consumption data on mineral commodities of this region.

  17. 2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals -Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2.20 Properties of Rocks and Minerals - Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals R. J. Harrison, R 621 622 623 623 579 #12;580 Magnetic Properties of Rocks and Minerals 2.20.5.3 2.20.5.4 2, and are present in all types of rocks, sediments, and soils. These minerals retain a memory of the geomagnetic

  18. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  19. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  20. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  1. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  2. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215... LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. Except as provided in § 215.6(b), leases on Quapaw Indian lands, for...

  3. Addendum to the MINER A Proposal: Updates to the Physics Case for MINER A

    E-print Network

    Fermilab Experiment E831

    Addendum to the MINER A Proposal: Updates to the Physics Case for MINER A April 2, 2004 Abstract The MINER¡ A collaboration has proposed to construct a new detector to perform a high-statistics, high justification for the experiment already described in the proposal. #12;The MINER A Collaboration D

  4. The MINER?A detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorentini, G. A.

    2015-05-15

    MINER?A (Main INjector Experiment for ?-A) is a dedicated neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab. It uses a fine-grained fully active detector to make precision measurements of neutrino and antineutrino interactions on a variety of different nuclear targets (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O) for energies up to few GeV. An overview of the experiment and a description of the detector are presented.

  5. Wyoming mineral development monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring system covers, or will cover, all segments of the mineral industry except oil and gas exploration under one of eight main sections: coal uranium, bentonite, power plants, refineries, gas plants, synthetic fuels, trona, and others. Projects are grouped alphabetically by county and indexed by county, commodity, and company. Index maps all the location of projects within the state. A notebook format allows easy updating of information on ownership, production, numbers of employees, contracts, etc.

  6. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ...We are proposing changes to the annual reporting requirements of issuers that file reports pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 to implement Section 1502 of the Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. The proposed rules would require any issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or production of a product......

  7. Evaporites, petroleum and mineral resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melvin, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This book illustrates the expanding knowledge of evaporites as important reservoir seals, fluid aquitards, ore-hosting sediments, and economically viable sediments in their own right. Researchers, oil and gas professionals, minerals resource professionals, environmental specialists and others within geology and the other earth sciences shall utilize the information within this book in their understanding of the many recent discoveries and concepts involved in the field of evaporite sedimentology.

  8. Mineral of the month: garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Garnet is the general name given to a group of complex silicate minerals, all with isometric crystal structure, similar properties and chemical compositions. Garnet occurs in every color of the spectrum except blue, but it is most commonly red, purple, brown and green. Garnet necklaces dating from the Bronze Age have been found in graves and also among the ornaments adorning the oldest Egyptian mummies.

  9. Mortality among Navajo uranium miners.

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, R J; Deddens, J A; Salvan, A; Schnorr, T M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To update mortality risks for Navajo uranium miners, a retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of 757 Navajos from the cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners. METHODS. Vital status was followed from 1960 to 1990. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated, with combined New Mexico and Arizona non-White mortality rates used for comparison. Cox regression models were used to evaluate exposure-response relationships. RESULTS. Elevated standardized mortality ratios were found for lung cancer (3.3), tuberculosis (2.6), and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases (2.6). Lowered ratios were found for heart disease (0.6), circulatory disease (0.4), and liver cirrhosis (0.5). The estimated relative risk for a 5-year duration of exposure vs none was 3.7 for lung cancer, 2.1 for pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases, and 2.0 for tuberculosis. The relative risk for lung cancer was 6.9 for the midrange of cumulative exposure to radon progeny compared with the least exposed. CONCLUSIONS. Findings were consistent with those from previous studies. Twenty-three years after their last exposure to radon progeny, these light-smoking Navajo miners continue to face excess mortality risks from lung cancer and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases. PMID:7702118

  10. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Maheen; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973), which were based on the kinetic effects. PMID:25369744

  11. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Asia and the Pacific. Volume 3. 1991 international review

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains chapters on the minerals industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico, Northern Marianas, Island Possessions, and Trust Territory. Volume III, Area Reports: International, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 160 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations.

  12. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and performance requirements, waste composition, preliminary waste form screening, waste form development, process design and support, and validation. The regulatory and performance requirements activity will provide the secondary waste-form performance requirements. The waste-composition activity will provide workable ranges of secondary waste compositions and formulations for simulants and surrogates. Preliminary waste form screening will identify candidate waste forms for immobilizing the secondary wastes. The waste form development activity will mature the waste forms, leading to a selected waste form(s) with a defensible understanding of the long-term release rate and input into the critical decision process for a secondary waste treatment process/facility. The process and design support activity will provide a reliable process flowsheet and input to support a robust facility design. The validation effort will confirm that the selected waste form meets regulatory requirements. The final outcome of the implementation of the secondary waste roadmap is the compliant, effective, timely, and cost-effective disposal of the secondary wastes. The work necessary to address the programmatic, regulatory, and technical risks and uncertainties identified through the Secondary Waste Roadmap Workshop are assembled into several program needs elements. Programmatic/Regulatory needs include: • Select and deploy Hanford tank waste supplemental treatment technology • Provide treatment capability for secondary waste streams from tank waste treatment • Develop consensus on secondary waste form acceptance. Technology needs include: • Define secondary waste composition ranges and uncertainties • Identify and develop waste forms for secondary waste immobilization and disposal • Develop test methods to characterize secondary waste form performance. Details for each of these program elements are provided.

  13. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  14. Minerals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past two decades, the aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly throughout the world and is expected to continue to grow in the years to come due to the high cost of harvesting fish from the oceans, the un-sustainability of ocean fishing methods, and the increased demand for fish as a resul...

  15. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales. 3602.20 Section 3602...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

  16. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  17. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS...

  18. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  19. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  20. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR...

  1. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  2. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  3. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales. 3602.20 Section 3602...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

  5. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales. 3602.20 Section 3602...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

  6. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  7. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  8. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS...

  9. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  10. 30 CFR 581.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 581.8 Section 581.8 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS...

  11. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements §...

  12. 43 CFR 3602.20 - Administration of mineral materials sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administration of mineral materials sales. 3602.20 Section 3602...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales...

  13. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing operations. [1] Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. & Andrews, J.E., Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 465-470 (2001). [2] Moore, W.S., Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 59-88 (2010). [3] Vengosh, A., Jackson, R.B., Warner, N., Darrah, T.H. & Kondash, Environ. Sci. Technol., (2014). [4] Ames, L.L, McGarrah, J., & Walker, B., Clays Clay Miner. 31, 335-342 (1983).

  14. Structure-mechanics relationships in mineralized tendons.

    PubMed

    Spiesz, Ewa M; Zysset, Philippe K

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we review the hierarchical structure and the resulting elastic properties of mineralized tendons as obtained by various multiscale experimental and computational methods spanning from nano- to macroscale. The mechanical properties of mineralized collagen fibres are important to understand the mechanics of hard tissues constituted by complex arrangements of these fibres, like in human lamellar bone. The uniaxial mineralized collagen fibre array naturally occurring in avian tendons is a well studied model tissue for investigating various stages of tissue mineralization and the corresponding elastic properties. Some avian tendons mineralize with maturation, which results in a graded structure containing two zones of distinct morphology, circumferential and interstitial. These zones exhibit different amounts of mineral, collagen, pores and a different mineral distribution between collagen fibrillar and extrafibrillar space that lead to distinct elastic properties. Mineralized tendon cells have two phenotypes: elongated tenocytes placed between fibres in the circumferential zone and cuboidal cells with lower aspect ratios in the interstitial zone. Interestingly some regions of avian tendons seem to be predestined to mineralization, which is exhibited as specific collagen cross-linking patterns as well as distribution of minor tendon constituents (like proteoglycans) and loss of collagen crimp. Results of investigations in naturally mineralizing avian tendons may be useful in understanding the pathological mineralization occurring in some human tendons. PMID:25922092

  15. Synchrotron based mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular properties of mineral-organic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Suet Yi; Kleber, Markus; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Nico, Peter; Keiluweit, Marco; Ahmed, Musahid

    2013-04-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) is important because its decay drives life processes in the biosphere. Analysis of organic compounds in geological systems is difficult because of their intimate association with mineral surfaces. To date there is no procedure capable of quantitatively separating organic from mineral phases without creating artifacts or mass loss. Therefore, analytical techniques that can (a) generate information about both organic and mineral phases simultaneously and (b) allow the examination of predetermined high-interest regions of the sample as opposed to conventional bulk analytical techniques are valuable. Laser Desorption Synchrotron Postionization (synchrotron-LDPI) mass spectrometry is introduced as a novel analytical tool to characterize the molecular properties of organic compounds in mineral-organic samples from terrestrial systems, and it is demonstrated that when combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), can provide complementary information on mineral composition. Mass spectrometry along a decomposition gradient in density fractions, verifies the consistency of our results with bulk analytical techniques. We further demonstrate that by changing laser and photoionization energies, variations in molecular stability of organic compounds associated with mineral surfaces can be determined. The combination of synchrotron-LDPI and SIMS shows that the energetic conditions involved in desorption and ionization of organic matter may be a greater determinant of mass spectral signatures than the inherent molecular structure of the organic compounds investigated. The latter has implications for molecular models of natural organic matter that are based on mass spectrometric information.

  16. Corrosion of heavy minerals during weathering and diagenesis: A catalog for optical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Padoan, Marta; Limonta, Mara

    2012-12-01

    A practical classification of surface textures observed on detrital grains in sands and sandstones is proposed, in order to enhance data reproducibility among operators and to implement the use of high-resolution heavy-mineral data in studies of sediment-generation, provenance, and diagenesis. Five stages of progressive weathering (unweathered, corroded, etched, deeply etched, skeletal) are recognized for diverse detrital minerals. Archetypal grains displaying increasing degrees of corrosion are illustrated in numerous color tables for visual comparison. This catalog, specifically devised to systematically collect valuable information for paleoclimatic or diagenetic interpretation during routine grain-counting under the microscope, is here shown to represent a useful subsidiary tool to reveal the different degrees of weathering for diverse minerals in modern sands of equatorial Africa, and to identify post-depositional modifications of detrital assemblages in buried orogenic sediments of the Bengal Basin. The data thus obtained need to be interpreted by carefully considering the concentration of heavy minerals in each sample, which provides the fundamental clue to quantify the degree of heavy-mineral depletion caused by either pre-depositional or post-depositional processes. The scrutiny of dissolution effects has applications in the study of the chemical properties of minerals and of diagenetic evolution, helping us to understand the development of secondary porosity and to assess the potential of water and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  17. Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dixoide in a Sandstone-Shale System

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-07-09

    A conceptual model of CO2 injection in bedded sandstone-shale sequences has been developed using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments. Numerical simulations were performed with the reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT to analyze mass transfer between sandstone and shale layers and CO2 immobilization through carbonate precipitation. Results indicate that most CO2 sequestration occurs in the sandstone. The major CO2 trapping minerals are dawsonite and ankerite. The CO2 mineral-trapping capacity after 100,000 years reaches about 90 kg per cubic meter of the medium. The CO2 trapping capacity depends on primary mineral composition. Precipitation of siderite and ankerite requires Fe+2 supplied mainly by chlorite and some by hematite dissolution and reduction. Precipitation of dawsonite requires Na+ provided by oligoclase dissolution. The initial abundance of chlorite and oligoclase therefore affects the CO2 mineral trapping capacity. The sequestration time required depends on the kinetic rate of mineral dissolution and precipitation. Dawsonite reaction kinetics is not well understood, and sensitivity regarding the precipitation rate was examined. The addition of CO2 as secondary carbonates results in decreased porosity. The leaching of chemical constituents from the interior of the shale causes slightly increased porosity. The limited information currently available for the mineralogy of natural high-pressure CO2 gas reservoirs is also generally consistent with our simulation. The ''numerical experiments'' give a detailed understanding of the dynamic evolution of a sandstone-shale geochemical system.

  18. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  19. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  20. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  1. Systems Genetics of Mineral Metabolism123

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, James C.; Replogle, Rebecca; Salt, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Minerals are essential and toxic elements that have an impact on human health. Although we have learned a tremendous amount about the metabolism, biological roles, and health effects of minerals with the tools of biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular genetics, there are gaps in our knowledge of mineral biology that will benefit from new approaches. Forward genetics, whereby variations in phenotypes are mapped to natural genetic variation in the genome, has been successfully used to increase our understanding of many biologically important traits but has not yet been used extensively for mineral metabolism. In addition, the well-appreciated existence of interactions between minerals justifies a broader, systems approach to the study of mineral metabolism, i.e., ionomics. This short review will explain the value of forward genetics and ionomics as tools for exploring mammalian mineral metabolism. PMID:21270371

  2. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Arkansas. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Bush, W.V.

    1994-03-01

    Arkansas 1992 nonfuel mineral value reported by the State's mineral producers totaled $403.8 million, an increase of $43 million. Excluding clay and lime, value increased for all major mineral commodities mined in the State. Arkansas ranked 26th nationally in mineral value and led the Nation in the production of bromine and natural abrasives. Over the past decade (1983-92), Arkansas nonfuel mineral sales increased from $246.4 million to $403.8 million. Beginning in 1983, mineral sales increased each year excluding 1985 (-$2.6 million), 1986 (-$7 million), 1990 (-$1 million), and 1991 (almost -$20 million). Despite the sporadic downturn in sales, mineral value increased almost 64% over the 10-year period.

  3. 75 FR 7339 - Secondary Capital Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...among all secondary capital accounts, contrary to the seniority requirement Treasury is imposing...matching secondary capital has been depleted...pursuant to the requirements of paragraphs...part of secondary capital accepted from...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS...

  5. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33...LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS...

  8. Development projects: Secondary school, Arnold 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous

    This BULLETIN describes a secondary school at Arnold, Nottinghamshire, designed by the Development Group of the Architects and Building Branch of the Ministry of Education in collaboration with the Local Education Authority. It was the sixth...

  9. Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management 

    E-print Network

    Montague, Marcia

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the management practices of expert secondary general education teachers in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, expert teachers of classrooms who included students with severe cognitive...

  10. Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China.

    PubMed

    Quan, Quan; Wang, Changhui; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Zhen; Wen, Xuefa; Su, Hongxin; Wang, Qing; Xue, Jingyue

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is sensitive to vegetation and climate change. Here, we investigated the influence of changes in forest types on the mineralization of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and their temperature sensitivity (Q10) and coupling relationships by using a laboratory soil incubation experiments. We sampled soils from four forest types, namely, a primary Quercus liaotungensis forest (QL), Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation (LP), Pinus tabulaeformis plantation (PT), and secondary shrub forest (SS) in temperate northern China. The results showed that soil C and N mineralization differed significantly among forest types. Soil C and N mineralization were closely coupled in all plots, and C:N ratios of mineralized SOM ranged from 2.54 to 4.12. Forest type significantly influenced the Q10 values of soil C and N mineralization. The activation energy (Ea) of soil C and N mineralization was negatively related to the SOM quality index in all forest types. The reverse relationships suggested that the carbon quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis was simultaneously applicable to soil C and N mineralization. Our findings show that the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization can be affected by vegetation change. PMID:25322802

  11. Forest type affects the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization in the temperate forests of northern China

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Quan; Wang, Changhui; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Zhen; Wen, Xuefa; Su, Hongxin; Wang, Qing; Xue, Jingyue

    2014-01-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) is sensitive to vegetation and climate change. Here, we investigated the influence of changes in forest types on the mineralization of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and their temperature sensitivity (Q10) and coupling relationships by using a laboratory soil incubation experiments. We sampled soils from four forest types, namely, a primary Quercus liaotungensis forest (QL), Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation (LP), Pinus tabulaeformis plantation (PT), and secondary shrub forest (SS) in temperate northern China. The results showed that soil C and N mineralization differed significantly among forest types. Soil C and N mineralization were closely coupled in all plots, and C:N ratios of mineralized SOM ranged from 2.54 to 4.12. Forest type significantly influenced the Q10 values of soil C and N mineralization. The activation energy (Ea) of soil C and N mineralization was negatively related to the SOM quality index in all forest types. The reverse relationships suggested that the carbon quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis was simultaneously applicable to soil C and N mineralization. Our findings show that the coupled relationships of soil C and N mineralization can be affected by vegetation change. PMID:25322802

  12. Rapid Ascent of Aphyric Mantle Melts through the Overriding Crust in Subduction Zones: Evidence from Variable Uranium-Series Disequilibria, Amorphous Hydrous Alteration Microtextures in Crystal Rims, and Two-Pyroxene Pseudo-Decompression Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellmer, G. F.; Freymuth, H.; Hsieh, H. H.; Hwang, S. L.; Iizuka, Y.; Miller, C. A.; Rubin, K. H.; Sakamoto, N.; Yurimoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic hazard mitigation at subduction zones critically depends on knowledge of magma generation and ascent processes and timescales. Two diametrically opposite scenarios are presently debated: One paradigm is the generation of low-silica (basaltic) melts in the mantle wedge, followed by protracted sub-liquidus magma ascent and evolution through crystal growth and fractionation in crustal reservoirs, which are tapped during volcanic eruptions. In contrast, a diametrically opposite model favours the generation of higher silica melts in the mantle or in a lower crustal hot zone, followed by rapid decompression to the surface under super-liquidus conditions. In the latter case, crystals are picked up during magma ascent, and are in the process of dissolving. We present multiple lines of evidence that point to crystal uptake as the principal processes by which arc melts acquire their crystal cargo: (i) variable 234U-238U disequilibria in mineral separates; (ii) hydrous mineral rims with amorphous alteration textures; and (iii) two-pyroxene pseudo-decompression paths; cf. Zellmer et al. (2014a,b,c), doi: 10.1144/SP385.3 and 10.1144/SP385.9 and 10.1144/SP410.1. These observations point to a scarcity of true phenocrysts in many arc magmas, and thus to decompression of aphyric melts that take up their crystal cargo during ascent. The data imply that many hydrous wedge melts are more silica-rich than basalts and achieve super-liquidus conditions during rapid ascent from great depth.

  13. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless otherwise specified in the leasing...

  14. Mineral Scavenger Hunt 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: Johnny MacLean

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Carol

    Mineral Scavenger Hunt 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: Johnny MacLean 2. NAME OF INQUIRY: Mineral Scavenger from minerals? What are some objects in the classroom that come from minerals? What minerals did these objects come from? b. Ecological Theme(s): Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Rocks

  15. Reactivity of Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    In the preceding chapter, the fundamental nature of sulfide mineral surfaces has been discussed, and the understanding we have of the ways in which the surface differs from a simple truncation of the bulk crystal structure reviewed. This naturally leads on to considering our understanding of sulfide surface chemistry, in the sense of how sulfide surfaces interact and react, particularly with gases and liquids. As noted elsewhere in this volume, research on sulfide mineral surfaces and surface reactivity is a relatively recent concern of mineralogists and geochemists, partly prompted by the availability of new imaging and spectroscopic methods, powerful computers and new computer algorithms. There has been a significantly longer history of sulfide mineral surface research associated with technologists working with, or within, the mining industry. Here, electrochemical methods, sometimes combined with analytical and spectroscopic techniques, have been used to probe surface chemistry. The motivation for this work has been to gain a better understanding of the controls of leaching reactions used to dissolve out metals from ores, or to understand the chemistry of the froth flotation systems used in concentrating the valuable (usually sulfide) minerals prior to metal extraction. The need for improved metal extraction technologies is still a major motivation for research on sulfide surfaces, but in the last couple of decades, new concerns have become important drivers for such work. In particular, much greater awareness of the negative environmental impact of acid and toxic metal-bearing waters derived from breakdown of sulfide minerals at former mining operations has prompted research on oxidation reactions, and on sorption of metals at sulfide surfaces. At the interface between fundamental geochemistry and industrial chemistry, the role of sulfide substrates in catalysis, and in the self-assembly and functionalization of organic molecules, has become an area of significant interest. Such work ranges in its application from the development of new industrial processes, to fundamental questions of the possible role of sulfide surfaces in catalyzing the formation of the complex organic molecules leading to the emergence of life on Earth. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview of current understanding of sulfide surface chemistry. The size of this research field is already such that it is impossible to discuss all of the published work, but key examples are considered and readers directed to the main literature sources. The chapter begins with some examples of reaction with gaseous species (O2, H2O, H2S, CH3OH) as these are the most accessible in terms of understanding reactivity at the molecular scale. The very important oxidation and related electron transfer reactions, in both air and aqueous solution, are then considered before considering examples of catalysis and functionalization/self-assembly and interaction with organic molecules. In the final section, sorption of metal ions onto sulfide mineral surfaces is discussed before a few words concerning the future outlook for research in this entire area.

  16. The Minerals of Aureum Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation of 3-dimensional model with 5x vertical exaggeration

    This image of chaotic terrain in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0858UTC (3:58 a.m. EST) on January 24, 2008, near 3.66 degrees south latitude, 26.5 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Aureum Chaos is a 368 kilometer (229 mile) wide area of chaotic terrain in the eastern part of Valles Marineris. The chaotic terrain is thought to have formed by collapse of the surrounding Margaritifer Terra highland region. Aureum Chaos contains heavily eroded, randomly oriented mesas, plateaus, and knobs many revealing distinct layered deposits along their slopes. These deposits may be formed from remnants of the collapsed highlands, sand carried by Martian winds, dust or volcanic ash that settled out of the atmosphere, or sediments laid down on the floor of an ancient lake.

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data cover a narrow plateau near the edge of the chaotic terrain, that stretches across from the southwest to the northeast.

    The lower left image, an infrared false color image, reveals the plateau and several eroded knobs of varying sizes. The plateau's layer-cake structure is similar to that of other layered outcrops in Valles Marineris.

    The lower right image reveals the strengths of mineral spectral features overlain on a black-and-white version of the infrared image. Areas shaded in red hold more of the mineral pyroxene, a primary component of basaltic rocks that are prevalent in the highlands. Spots of green indicate monohydrated sulfate minerals (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral), while blue indicates polyhydrated sulfate minerals (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    Although the plateau's dark cap rock is somewhat mineralogically non-descript, the bright, white swath of underlying material cascading down the plateau's flanks appears to hold polyhydrated sulfates. Dark eolian or wind deposited sediments in the south-central part of the plateau are also rich in polyhydrated sulfates.

    Surrounding the plateau are small greenish spots of monoyhydrated sulfates. These are erosional remnants of an even lower part of the layered deposits that is compositionally distinct from the main part of the plateau.

    The deepest layer visible is preexisting 'basement' rock that forms the floor of Aureum Chaos around the plateau. It is comprised of basaltic rock exposed by collapse of the crust and the debris derived from that collapse.

    The animation (see above) of a 3-dimensional topographic model illustrates the relationship of these materials. It was made using the lower right CRISM image, draped over MOLA topography with 5X vertical exaggeration.

    CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Science Laboratory for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiter.

  17. Magnetic beneficiation of highland and hi-Ti mare soils - Rock, mineral, and glassy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Oder, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The exploitation of lunar soil can provide valuable raw materials for in situ resource utilization at a lunar base. A study of magnetic characterization was undertaken of three mare and two highland soils obtained from NASA. Beneficiation of mare and highland soils by sizing and magnetic separation can effectively concentrate the important components of the soils (e.g., ilmenite, native Fe, plagioclase, and aggluminates). As a soil matures and the impact melts consume additional minerals and rocks, the modal percentage of the minerals will decrease. The 'normative' percentage will become much greater than the modal percentage. Therefore, greater efficiency of separation can be realized with the proper selection of maturity of the soil, as well as by secondary grinding to further liberate specific minerals from lithic fragments (e.g., ilmenite and plagioclase).

  18. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  19. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  20. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  1. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples.

    PubMed

    Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E

    1970-01-30

    Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced. PMID:17781510

  2. Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Livia

    2013-04-01

    We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed to be partly inaccessible for OC covering due to strong microaggregation by cementation with carbonate and Ca2+-bridging. The smaller accumulation of mineral-associated SOM in non-paddy soils was additionally confirmed by the retarded replacement of the inherited carbon. The accelerated decalcification of paddy soils led to enhanced accessibility of mineral surfaces for OC covering, which intensified OC accumulation from the early stages of soil formation onward. References Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E., (1938). Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60 (2), 309-319. Schwertmann, U., 1964. Differenzierung der Eisenoxide des Bodens durch Extraktion mit Ammoniumoxalat-Lösung. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung, Düngung, Bodenkunde 105 (3), 194-202.

  3. High Precision Isotope Petrography by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    Since Shimizu et al. (GCA 1978) have demonstrated that in-situ micro-scale analyses of isotopes and trace elements in minerals were succeeded by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), geochemists develop the SIMS methods towards isotope mapping with spatial resolution of electron microscopy level. At present, high spatial resolution imaging by SIMS has been succeeded by scanning methods using ion-probe and by projection methods using stigmatic secondary ion optics. For high precision isotope analysis with high spatial resolution, intense secondary ions are indispensable for each pixel in the image. However, one of the major instrumental problems is that there were no adequate detectors for this purpose. In order to solve the problem, we proposed a two-dimensional solid-state ion detector called SCAPS (Takayanagi et al., IEEE Trans. 2003). The development is still continued and performances of recent SCAPS detector is achieved to: (1) direct sensitive for ions from single ion, (2) no dead time, and (3) perfect linearity of five orders of magnitude dynamic range. Installing the SCAPS detector into a stigmatic SIMS of Cameca ims-1270, we obtained oxygen isotope (delta-O-17 and delta-O-18) images of about 100 micrometer field with ~500 nm resolution and ~5 permil precision. The performance of high precision isotope imaging have might not be matured, but overcome a hurdle towards isotope petrography (Isotopography). We apply this isotopography to research fields of (a) survey of isotope anomalous micrograins and (b) isotope micro-distribution in rocks and minerals. In the application (a), we found in-situ presolar grains in meteorites (Nagashima et al., Nature 2004) and cosmic symplectite (COS) from a meteorite (Sakamoto et al., Science 2007). In the application (b), we showed how distribute oxygen isotopic compositions in micro-scale within CAI minerals (Yurimoto et al., Rev. Mineral. 2008; Fagan et al., in prep.). In combination fields of (a) and (b), we demonstrated how preserves Martian water and how contaminates terrestrial water in Martian meteorites (Greenwood et al., GRL 2008). These new knowledge from isotopography provides novel perspective of earth and planetary sciences.

  4. Analysis of aquifer mineralization by paleodrainage channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Mineralization of groundwater resources is a problem in south-central Kansas, due to the penetration of saline water from Permian bedrock formations into the overlying alluvial aquifer. One of the mechanisms involved in the mineralization involves small bedrock features of high permeability located in places occupied by streams and rivers in past geological eras. These geological features are termed 'paleodrainage channels'. The permeability of the overlying aquifer can be significantly smaller than that of the channel fill material. The comparatively fast migration of saline water through these channels of high permeability is associated with the transfer of minerals into the overlying freshwater aquifer. This study applies a set of boundary layer approaches to quantify the process of mineral transfer from the channels into the aquifer. The methods used in the present study provide quick estimation and evaluation of the dilution of the channel flow, as well as mineral concentration profile changes in the mineralized zone created in the overlying aquifer. More generally, the method can also be useful for the analysis and evaluation of various types of groundwater contamination in heterogeneous aquifers. The application of the method is exemplified by a complete set of calculations characterizing the possible mineralization process at a specific channel in south central Kansas. Sensitivity analyses are performed and provide information about the importance of the various parameters that affect the mineralization process. Some possible scenarios for the aquifer mineralization phenomena are described and evaluated. It is shown that the channel mineralization may create either several stream tubes of the aquifer with high mineral concentration, or many stream tubes mineralized to a lesser extent. Characteristics of these two patterns of aquifer mineralization are quantified and discussed. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Brecciated and mineralized coals in Union County Western Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Williams, D.A.; Eble, C.F.; Sakulpitakphon, T.; Moecher, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Coals from the D-2 and D-3 boreholes in the Grove Center 7 1/2 min quadrangle, Union County, KY, have been found to be highly brecciated and mineralized. The mineralization is dominated by a carbonate assemblage with minor sulfides and sulfates. Included among the secondary minerals is the lead selenide, clausthalite. Overall, the emplacement of secondary vein minerals was responsible for raising the rank of the coals from the 0.6-0.7% Rmax range found in the area to as high as 0.95-0.99% Rmax. A 1.3-m-thick coal found in one of the boreholes is unique among known Western Kentucky coals in having less than 50% vitrinite. Semifusinite and fusinite dominate the maceral assemblages. The coal is also low in sulfur coal, which is unusual for the Illinois Basin. It has an ash yield of less than 10%; much of it dominated by pervasive carbonate veining. The age of the thick coal in core D-2 is similar to that of the Elm Lick coal bed, found elsewhere in the Western Kentucky coalfield. The coals in D-3 are younger, having Stephanian palynomorph assemblages. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of fluoride, lesion baseline severity and mineral distribution on lesion progression.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F; Butler, A; Lynch, R J M; Hara, A T

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of fluoride (F) concentration, lesion baseline severity (?Z(base)) and mineral distribution on lesion progression. Artificial caries lesions were created using three protocols [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC), hydroxyethylcellulose acid gel (HEC), carboxymethylcellulose acid solution (CMC)] and with low and high ?Z(base) groups by varying demineralization times within protocols. Subsequently, lesions were immersed in a demineralizing solution for 24 h in the presence of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ppm F. Changes in mineral distribution characteristics of caries lesions were studied using transverse microradiography. At baseline, the protocols yielded lesions with three distinctly different mineral distributions. Secondary demineralization revealed differences in F response between and within lesion types. In general, low?Z lesions were more responsive to F than high?Z lesions. Low?Z MeC lesions showed the greatest range of response among all lesions, whereas high?Z HEC lesions were almost unaffected by F. Laminations were observed in the presence of F in all but high?Z HEC and CMC lesions. Changes in mineral distribution effected by F were most pronounced in MeC lesions, with remineralization/mineral redeposition in the original lesion body at the expense of sound enamel beyond the original lesion in a dose-response manner. Both ?Z(base) and lesion mineral distribution directly impact the F response and the extent of secondary demineralization of caries lesions. Further studies - in situ and on natural white spot lesions - are required to better mimic in vivo caries under laboratory conditions. PMID:22222714

  7. Interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation processes during acidic weathering of multicomponent minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; King, Helen E.; Patiño-López, Luis D.; Putnis, Christine V.; Geisler, Thorsten; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos M.; Putnis, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The chemical weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals on the Earth's surface controls important geochemical processes such as erosion rates and soil formation, ore genesis or climate evolution. The dissolution of most of these minerals is typically incongruent, and results in the formation of surface coatings (altered layers, also known as leached layers). These coatings may significantly affect mineral dissolution rates over geological timescales, and therefore a great deal of research has been conducted on them. However, the mechanism of leached layer formation is a matter of vigorous debate. Here we report on an in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and real-time Mach-Zehnder phase-shift interferometry (PSI) study of the dissolution of wollastonite, CaSiO3, and dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, as an example of surface coating formation during acidic weathering of multicomponent minerals. Our in situ results provide clear direct experimental evidence that leached layers are formed in a tight interface-coupled two-step process: stoichiometric dissolution of the pristine mineral surfaces and subsequent precipitation of a secondary phase (silica in the case of wollastonite, or hydrated magnesium carbonate in the case of dolomite) from a supersaturated boundary layer of fluid in contact with the mineral surface. This occurs despite the bulk solution remaining undersaturated with respect to the secondary phase. The validation of such a mechanism given by the results reported here completely changes the conceptual framework concerning the mechanism of chemical weathering, and differs significantly from the concept of preferential leaching of cations postulated by most currently accepted incongruent dissolution models.

  8. Distinguishing primary and secondary inclusion assemblages in Jack Hills zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Hopkins-Wielicki, Michelle D.; Harrison, T. Mark

    2015-10-01

    Detrital igneous zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, range in age from ~ 3.0 to nearly 4.4 Ga and contain an inclusion assemblage dominated by quartz and muscovite, cited as evidence of their derivation from peraluminous granitoids. However, some phosphate inclusions in these zircons are known to be secondary from their post-depositional U-Pb ages and manifest mineralization along cracks. We undertook a survey of mineral inclusions in 4.3-3.0 Ga Jack Hills zircons with particular emphasis on their relationship to possible alteration features (e.g., cracks, disturbed internal zonation, and visual turbidity). Mineral inclusions revealed at polished surfaces show variations in modal mineralogy, mostly corresponding to their relationship with cracks. Muscovite is common both on and away from cracks, although the chemistry of muscovite inclusions shows little relationship with other potential alteration features. Inclusions filling cracks (secondary) and inclusions isolated from cracks differ in their modal mineralogy, although both suites are rich in muscovite and quartz. The higher incidence of crack-intersecting inclusions among younger zircons may reflect effects of the (generally larger) inclusion size among younger zircons. Mismatches between the isolated and crack-intersecting populations indicate selective loss of certain phases (e.g., feldspar, apatite) and over-representation of quartz and muscovite along cracks likely due to the effects of larger inclusion size and varying degrees of overpressure following zircon cooling and decompression. Inclusions not associated with cracks in magmatically zoned versus regions with disturbed zoning have similar phase proportions. This indicates only minor inclusion replacement away from cracks (i.e., the isolated assemblage is likely primary). This holds true also for inclusions within visually turbid versus clear volumes of zircon. Phase proportions within the inclusion assemblages differ with age indicating a provenance shift toward fewer mafic phases and apatite in < 3.6 Ga relative to Hadean granitoid sources.

  9. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Oklahoma. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Zelten, J.E.; Arndt, R.H.

    1994-03-01

    The value of Oklahoma nonfuel mineral production was nearly $252.6 million in 1992, a decrease of $22.9 million from that reported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines by State mineral producers in 1991. The value of the top three commodities produced, crushed stone, portland cement, and construction sand and gravel, exceeded $168.8 million and comprised almost 67% of the State's total nonfuel mineral value. Although rebounding from the recessionary period, the growth curve for several minerals produced in the State was minimal, and for several others it moved downward. Oklahoma ranked 35th nationally in total nonfuel mineral value. The State ranked 26th nationally in the production of industrial minerals, contributing about 1.38% of the $20.7 billion revenues received. Oklahoma ranked first in the Nation in crude gypsum production, second in the production of tripoli, and was the only domestic source of iodine.

  10. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  11. Boron isotopic compositions of some boron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oi, Takao; Nomura, Masao; Musashi, Masaaki; Ossaka, Tomoko; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

    1989-12-01

    Boron minerals that have different structural formulae but are supposed to have the same geologic origin have been collected and analyzed for the 11B /10B isotopic ratio. It has been reconfirmed that minerals of marine origin have higher 11B /10B ratios than those of nonmarine origin. It has been found that the sequence of decreasing 11B /10B values among the minerals with the same geologic origin is; borax, tincal, kernite (Na borates) > ulexite ( Na/Ca borate) > colemanite, iyoite, meyerhofferite (Ca borates). This sequence is explainable on the basis of the difference in crystal structure among the minerals. That is, minerals with higher BO 3/BO 4 ratios, (the ratio of the number of the BO 3 triangle units to the number of the BO 4 tetrahedron units in the structural formula of a mineral) have higher 11B /10B ratios.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Connecticut. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Altamura, R.J.

    1992-09-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1990 was $117.9 million, a $4.7 million increase from that of 1989. Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel were the two leading mineral commodities produced. Other commodities produced included common clay, dimension stone, feldspar, industrial sand, and mica. In 1990, the value of total construction contracts, which relied heavily on mineral aggregates, was down 22% from that of 1989.

  13. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maryland. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, L.J.

    1993-05-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maryland Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of nonfuel mineral production in Maryland in 1991 was about $348 million. Production dropped for all the nonfuel minerals produced in the State. Maryland's value of output decreased by only $20 million primarily because of a significant increase in the price of crushed stone.

  14. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Connecticut. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Altamura, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $90.8 million, a $27 million decline from that of 1990. The decrease was largely attributable to a drop in output of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the State's leading mineral commodities. The 1991 value was the lowest since 1986 when the value totaled $80.5 million. Other mineral commodities produced included clays, feldspar, mica, industrial sand, and dimension stone.

  15. The composition of recrystallized bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Biltz, R M; Pellegrino, E D

    1983-12-01

    Bone mineral and synthetic calcium-deficient carbonate apatite (CDCA), when defined in terms of their respective thermal stabilities and ignition products, are homologous. When heated to 550 degrees, they may have a structure similar to that of the mineral dahllite. When heated to temperatures greater than 550 degrees, CDCA (like bone mineral) losses its structural CO3 and is recrystallized to whitlockite and/or OH-apatite, depending on its stoichiometry. PMID:6581195

  16. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus far, we have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. High concentration sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium bicarbonate aqueous solutions have been found to be the most effective solutions for enhancing aqueous olivine carbonation to date. Slurry-flow modeling using Fluent indicates that the slurry-flow dynamics are a strong function of particle size and mass, suggesting that controlling these parameters may offer substantial potential to enhance carbonation. During the first project year we developed a new sonication exfoliation apparatus with a novel sealing system to carry out the sonication studies. We also initiated investigations to explore the potential that sonication may offer to enhance carbonation reactivity. During the second project year, we extended our investigations of the effects of sonication on the extent of carbonation as a function of the following parameters: particle size distribution, the mass of solid reactant, volume fraction of aqueous solution present, sonication power, time, temperature, and CO{sub 2} pressure. To date, none of the conditions investigated have significantly enhanced carbonation. Mechanistic investigations of the stirred ({approx}1,500 rpm) aqueous olivine carbonation process indicate the carbonation process involves both incongruent magnesium dissolution and silica precipitation, which results in robust silica-rich passivating layer formation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry observation of H within the passivating layer that forms during static carbonation suggests 2H{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ion exchange is associated with incongruent dissolution. Apparently, H{sub 2}O forms at or near the olivine/passivating-layer interface during the process and diffuses out through the passivating layers during the carbonation reaction. This is

  17. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1101 - Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main... Fire Protection § 75.1101 Deluge-type water sprays, foam generators; main and secondary belt-conveyor drives. Deluge-type water sprays or foam generators automatically actuated by rise in temperature,...

  2. Mineralization of breccia pipes in northern Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hundreds of breccia pipes, some mineralized with ore-grade Cu and/or U, occur in the Colorado Plateau of N Arizona. The pipes originated in the Mississippian Redwall limestone, on its solution-collapse, and stoped through the overlying strata to the Triassic Chinle formation. Mineralization occurred during the Mesozoic, first with Mississippi Valley-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits, and later with uraninite. The origin of the mineralizing fluids is unknown. Prospecting criteria and the complete systematics of these pipes and their mineralizations require further research.-G.J.N.

  3. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H.; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J.; Reid, David G.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, 17O NMR data on bone and compare them with 17O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate–like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  4. Biomimetic mineralization in and on polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, P.; Rieke, P.

    1996-08-01

    Biological mineralization leads to the development of finely scaled, highly controlled inorganic precipitates in organic matrixes. It was initially thought that this control was mainly exercised through lattice-matching epitaxy between the protein or polysaccharide matrix and the mineral. We discuss the importance of such heterogeneous nucleation versus other forms of kinetic control of mineralization. We review progress in synthetic systems for mineralization from solution at Langmuir monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett films, at surface-adsorbed monolayers and in polymer films. 112 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  6. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Texas. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Garner, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The mineral industry in Texas produced $1.5 billion of nonfuel minerals in 1990. This was the second consecutive year that mineral value declined; the 1990 value was $295 million below the record $1.8 billion established in 1981.

  7. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Massachusetts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Sinnott, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    The value of nonfuel mineral production in 1990 was $127.5 million, a decrease of $16.6 million compared with the 1989 value. The combined value of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the State's two leading mineral commodities, accounted for 83% of the value. In 1990, the State ranked eighth among 34 States that produced dimension stone. Other commodities produced included common clay, industrial sand, lime, and peat. Industrial minerals processed or manufactured in the State included abrasives, graphite, gypsum, perlite, and vermiculite. The report presents statistical information on the state's mineral industries.

  8. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Louisiana. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Marsalis, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    Louisiana's nonfuel mineral production in 1992 totaled $309.3 million. This was a $42.5 million decline in value from that reported by the mineral industry in 1991. Although there was an increase in the value of gemstones, lime, and industrial sand and gravel, it failed to offset a decline in the demand and sales of gypsum, construction sand and gravel, salt, crushed stone, and sulfur. The values of these five mineral commodities fell $53.9 million between 1991 and 1992. The State ranked 32d nationally in mineral value and accounted for 35% of the Nation's salt tonnage and 42% of the Frasch sulfur production.

  9. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  10. Mineral-Based Amendments for Remediation

    PubMed Central

    O’Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Amending soils with mineral-based materials to immobilize contaminants is both old and new. Although mineral amendments have been used for decades in agriculture, new applications with a variety of natural and reprocessed materials are emerging. By sequestering contaminants in or on solid phases and reducing their ability to partition into water or air, amendments can reduce the risk of exposure to humans or biota. A variety of mineral types are commonly used to amend contaminated soils, with different modes of molecular-scale sequestration. Regulatory, social, and economic factors also influence decisions to employ mineral amendments as a treatment technology. PMID:22203887

  11. REACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SOIL MINERALS AND SECONDARY PRECIPITATES BENEATH LEAKING HANFORD WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have been detected or suspected, resulting in the release of about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. The Hanford Tri-Party Agreement calls for the initiation of remediation at the 200 Area tan...

  12. PROGRESS REPORT. REACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SOIL MINERALS AND SECONDARY PRECIPITATES BENEATH LEAKING HANFORD WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the late 1950s, leaks from 67 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site have released about 1 million curies to the underlying sediments. At issue is the distribution of contaminants beneath the tanks, and the processes that led to their current disposition and will control th...

  13. 34 CFR 300.36 - Secondary school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary school. 300.36 Section 300.36 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.36 Secondary school. Secondary school means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public secondary charter school that...

  14. 34 CFR 300.36 - Secondary school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Secondary school. 300.36 Section 300.36 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.36 Secondary school. Secondary school means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public secondary charter school that...

  15. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains chapters on the minerals industry of each of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, Northern Marianas, Island Possessions, and Trust Territory. Volume III, Minerals Yearbook--International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations.

  16. Mineral Identification of Dust Emissions at the Bodélé Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millham, R. A.; Martins, V.; Todd, M.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays an important role in climate that is not entirely understood. The complex meteorological processes, diverse source regions, compositional parameters of emissions, and physical and chemical properties and characteristics of dust emissions make modeling the affects on climate, climate change, and global climate modeling a difficult task. Understanding size, shape, distribution, and composition of mineral dust is required to successfully model climate change. The affect mineral dust has on climate relative to radiative forcing, cloud properties, and the suppression of precipitation makes modeling parameters for climate change more accurate and predictable. Mineral identification allows for accuracy in predicting results of internal and external mixing during dust transport, interactions with other aerosols, hygroscopic characteristics and impact on cloud properties. Studies conducted by Koren, et al.,(2006), suggest that 240 ± 80 Tg of atmospheric mineral dust is emitted from Africa to the Atlantic coast of Africa between 20° and 30° North Latitude annually. Of that total, it is estimated that ~120 ± 40 Tg is deposited in the Atlantic Ocean, ~30 Tg transported to northern Africa and Europe, ~70 Tg reach the Caribbean in NH summers, and some ~50 Tg reach the Amazon River Basin in NH winters. Of the ~50 Tg of dust deposited in the Amazon River Basin, ~50 percent is emitted from a single source, the Bodélé (Koren, et al., 2006; Kaufman, et al., 2005; Tegan, et al., 2006; Todd, et al., 2005; Washington, et al., 2005). Identification of mineral types in dust emissions from the Bodélé in NE Chad, Africa, is determined through a collection of data based on results achieved by traditional X-ray diffractometers, Scanning Electron Microscope images/chemical analyses (filters by Zahra Chaudhry), a new XRD XRF instrumentation, regional geomorphological history, and French geological survey maps. Samples for analysis were obtained by the BodEX 2005 team, with our main collaborator, Martin Todd, of the University College London. The BodEX study was the first in situ study at the Bodélé. The science team, an interdisciplinary study group funded by the Gilchrist Educational Trust and the Royal Geographical Society, collected sample bulk material at the surface of the Bodélé, and aerosol filters 3 meters above the surface. They were collected at four different locations between 17.1° North Lat. and 17.6° North Lat. (~60 km distance), by 18.24° East Long. by 18.15° East Long. (~88 km distance), with three locations ~20 km apart, and one ~100 km from the location of sample three. Through analyses, the minerals have been identified as ferromagnesian and aluminum silicates, amorphous silica, and some calcium carbonates, dolomite, and exotic elements such as titanium and cosmic silicon, mixed with 10- 20 percent desiccated diatom structures. Dust emissions appear to be typical primary and secondary minerals derived from weathered and eroded crustal sediments. Sediments were wetted during humid climate conditions, followed by periods of arid climate conditions. The south Saharan boundary fluctuated over time producing tropical humid conditions for extended periods followed by drier conditions. During wet conditions, changes to sediments occurred as chemical activity altered material in place. Drier conditions allowed for saltation and deflation to occur, causing dust storms to prevail in regions where vegetation is negligible (Tegan, et al., 2002).

  17. Secondary Erythromelalgia - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byoung Chan; Nam, Da Jeong; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Yoon, Duck Mi

    2013-01-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare neurovascular pain syndrome characterized by a triad of redness, increased temperature, and burning pain primarily in the extremities. Erythromelalgia can present as a primary or secondary form, and secondary erythromelalgia associated with a myeloproliferative disease such as essential thrombocythemia often responds dramatically to aspirin therapy, as in the present case. Herein, we describe a typical case of a 48-year-old woman with secondary erythromelalgia linked to essential thrombocythemia in the unilateral hand. As this case demonstrates, detecting and visualizing the hyperthermal area through infrared thermography of an erythromelalgic patient can assist in diagnosing the patient, assessing the therapeutic results, and understanding the disease course of erythromelalgia. PMID:23862006

  18. Origin of platinum-group mineral assemblages in a mantle tectonite at Unst deduced from mineral chemistry and osmium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badanina, Inna Yu.; Lord, Richard A.; Malitch, Kreshimir N.; Meisel, Thomas C.

    2013-04-01

    This study assesses textural and mineral chemistry data, whole-rock and mineral separate Os-isotope compositions for distinct platinum-group mineral (PGM) inclusion assemblages in an isolated chromitite pod at Harold's Grave, which occurrs in a mantle tectonite at Unst in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland. The investigation employed a multi-technique approach and utilized a number of analytical techniques, including electron microprobe analysis, ID ICP-MS after high pressure acid digestion, and LA MC-ICP-MS. Two distinct PGM assemblages have been recognized. They comprise a 'primary' euhedrally shaped (up to 15 ?m in size) PGM assemblage, which occur as inclusions in chromite, and a modified 'secondary' subeuhedral to anhedral PGM assemblage (up to 100 ?m) associated with Ru-rich pentlandite observed in cracks filled by chlorite or serpentine, interstitially to chromite grains. A 'primary' PGM assemblage is represented by solitary grains of laurite or iridian osmium and composite grains that display well defined phase boundaries between two or three distinct PGM. The latter are dominated by laurite and iridian osmium, with subordinate laurite + osmian iridium + iridian osmium and rare laurite + Ir-Rh alloy + Rh-rich sulphide (possibly prassoite). The compositional variability of associated laurite and Os-rich alloys at Harold's Grave fit the predicted compositions of experiment W-1200-0.37 of Andrews and Brenan (2002) providing unequivocal information on conditions of their genesis, with the upper thermal stability of laurite in equilibrium with Os-rich alloys estimated at 1200 - 1250° C and f(S2) of 10-0.39-10-0.07. The inconsistent grouping of different primary PGM grains argues against an origin by subsolidus exsolution from the chromite host, providing useful information on conditions of their genesis. The 'secondary' PGM assemblage is polyphase, with dominant laurite, intimately intergrown with native osmium, irarsite and Ru-rich pentlandite. This assemblage is likely to reflect processes such as in-situ serpentinisation, alteration during emplacement or regional greenschist metamorphism. Whole-rock platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations give negatively sloped chondrite-normalized PGE patterns, typical of podiform chromitite, where refractory PGE (Os, Ir and Ru) prevail over less refractory PGE (Rh, Pt and Pd). The osmium isotope results identify similarly 'unradiogenic' 187Os/188Os values for 'primary' and 'secondary' PGM assemblages (with mean 187Os/188Os values of 0.12419 and 0.12464, respectively), being within uncertainty of the chromitite composition (0.1240±0.0006). This implies that the whole-rock Os isotope budget is largely controlled by laurite-dominant assemblages, supporting the conclusion that the 'secondary' PGM assemblage inherited the subchondritic osmium isotope signature of the 'primary' PGM. No evidence for other source contributions during later thermal events has been observed. The Os-isotope data provide further support for an Enstatite Chondrite Reservoir model for the convective upper mantle as defined by Walker et al. (2002) and are consistent with origin of the complex as a Caledonian ophiolite formed in a supra-subduction zone. This study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 12-05-01166-a to IYuB) and the Uralian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences (project No 12-P-5-1020). References: Andrews, D.R.A., Brenan, J.M. (2002) Phase-equilibrium constraints on the magmatic origin of laurite and Os-Ir alloy. Can. Mineral. 40, 1705-1716. Walker, R.J., Prichard, H.M., Ishiwatari, A., Pimentel, M. (2002) The osmium isotopic composition of convecting upper mantle deduced from ophiolite chromites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 329-345.

  19. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Africa. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 53 countries that constituted Africa in 1992 accounted for a significant portion of total world output of a number of mineral commodities. Among the most significant mineral commodities produced in Africa were andalusite, antimony, asbestos, bauxite, chromite, coal, cobalt, copper, diamond, fluorspar, gold, lithium minerals, manganese, phosphate, platinum-group metals, the titanium minerals-ilmenite and rutile, vanadium, vermiculite, uranium, and zircon. Chromite, cobalt, and manganese, were not mined in the Untied States.

  20. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook volume 3. 1993 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    This edition of the Mineral Yearbook records the performance on the worldwide minerals industry during 1993 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. This is a summary of the International Review, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The reports also incorporate location maps, industry structure, tables, and an outlook section.